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histidine ammonia-lyase from rat liver. purification, properties, and inhibition by substrate analogues.histidine ammonia-lyase (ec 4.3.1.3) from rat liver was purified more than 250-fold to near homogeneity. electrophoretic determinations indicated a native molecular weight of approximately 200,000. the enzyme has a ph optimum of approximately ph 8.5. the minimum km for l-histidine was 0.5 mm at ph 9.0. the michaelis constant in the physiological ph range was, however, more than 2.0 mm. d-alpha-hydrazinoimidazolylpropionic acid was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of liver histidine amm ...19765116
some properties of the adenosine triphosphatase systems of two yeast species, saccharomyces cerevisiae and rhodotorula glutinis.1. total atpase levels were determined in homogenate fractions of baker's yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae k and rhodotorula glutinis. the maximum atpase activities in 8000 x g supernatant of the three yeast strains were 6.0, 1.9, and 2.2 mmol pih-1 (gds)-1, respectively; the activities in the sediment were somewhat higher. exponential cells of s. cerevisiae k and r. glutinis exhibited higher atpase levels than did the stationary cells. 2. the total atpase activity in both yeast species showed a ...19768702
monosaccharide transport systems in the yeast rhodotorula glutinis.by using d-glucose, d-xylose, d-galactose and d-fructose in the strictly aerobic yeast rhodotorula glutinis and by comparing the half-saturation constants with inhibition constants the yeast was shown to possess a single common system for d-xylose and d-galactose (km's and ki's all between 0.5 and 1.1 mm) but another distinct transport system for d-fructose. the transport of d-glucose has a special position in that glucose blocks apparently allotopically all the other systems observed although i ...197613756
the stereospecificity of nitrate reductase for hydrogen removal from reduced pyridine nucleotides.the stereospecificity of the hydrogen removal from reduced pyridine nucleotides catalyzed by nitrate reductase (nadh : nitrate oxidoreductase, ec 1.6.6.1, and nad(p)h : nitrate oxidoreductase, ec 1.6.6.2) was investigated. a high degree of enzyme purification was required to obtain conclusive results. improvements are described for the purification of nitrate reductase from chlorella fusca and from spinach (spinacea oleracea, l.) leaves. the latter enzyme is shown to contain a cytochrome. with h ...197716653
purification and properties of the nad(p)h:nitrate reductase of the yeast rhodotorula glutinis.the assimilatory nitrate reductase from the yeast rhodotorula glutinus has been purified 740-fold, its different catalytic activities have been characterized and some inhibitors studied. the purified enzyme (150 units per mg protein) contains a cytochrome of the b-557 type. an s20,w of 7.9 s was found by the use of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and a stokes radius of 7.05 nm was determined by gel filtration. from these values, a molecular weight of 230 000 was estimated for the native ...197718182
transport of gluconate in rhodotorula glutinis. inactivation by glucose of the uptake system. 197824415
a biochemical explanation for lipid accumulation in candida 107 and other oleaginous micro-organisms.the biochemical explanation for lipid accumulation was investigated principally in candida 107 and, for comparison, in the non-oleaginous yeast candida utilis. there were no significant differences between these two yeasts in their control of glucose uptake; in both yeasts, the rates of glucose uptake were independent of the growth rate and were higher in carbon-limited chemostat cultures than in nitrogen-limited cultures. there was no lipid turnover in either yeast, as judged from [14c]acetate ...197944315
some properties of polyethylene glycol:phenylalanine ammonia-lyase adducts.methoxypolyethylene glycol of 5000 daltons (peg) was attached covalently to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from rhodotorula glutinis. attachment of sufficient quantities of peg to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase substantially reduces immunological recognition and clearance of the conjugated enzyme in mice. the modified enzyme demonstrates altered catalytic properties such as shifts in the ph and temperature optima, an increase in the michaelis-menten constant, and a lowered vmax in comparison with the ...197991612
the distribution of pyrophosphatidic acid in nature.the occurrence of a novel phospholipid, pyrophosphatidic acid, in the lipid extracts of yeasts (23 species), bacteria (e. coli), algae (chlorella), mammalia (human, rabbit, guinea pig, and mouse), insect (cockroach), fish (carp), mollusc (clam), and spermatophyta (spinach) was investigated. pyrophosphatidic acid was found exclusively in the lipid extracts of several kinds of yeast species, but not in other normal living species (animals, plants, and microorganisms) so far investigated. all of th ...1975175047
