isolation of metarrhizium anisopliae, beauveria tenella and fusarium oxysporum (deuteromycetes) and their pathogenicity to culex fatigans and anopheles stephensi. 1979535971
[nature of the parasite-host relations of the entomopathogenic fungi, metarrhizium anisopliae (metsch.) sorokin and beauveria bassiana (bals.) vouill. (fungi imperfecti) to ceratophyllus fasciatus bosc. (siphonaptera) fleas]. 1978567273
[the effect in vitro of the toxins of the mushroom metarrhizium anisopliae (metsch.) sorok. on the hemocytic reaction of oryctes rhinoceros l. (coleoptera)].the filtrate of metarhizium cultures contains toxic-substances inhibiting the process of formation of granuloma by oryctes in vitro. this inhibition results from marked alterations of both nucleus and cytoplasm of hemocytes under the action of the fungal toxins.1975809180
cloning and regulatory analysis of starvation-stress gene, ssga, encoding a hydrophobin-like protein from the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae.the nucleotide (nt) sequence of a starvation-stress gene (ssga) of the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae, and its deduced amino acid (aa) sequence were determined. the primary structure of the ssga (96 aa; deduced m(r) = 9925; pi = 4.1) protein shares extensive similarities with fungal wall proteins of the 'hydrophobin' class, and the eight cys residues and putative signal sequences are conserved. secondary structure predictions suggest an additional resemblance to low-m(r) toxins ...19921398117
use of a colorimetric system to detect enzymes expressed by germinating conidia of entomopathogenic apizym system, with 19 substrates, was used to detect enzymes expressed by germinating conidia of nomuraea rileyi (5 isolates), nomuraea atypicola, nomuraea anemonoides, beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae. similar enzyme profiles were obtained for two of the n. rileyi isolates (mississippi, ecuador) regardless of whether culture medium (sabouraud-maltose-yeast) or cuticle (from larvae of trichoplusia ni, heliothis zea or heliothis virescens) were used as substrates. centroid-cluste ...19921406899
molecular cloning and regulatory analysis of the cuticle-degrading-protease structural gene from the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.the proteinaceous insect cuticle is an effective barrier against most microbes, but entomopathogenic fungi can breach it using extracellular proteases. we report here the isolation and characterization of a cdna clone of the cuticle-degrading protease (pr1) of metarhizium anisopliae. the cdna sequence revealed that pr1 is synthesized as a large precursor (40.3 kda) containing a signal peptide, a propeptide and the mature protein predicted to have a molecular mass of 28.6 kda. the primary structu ...19921551399
in vitro effect of fungal cyclodepsipeptides on leukemic cells: study of destruxins a, b and e.the activities of three mycotoxins isolated from the hyphomycete metarhizium anisopliae: destruxin a, b, and e (da, db and de) are described and compared in vitro on leukemic cells. their antitumor effect was investigated by flow cytometry on growth, cell viability and cell cycle perturbation 48 h after destruxin exposure. against p388 leukemic cells, de displayed greater antiproliferative activity than da and db. the minimum concentration required to inhibit 50% of cell proliferation is 0.33 mi ...19921628110
virulence of entomogenous fungus metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae to aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus larvae. 19902091906
increased abundance, size, and longevity of food-deprived mosquito populations exposed to a fungal determine whether the quantity of food available to mosquitoes in their aquatic environment limits the effectiveness of microbial pathogens as biological control agents, experimentally well-nourished and malnourished larval aedes aegypti (linn.) were exposed to graded inocula of the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae. first instar larvae were provided access either to 3 or to 5 mg of food, and lots from each food regimen were inoculated with 20, 40, 60, or 80 micrograms of fungal ...19902240376
novel gtp-binding proteins in plasma membranes of the fungus metarhizium anisopliae.we report the existence of several families of gtp-binding proteins in plasma membranes of metarhizium anisopliae. two proteins (18.4 and 24 kda) resemble mammalian gn-proteins in their being toxin insensitive, binding [alpha-32p]gtp on nitrocellulose blots of sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds)-polyacrylamide gels, and also in their immunological properties. four other proteins (31-38.2 kda) were similar except that they did not bind [alpha-32p]gtp after treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. an 18.2 ...19892508639
comparative studies of metarhizium anisopliae and tolypocladium cylindrosporum as pathogens of mosquito larvae.mosquito fungal pathogens, metarhizium anisopliae and tolypocladium cylindrosporum, were compared with regard to virulence against the larvae of aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi and culex pipiens. culex pipiens larvae were much more susceptible to m. anisopliae conidia than an. stephensi or ae. aegypti. but ae. aegypti and cx. pipiens larvae were equally susceptible to t. cylindrosporum propagules which weakly attack an. stephensi. using a high concentration conidial suspension (10(7) sp/ml) o ...19862906985
[method of biological control of triatominae, vectors of chagas disease, using entomopathogenic hyphomycetes. preliminary study].bioassays determined the pathogenic activity of 14 strains of 5 entomopathogenic hyphomycetous species (fungi imperfecti), beauveria bassiana, beauveria brongniartii, metarhizium anisopliae, nomuraea rileyi and paecilomyces fumosoroseus to rhodnius prolixus. treatments consisted of direct spraying with conidial titrated suspensions on first instar larvae. when tested at 3 x 10(5) conidia/cm2, only 2 strains, b. bassiana n. 297 and b. bassiana n. 326 killed 100% of larvae at 10 days post-exposure ...19873111731
