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populations of the spinach wilt pathogen, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae, in the root tissues, rhizosphere, and soil in the field.populations of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in root tissues and rhizosphere soil of diseased spinach plants were higher than in the root tissues and rhizosphere soil of healthy plants. populations in soil rhizosphere were higher than in nonrhizosphere soil. the fungus populations were very low in the root tissues of the nonsusceptible strawberry, broccoli, chinese cabbage, and mustard grown in the infested field. the populations were low at the beginning of the season, increased, and rema ...1979436018
circular dichroism of fusarium lipoxygenase from fusarium oxysporum. 197833673
effect of three nematicides on the growth of some phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.the effect of three nematicides, aldicarb, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos at four concentrations (1, 5, 25, and 125 ppm) was tested on the growth of five bacteria, agrobacterium tumefaciens, corynebacterium fascians, erwinia carotovora, pseudomonas solanacearum, and streptomyces scabies and four fungi, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, fusarium solani, rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotium bataticola. of the bacteria, p. solanacearum was most affected by the chemicals at all concentrations, wh ...1977143857
fusarium oxysporum endophthalmitis. 1979313780
effect of different concentrations of dl-isoleucine, dl-valine, and dl-alanine on growth and sporulation in fusarium oxysporum f. udum (butl.) sn. et h.d1-alanine and dl-valine, when added as an extra nitrogen for fortifying the already present inorganic nitrogen source, actually acted as growth retardant for f. oxysporum f. udum (butl.) sn. et h. sporulation of microconidia was indifferently affected by these two amino acids. di-valine stimulated microconidial formation in young cultures only. in both young and old cultures the lowest concentration of dl-valine depressed macronidial sporulation. in old cultures the lowest concentration of vali ...1977610233
utilization of kerosene by a hydrocarbon-assimilating strain of fusarium oxisporum.fusarium oxysporum ifo 6384 was grown in three different media, one containing glucose and two containing kerosene as carbon source. one of the kerosene media contained also tween 60. the harvested dry mats were weighed at various stages of growth. substitution of glucose with kerosene led to a sharp drop in the production of fungal mycelia. analysis of the mat samples representing maximum yields indicated that the mycelia grown in the kerosene media were richer in free amino acid and poorer in ...1977602572
isolation of metarrhizium anisopliae, beauveria tenella and fusarium oxysporum (deuteromycetes) and their pathogenicity to culex fatigans and anopheles stephensi. 1979535971
studies on the extracellular cellulase (cx) from fusarium oxysporum. 1979535933
properties of spin labelled membranes of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.growth temperature-induced compositional changes in membranes of fusarium oxysporum provided a test system for study of the relationship between physical properties and composition. growth at 15 degrees c was characterized by a decrease in phospholipid content relative to sterol content, a shift in phospholipid composition from phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine and a marked enhancement in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipid and triglyceride classes. uptake ...1976182261
toxicological approaches to the metabolites of fusaria. xi. trichothecenes and zearalenone from fusarium species isolated from river sediments.fifty isolates of fusarium species from river sediments were examined on their producibility of mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. the most frequent fungal isolate was fusarium oxysporum, followed by f. solani and f. lateritium. when cultured on czapek-dox medium supplemented with peptone, more than half of these strains were suspected to produce trichothecene mycotoxins through toxicity to mice and reticulocyte assay method. one of toxic isolates, f. lateritium 5036, was proved ...1977916296
isolation of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, the major antifungal principle of curcumba zedoaria.an antifungal principle of the dried rhizomes of curcuma zedoaria was extracted with hot ethanol. by successive chromatography on neutral alumina and silica gel, three antibiotic compounds a, b, and c, all active against trichophyton rubrum, aspergillus niger and saccharomyces cerevisiae, were obtained in chemically pure form. by uv, ir, pmr and ms analysis, the structure of the most abundant one of these compounds (c, 69.8%; h, 6,8%; and 0.23.4%) was assigned as ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (epmc). ...1976785141
the occurrence of 12, 13-epoxytrichothecenes in seeds of safflower infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. carthami.from the seeds of safflower (carthamus tinctorius linn.), infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. carthami, 3 toxic compounds have been isolated in quantities sufficient to cause mycotoxicosis on prolonged ingestion. 2 of these have been identified as diacetoxyscirpenol and t-2 toxin, while the third one has also been partially characterized as a 12, 13-epoxytrichothecene. additionally, the incidence of secondary fusarial infection of healthy seeds due to contamination with the infected ones has ...1977862770
studies on sterol-ester hydrolase from fusarium oxysporum. i. partial purification and properties.1. a search for a long chain fatty acyl sterol-ester hydrolase in microorganisms led to the isolation from soil of five strains belonging to fusarium sp. which produced strong activity in the culture medium. 2. the cholesterol esterase from fusarium oxysporum igh-2 was purified about 270-fold by means of cacl2 precipitation and sephadex g-75 column chromatography. 3. the cholesterol esterase was activated by adekatol and triton x-100. it was inhibited by lecithin and lysolecithin, and completely ...197719426
the influence of water-logging stage upon the paddy soil mycoflora in the ukraine.the soil fungal flora of paddy soils from the southern districts of the ukraine was investigated. from 287 soil samples 170 species were isolated. they belonged to the following genera: oomycetes 1.2%, zygomycetes 8.8%, ascomycetes 5.8%, deuteromycetes 84.2%. certain fungi were found to be dominant forms, among them mortierella alpina peyron., penicillium funiculosum thom, p. rugulosum thom, p. chrysogenum thom, acremonium strictum w. gams, acr. breve w. gams, alternaria alternata (fr.) riessler ...1978726714