simple process for the reduction in the nucleic acid content in yeast.a simple one-step process for the nucleic acid reduction in rhodotorula glutinis is described. the process consists of submitting the yeast cells to a heat treatment in an acidic (ph 2) spent medium. the optimal temperature for ph 2 medium is 90 c and the final nucleic acid content in treated yeasts was 1.2%. heat treatment at acidic ph is preferred to that at alkaline ph because it offers a better protection for amino acids and crude protein, while being more efficient in lowering the nucleic a ...1975234157
hexose kinases from rhodotorula glutinis. identification and properties of an hexokinase and a glucokinase. 1975235899
l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (maize, potato, and rhodotorula glutinis). studies of the prosthetic group with nitromethane.highly purified enzyme (ec 4.1.3.5) from rhodotorula glutinis was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to have subunits which if not identical are closely similar in molecular weight. like the enzyme from maize and potato [havir, e. a., and hanson, k. r. (1973), biochemistry 12, 1583] it is a tetramer of molecular weight similar to 4 times 83,000. enzyme from all three sources inactivated and labeled at the active site with 14-ch3no2 gave on hcl hydrolysis 14-co2, h-14-co2h, d- an ...1975235961
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase: enzymic conversion of 3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)-l-alanine to trans-3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)acrylic acid.the phenylalanine analogue 3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)-l-alanine is converted to the hitherto unknown cinnamate analogue trans-3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)acrylic acid by l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (ec 4.3.1.5) from maize, potato, or rhodotorula glutinis. the structure assigned to the product is confirmed by its 1h nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and by the chemical synthesis to be described in a subsequent paper. on comparing the above substrate analogue with l-phenylalanine, the km was lowered o ...1979427124
[taxonomical investigations in sexual strains of rhodotorula glutinis (fres.) harrison, rh. aurantiaca (saito) lodder and rh. rubra (demme) lodder (author's transl)].several strains of rhodotorula were crossed with the strains ifo 0559a and ifo 0880alpha of rhodotorula glutinis. we found nine new sexual rhodotorula strains, belongong to the species rh. glutinis, rh. aurantiaca and rh. rubra. 22 combinations, whose physiological and biochemical qualities were found out, followed from crossings of all sexual strains. the cell walls of some selected mycel combinations contained a pore in the center. resting spores and life cycles of all combinations correspond ...1977558700
l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (maize, potato, and rhodotorula glutinis) explaining the kinetic effects of substrate modification by linear free-energy relationships. 1977558738
[growth of epiphytic and soil yeasts on wheat seedlings].colonization of wheat seedlings by epiphytic (rhodotorula glutinis) and soil (lipomyces starkeyi) yeasts was studied by scanning electron microscopy. epiphytic yeast cells dominated on the plant surface. soil yeast cells were randomly distributed among both the zones of a seedling and the particles of an inorganic substrate. it has been found that epiphytic yeast strains can readily grow on the surface of a plant.1977561879
[synthesis of intracellular and extracellular metabolites by rhodotorula glutinis].a close relationship has been established between the production of extracellular and intracellular lipids and polysaccharides by rhodotorula glutinis. their synthesis depended on the ph of the medium. the composition and dynamics of polyol content in the cells, and the presence of acids typical of exolipids in the composition of intracellular lipids under certain conditions, suggest that the components of extracellular lipids are synthesized within the yeast cell.1977563962
a kinetic analysis of d-xylose transport in rhodotorula glutinis.the kinetics of d-xylose transport were studied in rhodotorula glutinis. analysis of the saturation isotherm revealed the presence of at least two carriers for d-xylose in the rhodotorula plasma membrane. these two carriers exhibited km values differing by more than an order of magnitude. the low-km carrier was repressed in rapidly growing cells and derepressed by starvation of the cells. several hexoses were observed to inhibit d-xylose transport. in the studies reported here, the inhibitions p ...1978566557
thymine 7-hydroxylase and pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside 2' -hydroxylase activities in rhodotorula glutinis.cell-free preparations from rhodotorula glutinis catalyzed the conversion of deoxyribonucleosides to ribonucleosides in a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside 2' -hydroxylase reaction. the reaction occurred with only thymidine or deoxyuridine, of the common deoxyribonucleosides, without detachment of the deoxyribose moiety, at the nucleoside level. the same enzyme preparations catalyzed the conversion of thymine to 5-hydroxymethyluracil in a thymine 7-hydroxylase reaction. requirements for molecular o ...1978567220