[cytometric study of the effects of destruxin e on leukemic cells in mice].the activity of destruxin e, a cryptogamic toxin isolated from the hyphomycete metarhizium anisopliae, was studied on mouse leukemia cells (l 1210 and p 388) in culture. besides a cytotoxic effect, a cytostatic effect (increase of diploïd cells proportion) was observed with all doses for p 388 (from 10 micrograms/ml to 0.001 microgram/ml) and to a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml for l 1210. at the lower doses, the effect on cellular dna content appears distinctly.19873121146
characterization of cuticle-degrading proteases produced by the entomopathogen metarhizium anisopliae.two chymoelastases and three trypsinlike proteases were separated from culture filtrates of the entomopathogen metarhizium anisopliae. a chymoelastase (pr1) (pi 10.3 mr 25,000) and trypsin (pr2) (pi 4.42, mr 28,500) were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation, isoelectric focusing, and affinity chromatography. inhibition studies showed that both enzymes possessed essential serine and histidine residues in the active site. pr1 shows greater activity than pr2 or mammalian enzym ...19873545084
fine structure of the fungus metarrhizium anisopliae infecting three species of larval elateridae (coleoptera). iv. development within the host. 19714324208
ultrastructural changes in tissues of larval elateridae (coleoptera) infected with the fungus metarrhizium anisopliae. 19714926798
a bacterium and dipterous parasite in wild populations of cowpea curculio larvae: effects of treatment with spores of metarrhizium anisopliae. 19714930318
[physiological properties of the entomopathogenic fungus metarrhizium anisopliae (metch.) sor. development under submerge-surface culture]. 19725077288
heterokaryosis in the entomogenous fungus, metarrhizium anisopliae. 19715165096
metarrhizium anisopliae (metchinkoff) sorokin., and its host range. 19715165180
pathogenicity of metarrhizium anisopliae, and other fungi, for five elaterids (coleoptera) in saskatchewan. 19685716586
toxins from the entomogenous fungus metarrhizium anisopliae. i. production in submerged and surface cultures, and in inorganic and organic nitrogen media. 19665949415
toxins from the entomogenous fungus metarrhizium anisopliae. ii. symptoms and detection in moribund hosts. 19665949416
oral infection of second-instar nymphs of schistocerca gregaria by metarrhizium anisopliae. 19665949417
a selective medium for the isolation of beauveria tenella and of metarrhizium anisopliae. 19665949419
the effect of certain insecticides on the entomogenous fungi beauveria bassiana and metarrhizium anisopliae. 19676064157
infectivity of a venezuelan strain of metarhizium anisopliae to aedes aegypti larvae. 19846539354
effect of soil fungistasis on zoopathogenic fungi.the inhibiting action of west-siberian soils on spore germination and the growth and development of zoopathogenic fungi such as emmonsia (chrysosporium) crescens , trichophyton mentagrophytes, beauveria bassiana , metarrhizium anisopliae , paecilomyces farinosus , p. fumoso -roseus and chrysosporium keratinophilum have been studied by the authors. the influence of carbon sources and the root exudates of plants on fungistasis have also been studied.19846727979
[action of the fungus metarrhizium anisopliae metschnikoff on various species of triatominae (hemiptera, reduviidae)]. 19826760352
studies on the prolonged storage of metarhizium anisopliae conidia: effect of temperature and relative humidity on conidial viability and virulence against mosquitoes. 19836841994
effect of formulation on the viability of metarhizium anisopliae conidia. 19836841995
studies on the prolonged storage of metarhizium anisopliae conidia: effect of growth substrate on conidial survival and virulence against mosquitoes. 19836841996
studies on the structure of a novel peptide antibiotic, k-582.a novel peptide antibiotic, k-582, which exhibited significant growth inhibition of candida, viruses and ascites tumor in mice, was found in the culture medium of a strain of metarhizium anisopliae by kondo et al. (j. antibiotics 33, 535-542 (1980) ]. k-582 consisted of two components, designated k-582 a and k-582 b. threonine, tyrosine, ornithine, and an unusual amino acid were common in both peptides, but lysine was an extra component of k-582 a. the unusual amino acid was identified to be thr ...19836885240
a method for laboratory-scale mass cultivation of metarhizium anisopliae. 19826890500
the subtilisins of the invertebrate mycopathogens verticillium chlamydosporium and metarhizium anisopliae are serologically and functionally related.the major extracellular proteases from the nematophagous fungus verticillium chlamydosporium and the entomophagous fungus metarhizium anisopliae, vcp1 and pr1, respectively, are closely related both functionally and serologically. antibodies raised against either enzyme cross-reacted with both antigens, suggesting that they have common epitopes. the vcp1 and pr1 antisera labelled bovine pancreatic elastase and proteinase k, respectively. neither antiserum reacted with commercial chymotrypsin. an ...19957729666
cuticle degrading proteases from insect moulting fluid and culture filtrates of entomopathogenic fungi.insects degrade their own cuticle during moulting, a process which is catalysed by a complex mixture of enzymes. entomopathogenic fungi infect the insect host by penetration of the cuticle, utilizing enzymatic and/or physical mechanisms. protein is a major component of insect cuticle and a major recyclable resource for the insect and, therefore, represents a significant barrier to the invading fungus. to this end, both insects and entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of cuticle degrading pro ...19957749618
biosynthesis of destruxins.l-[me-13c]-methionine, sodium [2-13c]acetate and sodium [1,2-13c]acetate were incorporated into destruxins a, b and e by the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae. nmr analysis established that methionine is involved in the n-methylation of l-valine and l-alanine, and that one intact acetate unit participates in the biosynthesis of the -ch(oh)-cooh fragment of the hydroxy acid moiety. the presence of two acetate units in proline and isoleucine agrees with the accepted biochemical scheme ...19937763948