toxigenic fungi in food.forty-five fungal isolates from moldy supermarket foods were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp, and twenty-two of these isolates were subsequently tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. highly toxigenic fungi were cladosporium sphaerospermum from a bakery product, fusarium oxysporum from carrots, f. solani from cabbage, aspergillus niger and penicillium corylophilum from bread, p. cyclopium and p. herguei from corn meal, p. lanosum from onions,p. steckii from chocolate syrup, penicillium sp. ...19751147614
[hybrid forms of malate dehydrogenas from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and from cotton]. 19751149608
fusarium oxysporum forma specialis voandzeiae, a new form species causing wilt of bambarra groundnut. 19751177965
lipid metabolism in fusarium oxysporum. 1978723228
effect of different cultural conditions on the chemical composition of lipids of fusarium oxysporum. 1978723227
effect of leaf extract of garlic on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, sclerotinia sclerotiorum and on gram seeds. 1979574190
biosynthesis of bikaverin in fusarium oxysporum. use of 13c nuclear magnetic resonance with homonuclear 13c decoupling to locate adjacent 13c labels.bikaverin obtained by supplementing cultures of fusarium oxysporum with singly and doubly 13c labeled acetate was enriched by approximately 0.5 atom percent with the 13c isotope. at this low enrichment 13c nmr spectra of samples labeled from (1-13c)- and (2-13c) acetate did not show, unequivocally, the pattern of isotopic incorporation. small sample size, poor solubility and difficulties in the assignment of resonances also restricted the amount of information thacetate. the difficulty was overc ...1976994324
vitamin requirements of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.the effect of eight water-soluble vitamins on germination, germ-tube extension, growth, and sporulation of fusarium oxysporum schl. f.sp. vasinfectum (atk.) snyder and hansen, was studied. each vitamin was utilized in eight different concentrations. the fungus responded favourably to all of the utilized vitamins in almost all the concentrations where germination, growth, and sporulation were substantially greater than the controls. among the vitamins used, the fungus appeared to be highly sensit ...1979543346
toxic substances produced by fusarium i: trichothecene derivatives from two strains of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. carthami. 19761255428
temperature-induced alterations in phospholipids of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.ten phospholipids were identified in hyphal membrane preparations of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici when the cells were grown to the late log phase at 15, 25, and 37 degrees c, respectively. the major phospholipids present were phosphatidylcholine (pc) and phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), which together made up about 70% of the total membrane phospholipids. the degree of unsaturation in the acyl group of the phospholipids was inversely related to growth temperature. the polar head group com ...19761260546
decreased immunological responses by wortmannin-containing rice culture of fusarium oxysporum and by purified wortmannin in avian species.immunological assays were performed in young chicken and duck after they had been fed wortmannin-containing culture of fusarium oxysporum or purified wortmannin for 2 weeks. the culture significantly decreased humoral response to sheep red blood cell, cell-mediated cutaneous hypersensitivity to phytohemagglutinin and phagocytic activity in isolated peritoneal exudate adherent cells, but only when the concentration was high enough to cause concurrent reduction in body weight gain and hematocrit. ...19921294627
structure of beta-d-glucans from fusarium oxysporum. 19921291060
production of 3-acetoxyscirpene-4,15-diol from anguidine (4,15-diacetoxyscirpene-3-ol) by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum.growing cells of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (atcc 7808) formed 3-acetoxyscirpene-4,15-diol from anguidine (4,15-diacetoxyscirpene-3-ol) by way of the intermediates triacetoxyscirpene, 3,4-diacetoxyscirpene-15-ol and 3,15-diacetoxyscirpene-4-ol. the new 3-acetoxy analog was found to be less active than anguidine and the other monoacetoxy derivatives when tested against a series of fungal strains and against hela cells in vitro.1979453837
developmental regulation of invertase isozymes in fusarium oxysporum.fusarium invertase has two isozymes; one is developmentally regulated, whereas the other exists throughout the developmental stages of fusarium.1979457615
mutational analysis of genes determining antagonism of alcaligenes sp. strain mfa1 against the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.alcaligenes sp. strain mfa1 inhibits microconidial germination and germination-tube elongation of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and reduces the severity of fusarium wilt of carnation, presumably as a result of its production of a siderophore (g.y. yuen and m.n. schroth. 1986. phytopathology, 76:171-176). derivative strains of mfa1, deficient in antagonism against f. oxysporum and in iron-limited growth, were obtained by tn5 mutagenesis. the presence of a single tn5 insertion in the genomic dn ...19921327482
fot1, a new family of fungal transposable elements.we report here the discovery of a family of transposable elements, which we refer to as fot1 elements, in the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum. the first element was identified as an insertion in the gene encoding nitrate reductase. it is 1928 bp long, has 44 bp inverted terminal repeats, contains a large open reading frame and is flanked by a 2 bp (ta) target site duplication. this element shares significant structural similarities with a class of transposons that includes tc1 from caen ...19921313143
crystallization and positional specificity of hydroperoxidation of fusarium lipoxygenase.a lipoxygenase obtained from the fungus fusarium oxysporum was purified and crystallized. using the purified enzyme, the positional specificity of linoleate peroxidation was studied. linoleate hydroperoxides were converted into the corresponding trimethylsilyl derivative by reduction, catalytic hydrogenation and treatment with hexamethyldisilazane/trimethylchlorosilane/pyridine and then analyzed by combined gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. fusarium lipoxygenase was found to produce 9 ...1978100142