substitution of nucleoside triphosphates for ascorbate in the thymine 7-hydroxylase reaction of rhodotorula glutinis.nucleoside di- and triphosphates substituted for ascorbate in the thymine 7-hydroxylase reaction in studies carried out with purified preparations from rhodotorula glutinis. the stimulations brought about by ascorbate and atp were found not to be additive. studies with analogues of atp indicated that hydrolysis may not need to occur in order for the nucleotide effect to be expressed. the stoichiometry of the production of 5-hydroxymethyluracil and co2 was not changed by the substitution of atp f ...1979569152
characterization of a carboxypeptidase from the yeast rhodotorula glutinis.a carboxypeptidase has been identified in rhodotorula glutinis and partially purified. the enzyme is active on n-substituted dipeptides and tripeptides and also exhibits an esterolytic activity. both activities are inhibited by (n-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl)chloromethane and by a thermostable fraction present in extracts. the enzyme shows a ph optimum in the range 7.5 to 8.0 and has a molecular weight of 80000, determined by gel filtration.1979571399
role of pipecolic acid in the biosynthesis of lysine in rhodotorula glutinis.the role of pipecolic acid in the biosynthesis of lysine was investigated in rhodotorula glutinis, an aerobic red yeast. supplementation of pipecolic acid in the minimal medium supported the growth of mutants lys2, lys3, and lys5; alpha-aminoadipic acid supported the growth of lys5; but neither alpha-aminoadipic acid nor pipecolic acid supported the growth of mutants mnng42 and mnng37. during the growth of the appropriate mutants, pipecolic acid was removed from the growth medium and the intrace ...1979571433
[makeup of the extracellular lipids in rhodotorula glutinis yeasts].the fractional composition of extracellular lipids extracted with hexane and ethanol was studied in the yeast rhodotorula glutinis 35 by thin-layer chromatography. the two extracts of extracellular lipids were found to be similar in composition though differing in the quantitative content of individual fractions. the fractional composition of extracellular lipids differed from that of intracellular lipids. the peculiarity of the fractional composition of extracellular lipids can be accounted for ...1979571509
the effect of nystatin on active transport in rhodotorula glutinis (gracilis) is restricted to the plasma membrane.the effect of the polyene antibiotic nystatin on the energy-requiring transport of substrates in the obligatory aerobic yeast rhodotorula glutinis (gracilis) is restricted to its interaction with the plasma membrane, whereas the energy metabolism in mitochondria remains unaffected by the antibiotic. a method for preparation of the mitochondrial fraction from this yeast is described.1979573138
characterization of an intracellular inhibitor of the carboxypeptidase r from rhodotorula glutinis.a peptidic inhibitor of the carboxypeptidase r from rhodotorula glutinis has been identified and partially purified. a molecular weight of 31 000 was found by gel filtration. the inhibitor is reversibly separated from the carboxypeptidase by chaotropic agents. removal of the inhibitor by an acid protease explains the osberved activation of the carboxypeptidase by incubation at acidic ph values.1979573739
relationship of active membrane transport and respiration in rhodotorula glutinis: possibility of two respiratory systems. 1979575314
fungal antigens as a source of sensitization and respiratory disease in scottish maltworkers.mycological and serological studies were carried out as part of a survey of respiratory disease in scottish maltworkers. 70% of stained sputum smears from 574 workers showed the presence of higher plant cells and/or myclelia, and the spores of common environmental fungi. penicillium spp. (90%), rhizopus stolonifer (48%) and yeasts (53%) were the dominant fungi in 699 sputum cultures, and showed a similar proportional distribution in 327 samples of grain, malt, culms and dusts from fifty-six malt ...1977589785
regulation of ornithine transcarbamylase in rhodotorula glutinis.the regulation of ornithine transcarbamylase (otc) of rhodotorula glutinis has been studied, by growing the yeasts in different carbon and nitrogen sources and estimating the enzyme level in crude yeasts extracts. the results show a nutritional repression of otc by arginine, when added to the culture media as carbon, nitrogen or carbon and nitrogen sources. on the other hand ornithine does not exert any effect in the same experimental conditions.1976797336