an inner cell wall protein (cwp1) from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.following the removal of the rodlet layer from aerial or submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic deuteromycetous fungus beauveria bassiana, sds-insoluble, formic-acid-extractable proteins were found in the residual cell wall material. two major proteins (12.8 and 14.0 kda) were extracted with formic acid from fractured aerial and submerged conidia but not from blastospores. oxidation of the sample extracted by formic acid resulted in a single protein band (15.4 kda) as judged by sds-page. anti ...19957773402
manipulation of intracellular glycerol and erythritol enhances germination of conidia at low water availability.the insect pathogens beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae and paecilomyces farinosus can be effective biocontrol agents when relative humidity (rh) is close to 100%. at reduced water availability, germination of propagules, and therefore host infection, cannot occur. cultures of b. bassiana, m. anisopliae and p. farinosus were grown under different conditions to obtain conidia with a modified polyol and trehalose content. conidia with higher intracellular concentrations of glycerol and ery ...19957773406
partial characterization of specific inducers of a cuticle-degrading protease from the insect pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.the insect pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae produces several extracellular cuticle-degrading proteases and evidence is consistent with one of these, pr1, which is a chymoelastase, being a determinant of pathogenicity. we have shown previously that pr1 production is regulated by both carbon catabolite and nitrogen metabolite repression and also by specific induction under derepressed conditions by insect cuticle. in the present work we have established that an enzymically released protein ...19947812455
cloning of a cuticle-degrading protease from the entomopathogenic fungus, beauveria bassiana.a beauveria bassiana extracellular subtilisin-like serine endoprotease is a potential virulence factor by virtue of its activity against insect cuticles. a cdna clone of the protease was isolated from mycelia of b. bassiana grown on cuticle/chitin cultures. the amino acid sequence of this gene was compared to that of metarhizium anisopliae pr1, the only pathogenicity determinant so far described from an entomopathogenic fungus, and proteinase k, isolated from tritirachium album, a saprophytic fu ...19957875568
laboratory evaluation of six species of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of the house fly (musca domestica l.), a pest of intensive animal units.the effectiveness of six species of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of adult and larval stages of the house fly musca domestica was assessed in the laboratory. metarhizium anisopliae and tolypocladium cylindrosporum were the pathogens most virulent to house fly larvae. tolypocladium cylindrosporum prevented adult emergence at doses of 1 x 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), and 10(5) conidia/ml, and m. anisopliae prevented emergence at 1 x 10(8) and 10(7) conidia/ml, with only 1.0 and 16% emergence at 1 ...19947963644
differentiation of species and strains of entomopathogenic fungi by random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd).polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based technology, involving random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd), was used to assess the genomic variability between 24 isolates of deuteromycetous fungi (metarhizium anisopliae, metarhizium flavoviride, unidentified strains of metarhizium and beauveria bassiana) which were found to infect grasshoppers or locusts. m. flavoviride showed little intraspecific variability in pcr-amplified fragments when compared to m. anisopliae. the high level of variabilit ...19948087878
at least three genes are responsible for benomyl-resistance in metarhizium anisopliae.four benomyl-resistant mutants isolated from metarhizium anisopliae were 10 to 500 times more resistant than the original mt strain. the resistance markers analysed in three of these mutants were due to three different mutations and no additive effect of these genes was observed in double mutants. the four mutants presented normal conidiation in the presence or absence of benomyl and no sensitivity or resistance to temperature. probably m. anisopliae has a mechanism of benomyl resistance differi ...19948127229
cloning and characterisation of a gene encoding a cuticle-degrading protease from the insect pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.metarhizium anisophilae (ma) secretes a range of proteases when grown in vitro on insect cuticle. a trypsin-like serine protease, pr2, was purified from culture filtrates by anion exchange chromatography and the n-terminal sequence determined. using oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on this sequence and that of the highly conserved trypsin active site, a gene was isolated from a lambda embl3 genomic library of ma isolate me1. sequencing of the gene and rt-pcr revealed that the gene contains ...19958529882
construction of an improved mycoinsecticide overexpressing a toxic protease.mycoinsecticides are being used for the control of many insect pests as an environmentally acceptable alternative to chemical insecticides. a key aim of much recent work has been to increase the speed of kill and so improve commercial efficacy of these biocontrol agents. this might he achieved by adding insecticidal genes to the fungus, an approach considered to have enormous potential for the improvement of biological pesticides. we report here the development of a genetically improved entomopa ...19968692818
prospects for biological control of livestock ticks, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and amblyomma variegatum, using the entomogenous fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae.both beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae induced approximately 30% mortalities in adult rhipicephalus appendiculatus feeding on rabbits while m. anisopliae induced a mortality of 37% in adult amblyomma variegatum. both fungal species induced reductions in engorgement weights, fecundity, and egg hatchability in adult a. variegatum. m. anisopliae reduced fecundity by 94% in a. variegatum. furthermore, b. bassiana reduced egg hatchability to 0%, while 11% of the infected females failed to ...19968812559