different manifestations of the pathogenity of some strains of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi.different cultivation and morphology characteristics were found in 10 monospore isolates of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, obtained from yellowing and wilting plants of pea (pisum sativum l.). the isolates of the fungus were obtained from distant geographical regions of czechoslovakia and from various cultivars and hybrids of pea. after inoculation of roots, followed by constant conditions of incubation of the meteor and jupiter cultivars having their origin at the plant-breeding station at luz ...1979473967
the effect of temperature and age of strains of fusarium oxysporum on its enzymatic activity.the activities of pectin-methyl-esterase, polygalacturonase, cellulase, amylase, saccharase, and protease of strains of fusarium oxysporum (schlecht.) f.sp. pisi (linford) were studied. the selected strains showed different symptoms and different degrees of pathogenicity on the host plant. the measurements were performed during the growth of strains at constant temperatures and, in another experiment, on the day at different temperatures at which the individual strains were grown. activities wer ...1979473966
fusarium oxysporum endophthalmitis.a 27-year-old man sustained a thorn injury to his left eye and a culture-proven fusarium oxysporum endophthalmitis developed. this was successfully treated with a vitrectomy, intravitreal and intravenous amphotericin b, and oral flucytosine. the patient maintains 20/20 vision at this time in his left eye. we recommend combined therapy for this filamentous fungal infection.1979310293
growth temperature-dependent stearoyl coenzyme a desaturase activity of fusarium oxysporum microsomes.the characteristics of the microsomal stearoyl coa desaturase (ec 1.14.99.5) of vegetative fusarium oxysporum cells grown at different temperatures were studied. the enzyme had an unusual preference for nadph (km = 38 micrometers) over nadh (km = 89 micrometers) as electron donor, and a relatively high optimum ph of 8.3. enzyme activity was highest in microsomes from cells grown at 37 degrees c and lowest in cells grown at 15 degrees c. this result correlated well with the observed changes in ol ...197835271
opportunistic fungal infection by fusarium oxysporum in a renal transplant patient.a white female with chronic glomerular nephritis received a renal transplant in 1971. after 1 year, livido reticularis (lr) developed and in 1976 erythematous, painful nodules formed on the lr and ulcerated. the patient also suffered diffuse calcification of the major blood vessels and small arterioles of the extremities with progressive necrosis and gangrene of the fingers. hyperparathyroidism was evident. the necrotic ulcers yielded candida albicans and fusarium oxysporum; both organisms were ...1979394364
hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase. purification and properties of the enzyme from fusarium oxysporum.the hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase (mevalonate:nadp+ oxidoreductase, ec 1.1.1.34) system in fusarium oxysporum, a soil inhabiting plant pathogen, has been examined. two forms of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme a were obtained in the supernatant after precipitation at 75% (nh4)2so4 saturation of the soluble culture extract which was previously separated from cell wall, mitochondria and microsomes. the two forms of the enzyme were separated electr ...197826407
correlation of genetic and physical structure in the region surrounding the i2 fusarium oxysporum resistance locus in tomato.the dominant gene i2 confers on tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) resistance against the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2. a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) marker, tg105, has recently been found to be tightly linked to i2. the potential for cloning this gene by a reverse genetics approach prompted us to describe in both genetic and physical detail the region surrounding the i2 locus on chromosome 11. we have analyzed patterns of segregation of rflp markers on c ...19921346546
foret1, a reverse transcriptase-like sequence in the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum.we report here the isolation of foret1, a repeated dna sequence cloned from the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum. this clone exhibits a high degree of sequence similarity with the retroviral pol genes. sequences homologous to protease, reverse transcriptase, ribonuclease h are found in that order. the overall structure is homologous to the 'gypsy' class of ltr-retrotransposons. its similarity to elements present in widely different organisms may result from its horizontal transmission in ...19921380691
chemical mutagenesis of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: non-selected changes in pathogenicity of auxotrophic mutants.single and multiple auxotrophic mutants of the fusarium oxysporum f. sp.lycopersici strains which cause fusarium crown-rot and fusarium wilt of tomato were obtained by chemical mutagenesis with nitrous acid, nitrosoguandidine and ethylmethaneulphonate. the mutagenesis and selection procedures, adapted for use with a plant pathogenic fungus, are described. changes in pathogenicity were observed when the auxotrophs were compared with the wild type but no correlation was observed between changes in ...1975167104
systemic ketoconazole treatment for fusarium leg ulcers.fusarium oxysporum was isolated from a large foot ulcer in an otherwise healthy 69-year-old man. although tissue invasion could not be proven histologically, systemic antifungal treatment was administered with satisfactory response. fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. in humans, fusarium is considered an opportunistic agent in skin ulcers, interdigital spaces, and burned skin, but can also cause mycotic keratitis, onychomycosis, and rarely deep-seated or di ...19921500248
the effect of volatile and gaseous metabolites of swelling seeds on germination of fungal spores.effects of volatile and gaseous metabolites of swelling seeds of pea, bean, wheat, corn cucumber, tomato, lentil, carrot, red papper and lettuce on germination of spores of five genera of fungi were found to depend rather on the fungal than on the plant genus. germination of spores of botrytis cinerea, mucor racemosus and trichoderma viride was most severely inhibited. spores of verticillium dahliae were less sensitive and germination of spores of fusarium oxysporum was inhibited only in two cas ...19751176038