[application of microbial enzymes in studies of steroid metabolism (author's transl)].in vitro models are necessary for studying the biotransformation of new steroid drugs and to determine the structure of the metabolites and their biological activity. for that reason microorganisms and their enzymes were used to investigate the anabolic steroid oral-turinabol (4-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadiene-3-one). clostridium paraputrificum transformed oral-turinabol into the hydrogenation products 4beta-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-5beta-1-androstene-3-one (i) ...1975818880
action of 5-(2-thienyl)valeric acid as a biotin antagonist.5-(2-thienyl)valeric acid (tva), a biotin analogue which can be easily prepared through chemical process, inhibited the growth of a biotin synthesizing rhodotorula glutinis. the growth inhibition was reversed by the addition of biotin. among biotin intermediates, dethiobiotin and 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid reversed the inhibition by tva, while 7-keto-8-amino-pelargonic acid and pimelic acid did not. from these results, it was concluded that tva is a biotin antagonist which probably acts as an in ...1977907790
[a flavinogenic mutant of the yeast pichia guilliermondii with impaired iron transport].a mutant of the yeast pichia guilliermondii was produced by means of uv; the mutant was capable of riboflavin overproduction in the presence of high concentrations of iron in the medium. the content of total and non-hemin iron and cytochrome c, and the activity of catalase, were lower in the cells of the mutant than in the parent cells, while the activity of riboflavin synthetase was higher. the content of iron in the cells increased when the mutant was cultivated on media with citric acid, side ...1976933879
utilization of exogenous pyrimidines as a source of nitrogen by cells of the yeast rhodotorula glutinis.uptake and intracellular transformation of pyrimidines supplying cells of the yeast rhodotorula glutinis with nitrogen have been studied. the amine nitrogen of cytosine was found to be the easiest to utilize. the presence in the medium of inorganic ammonia along with cytosine had a slight effect on cytosine deaminase (ec 3.5.4.1) activity. the uracil produced entered into the nutrient medium with no fission break of the pyridmidine ring. in the absence of any other source of nitrogen, the cells ...1976945262
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. induction and purification from yeast and clearance in mammals.yeast phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (ec 4.3.1.5) catalyzes the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid and tyrosine to trans-coumaric acid. maximal enzyme activity in rhodotorula glutinis (2 units/g, wet weight, of yeast) was induced in late-log phase (12 to 14 hours) of growth in a culture medium containing 1.0% malt extract, 0.1% yeast extract, and 0.1% l-phenylalanine. a highly purified enzyme was obtained by fractionation with ammonium sulfate and sodium citrate followed by ...1976985816
biosynthesis of lysine in rhodotorula glutinis: role of pipecolic acid.glutamate-alpha-ketoadipate transaminase, saccharopine reductase, and saccharopine dehydrogenase activities were demonstrated in extracts of rhodotorula glutinis but alpha-aminoadipate reductase activity could not be measured in whole cells or in extracts. lysine auxotroph lys1 grew in the presence of l-lysine or dl-alpha-aminoadipate and incorporated radioactivity from dl-alpha-amino-[i-14c]adipate into lysine during growth. growing wild-type cells converted l-[u-14c]lysine into alpha-amino-[14 ...19751167573
[distribution of rhodosporidium diobovatum yeasts in soil and on plants].as was found by the hybridization technique, 43 strains among 92 studied strains of the yeast rhodotorula glutinis belong to rhodosporidium diobovatum newell et hunter (ustilaginaceae, basidiomycetes). the strains of rhodosporidium diobovatum were found in oil-bearing soils, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere of cultivated and wild plants.19751177782
dietary tocopherol and sexual reproduction in the rotifers brachionus calyciflorus and asplanchna sieboldi.brachionus calyciflorus contained no detectable tocopherol (vitamin e) when cultured for long periods on the yeast rhodotorula glutinis. using a spectrofluorometric assay and the asplanchna body-wall-outgrowth response bioassay the limits of detection were 6.4 ng and 3.78 pg alpha-tocopherol per g dry weight brachionus, respectively. these tocopherol-free brachionus reproduced normally both parthenogenetically and sexually, producing active and potent males and fertilized resting eggs which deve ...19751202152
partial purification and substrate specificity of acylamino acid-releasing enzyme from rhodotorula glutinis. 19901368523
rhodotorula glutinis keratitis. 19921452424