identification and differentiation of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana using polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis.a series of genomic dna probes which exhibit specificity for beauveria bassiana demonstrated a level of sensitivity to approximately 152 ng of fungal dna (hegedus and khachatourians, 1993a). to improve the sensitivity of a dna-based monitoring system for detection of this entomopathogenic fungus we have developed a pcr-based method. using sequence information from a region of the b. bassiana-specific probe pbb22, primers p1 (5'aagcttcgacatggtctg) and p3 (5ggaggtggtgaggttctgtt) were generated. th ...19968812610
biochemical characterization and ultrastructural localization of two extracellular trypsins produced by metarhizium anisopliae in infected insect cuticles.proteinase 2 (pr2) is a fungal (metarhizium anisopliae) serine proteinase which has a tryptic specificity for basic residues and which may be involved in entomopathogenicity. analytical and preparative isoelectric focusing methods were used to separate two trypsin components, produced during growth on cockroach cuticle, with isoelectric points of 4.4 (molecular mass, 30 kda) and 4.9 (27 kda). the catalytic properties of the proteases were analyzed by their kinetic constants and by a combination ...19968919786
cloning and sequence analysis of an intron-containing domain from a peptide synthetase-encoding gene of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.a gene encoding a putative peptide synthetase has been cloned and partially sequenced from the filamentous fungus, metarhizium anisopliae. the deduced amino acid sequence of one entire domain and the following spacer is typical of fungal peptide synthetases, showing good conservation of the six expected core sequences. there are two introns within this region, the first interrupting core 5 (rldltdie) of the domain and the second in a conserved area of the spacer region.19968964498
characterization and functional analysis of 12 naturally occurring reactive site variants of serpin-1 from manduca sexta.serpin gene-1 from the tobacco hornworm, manduca sexta, encodes, through alternative exon usage, 12 reactive site variants (jiang, h., wang, y. and kanost, m. r., (1994) j. biol. chem. 269, 55-58; jiang, h., wang, y., huang, y., mulnix, a. b., kadel, j., cole, k., and kanost, m. r. (1996) j. biol. chem. 271, 28017-28023). these 43-kda proteins differ from each other only in their cooh-terminal 39-46 residues, which include the reactive site. to test the hypothesis that these proteins are protein ...19978995406
the effect of humidity on germination and infection of termites by the hyphomycete, metarhizium anisopliae.the effect of relative humidities (r.h.) from 90 to 100% on germination of a termite-active isolate of metarhizium anisopliae (isolate fi25 and fi610) was studied using a liquid germinating medium to which the appropriate amount of glycerol had been added. germination was increasingly delayed at water activities equivalent to 99, 98, and 96% r.h. and completely inhibited at 94, 92, and 90%. twenty-one isolates were then screened for germination at 96 and 100% r.h. all isolates showed delayed ger ...19979028930
28s rdna group-i introns: a powerful tool for identifying strains of beauveria brongniartii.the nuclear ribosomal dna of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria brongniartii is polymorphic in terms of both restriction site and length. insertions of 350-450 bp long, identified as group-i introns, were detected in the 28s rdna. a panel of 47 strains of b. brongniartii, two b. bassiana and one metarhizium anisopliae of various geographical and biological origins were found to contain 14 variant forms of intron differing in size and restriction pattern, at four different positions. twelve ty ...19979131812
adaptation of proteases and carbohydrates of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and entomopathogenic fungi to the requirements of their ecological niches.the abilities of isolates of saprophytes (neurospora crassa, aspergillus nidulans), an opportunistic human pathogen (aspergillus fumigatus), an opportunistic insect pathogen (aspergillus flavus), plant pathogens (verticillium albo-atrum, verticillium dahliae, nectria haematococca), a mushroom pathogen (verticillium fungicola) and entomopathogens (verticillium lecanii, beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae) to utilize plant cell walls and insect cuticle components in different nutrient media ...19979202474
virulence of metarhizium anisopliae to embryos of the grass shrimp palaemonetes pugioexperiments were performed in which developing embryos of the grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to conidiospores of the insect pathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae. responses were variable, with significant (p </= 0.05) adverse effects observed in five of six experiments conducted. dead embryos and larvae with visible growth of m. anisopliae were observed in all experiments. growth of m. anisopliae was occasionally observed on embryos and larvae prior to death. delayed hatch wa ...19979056466
attachment of metarhizium anisopliae to the southern green stink bug nezara viridula cuticle and fungistatic effect of cuticular lipids and this paper we examined the conidial attachment of metarhizium anisopliae on the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula, using the exuvia and nymphal stage of the host as a substrate for m. anisopliae conidiospores. initial studies using fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc)-labeled conidia examined the differential binding of conidia to various sites on the cuticle. both the topography and the chemistry of the cuticle affected conidial adhesion. conidia were trapped in areas containing large n ...19979028925