regulation of pyruvate kinases from fusarium oxysporum.two types of pyruvate kinases were found in fusarium oxysporum. one type (inducible) was present mainly during the early stages of growth on glucose or sucrose and displayed michaelis-menten kinetics with respect to phosphoenolpyruvate and adenosine diphosphate. the major type (constitutive) was present under all conditions of growth and displayed in the absence of potassium ions, a sigmoidal substrate saturation curve when phosphoenolpyruvate was used as the variable substrate. in the presence ...197721735
growth response of three formae speciales of fusarium oxysporum to their host and non-host plants. 19751176040
antifungal proteins from plants. purification, molecular cloning, and antifungal properties of chitinases from maize seed.we have purified two 28-kda chitinases, designated chitinase a (chit a) and chitinase b (chit b), from maize seeds to homogeneity and isolated cdna clones encoding these two enzymes using an oligonucleotide probe based on an amino acid sequence of a peptide derived from chit a. although these two enzymes share 87% homology in their amino acid sequences, which were deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the isolated cdna clones, they are significantly different in their biochemical and in vitro ...19921551872
heterokaryosis in fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.intra-isolate and inter-isolate heterokaryons were synthesized between auxotrophic mutants of fusarium crown rot, 'purple variant' and the wilt isolates. this is the first report of intra- and inter-isolate heterokaryons in fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. conidial ratios determined for several heterokaryons between different mutants of the fusarium crown rot organism showed that the ratio is constant for each heterokaryon and that the ratio usually is in favour of one of the mutants.1976932676
effect of c.c.c. [2-(chloroethyl)] trimethyl ammonium chloride on growth and sporulation in fusarium oxysporum f. udum (butl.) sn. et h.in fusarium oxysporum f. udum sporulation of macroconidia was completely inhibited due to the influence of c.c.c. [2-(chloroethyl)] trimethyl ammonium chloride). microconidial proliferation, on the other hand, was adversely affected and with increase in concentration of this compound a parallel and proportional decrease in the amount of microconidia was found. size of microconidia, too, showed a concomitant decline. although the size of the chlamydospores was also reduced, a tremendous increase ...1978664938
effect on microorganisms of volatile compounds released from germinating seeds.volatile compounds evolved from germinating seeds of slash pine, bean, cabbage, corn, cucumber, and pea were evaluated for their ability to support growth of microorganisms in liquid mineral salts media lacking a carbon source. growth of eight bacteria was measured turbidimetrically and of six fungi as dry weight of mycelium. volatiles caused increased growth of pseudomonas fluorescens, bacillus cereus, erwinia carotovora, agrobacterium tumefaciens, a. radiobacter, rhizobium japonicum, mucor muc ...19751201509
changes in metabolic activities of fusarium oxysporum f. fabae and rhizoctonia solani in response to dithan a-40 fungicide.the effect of different concentrations of dithan a-40 fungicide on the metabolic activities of the wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f. fabae and the root rot agent rhizoctonia solani was studied. all toxicant concentrations reduced energy generation, total phosphorus and nitrogen content of both fungi. in addition, the toxicant caused a shift in free amino acids pool. as a result of these changes, the mycelium dry weight of both fungi was greatly reduced. r. solani was more sensitive to the toxic ...1979543918
comparative studies with regard to the influence of carbon and nitrogen ratio on sporulation in fusarium oxysporum and fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans.carbon/nitrogen ratio as a factor for sporulation, expressed in terms of magnitude of population variation of macroconidia and microconidia in the cultures of eusarium oxysporum schlecht ex. fr., fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans wr. and rg., and of chlamydospores (only in fusarium oxysporum) was investigated. it has been found that the amount of carbon source shapes the course of macro- and micro. conidial production in a linear fashion, being enhanced parallel to the increase in its amount- ...1979543920
effect of cadmium on fungi and on interactions between fungi and bacteria in soil: influence of clay minerals and ph.fungi (rhizopus stolonifer, trichoderma viride, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans, cunninghamella echinulata, and several species of aspergillus and penicillium) tolerated higher concentrations of cadmium (cd) when grown in soil than when grown on laboratory media, indicating that soil mitigated the toxic effects of cd. in soil amended with clay minerals, montmorillonite provided partial or total protection against fungistatic effects of cd, whereas additions of kaolinite provided little or ...197718085
fungal air spora at ibadan, nigeria.the fungal air spora at ibadan, nigeria, was investigated by using casella slit samplers. three sites, incorporating three locations at each site, were selected for the exposure of replicate plates during sampling. to provide data on a wide range of saprophytic and pathogenic fungal spores, isolations were made on sabouraud dextrose agar and malt agar plates incubated at 26 and 37 c. altogether over 60,000 fungal colonies were isolated and counted during the 12-month sampling period. the prevale ...19751124919
deoxyribonucleic acid metabolism and nuclear division during spore germination in fusarium oxysporum.ungerminated microconidia of fusarium oxysporum have a mean cell dna content of 0-134 times 10--12 g/cell with a guanine-plus-cytosine composition (%gc) of 50-75%. during germination, the first dry weight increase of the spore population was defected after 3 h incubation and the first germ tube appeared after 4 h. the total dna of the culture sharply increased after 5 h, followed by a pause at 6 h. at this time the dna content per nucleus was maximal and the first nuclear divisions were detected ...19751151339
