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[characteristics of obtaining protoplasts from 2 strains of tolypocladium inflatum subsp. blastosporum].the optimal conditions for preparing protoplasts with high yields by using the cells of two (low and high potent) isogenic cyclosporine-producing tolypocladium strains were developed. a specific medium containing 0.5 per cent yeast autolysate (by dry weight) and 3 per cent glucose was used. when grown on this medium the cells of the highly potent strain 847 acquired a yeast-like shape. high yields of protoplasts prepared from the low potent strain 43 mycelium were obtained via prior incubation w ...19921514857
cleavage of the xylosyl serine linkage between a core peptide and a glycosaminoglycan chain by cellulases.we previously found that endo-beta-xylosidase from patinopecten is an endo-type glycosidase that cleaves the xylosyl serine linkage between a glycosaminoglycan chain and its core protein (takagaki, k., kon, a., kawasaki, h., nakamura, t., tamura, s., and endo, m. (1990) j. biol. chem. 265, 854-860). screening for endo-beta-xylosidase activity in several cellulases detected this activity in the enzymes from aspergillus niger, penicillium funiculosum, trichoderma reesei, trichoderma viride, and ir ...200211877400
capacity of irpex lacteus and pleurotus ostreatus for decolorization of chemically different dyes.the rate and efficiency of decolorization of poly r-478- or remazol brilliant blue r (rbbr)-containing agar plates (200 microg x g(-1)) were tested to evaluate the dye degradation activity in a total of 103 wood-rotting fungal strains. best strains were able to completely decolorize plates within 10 days at 28 degrees c. irpex lacteus and pleurotus ostreatus were selected and used for degradation of six different groups of dyes (azo, diazo, anthraquinone-based, heterocyclic, triphenylmethane, ph ...200111500204
comparison of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene degradation by seven strains of white rot fungi.the degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt) by seven strains of white rot fungi was examined in two different media containing 50 mg l(-1) of tnt. when tnt was added into a nutrient-rich ymg medium at the beginning of the incubation, four of the fungal strains completely removed tnt during several days of incubation and showed higher removal rates than those of phanerochaete chrysosporium. tnt added into ymg medium after a 5-day preincubation period completely disappeared within 12 hours, and ...200011014867
stability and stabilization of potential feed additive enzymes in rumen fluid*four commercial preparations of fibrolytic enzymes, from irpex lacteus, trichoderma viride, aspergillus niger, and a mixture designed to be similar to the i. lacteus extract, were incubated in vitro with digesta taken from the rumen of sheep receiving a grass hay/concentrate diet, and the survival of major enzyme activities was measured. some activities, including the beta-1,4-endoglucanase and xylanase from the extract derived from aspergillus niger, were stable for at least 6 h in rumen fluid. ...200010689074
cloning and characterization of a new exo-cellulase gene, cel3, in irpex lacteus.a new cellulose-inducible gene (named cel3) was isolated from a strain of the white rot basidiomycete, irpex lacteus mc-2. the cel3 open reading frame, containing two introns, encodes a polypeptide of 526 amino acids residues with a molecular mass of 55794 da. expression of the cel3 gene was induced by various insoluble celluloses and cm-cellulose. transcription of cel3 was abolished when cells were cultivated in media containing the above cellulosic substrates, but added with glucose, fructose ...199910188251
cellulose-splitting enzymes. vi. difference in the specificites of cellulase and beta-glucosidase from irpex lacteus. 195913637982
characterization of antigenic epitopes in anti-ulcer pectic polysaccharides from bupleurum falcatum l. using several carbohydrases.a polyclonal antibody (anti-bupleuran 2iic/pg-1-igg) against the "ramified" region (pg-1) of an anti-ulcer pectic polysaccharide was prepared and its antigenic epitopes were analyzed by using several carbohydrases. enzymatic removal of arabinosyl residues from pg-1 by endo-(1-->5)-alpha-l-arabinanase (from aspergillus niger) did not reduce the binding ability of anti-bupleuran 2iic/pg-1-igg to pg-1. when the endo-(1-->5)-alpha-l-arabinanase-resistant fraction (ea-1) was digested with rhamnogalac ...19989825524
dermatolactone, a cytotoxic fungal sesquiterpene with a novel skeleton.the nematicidal 5-pentyl-2-furaldehyde and the cytotoxic sesquiterpene dermatolactone were isolated from the extracts of an ascomycete belonging to the dermateaceae. the furan has previously been reported from the basidiomycete irpex lacteus, while dermatolactone is a new compound the structure of which was determined by spectrosocpic methods.19968862030