study of structure-activity correlation in destruxins, a class of cyclodepsipeptides possessing suppressive effect on the generation of hepatitis b virus surface antigen in human hepatoma cells.a new destruxin [destruxin e2 chlorohydrin] was isolated from the culture medium of metarrhizium anisopliae and its structure was determined by nmr spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. as compared with other destruxins, the new destruxin showed a lower suppressive activity on the production of hepatitis b virus surface antigen in human hepatoma hep3b cells. nmr study coupled with molecular modeling by computer graphics has revealed that the hydrophobicity nature of the convex surface characterist ...19968954084
effects of destruxins, cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins, on calcium balance and phosphorylation of intracellular proteins in lepidopteran cell lines.the influence of the destruxin e, cyclodepsipeptidic mycotoxin produced by the filamentous entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae, on calcium fluxes and protein phosphorylation of in vitro cultivated lepidopteran cell lines have been studied. the use of the fluorescent calcium indicator fura 2 am did not show a fast increase in the level of cytosolic calcium in lepidopteran and human cell lines treated with dtx e. in contrast, 45ca+2 assays detected a late but significant calcium influx ...19968856960
pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae (deuteromycetes) to ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae).the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, ixodes scapularis. spore concentrations of 10(8)/ml for engorged larvae and 10(7)/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk postinfection. the lc50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 10(7) spores/ml. metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of ixodes scapularis.19979379283
high frequency gene conversion among benomyl resistant transformants in the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.three different methods, (i) peg, (ii) electroporation and (iii) biolistic, were employed to transform metarhizium anisopliae using benomyl resistance as a selectable marker. transformation frequencies and mitotic stability varied for each method, from 0.8 to 6.9 transformants micrograms-1 of dna and 46%, respectively, by the peg method; 1.3 to 1.8 transformants micrograms-1 of dna and 67% by electroporation; and 32 to 201 transformants micrograms-1 of dna and 90% by biolistic. we demonstrate by ...19968759798
biocontrol potential of the entomogenous fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for tsetse flies (glossina spp.) at developmental sites.spores of two entomogenous fungi, beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae, were mixed with sterile sand at two different concentrations (1.0 and 0.5 g/liter) and larvae of tsetse flies glossina morsitans morsitans allowed to pupate in it, simulating field larviposition sites. one gram weight of b. bassiana-sand mixture was estimated to contain 1.4 x 10(6) spores/g and that of m. anisopliae-sand mixture 2.3 x 10(6) spores/g. adult tsetse emerging from pupae in sand-spore mixtures suffered h ...19958568279
random amplified polymorphic dna markers reveal a high degree of genetic diversity in the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae.metarhizium anisopliae isolates from several insect hosts and from various sugar cane growing areas of queensland, australia, were examined for genetic diversity using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers. thirty isolates of m. anisopliae var. anisopliae and one isolate of m. anisopliae var. majus were examined. ten randomly chosen 10mer or 11mer primers were used and rapd banding patterns were compared. thirty distinct genotypes could be distinguished amongst the 31 isolates tested o ...19938245834
detection of molecular variation in the insect pathogenic fungus metarhizium using rapd-pcr.dna polymorphism among isolates of the insect pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae and m. flavoviride was investigated by rapd-pcr. dna fragments of between 0.3 and 2.7 kb were obtained using eight 10-mer pcr primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence, and each isolate differed in the size and number of rapd products, indicating considerable polymorphism. isolate-specific rapd fingerprints were used to calculate relative genetic similarity; this differentiated isolates into two major groups, s ...19938224797
effects of metarhizium anisopliae on the tick boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae) in stabled cattle. 19989500942
analysis of aminopeptidase and dipeptidylpeptidase iv from the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.analytical and preparative isoelectric focusing were used to separate extracellular isoenzymes of aminopeptidase (pi 4.51, m(r) 45,000, ph optimum 7.0) and prolyl-dipeptidylpeptidase (pi 4.01, m(r) 74,000, ph optimum 8.0) produced by the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae during growth on locust cuticle. production of both activities is repressed by readily utilized nitrogen sources, but unlike the aminopeptidase, the dipeptidylpeptidase was also excreted at high levels during growth ...19938094738
isoforms of the cuticle-degrading pr1 proteinase and production of a metalloproteinase by metarhizium anisopliae.the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae, produces three distinct types of proteinases during growth on cockroach cuticle. these were separated by analytical isoelectric focusing and characterized according to their substrate specificity and inhibition patterns as pr1 subtilisin-like proteinases (four isoforms pi range approximately 9.3-10.2), a thermolysin-like metalloproteinase (pi approximately 7.3), and trypsin-like serine pr2 proteinases (two major isoforms, pi approximately 4.4 ...19948053668
disseminated invasive infection due to metarrhizium anisopliae in an immunocompromised child.the first reported human case of possible disseminated infection with the insect pathogen metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, a fungus which has been used commercially for biocontrol of insects, is described. the patient, a 9-year-old boy, had a 5-year history of pre-b-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and had been on chemotherapy throughout this period. after 10 days of profound neutropenia, lesions consistent with ecthyma gangrenosum appeared on his arms and legs. m. anisopliae was grown ...19989542958