purification and properties of nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum.a nitroalkane-oxidizing enzyme, which was inducibly formed by addition of nitroethane to the medium was purified to homogeneity from an extract of fusarium oxysporum (ifo 5942) with an overall yield of about 20%. the enzyme catalyzed the oxidative denitrification of 1-nitropropane as follows: ch2(no2)ch2ch3 + o2 + h2o leads to ohcch2ch3 + hno2 + h2o2. in addition to 1-nitropropane, 3-nitro-2-pentanol, 2-nitropropane, and nitrocyclohexane are good substrates; the enzyme is designated "nitroalkane ...197822538
[the palmier date palm and fusarium infection. ii. report on the stereochemistry of monosaccharides and their various derivatives and the growth of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis (killian et maire) gordon].fusarium oxysporum albedinis was grown in the presence of 20 different sugars or their derivatives. the results obtained were correlated with the stereochemical structure of the main oses. osmotic phenomena as well as active and selective transport were used to explain differences in utilization of oses of very near structure. based on the affinity of the fungus for mannose, a hypothesis is formulated concerning the fungus action in the host.19761276994
isolation and characterization of a 22 kda protein with antifungal properties from maize seeds.we have purified a 22 kda protein from maize seeds to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, chitin extraction and mono-s column chromatography. the purified protein inhibited the growth of the agronomically important pathogens of potato wilt (fusarium oxysporum) and tomato early blight (alternaria solani). sequence analysis of the purified protein showed that it has 52% homology with the sweet protein thaumatin (edens, l., hselinga, l., klok, r., ledeboer, a. m., maat, j., toonen, m. y. ...19921731773
characterization of two endopolygalacturonase isozymes produced by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.polygalacturonase (ec 3.2.1.15) produced by fursarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was purified by chromatography on deae-cellulose, cm-cellulose, and hydroxyapatite. the purified enzyme consisted of two electrophoretically distinct "isozymes", that behaved as charge isomers during electrophoresis in several different concentrations of polyacrylamide gel. the two isozymes had similar "endo" modes of action on polygalacturonic acid, as determined by comparison of viscosity reduction, reducing gro ...19761268232
fusariosis, myasthenic syndrome, and aplastic anemia.fusarium, a fungus, produces a potent mycotoxin that, when ingested with contaminated cereal grains, produces a serious illness in man called alimentary toxic aleukia (ussr) and akakabi-byo (japan). the illness includes gastrointestinal symptoms and weakness and if ingestion of fusarium contaminated grain persists, culminates in aplastic anemia. a 66-year-old woman had eaton-lambert syndrome and a clinical course similar to alimentary toxic aleukia. several months before her death, pancytopenia, ...19751237102
the fine structure of mature and germinating chlamydospores of fusarium oxysporum.a number of features not described previously has been revealed in electron-microscope studies of mature chlamydospores of fusarium oxysporum. on the maturation of one isolate, many spores formed a thick matrix-like layer containing electron-dense particles on the exterior surface of the spore wall. in thin sections of mature chlamydospores of the same isolate, cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum surrounding, and in close apposition to, the limiting boundary of the lipid bodies were revealed. the ...1979476555
saprophytic and keratinophilic fungi isolated from desert and cultivated soils continuously exposed to cement dust particles in egypt.forty soil samples collected from desert (uncultivated) and cultivated soils, exposed continuously to cement dust were screened for their content of saprophytic and keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique and the dilution plate method. using the hair baiting technique, 21 genera and 31 species were collected from 20 samples of each of desert (15 genera and 21 species) and cultivated (17 genera and 24 species) soils, on sabouraud's dextrose agar. these included chrysosporium keratin ...19921325092
glycerol utilization in fusarium oxysporum var. lini: regulation of transport and metabolism.glycerol was transported in the fungus fusarium oxysporum var. lini by a facilitated diffusion transport system with a half-saturation constant, ks, of 0.5 mm and a maximum velocity, vmax, of 0.9 mmol (g dry wt)-1 h-1 at ph 5 and 25 degrees c. 1,2-propanediol was a competitive inhibitor of glycerol transport, but the cells did not actively accumulate 1,2-propanediol. the transport system was partially constitutive. in cells grown in the presence of glucose, glycerol was not transported, indicati ...19911955848
fusarium oxysporum: status in bioethanol production.fermentation of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol and other solvents provides an alternative way of treating wastes and producing chemical feedstocks and fuel additives. considerable efforts have been made in past 10 years to improve the process based on lignocellulosic biomass and hydrolysate that contains a complex mixture of sugars, decomposition products of sugars, and sometimes the inhibitory levels of soluble lignin. despite the relative abundance of d-xylose in crop and forest residues ...19911913845
identification of ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and endogenous substrate of fusarium oxysporum.ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and cross-reactivity between anti-rat brain ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii (camk) antibody and partially purified camk from fusarium oxysporum were detected in the component of high-molecular mass (m(r) greater than 100,000). in vitro, ca2+/cam-dependent phosphorylation of only a 16-kda protein was detected. the 16-kda protein was localized in the membrane fraction. amino acid sequence of one of the peptides derived from partial hydrolysis o ...19921325938
glucose-induced activation of the plasma membrane h(+)-atpase in fusarium oxysporum.addition of glucose and other sugars to derepressed cells of the fungus fusarium oxysporum var. lini triggered activation of the plasma membrane h(+)-atpase within 5 min. glucose was the best activator while galactose and lactose had a lesser effect. the activation was not prevented by previous addition of cycloheximide and it was fully reversible when the glucose was removed. the activation process in vivo also caused changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme. the non-activated enzyme had ...19921326595