base non-specific acid ribonuclease from irpex lacteus, primary structure and phylogenetic relationships in rnase t2 family enzyme.two base non-specific acid rnases (rnase irp1 and rnase irp2) were purified from a commercial enzyme, "driselase" (irpex lacteus) in a homogenous state on sds-page by several steps of chromatographic separations. rnase irp2 was a simple polypeptide with 235 amino acid residues and rnase irp1 was a glycopeptide with 248 amino acid residues. the amino acid sequences of both rnases were identified by edman degradation of the peptides derived from these rnases. rnase irp1 was composed of the rnase i ...19958541649
electron microscopic observation of cotton cellulose degradation by exo- and endo-type cellulases from irpex lacteus.the interaction of two highly purified cellulases, exo- and endo-type cellulases from irpex lacteus, with pure cotton and amorphous cellulose was investigated by electron microscopy. the morphological observations indicated that exo- and endo-type cellulases are both strongly adsorbed on the internal microfibril of cotton fiber before enzymatic hydrolysis, and then initiate their action toward the internal cellulose microfibrils with retention of the original shape. the two cellulases, however, ...19938262905
mode of action of exo- and endo-type cellulases from irpex lacteus in the hydrolysis of cellulose with different crystallinities.the mode of action of two highly purified cellulases of exo- and endo-types from irpex lacteus was investigated by using pure cellulosic substrates with different crystallinities derived from cellulose i. exo-type cellulase saccharified all celluloses more effectively than endo-type enzyme, and the saccharification activities of both cellulases similarly increased with decreasing crystallinity of cellulose. the dp-lowering activity of exo-type cellulase remained similar for celluloses with highe ...19938262904
transglycosylation activities of exo- and endo-type cellulases from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae).two highly purified cellulases, ex-1 [exo-type, exo-cellobiohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.91] and en-1 [endo-type, ec 3.2.1.4] obtained from driselase, a commercial enzyme preparation from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae), were used in this work. both cellulases produced 14c-cellooligosaccharides such as 14c-g2 and 14c-g3 by transglycosylation when g3, g5, or beta-pnpc was used as a donor and 14c-g1 as an acceptor. however, the transglycosylation activity of ex-1 was far higher than that of en-1. whe ...19836409895
purification and properties of two endo-1,4-beta-xylanases from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae).two different endo-1,4-beta-xylanases [1,4-beta-d-xylan xylanohydrolases, ec 3.2.1.8], named xylanases i and iii, were purified to homogeneity by gel filtration and ion exchange column chromatography from driselase, a commercial enzyme preparation from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae). the purified enzymes were found to be homogeneous on polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis and their specific activities toward xylan were increased approximately 28.7 and 19.8 times, respectively. the activiti ...19854093442
hydration of cellobial by exo- and endo-type cellulases: evidence for catalytic flexibility of glycosylases.new insight has been obtained into the catalytic capabilities of cellulase. essentially homogeneous preparations of exo- (or avicelase-) type and endo- (or cmcase-) type cellulases from irpex lacteus and aspergillus niger, respectively, were shown to hydrate the enolic bond of cellobial to form 2-deoxycellobiose. the a. niger enzyme also synthesized a small amount of a 2-deoxycellobiosyl-transfer product from cellobial. by use of digests conducted in deuterated buffer and 1h nmr spectra for prod ...19863964662
substrate specificities of exo- and endo-type cellulases in the hydrolysis of beta-(1----3)- and beta-(1----4)-mixed d-glucans.an exo-type cellulase (ex-1) was extracted from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae) and purified essentially to homogeneity. this cellulase attacked cellulosic substrates in an exo-wise fashion to produce almost exclusively cellobiose. in contrast, ex-1 was found to attack beta-glucans having beta-(1----3)- and beta-(1----4)-mixed linkages in a way similar to an endo-type cellulase. the products formed from barley glucan by ex-1 were 3(2)-o-beta-d-cellobiosyl-cellobiose much greater than 3(2)- ...19892738039
purification of an exo-beta-(1----3)-d-galactanase of irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae) and its action on arabinogalactan-proteins.an exo-beta-(1----3)-d-galactanase from driselase, a commercial enzyme preparation from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae) has been purified 166-fold. apparent molecular weights of the purified enzyme, estimated by denaturing gel electrophoresis and gel filtration, were found to be 51,000 and 42,000, respectively. it hydrolyzed specifically oligosaccharides and polymers of (1----3)-linked beta-d-galactopyranosyl residues, and exhibited a maximal activity toward these substrates at ph 4.6. bas ...19902158993