complementation of the mpg1 mutant phenotype in magnaporthe grisea reveals functional relationships between fungal hydrophobins.the functional relationship between fungal hydrophobins was studied by complementation analysis of an mpg1(-) gene disruption mutant in magnaporthe grisea. mpg1 encodes a hydrophobin required for full pathogenicity of the fungus, efficient elaboration of its infection structures and conidial rodlet protein production. seven heterologous hydrophobin genes were selected which play distinct roles in conidiogenesis, fruit body development, aerial hyphae formation and infection structure elaboration ...19989670001
toxicity and pathogenicity testing of the insect pest control fungus metarhizium anisopliaerenewed interest in the use of metarhizium anisopliae and its toxins for insect control prompted the following safety assessment. a neutral extract (methylene chloride, ph 7.2), derived from m. anisopliae cultures, was evaluated for toxicity and mutagenicity using aquatic animal bioassays and the ames test. the average lc50 of the neutral extract obtained in static, acute 96-h tests conducted with </=24-h-old mysidopsis bahia was 2.41 mg l-1. by partially purifying destruxins from the neutral ex ...19989680524
a chitinase encoding gene (chit1 gene) from the entomopathogen metarhizium anisopliae: isolation and characterization of genomic and full-length cdna.there are no reports to date of entire gene sequences coding for chitinolytic enzymes from entomopathogenic fungi, even though these enzymes act synergistically with proteolytic enzymes to solubilize insect cuticle during the key step of host penetration, having considerable importance in the biological control of some insect pests. this paper reports the complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of the chromosomal and full-length cdna copies of the regulated gene (chit1) coding one of the chiti ...19989732526
characterization of a novel carboxypeptidase produced by the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.preparative isoelectric focusing and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify a carboxypeptidase produced by the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae during growth on cockroach cuticle. the enzyme was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, implying involvement of a serine residue in catalysis. however, the m. anisopliae enzyme differed from most serine carboxypeptidases in also being inhibited by the metal chelator 1,10-phenanthroline and in being a small (30 kda), basic (p ...19947979380
isolation and characterization of a chitinase cdna from the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae.a novel chitinase gene was isolated from metarhizium anisopliae grown in a medium containing chitin as the sole carbon source. comparisons of nucleotide sequence of the isolated gene with those of other fungal chitinase genes showed low sequence identity (24.4-36.4%) except for the active site of chitinase. in addition, molecular mass determination of the fused gene product separated on a gel showed that the fused chitinase seems to be about 70 kda, while the molecular mass calculated from the d ...19989742698
sequential product-ion spectra (ms3) with array detection and reaction-intermediate scanning of a cyclopeptide on a five-sector mass spectrometer.a new strategy, based on sequential product-ion spectra (ms2 and ms3) and reaction-intermediate scanning (ms3), provides a rapid and unambiguous sequence determination of e-destruxin, a cyclodepsipeptidic toxin from metarrhizium anisopliae fungus.19947696704
the novel desmethyldestruxin b2, from metarhizium anisopliae, that suppresses hepatitis b virus surface antigen production in human hepatoma cells.we have examined the antiviral activity of a crude extract prepared from the culture medium of the fungus metarhizium anisopliae. eight active destruxins were identified which showed strong suppressive effect on the production of the hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) in human hepatoma hep3b cells. one new compound, desmethyldestruxin b2 [1], was isolated from m. anisopliae. this structure was determined based on its nmr and mass spectral data.19957623030
peptide antibiotic k-582 production in relation to amino acid metabolism in metarrhizium anisopliae.formation of the basic antibiotic, k-582 was stimulated by supplying metarrhizium anisopliae u-47 with several amino acids present in its structure. the addition of l-arginine to the basal medium resulted in the almost exclusive formation of k-582 b, while l-lysine increased k-582 a formation. some carbon sources were observed to have effects similar to those obtained with the above mentioned amino acids. furthermore, when l-arginine was added in excess to the basal medium, free gamma-hydroxyarg ...19846539767
compatibility of metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with chemical pesticides.the effects of various insecticides on the mycelial growth, sporulation and conidial germination of metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate e9 were studied in the laboratory. chlorpyrifos was the most toxic organophosphate to mycelial growth and sporulation at all concentrations. temephos, malathion and leptophos were highly toxic to sporulation while malathion was the most inhibitory to germination. the carbamates, carbofuran, methomyl and oxamyl were moderately toxic to mycelial growth ...19873657906
isolation of a nitrogen response regulator gene (nrr1) from metarhizium anisopliae.attempts to improve the effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents require a clear understanding of the pathogenicity determinants at both the biochemical and molecular level. proteases play a key role in entomopathogenicity, allowing the fungus to penetrate the insect cuticle and rapidly invade the host. the most extensively studied of these protease activities, pr1a and pr2, are both subject to nitrogen derepression. the metarhizium anisopliae nrr1 (nitrogen response ...19989852945