dimorphism in itersonilia perplexans: yeast and hyphal phases differ in their sensitivity to mycocins produced by tremellaceous yeasts.the monokaryotic yeast phase of the heterobasidiomycete itersonilia perplexans, unlike the hyphal phase, was found to be sensitive to mycocins produced by killer strains of cryptococcus humicola, cr. laurentii, cystofilobasidium bisporidii and rhodotorula fujisanense. both the yeast and hyphal phases wer resistant to mycocins of cr. podzolicus, filobasidium capsuligenum, rhodotorula glutinis, rh. mucilaginosa, rh. pallida, sporidiobolus johnsonii, sb. pararoseus and sporobolomyces alborubescens. ...19921459407
keratomycosis with an unusual etiology (rhodotorula glutinis): a case report.a case of deep keratomycosis with isolation of rhodotorula glutinis is discussed. keratoplasty, done immediately, prevented panophthalmitis and cured the patient. the etiology and pathogenesis of fungal keratitis is examined.19921556965
[the effect of nitrosoguanidine on carotene-synthesizing and pigment-free yeasts].a number of mutants with a demand for amino acids, vitamins and nitrous bases has been obtained under effect of nitrosoguanidine (0.05%) on the yeast candida utilis and carotene-synthesizing yeast rhodosporidium diobovatum, rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis and rh. rubra. concentration of auxotrophs due to the death of prototrophs has been achieved in the studied yeast, with the exception of rh. rubra using additional treatment by levorin (200 units/ml). when selecting quickly growing mutants o ...19912067423
the in vitro susceptibility of some mycotic agents to a new orally active triazole, itraconazole.the growth-inhibitory effect of itraconazole against 85 strains of mycotic agents belonging to 37 species was studied. mic values were determined in a microtiter broth dilution method using casitone medium. the widest range of susceptibility was noted for yeasts. more strains of candida albicans, candida, spp. and torulopsis spp. were found to be highly sensitive (mic = 0.22 mg l-1), a single strain of candida tropicalis and rhodotorula glutinis was fully resistant (mic = 200 mg l-1). most isola ...19902170505
serum igg antibody concentrations against environmental microbes in mares and foals during different seasons and effect of stabling practices.over periods of 22 and 14 months, igg antibody concentrations in serum samples obtained monthly from 14 mares and 19 foals, respectively, were measured by use of elisa against antigens of the following environmental microbes: aspergillus umbrosus, penicillium brevicompactum, rhodotorula glutinis, absidia corymbifera, aspergillus fumigatus, humicola grisea, micropolyspora faeni, and thermoactinomyces vulgaris. the mares and foals were on pasture from early june until early october, then were stab ...19902327613
[presence of pathogenic yeasts in the feces of the semi-domesticated pigeon (columba livia, gmelin 1789, urban type) from the city of turin].the results of a survey on the presence of pathogenic yeasts in pigeon droppings collected in turin, are shown. the study was carried out in 8 densely populated areas, where human-animal contact is highest. a total of 427 pigeon dropping samples, most of which fresh, were collected. 550 yeast colonies, clinically interesting or at least pathologically significant, were isolated by the identification routine methods. the yeasts belong to the following species: candida albicans, c. humicola, c. kr ...19892487001
analysis of the h+/sugar symport in yeast under conditions of depolarized plasma membrane.h+/sugar symport in the obligatory aerobic yeast rhodotorula glutinis was analyzed under conditions where the plasma membrane was selectively depolarized by the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium (tpp+). control experiments showed that this treatment did not impair the transmembrane delta ph, the cell energy charge, and the function of plasma membrane h+-atpase. the kinetic data were fitted to elementary functions derived from a model constructed on the basis of some simplifying premises f ...19892545668
identification and characterization of mitochondrial translation products in various yeasts and in prototheca zopfii.mitochondrial genomes of different eucaryotes are not all alike. we have examined mitochondrial translation products in a number of yeasts (candida krusei, hansenula saturnus, rhodotorula glutinis, rhodotorula rubra, torulopsis glabrata and saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in prototheca zopfii, a colorless alga, in order to determine whether certain proteins are invariably synthesized within mitochondria, how different these proteins are, and what additional proteins, if any, might be synthesized b ...19852836096
[inhibitory effect of various hydrazine derivatives on the activity of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from rhodotorula glutinis].the inhibitory activities of hydrazinoacetic acid (haa), 2-hydrazinoethanol (he) and ethyl hydrazino-acetate (eha) are characterized and compared with those of l-or d-alpha-hydrazino-beta-phenylpropionic acid (l-or d-hppa), 2-phenylethylhydrazine (peh), hydrazine (h), alpha, beta-dihydrocinnamic acid (dhca) and d-phenylalanine (d-phe). inhibitors can be arranged in order of increasing activity: he less than eha less than h less than d-phe less than haa less than d-hppa less than dhca less than p ...19862946374