adsorption mode of exo- and endo-cellulases from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae) on cellulose with different crystallinities.the adsorption mode of two highly purified cellulases, exo- and endo-type cellulases, from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae) was investigated by using pure cellulosic materials with different crystallinity as substrates. adsorption of the two enzymes on the substrates was found to fit the langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. maximum amount of adsorbed enzyme obtained from the langmuir plots showed an inverse correlation to the crystallinity of the substrate with both enzymes, and this value of ...19921639755
synergistic action of two different types of endo-cellulase components from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae) in the hydrolysis of some insoluble celluloses.the substrate specificities of three endo-cellulase [ec 3.2.1.4] components, f-1, f-2, and s-1, obtained from the culture filtrate of irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae), were investigated in detail. it was confirmed that the former is of a more random type, belonging to the carboxymethyl-cellulase (cmccase) group, and the latter two are of a less random type, beloning to the avicelase group. it was found that a mixture of cmcase and avicelase shows a remarkable synergistic action in the degra ...1976956146
purification and properties of an exo-cellulase of avicelase type from a wood-rotting fungus, irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae).a cellulase component of avicelase type was obtained from driselase, a commercial enzyme preparation from a wood-rotting fungus irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae). it showed a single band on sds-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. the amino acid composition of this cellulase resembled those of cellulase components of endo-type from the same fungus. however, it produced exclusively cellobiose from cmc as well as from water-insoluble celluloses such as avicel or cotton at earlier stages of hydrolys ...197832175
xylanase activity of an endo-cellulase of carboxymethyl-cellulase type from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae).an endo-cellulase ec 3.2.1.4. of carboxymethyl-cellulase type (f-1) which was fractionated from culture filtrate of irpex lacetus and purified to electrophoretic and ultracentrifugal homogeneity, was found to show xylanase ec 3.2.1.8. activity. the activity was not removed from any of the intermediate fractions during the purification of the initial f-i peak, and the radio of xylanase to cellulase activity remained almost unchanged through the purification processes. the xylanase activity of f-i ...19768438
purification and properties of an endo-cellulase of avicelase type from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae).a culture filtrate of irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae) was fractionated initially by salting out with ammonium sulfate, and a cellulase ec 3.2.1.4. fraction with high avicel-hydrolyzing activity (formerly called avicelase) was extensively purified by a series of column chromatography procedures. this purified endo-cellulase showed a less random hydrolytic mechanism, and was obtained in a yield of 0.04% with respect to the starting material. its specific activity was enhanced approximately 3 ...19768437
a novel and potent ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the mushroom pleurotus pulmonarius.a ribonuclease (rnase), with an n-terminal sequence different from those of ribonucleases from the mushrooms irpex lacteus, lentinus edodes, pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotus tuber-regium, and volvariella volvacea, was purified from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom pleurotus pulmonarius. the n-terminal sequence of p. pulmonarius rnase manifested homology to a portion of the sequences of ribosome inactivating protein abrin-b, abrin-c, and abrin-d, and bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulato ...200212054550
mycoremediation of pah-contaminated soil.out of a number of white-rot fungal cultures, strains of irpex lacteus and pleurotus ostreatus were selected for degradation of 7 three- and four-ring unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons (pah) in two contaminated industrial soils. respective data for removal of pah in the two industrial soils by i. lacteus were: fluorene (41 and 67%), phenanthrene (20 and 56%), anthracene (29 and 49%), fluoranthene (29 and 57%), pyrene (24 and 42%), chrysene (16 and 32%) and benzo[a]anthracene (13 and 20%). in t ...200212094734