metarrhizium anisopliae as a cause of sinusitis in immunocompetent hosts.metarrhizium anisopliae is a common pathogen of insects and has even been used to control insect populations. it is rarely isolated from human or animal sources, but recently, there have been three reported cases of disease, two in humans and one in a cat. we present our experience with five isolates from human sources, including two that were the apparent causes of two cases of sinusitis in immunocompetent hosts. the first patient was a 36-year-old male with frontal and ethmoid sinusitis, and t ...19999854089
route of invasion and histopathology of metarhizium anisopliae in culex quinquefasciatus. 19883418133
effect of ph on physiology of metarhizium anisopliae for production of swainsonine.the effect of ph on the production of swainsonine and fungal morphology at different stages of fermentation of metarhizium anisopliae was investigated. when no control was applied, the ph of the culture dropped from 6.5 to 3.8 within the first 72 hours and the concentration of swainsonine reached 43.3 mg 1(-1). when the ph was held constant either at the beginning or throughout the fermentation, the maximum recorded swainsonine level was only 8.4 mg 1(-1) corresponding with an increase in the fo ...19989867471
crystal and molecular structure of destruxin b.the cyclic hexadepsipeptide mycotoxin destruxin b, produced by metarrhizium anisopliae, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group p212121, with a = 11.010(2)a, b = 14.679(5)a, c = 21.273(7)a and z = 4. the structure was solved by direct methods and refined by least-squares technique to a final unweighted r value of 0.051, for 3361 reflections with i greater than 3 sigma (i). the backbone of the peptide is asymmetric and is made of 5 trans peptide and ester units and 1 cis peptide unit. the ba ...19883366552
selection of beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae isolates to control triatoma infestans.twenty three isolates of beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of triatoma infestans, a serious vector of chagas disease. pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. at lower relative humidity (50%), conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and e ...19989921313
cloning, expression, and substrate specificity of mecpa, a zinc carboxypeptidase that is secreted into infected tissues by the fungal entomopathogen metarhizium date zinc carboxypeptidases have only been found in animals and actinomycete bacteria. a cdna clone (mecpa) for a novel fungal (metarhizium anisopliae) carboxypeptidase (mecpa) was obtained by using reverse transcription differential display polymerase chain reaction to identify pathogenicity genes. mecpa resembles pancreatic carboxypeptidases in being synthesized as a precursor species (418 amino acids) containing a large amino-terminal fragment (99 amino acids). the mature (secreted) form o ...199910092670
purification and characterization of a novel chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae.a novel chitinase was detected in extracellular culture fluids of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae (atcc 20500) grown in liquid medium containing chitin as a sole carbon source. a chitinase was purified to near homogeneity from culture broth of m. anisopliae by deae-sephacel, cm-sepharose cl-6b ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration with superose 12hr. the molecular mass of the enzyme determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was approximately 60 kda and the ...199910222181
distribution of chymoelastases and trypsin-like enzymes in five species of entomopathogenic deuteromycetes.nine isolates of the entomopathogenic deuteromycetes metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, verticillium lecanii, nomuraea rileyi, and aschersonia aleyrodis produced basic (pi greater than 7.0) chymoelastases that possessed extended binding sites, comprising at least four or five subsites, with preference for hydrophobic residues at the primary binding site. most isolates also produced additional acidic enzymes with similar specificities against ester and amide substrates but which lacked a ...19873310895
the role of destruxins in the pathogenicity of metarhizium anisopliae for three species of insectthe entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae var anisopliae produces a family of cyclic peptide toxins, destruxins (dtx), both in culture and in vivo in mycosed insects. the contribution of these insecticidal toxins to the disease process has been investigated in the tobacco hornworm, manduca sexta (lepidoptera), the desert locust, schistocerca gregaria (orthoptera), and the vine weevil, otiorhynchus sulcatus (coleoptera). a significant negative correlation was found between the titer of d ...199910534408
water and temperature relations of growth of the entomogenous fungi beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae, and paecilomyces farinosusthe effects of temperature (5-50 degrees c), water availability (0. 998-0.88 water activity, a(w)), and a(w) x temperature interactions (15-45 degrees c) on growth of three entomogenous fungi, beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae, and paecilomyces farinosus, were evaluated on a sabouraud dextrose-based medium modified with the ionic solute kcl, the non-ionic solute glycerol, and an inert solute, polyethylene glycol (peg) 600. the temperature ranges for growth of b. bassiana, m. anisopliae, ...199910534413
the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae alters ambient ph, allowing extracellular protease production and activity.ambient ph regulates the expression of virulence genes of metarhizium anisopliae, but it was unknown if m. anisopliae can regulate ambient ph. mutants of m. anisopliae altered in production of oxalic acid were evaluated for the interrelationship of ambient ph, buffering capacity added to media, growth, and generation of extracellular proteases and ammonia. wild-type and acid-overproducing mutants [acid(+)] grew almost as well at ph 8 as at ph 6, but acid-non-producing [acid(-)] mutants showed li ...199910537191
pathogen alarm behavior in a termite: a new form of communication in social insectsdampwood termites, zootermopsis angusticollis, show an alarm response after detecting the presence of spores of the pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae. termites in direct contact with a high concentration of spores (10(7) spores/ml) show a striking vibratory display which appears to convey information about the presence of pathogens to nearby unexposed nestmates through substrate vibration. nestmates not directly in contact with spores that perceive the vibrational signal increase signific ...199910551951