d-xylose fermentation and catabolism in fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum exhibits different fermentative capacities when grown under different aeration conditions. highest ethanol and acetic acid yield coefficients were obtained under semi-aerobic culture conditions. effect of aerobiosis on the levels of key enzymes and intracellular intermediary metabolites of pentose phosphate pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis exhibited striking correlation with the fermentative character of metabolism. the results are discussed in relation to the ...19921417916
study on the pathogenic factors of kashin-beck disease.kashin-beck disease (kbd) is a chronic osteoarthritic disease, endemic in parts of china. its etiology is unknown. selenium deficiency, high concentration of organic matter (mainly fulvic acid) in drinking water, and severe contamination of grain by fungi have been proposed environmental causes. free radicals, possible mediators between the environmental factors and origin of kbd, have been studied in this work. drinking water from kbd-affected areas contains a higher level of semiquinone radica ...19921542136
antifungal potential of binary and mixed-ligand complexes of n,2'-diphenyl acetohydroxamic acid.chelating potential of n,2'-dpaha with 3d metal ions such as cu(ii), ni(ii), zn(ii), and cd(ii) in the presence of gly and phen has been investigated. these experiments were designed to study the role of the stability of mixed-ligand complexes in the modulation of its fungicidal potential. the mixed-ligand complexes were found to be more stable than binary complexes. enhanced stability of mixed-ligand complexes of ni(ii), co(ii), zn(ii), and cd(ii) is presumably due to pi-bonding effects. in the ...19921517732
protein content and amino acid composition of certain fungi evaluated for microbial protein production.the protein and total amino acid contents of four mycelial fungal strains and one yeast were approximately the same for cultures harvested in the mid-log and early stationary growth phases. it was found that fusarium oxysporum and fusarium moniliforme contained approximately 30% more protein and total amino acids than aspergillus niger. the amino acid composition of mycelial protein compares favorably with that of british petroleum yeast protein toprina produced commercially on hydrocarbon subst ...19751115498
keratinophilic fungi and other moulds associated with air-dust particles from egypt.one-hundred and eleven species and three species varieties belonging to 39 genera were collected from 50 dust samples on the five media used at 28 degrees c. using the hair-baiting technique with horse hair, 10 species of chrysosporium were isolated: c. asperatum, c. state of arthroderma tuberculatum, c. indicum, c. inops, c. keratinophilum, c. merdarium, c. pannorum, c. queenslandicum, c. tropicum and c. xerophilum. true dermatophytes were isolated: trichophyton verrucosum and trichophyton sp. ...19901702081
antifungal activity of some phenolic compounds on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii causing guava wilt. 19902095362
calcium ion regulates the release of lipase of fusarium oxysporum.the lipase production of a plant pathogenic fungus, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini suf 402, was induced by fat as the carbon source, and its release was stimulated by the infusion of intracellular free calcium ion with a calcium ionophore, a23187. n-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (w-7, a calmodulin inhibitor) and 1-[n,o-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-n-methyl- l-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (kn-62, a ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase ii inhibitor) reduced the extracellular r ...19911769973
cloning and expression of a chitinase gene from the hyperparasitic fungus aphanocladium album.recombinant clones from a cdna library of an aphanocladium album chitinase-overproducing mutant strain were isolated by screening with antiserum against a 39 kda chitinase purified from this hyperparasitic fungus. analysis of the isolated positive clones indicated that most of them carried the same cdna. a cdna from this group was used as a hybridization probe to isolate an 8 kb dna fragment from a genomic library of the wild-type strain. the chitinase 1 gene was mapped to this fragment by two i ...19921735126
heterologous expression of the aspergillus nidulans regulatory gene nira in fusarium oxysporum.we have isolated strains of fusarium oxysporum carrying mutations conferring a phenotype characteristic of a loss of function in the regulatory gene of nitrate assimilation (nira in aspergillus nidulans, nit-4 in neurospora crassa). one of these nir- mutants was successfully transformed with a plasmid containing the nira gene of a. nidulans. the nitrate reductase of the transformants is still inducible, although the maximum activity is lower than in the wild type. single and multiple integration ...19911756977
isoverrucarol production by fusarium oxysporum cjs-12 isolated from corn.isoverrucarol (3,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxy-trichothec-9-ene) was isolated and purified from wheat cultures of a toxic strain of fusarium oxysporum cjs-12. the toxin was characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 1h and 13c nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. isoverrucarol caused toxic effects in rats, including loss of appetite, bodily weakness, severe mucosae of the stomach, and death, when administered orally at 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight. the ...19902310181
ligational behavior of n-substituted acid hydrazides towards transition metals and potentiation of their microbiocidal activity.new complexes of cu(ii), ni(ii), and co(ii) with 3-benzoyl-1-[2-n-(substituted-2'-thienyl methylmethylene/methylene)] prop-2-ene-1-oic acid hydrazides have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, molar conductance, and magnetic moment and spectroscopic techniques. conductance measurements indicate the nonionic nature of the complexes. from the spectroscopic studies, it has been concluded that the n-substituted acid hydrazides act as tridentate li ...19921522414