cloning of a leu gene and an ars site of rhodotorula glutinis.genomic library of dna from an extracellular protease-producing yeast strain, rhodotorula glutinis k-24, was constructed, using escherichia coli plasmid vector pbr322. a leu gene from r. glutinis was cloned, and found to complement leu- mutations in e. coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae. in e. coli, the leu gene in the cloned yeast dna fragment was efficiently expressed when inserted into the vector in one orientation. in s. cerevisiae, the r. glutinis leu gene was efficiently expressed when inse ...19883061748
transport of l-glucose by rhodotorula glutinis.the kinetics of l-glucose transport by rhodotorula glutinis were studied over a 720-fold range of sugar concentrations. analysis of the saturation isotherm revealed the presence of a one-carrier system for l-glucose in the plasma membrane of rhodotorula glutinis. this carrier exhibited a km of 3.7 +/- 0.3 mm. d-ribose was found to be a competitive inhibitor with a ki of 19 +/- 1 mm. the results suggest that l-glucose is transported by the high-km, d-ribose carrier. l-glucose was transported agai ...19883134941
glutathione and glutathione metabolizing enzymes in yeasts.total glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase and glutathione reductase activities have been measured in 12 species of yeasts. all the strains tested contained glutathione, though in different amounts, as well as the above mentioned enzymes. to discriminate between the selenium-dependent and the selenium-independent form, glutathione peroxidase activity has been measured with both h2o2 and cumene hydroperoxide. rhodotorula glutinis appeared to be the only strain in w ...19883178190
[macrophage activation via the polysaccharides of rhodotorula glutinis]. 19883247874
mechanism of spermine action on plasma membrane sugar transport function of yeast rhodotorula glutinis. 19883248839
immunological homologies between ribosomal proteins amongst lower eukaryotes.polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified ribosomal proteins l1 and l2, the 5s rrna binding protein l3, all from saccharomyces cerevisiae, and against l1 and l2 from schizosaccharomyces pombe (numbering according to otaka and osawa 1981; otaka et al. 1983, respectively). for clarity prefixes sc and sp have been added to the numbering of proteins derived from s. cerevisiae and s. pombe, respectively. ribosomal proteins from these yeasts and from kluyveromyces marxianus, rhodotorula g ...19863327609
relevance of cation-exchange capacity of cell wall in detecting h+-symport in yeasts.addition of mono- or divalent cations to unbuffered yeast suspensions causes acidification of the medium. in some yeasts (rhodotorula glutinis and metschnikowia reukaufii) this represented a mediated h+ extrusion in exchange for cations (mostly k+). however, in some other yeasts (pichia humboldtii and candida albicans) the ph change was very rapid. the rapid acidification of the media by pichia humboldtii was found to be due to high cation-exchange capacity of its cell wall. this cation-exchange ...19873435538
antimicrobial activity of protoanemonin, a lactone from ranunculaceous plants.protoanemonin, a component of ranunculus bulbosus, was tested as an antifungal agent on selected strains of dermatophytes and yeasts. the minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 7.5 x 10(-4) m and the minimum lethal concentrations from 3.8 x 10(-4) m to greater than 1.0 x 10(-3) m. the most sensitive dermatophyte tested was epidermophyton floccosum, and the most sensitive yeast rhodotorula glutinis. the effects of different culture media and of light on the sensitivity of rhodotorul ...19873587338
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from the yeast rhodotorula glutinis. 19873600370
influence of 1-double bond and 11 beta-hydroxy group on stereospecific microbial reductions of 4-en-3-oxo-steroids.the yeast rhodotorula glutinis and the anaerobic bacterium clostridium paraputrificum were used for stereospecific reductions of 4-chloro-11 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-methyl-testosterone and the corresponding 1-dehydro compound to prepare 5 alpha- and 5 beta-h derivatives, respectively. c. paraputrificum was able to 5 beta-reduce both substances, whereas the 5 alpha-reduction by r. glutinis was inhibited by the structure elements 1-en and 11 beta-oh so that the substrate with both structure elements ...19863773526
evaluation of abbott quantum ii yeast identification system.the identity of each of 239 yeasts, encompassing 9 genera and 30 species, was determined with the quantum ii and api 20c identification systems. with api 20c results accepted as being correct, quantum ii proved to be 92% accurate in identification of common isolates, e.g., candida albicans and torulopsis glabrata, but only 73% effective with less frequently encountered yeasts, e.g., trichosporon beigelii and rhodotorula glutinis. overall, quantum ii was 86% as accurate as api 20c for the yeast i ...19853900130