constitutive and heat-inducible heat shock element binding activities of heat shock factor in a group of filamentous fungi.this study represents the initial characterization of the heat shock factor (hsf) in filamentous fungi. we demonstrate that hsfs from beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae, tolypocladium nivea, paecilomyces farinosus, and verticillium lecanii bind to the heat shock element (hse) constitutively (non-shocked), and that heat shock resulted in increased quantities and decreased mobility of hsf-hse complexes. the monomeric molecular mass of both heat-induced and constitutive hsfs was determined ...199910590835
proteinase inhibitors from the molting fluid of the pharate adult tobacco hornworm, manduca sexta.the molting fluid of pharate adult manduca sexta was found to contain at least two types of proteinase inhibitor activities. one inhibited the native cuticle degrading trypsin-like proteinase, mfp1, while the other was found to be highly specific for subtilisin-like enzymes. the developmental profiles of both these inhibitor activities were investigated. mfp-1 inhibitor activity was found to be present in the molting fluid of all stages of pre-ecdysial development, except stage 7, which possesse ...200010613961
[natural microbial control of crickets populations (orthoptera: gryllotalpidae: scapteriscus borellii): regulation of populations aggregated in time and space].from 1983 through 1988, a total of 1,762 collections, containing 31,312 individuals of the mole cricket, scapteriscus borellii, were made, principally in the state of são paulo, brazil. collections were found to fit a negative binomial distribution both as whole and when divided into monthly collections. in these collections, an iridovirus, a entomogenous nematode, and the fungi metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, paecilomyces sp., and entomophtora sp., were found to be agents of natural ...19892640737
glossina morsitans morsitans: mortalities caused in adults by experimental infection with entomopathogenic fungi.various strains of the entomopathogenic fungi: beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae, paecilomyces fumosoroseus and p. farinosus were found to be pathogenic for adult tsetse, glossina morsitans morsitans but b. bassiana and m. anisopliae were the most pathogenic, often causing mortalities of up to 100%. dose-mortality relationships were demonstrated for both b. bassiana and m. anisopliae and male tsetse were observed to be more susceptible to infection than females. pure cultures of b. bass ...19892565071
effect of some natural pesticides on entomogenous muscardine fungi.five commercial preparations of natural pesticides were tested for in vitro compatibility with muscardine fungi, beauveria brongniartii and metarhizium anisopliae. neemark (azadirachtin) was found compatible with both the fungi. phytoallexin, the natural fungicide, significantly inhibited the growth of both the fungi, while other natural pesticides showed moderate to severe inhibition.19921459622
liquid chromatography-electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry for on-line accurate mass determination and identification of cyclodepsipeptides in a crude extract of the fungus metarrhizium anisopliae.electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (esi-tof-ms) has been used for the detection and identification of destruxins (cyclodepsipeptides) in a crude extract of the fungus metarrhizium anisopliae. hplc-ms analyses were performed with a post-column addition of erythromycin as a reference compound (lock mass procedure). seven destruxin derivatives could be identified on-line from their accurate masses (deviation from calculated values <5.5 ppm) through elemental composition calcul ...200010749489
age of three dipteran hosts as a factor governing the pathogenicity of beauveria bassiana and metarrhizium anisopliae. 1977908836
[fungus, metarrhizium anisopliae, as a possible regulator of the number of horseflies].in water bodies of the flood-plains of the ili and turgen rivers (alma-ata district) there were found larvae of tabanus autumnalis infected with the fungus metarrhizium anisopliae. experiments on the infection of t. autumnalis with this fungus yielded 100% mortality of larvae and adult insects. the possibility of creation of an artificial infection nidus under natural conditions was established.1976134344
acid phosphatases in the haemolymph of the desert locust, schistocerca gregaria, infected with the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.a comparison has been made between the effects of wounding, chemical stimulation of the immune system and fungal infection on acid phosphatase (acp) activity in the haemolymph of the desert locust, schistocerca gregaria. untreated control locusts had constitutive levels of acp. as a lysosomal enzyme, acp may have a role in autophagy and cell turn over as well as defence. injection of saline and beta-1,3-glucan caused significant increases in haemocyte and plasma acp. acp activity also increased ...200010844143
[detection of metarrhizium anisopliae (metsch.) sorokin (deuteromycetes, moniliales) fungus in larvae and pupae of horseflies in kazakhstan]. 1975129671
carbon regulation of the cuticle-degrading enzyme pr1 from metarhizium anisopliae may involve a trans-acting dna-binding protein crr1, a functional equivalent of the aspergillus nidulans crea protein.the pr1 gene of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae encodes a serine protease that is highly active towards the insect cuticle and whose synthesis is subject to both carbon and nitrogen repression. the pr1 promoter region was sequenced revealing the presence of putative crea- and area-binding sites. in vitro bandshift experiments demonstrated that an aspergillus nidulans gst-crea fusion protein was capable of binding to two of the three putative crea sites. using a pcr-based strat ...19979211795
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