chitinase-gold complex used to localize chitin ultrastructurally in tomato root cells infected by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, compared with a chitin specific gold-conjugated lectin.a cytochemical technique for the ultrastructural localization of chitin in tomato root cells infected by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici is reported. chitinase was complexed to colloidal gold and thin sections were incubated with the enzyme-gold complex. this technique yielded a more uniform distribution of gold particles over the fungus wall, compared to that obtained with the lectin-gold technique. both techniques revealed no labelling of the fungus cytoplasm, except for organell ...19852411684
[cloning a species-specific dna probe from fusarium oxysporum fungus].a method to obtain genus-specific dna probes is suggested. it consists of specific amplification of the intergenic spacer between the 18s and 5.8s ribosomal rna genes, using primers deduced from conservative ribosomal dna sequences. the utility of the method is demonstrated on isolation of the 209 b.p. spacer fragment from the genomic dna of a plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.19911813809
microbial degradation of pendimethalin.microbial degradation of pendimethalin (n-(1-ethylpropyl)-3, 4-dimethyl-2, 6-dinitroaniline) in vitro was studied. fusarium oxysporum and paecilomyces varioti, two soil fungi, in culture media degraded pendimethalin to two metabolites namely n-(1-ethylpropyl)-3, 4-dimethyl-2-nitrobenzene-1, 6-diamine (ii) and 3,4-dimethyl-2, 6-dinitroaniline (iv). rhizoctonia bataticola, another soil fungus, decomposed pendimethalin yielding only the latter metabolite (iv). fungal decomposition of pendimethalin ...19911894917
influence of temperature on zearalenone production by regional strains of fusarium graminearum and fusarium oxysporum in culture.zearalenone production by fusarium graminearum and fusarium oxysporum was studied under two temperature conditions. incubation at 25 degrees c for 4 weeks enhanced zearalenone synthesis, improving detection of zearalenone-producing strains of fusarium oxysporum. zearalenone production was either totally or partially inhibited when temperature was lowered to 12-14 degrees c during the last 2 weeks of incubation.19911832924
cloning of the nitrate reductase gene (niad) of aspergillus nidulans and its use for transformation of fusarium oxysporum.an heterologous transformation system for the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum has been developed based on the use of the aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase gene (niad). f. oxysporum nia- mutants were easily selected by chlorate resistance. the a. nidulans niad gene was isolated from a gene library by complementation of an a. nidulans niad mutant. the cloned gene is capable of transforming f. oxysporum nia- mutants at a frequency of up to ten transformants per microgram of dna. sout ...19892670677
effect of ultraviolet-induced mutants of trichoderma harzianum with altered antibiotic production on selected pathogens in vitro.mutants of trichoderma harzianum with altered antibiotic production were isolated using ultraviolet light mutagenesis. these included strains whose activity in a fusarium oxysporum spore germination assay was greater than twice that of the parental strain and one that had no detectable antifungal activity. characterisation of extracellular metabolites of these strains using thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography showed that the strains with high activity produced only elevated l ...19911954580
ultrastructural study of galacturonic acid distribution in some pathogenic fungi using gold-complexed aplysia depilans gonad lectin.aplysia gonad lectin, isolated from the mollusc aplysia depilans, was successfully conjugated to colloidal gold and used for ultrastructural detection of galacturonic acids in some pathogenic fungi. these sugar residues were found to occur in the fibrillar sheath surrounding hyphal cells of ascocalyx abietina and in intravacuolar dense inclusions of this fungus spores. in hyphae and spores of ophiostoma ulmi, galacturonic acids were detected mainly in the outermost wall layers. in contrast, thes ...19892659155
mycotoxin production on different cultivars and lines of broad bean (vicia faba l.) seeds in egypt.one hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (vicia faba l.) seed samples were inoculated with aspergillus flavus link (cmi 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/line showed partial resistance. the remaining 80 samples were sus ...19911906134
a fatal infection due to fusarium oxysporum in a child with wilms' tumour. case report and review of the literature.fusarium oxysporum was isolated twice from the blood culture of a 5-year-old boy with inoperable wilms' tumour (stage iv) 4 weeks after a cytoreductive therapy with actinomycin d, vincristine and adriamycin. the child died 3 weeks after the first isolation of the fungus with signs of hepatic failure and consumptive coagulopathy. the importance of infection with fusarium spp. in immunocompromised neutropenic patients and their pathogenetic role are discussed in the view of the literature.19921335549
chitinous components of the cell wall of fusarium oxysporum.the cell wall of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was digested with chitinase to analyze the structure of its chitinous components. in spite of a similar acetylation degree of the cell wall components to that of 25-35% acetylated chitosan, only n-acetylglucosamine disaccharide [(glcnac)2] was obtained from chitinase hydrolyzate of the fungal cell wall by cm-sephadex c-25 column chromatography, while (glcnac)2 and several types of deacetylated chitooligosaccharides were separated from that o ...19921282049
extraction and purification of dna from phytopathogenic soil-inhabiting fusarium species.working quantities of good quality dna was obtained from three pathogenic forms of the soil-inhabiting fungus, fusarium oxysporum (fo), which causes economically significant diseases in tomato crops. the mitochondrial, nuclear and ribosomal fractions from each of the dnas were separated by cesium chloride gradient centrifugations. the data suggest a decrease in nuclear dna and an increase in mitochondrial dna correlated with increasing pathogenicity among the three pathogens examined. ribosomal ...19892809080