evaluation of white-rot fungi for detoxification and decolorization of effluents from the green olive debittering process.wastewater produced by the debittering process of green olives (gow) is rich in polyphenolics and presents high chemical oxygen demand and alkalinity values. eight white-rot fungi ( abortiporus biennis, dichomitus squalens, inonotus hispidus, irpex lacteus, lentinus tigrinus, panellus stipticus, pleurotus ostreatus and trametes hirsuta) were grown in gow for 1 month and the reduction in total phenolics, the decolorization activity and the related enzyme activities were compared. phenolics were e ...200212111170
study of fungal degradation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography with ion trap mass spectrometry detection.representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were degraded by ligninolytic fungus irpex lacteus. the products were analyzed by gc-ion trap mass spectrometry. the combination of full scan mass spectra, product ion scans (ms-ms) and derivatization of the degradation products of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene provided further insight in the degradation mechanism initiated by i. lacteus. particularly, the product ion scans enabled the interpretation of unknown degrad ...200212458938
transformation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by the white rot fungus irpex lacteus.unlike other 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt)-degrading white rot fungi, including phanerochaete chrysoporium, initial metabolism of tnt by irpex lacteus was found to occur through two different transformation pathways. metabolites of the nitro group reduction pathway were confirmed with the standard compounds, and the formation of hydride-meisenheimer complex of tnt (h(-)-tnt) formed in the denitration pathway was identified with lc/ms and by lc/photodiode array (pda) detection. the molecular weight ...200312655457
cellulose-splitting enzymes. vii. starch zone electrophoresis of cellulase and other carbohydrases from irpex lacteus. 196214480014
a new type of rnase t2 ribonuclease in two basidiomycetes fungi, lentinus edodes and irpex lacteus.two new rnase t2 ribonucleases, rnase le37 and irp3, with a molecular mass of 45 kda, have been isolated from basidiomycetes fungi, lentinus edodes and irpex lacteus, respectively. the ribonucleases consisted of three domains: an rnase active domain, a ser/thr rich domain similar to that of many fungal glycanhydrolases, and a c-terminal 10 kda domain similar to that of rnase rny1 in yeast. the locations of hydrophobic amino acids and pro in the 10 kda domain of the two basidiomycetous enzymes ar ...200314586131
screening of fungal isolates and properties of ganoderma applanatum intended for olive mill wastewater decolourization and dephenolization.to investigate different autochthonous isolates of wood-rotting fungi for the removal of both colour and phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters (omw).200717718838
fine substrate specificities of four exo-type cellulases produced by aspergillus niger, trichoderma reesei, and irpex lacteus on (1-->3), (1-->4)-beta-d-glucans and xyloglucan.to investigate the fine substrate specificities of four highly purified exo-type cellulases (exo-a from aspergillus niger, cbhi and cbhii from trichoderma reesei, and ex-1 from irpex lacteus), water-soluble substrates such as barley glucan, xyloglucan from tamarind (tamarindus indica l.), and their oligosaccharides were employed. four exo-type cellulases immediately hydrolyzed 3-o-beta-d-cellotriosylglucose to produce cellobiose and laminaribiose. in contrast, cbhii showed no hydrolytic activity ...19969010760
isolation of a new ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the silver plate mushroom clitocybe maxima.a ribonuclease, with an n-terminal sequence exhibiting some homology to ribonuclease from pleurotus ostreatus (family pleurotaceae), has been purified from fruiting bodies of the silver plate mushroom clitocybe maxima (family tricholomataceae). however, there is little resemblance between the n-terminal sequences of ribonucleases from various pleurotus species, and a lesser extent of resemblance between ribonucleases from c. maxima and pleurotus tuber-regium. no structural relationship exists be ...200415203239
crystal structure of aspartic proteinase from irpex lacteus in complex with inhibitor pepstatin.the crystal structure of irpex lacteus aspartic proteinase (ilap) in complex with pepstatin (a six amino acid residue peptide-like inhibitor) was determined at 1.3a resolution. ilap is a pepsin-like enzyme, widely distributed in nature, with high milk-clotting activity relative to proteolytic activity. the overall structure was in good topological agreement with pepsin and other aspartic proteases. the structure and interaction pattern around the catalytic site were conserved, in agreement with ...200415321718