[a simple method for performing yeast carbohydrate assimilation test].a modified auxanographic method was employed to perform carbohydrates assimilation test for 25 strains of yeasts representing the following 8 species: candida albicans, c. glabrata, c. krusei, c. parapsilosis, c. stellatoides, c. tropicalis, cryptococcus neoformans, and rhodotorula glutinis. the results obtained were analyzed by comparing with the conventional auxanographic method, and it was found that the modified method was more accurate, rapid and easy in reading. the modified method was obv ...19853910369
effects of suspension density on microbial metabolic processes.respiration of yeasts saccharomyces cerevisiae, rhodotorula glutinis, endomyces magnusii, and candida utilis, and of bacteria escherichia coli and bacillus megaterium, anaerobic production of co2 by s. cerevisiae, active transport of quinovose by r. glutinis and of l-proline and l-leucine by s. cerevisiae were highly dependent on cell suspension density. respiration of s. cerevisiae in the presence of glucose decreased in a biphasic fashion from 140 to 40 nmol o2 per mg dry solid per min as susp ...19853936756
regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in rhodotorula glutinis.in the red yeast rhodotorula glutinis, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (pal) was induced 10-fold during carbon starvation even in the absence of exogenous phenylalanine, although maximal induction occurred when phenylalanine was the nitrogen (40-fold) or carbon (100-fold) source. apparent regulatory mutations that affected the expression of pal were isolated by selecting mutants resistant to the analog p-fluoro-d,l-phenylalanine (pfp). one such mutant, designated fp1, could use phenylalanine as a ni ...19854038704
tetraphenylphosphonium ion is a true indicator of negative plasma-membrane potential in the yeast rhodotorula glutinis. experiments under osmotic stress and at low external ph values.in the yeast rhodotorula glutinis, accumulation of the tetraphenylphosphonium ion (tpp+) was increased under conditions of osmotic stress, indicating a hyperpolarization of the negative membrane potential (delta psi). the following observations were consistent with the occurrence of hyperpolarized delta psi: enhanced accumulation of glucosamine, the uptake of which is also driven by delta psi; increased respiratory rate. the accumulation of tpp+ was gradually decreased by lowering the ph of cell ...19854038875
the electrochemical h+ gradient in the yeast rhodotorula glutinis.the electrochemical gradient of protons, delta mu h+, was estimated in the obligatory aerobic yeast rhodotorula glutinis in the ph0 range from 3 to 8.5. the membrane potential, delta psi, was measured by steady-state distribution of the hydrophobic ions, tetraphenylphosphonium (tpp+) for negative delta psi above ph0 4.5, and thiocyanate (scn-) for positive delta psi below ph0 4.5. the chemical gradient of h+ was determined by measuring the chemical shift of intracellular pi by 31p-nmr at given p ...19854040135
identification of two alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in extracts of rhodotorula glutinis catalyzing deoxyuridine hydroxylation.attempts to isolate deoxyuridine 2'-hydroxylase from rhodotorula glutinis by the procedure of warn-cramer et al. (warn-cramer, b. j., macrander, l. a., and abbott, m. t. (1983) j. biol. chem. 258, 10551-10557) have led to the identification and partial purification of a newly recognized alpha-ketoglutarate-requiring oxygenase. this activity, designated deoxyuridine (uridine) 1'-hydroxylase, in the presence of iron and ascorbate, catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine (uridine), o2, and alpha-k ...19854040518
apical vesicles in growing bud cells of heterobasidiomycetous yeasts.clusters of cytoplasmic vesicles resembling those in growing hyphal apices of mycelial fungi are found near the tips of buds in three heterobasidiomycetous yeasts, rhodotorula glutinis, candida scottii, and sporobolomyces salmonicolor.19724110150
mitosis in heterobasidiomycetous yeasts. ii. rhodosporidium sp. (rhodotorula glutinis) and aessosporon salmonicolor (sporobolomyces salmonicolor). 19724116102
alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rhodotorula glutinis. 19734144538
[biosynthesis of nicotinic acid in rhodotorula glutinis]. 19724264216
identification of an unusual phosphofructokinase in the red yeast rhodotorula glutinis. 19744281658
some aspects of the penicillin v-acylase produced by rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. 19734360823
[growth of nicotinic acid-deficient mutants of rhodotorula glutinis on n-alkanes in the absence of exogenous nicotinic acid]. 19744407452
uptake of disaccharides by the aerobic yeast rhodotorula glutinis. hydrolysis of beta-fructosides and trehalose. 19744441221
carotenoid biosynthesis in rhodotorula glutinis.it was determined that lycopene could be cyclized directly by rhodotorula glutinis. it was also shown the the temperature effect (i.e., increased beta-carotene synthesis in response to lower incubation temperatures) in r. glutinis was controlled by changes in enzyme concentration.19744474162