antifungal susceptibility of 44 clinical isolates of fusarium species determined by using a broth microdilution method.the mics and minimum fungicidal concentrations of amphotericin b, natamycin, miconazole, itraconazole, and flucytosine against 17 isolates of fusarium solani, 14 isolates of fusarium moniliforme, 10 isolates of fusarium oxysporum, and 3 isolates of fusarium semitectum were determined by a broth microdilution method. amphotericin b and natamycin were the most active agents tested and failed to show any inoculum size effect. in contrast, miconazole and itraconazole showed poor inhibitory and fungi ...19892817867
effect of pseudobactin 358 production by pseudomonas putida wcs358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum fo47.nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum fo47b10 combined with pseudomonas putida wcs358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. this suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. the increased suppression obtained by fo47b10 combined with wcs358 only occurred when fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. p. put ...19921444411
soluble, nitrate/nitrite-inducible cytochrome p-450 of the fungus, fusarium oxysporum.both soluble and microsomal fractions of fusarium oxysporum contain cytochrome p-450(p-450). we report here that the p-450 in the soluble fraction was induced only when nitrate or nitrite was added to the growth medium, whereas the microsomal p-450 was synthesized regardless of the medium compositions. the reduced-co complex of the soluble p-450 exhibited an absorption spectrum that is different from that of the microsomal counterpart. these results indicate that the soluble p-450 is distinct fr ...19892924900
production, thermal stability and immobilisation of inulinase from fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum produced maximum extracellular inulinase after 9 days of its growth at 25 degrees c on a medium (ph 5.5) containing 3% fructan and 0.2% sodium nitrate. the level of this enzyme decreased on the addition of either glucose, fructose, galactose or sucrose to f. oxysporum already growing on a fructan-containing medium. a significant increase in invertase production which resulted in an increase of the invertase/inulinase (s/i) ratio, was observed on addition of inulin to this fung ...19901366387
induction and regulation of d-xylose catabolizing enzymes in fusarium oxysporum.in fusarium oxysporum dsm 841, the requirement of oxygen was found to be associated with the induction of key d-xylose catabolizing enzymes. nadph-linked d-xylose reductase and nad-linked xylitol dehydrogenase. both enzymes were detected in cell free extracts of f. oxysporum grown in the medium containing d-xylose, l-arabinose and d-galactose as substrate. d-xylose, l-arabinose and d-galactose were also found to be substrates for nadph-linked activities. however, unlike xylitol, neither l-arabit ...19921482390
fusarium oxysporum keratitis.we describe herein a patient with a rare occurrence of mycotic keratitis caused by fusarium oxysporum. the fungus destroyed the cornea, and a perforating corneal graft had to be performed. the drug of choice in such diagnosed cases is natamycin. a comparison between fusarium oxysporum and fusarium solani is discussed.19892919034
efficacy of some antibiotics on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii causing wilt disease of guava. 19902131331
a novel enzyme immunoassay for conidia of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum f504.this study was undertaken to develop a new tool to study fusarial diseases of plants. micro- and macro-conidia of a strain (f504) of fusarium oxysporum were isolated and antiserum against the conidia was elicited in rabbits. a highly specific and sensitive competitive-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for conidia of the strain was developed using the antiserum with beta-d-galactosidase-labeled anti-rabbit igg as the secondary antibody and conidia fragments of the strain as antigen a ...19892511393
mechanisms of citral phototoxicity.citral, a monoterpene aldehyde synthesized by several plant genera, has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity. for the first time, we report that critral exhibits uv-a (315-400 nm) light enhanced oxygen-dependent toxicity against a series of escherichia coli strains differing in dna repair and catalase proficiency. those e. coli strains carrying a gene leading to catalase deficiency (katf) are particularly sensitized to inactivation by citral and uv-a treatment when compared to catalas ...19921502265
mycological survey of korean cereals and production of mycotoxins by fusarium isolates.the fungal species isolated from korean cereals (barley, polished barley, wheat, rye, and malt) were alternaria spp., aspergillus spp., chaetomium spp., drechslera spp., epicoccum sp., fusarium spp., and penicillium spp., etc. the number of fusarium strains isolated was 36, and their ability to produce fusarium mycotoxins on rice was tested. nivalenol (niv) was produced by fusarium graminearum (7 of 9 isolates), fusarium oxysporum (3 of 10 isolates), and fusarium spp. (7 of 15 isolates). of 15 i ...19862947538
[cutaneous localizations of a fusarium oxysporum septicemia in a patient with bone marrow aplasia]. 19883165609
purification and characterization of a novel lactonohydrolase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of aldonate lactones and aromatic lactones, from fusarium oxysporum.a novel lactonohydrolase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of aldonate lactones to the corresponding aldonic acids, was purified 10-fold to apparent homogeneity, with a 61% overall recovery, from fusarium oxysporum aku 3702, through a purification procedure comprising deae-sephacel, octyl-sepharose cl-4b and hydroxyapatite chromatographies and crystallization. the molecular mass of the native enzyme, as estimated by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography, is 125 kda, and the subun ...19921396712
mycotoxins produced by fusarium oxysporum in the seeds of brassica campestris during storage.three recognized mycotoxins, viz. diaxetoxyscirpenol, t-2 toxin and zearalenone, along with the fatty esters of these toxins were isolated from the flask culture extractives of fusarium oxysporum schlecht (imi 273220) as also from seeds of brassica campestris var. sarson (mustard) infected with this fungus in storage. evaluation of biological activity and toxicity of the extractives and the effects of prolonged ingestion of the mouldy seeds by animals suggest that the infected seeds may present ...19872952882
effect of streptomycin on extracellular proteases production by fusarium oxysporum. 19883076587
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