the role of enzymes produced by white-rot fungus irpex lacteus in the decolorization of the textile industry effluent.the textile industry wastewater has been decolorized efficiently by the white rot fungus, irpex lacteus, without adding any chemicals. the degree of the decolorization of the dye effluent by shaking or stationary cultures is 59 and 93%, respectively, on the 8th day. the higher level of manganese-dependent peroxidase (mnp) and non-specific peroxidase (nsp) was detected in stationary cultures than in the cultures shaken. laccase activities were equivalent in both cultures and its level was not aff ...200415357290
hydrolysis of cotton cellulose by exo- and endo-type cellulases from irpex lacteus: differential scanning calorimetric study.the mode of hydrolysis of cotton cellulose by two highly purified exo- and endo-type cellulases from irpex lacteus was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, to measure changes in the size of the amorphous region in cotton fibers with the enzymatic reaction. the cellulases induced entirely different changes in the size of the amorphous region, particularly at earlier stages of reaction. exo-type cellulase gradually reduced the amorphous region with release of cellobiose from the init ...19947961594
irpex lacteus, a white rot fungus applicable to water and soil bioremediation.growth parameters, ligninolytic enzyme activities and ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the fungus irpex lacteus were characterized and compared with those of other white rot fungi capable of rapid decolorization of poly r-478 and remazol brilliant blue r dyes. i. lacteus was able to grow on mineral and complex media and efficiently colonized sterile and non-sterile soil by exploratory mycelium growing from a wheat straw inoculum. in shallow stationary cultures growing on hi ...200011152080
purification and properties of a lower-molecular-weight endo-cellulase from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae).a new endo-cellulase component of carboxymethyl cellulase (cmcase) type (en-1) was obtained by gel filtration and column chromatography from driselase, a commerical enzyme preparation from irpex lacteus (polyporus tulipiferae). the enzyme behaved as a single protein on polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds). its molecular weight was estimated to be 15,500 and it contained only 0.73% carbohydrate as glucose. the pattern of its amino acid composition is ...19807400113
the polypore mushroom irpex lacteus, a new causative agent of fungal infections.irpex lacteus, a wood-decaying basidiomycete, was isolated from a pulmonary abscess of an immunosuppressed child. this medical strain was compared morphologically and by sequencing of the ribosomal intergenic spacers with specimens from both culture collections and herbarium desiccated material. the patient was treated successfully with amphotericin b.200515815046
gene cloning of an endoglucanase from the basidiomycete irpex lacteus and its cdna expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae.a gene (cen1) coding for an endoglucanase i (en-1) was isolated from white rot fungus irpex lacteus strain mc-2. the cen1 orf was comprised of 399 amino acid residues and interrupted by 14 introns. the deduced amino acid sequence of the cen1 orf revealed a multi-domain structure composed of a cellulose-binding domain, a ser-/thr-rich linker, and a catalytic domain from the n-terminus. it showed a significant similarity to those of other endoglucanases that belong to family 5 of glycosyl hydrolas ...200516041128
degradation of cl-20 by white-rot fungi.in previous studies, we found that the emerging energetic chemical, cl-20 (c6h6n12o12, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane), can be degraded following its initial denitration using both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. the c and n mass balances were not determined due to the absence of labeled starting compounds. the present study describes the degradation of the emerging contaminant by phanerochaete chrysosporium using ring-labeled [15n]-cl-20 and [14c]-cl-20. ligninolytic ...200616112713
proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from trichoderma harzianum. identification of a fungal cell wall-induced aspartic protease.trichoderma mycoparasitic activity depends on the secretion of complex mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes able to degrade the host cell wall. we have analysed the extracellular proteome secreted by t. harzianum cect 2413 in the presence of different fungal cell walls. significant differences were detected in 2de maps, depending on the use of specific cell walls or chitin. a combination of maldi-tof and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry allowed the identification of a novel aspartic protease (p ...200516226906