[the effect of oleic acid on growth and carotene formation by rhodotorula glutinis k 1/48 on media containing hydrocarbons]. 19744476076
[the influence of the conditions of rhodotorula glutinis 35 yeast cultivation on the synthesis of extracellular lipids and polysaccharides]. 19744597586
some features of carbohydrate metabolism in rhodotorula glutinis. 19724642935
amino acid transport in rhodotorula glutinis. 19724672133
[effect of certain growth factors on the content of lysine, methionine and tryptophan in the biomass of candida tropicalis and rhodotorula glutinis]. 19724677034
biosynthesis of sideramines in fungi. rhodotorulic acid synthetase from extracts of rhodotorula glutinis. 19724677112
inactivation of rhodotorula glutinis acid protease by diazoacetyl compounds. 19734737443
incorporation of the sulfur of l-(35s)methionine into the biotin molecule by intact cells of rhodotorula glutinis. 19734737855
[assimilation and catabolism of 5-methylcytosine and thymine by rhodotorula glutinis (fres.) harrison yeasts]. 19734799650
an aspartic acid residue at the active site of rhodotorula glutinis acid protease. 19744859209
[effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the biosynthesis of methionine, lysine and tryptophane in candida tropicalis and rhodotorula glutinis]. 19714949112
[glycans of rhodotorula glutinis]. 19725065197
utilization of amino acids by rhodotorula glutinis. 19715166452
isoprenoid phenol and quinone precursors of ubiguinones and dihydroubiguinones (ubiguinones (h 2 )) in fungi.1. ten moulds and two yeasts were analysed for the presence of 2-polyprenylphenols, 2-polyprenyl(h(2))phenols, 6-methoxy-2-polyprenylphenols, 6-methoxy-2-polyprenyl(h(2))phenols, 6-methoxy-2-polyprenyl-1,4-benzoquinones, 6-methoxy-2-polyprenyl(h(2))-1,4-benzoquinones, 5-demethoxyubiquinones, 5-demethoxyubiquinones(h(2)), ubiquinones and ubiquinones(h(2)). 2. the organisms were found to be of three types: (a) those that contained only ubiquinones (aspergillus fumigatus and penicillium brevi-compa ...19715166547
unbalanced cell-wall synthesis in chloramphenicol-grown rhodotorula glutinis. 19695305791
temperature effects on a psychrophilic strain of rhodotorula glutinis. anl-7535. 19685307205
the biological activity of polysaccharides isolated from rhodotorula glutinis and aureobasidium pullulans. 19695312374
induced salt sensitivity in fungal cells and its reversal by imidazole derivatives.the sensitivity to cl(-) and br(-) induced by heat shock of cells of ophiostoma multiannulatum and of rhodotorula glutinis could be partially reversed by histidine and some other imidazole derivatives.19695391232
effect of glucose on pyruvate utilization by rhodotorula glutinis. 19695394021
aspects of the stereochemistry of torularhodin biosynthesis.1. the incorporation of [2-(14)c]acetate, [2-(14)c]mevalonic acid and [2-(14)c,2-(3)h(2)]-mevalonic acid into torulene and torularhodin by rhodotorula rubra and rhodotorula glutinis was studied. 2. a recovery of 14.3% of the label was obtained on decarboxylation of the torularhodin biosynthesized from [2-(14)c]mevalonic acid. 3. an analysis of the (3)h/(14)c ratio in torularhodin gave a value of 9.44:8. 4. these results, obtained by different experimental techniques, show that the reactions in t ...19705465554
[transformation of thymine by rhodotorula glutinis (fres) harrison yeasts]. 19705466058
specific staining of wall mannan in yeast cells with fluorescein-conjugated concanavalin a.a procedure is given for the coupling of fluorescein isothiocyanate to concanavalin a, a protein which specifically combines with a variety of polysaccharides, and for the subsequent isolation of the reactive conjugate. this fluorescent conjugate stains saccharomyces cerevisiae but not schizosaccharomyces pombe or rhodotorula glutinis. the cell walls of the latter two organisms do not contain branched homopolymers of alpha-linked mannose. furthermore, the staining of s. cerevisiae is competitive ...19715541005
photodynamic responses in rhodotorula glutinis in the absence of added sensitizers. 19715564819
wall structure and bud formation in rhodotorula glutinis. 19675628697
chloramphenicol inhibition of pythium ultimum and rhodotorula glutinis. 19685750911
attempts to detect lycopersene formation in yeast.1. beta-ionone vapour has been shown to cause an increase in the more saturated carotenes and a decrease in the less saturated carotenes of rhodotorula glutinis. lycopersene (dihydrophytoene) has been proposed as a precursor to phytoene. attempts were made to isolate lycopersene from beta-ionone-treated cultures of r. glutinis. 2. large samples of beta-ionone-treated cultures were examined for the presence of lycopersene. spots were detected on silicic acid plates that could not be differentiate ...19685753091
tartaric acid metabolism in rhodotorula glutinis. 19655894237
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