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of aspartic proteinase from irpex lacteus.crystals of ilap (irpex lacteus aspartic proteinase) have been obtained by the hanging drop method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. the crystals are monoclinic, space group p2(1) with cell dimensions a = 54.5 a, b = 79.6 a, c = 37.5 a, beta = 96.8 degrees. the crystals are quite stable to x-rays and diffract beyond 1.9 a resolution. there is one molecule in the asymmetric unit.19921518059
role of cellulose-binding domain of exocellulase i from white rot basidiomycete irpex lacteus.the core fragment (designated p-42), devoid of the cellulose-binding domain (cbd) in the c-terminus and prepared from irpex lacteus exocellulase i (ex-1), was isolated by limited proteolysis using papain. both the hydrolytic activity and binding ability of the isolated p-42 toward insoluble cellulose were lower than those of the native ex-1, whereas ex-1 and p-42 showed similar hydrolytic activities toward soluble substrates. these results indicate that the cbd of i. lacteus ex-1 is the importan ...200116233004
purification of a new manganese peroxidase of the white-rot fungus irpex lacteus, and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the enzyme.the white-rot fungus irpex lacteus has been reported to be an efficient degrader of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and pentachlorophenol. the fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase (mnp), the latter being the major one produced. mnp was purified using anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. sds-page showed the purified mnp to be a monomeric protein of 37 kda (37.5 kda using maldi-tof) with an isoelectric poi ...200616256312
breakdown products on metabolic pathway of degradation of benz[a]anthracene by a ligninolytic fungus.cultures of the ligninolytic fungus irpex lacteus incubated in a nutrient liquid medium degraded more than 70% of the initially applied benz[a]anthracene within 14 days. at the first step of metabolization, benz[a]anthracene was transformed via a typical pathway of ligninolytic fungi to benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (baaq). the product was further transformed by at least two ways, whereas one is complied with the anthracene metabolic pathway of i. lacteus. benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione was degrade ...200616403417
development of fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of contaminated soils.this report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. the inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. the organisms evaluated were phanerochaete chrysosporium (bkm f-1767, atcc 42725), p. sordida (hhb-8922-sp), irpex lacteus (mad-517, atcc 11245), bjerkandera ad ...199616535337
a ribonuclease from the wild mushroom boletus griseus.a ribonuclease (rnase) with a molecular mass of 29 kda and cospecific for poly a and poly u was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom boletus griseus. its n-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of rnases from the mushrooms irpex lacteus and lentinus edodes. the rnase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, q-sepharose, and affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on cm-cellulose. the enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees c and a ph optimum at 3 ...200616544139
reduction in the mutagenicity of synthetic dyes by successive treatment with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, irpex lacteus.synthetic dyes are released in wastewater from textile manufacturing plants, and many of these dyes are genotoxic. in the present study, the mutagenicity of azo, anthraquinone, and triphenyl methane dyes was investigated before and after successive biodegradation with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, irpex lacteus. two biodegradation systems were used to reduce the genotoxicity of dyes that were not efficiently inactivated by activated sludge alone. mutagenicity was monitored with t ...200616758470
necrotrophic mycoparasitism of botrytis cinerea by cellulolytic and ligninocellulolytic basidiomycetes.twenty-six isolates representing 17 species of aphyllophoraceous, wood-decaying basidiomycetes and five species of agaricoid, turf-borne, thatch-decaying basidiomycetes were screened for their abilities to degrade cellulose, lignin, and melanin by using colorimetric degradation assays on agar media. selected ligninocellulolytic basidiomycetes capable of degrading melanin were screened for antagonism of botrytis cinerea per.:fr. the greatest inhibition of botrytis colony and hyphal growth in vitr ...200616788718
implication of mycelium-associated laccase from irpex lacteus in the decolorization of synthetic dyes.the white rot fungus irpex lacteus is able to decolorize such synthetic dyes as reactive orange 16 and remazol brilliant blue r. here, we demonstrate that this type of dye decolorization is mainly related to a laccase-like enzyme activity associated with fungal mycelium. in its bound form, the enzyme detected showed a ph optimum of 3.0 for the oxidation of abts, dmp and guaiacol, and a ph of 7.0 for syringaldazine. the highest enzymatic activity was obtained with abts as substrate. enzyme activi ...200817369037
the role of mn-dependent peroxidase in dye decolorization by static and agitated cultures of irpex lacteus.dye decolorization capacity of two white-rot fungi, irpex lacteus and phanerochaete chrysosporium, was compared in n-limited liquid cultures. the agitated cultures showed lower ability to decolorize azo dyes reactive orange 16 and naphthol blue black than static cultures. similar effect was also observed with other structurally different synthetic dyes. the effect of surfactants on the decolorization process is discussed. a significant increase in the reactive orange 16 decolorization by the agi ...200617455794
structure and characteristics of an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, isolated from trametes hirsuta, with high degradation to crystalline cellulose.trametes hirsuta produced cellulose-degrading enzymes when it was grown in a cellulosic medium such as avicel or wheat bran. an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (theg) was purified from the culture filtrate, and the gene and the cdna were isolated. the gene consisted of an open reading frame encoding 384 amino acids, interrupted by 11 introns. the whole sequence showed high homology with that of family 5 glycoside hydrolase. the properties of the recombinant enzyme (reg) in aspergillus oryzae were compar ...200717928699
biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting bisphenol a by white rot fungus irpex lacteus.biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting bisphenol a was investigated with several white rot fungi (irpex lacteus, trametes versicolor, ganoderma lucidum, polyporellus brumalis, pleurotus eryngii, schizophyllum commune) isolated in korea and two transformants of t versicolor (strains mrp 1 and mrp 13). i. lacteus degraded 99.4% of 50 mg/l bisphenol a in 3 h incubation and 100% in 12 h incubation. which was the highest degradation rate among the fungal strains tested. t. versicolor degraded 98.2% o ...200718051326
screening of brazilian basidiomycetes for antimicrobial activity.a total of 103 isolates of basidiomycetes, representing 84 species from different brazilian ecosystems, were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activity in a panel of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. tissue plugs of the fruiting bodies were cultivated in liquid media and the whole culture extracted with ethyl acetate. crude extracts from agaricus cf. nigrecentulus, agrocybe perfecta, climacodon pulcherrimus, gloeoporus thelephoroides, hexagonia hydnoides, irpex lacteus ...200414762527
biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting phthalates by pleurotus ostreatus.biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting phthalates [diethyl phthalate (dep), dimethyl phthalate (dmp), butylbenzyl phthalate (bbp)] was investigated with 10 white rot fungi isolated in korea. when the fungal mycelia were added together with 100 mg/l of phthalate into yeast extract-malt extract-glucose (ymg) medium, pleurotus ostreatus, irpex lacteus, polyporus brumalis, merulius tremellosus, trametes versicolor, and t. versicolor mrp1 and mrp13 (transformant of the mn-repressed peroxidase gene of ...200818467874
effect of different gas environments on bench-scale solid state fermentation of oat straw by white-rot fungi.three white-rot fungi, phanerochaete chrysosporium, polyporus tulipiferae, and polyporus sp. a336 were grown on 100-g amounts of chopped oat straw in gassed 4.5 l (diameter 16 cm, height 23 cm) solid-state reactors for two weeks. the different gas atmospheres were regulated by (1) air diffusion through foam plugs, (2) intermittent or continuous air flow, (3) intermittent oxygen, 50 or 100% continuous oxygen flow, and (4) continuous 10% carbon dioxide in oxygen flow. the fermented straw was analy ...198518553683
mobilizing agents enhance fungal degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and affect diversity of indigenous bacteria in soil.the impact of several mobilizing agents (mas) (i.e., soybean oil, tween-20, tween-80, olive-oil mill wastewaters, and randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrins) on the degradation performances of the white-rot fungi irpex lacteus and pleurotus ostreatus was comparatively assessed in a soil spiked with a mixture of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs). among the different mas, soybean oil best supported the growth of both fungi that was twice that observed in soil in the absence of mas. in ...200818727031
degradation of pahs by ligninolytic enzymes of irpex lacteus.the ligninolytic fungus irpex lacteus was shown as an efficient degrader of oligocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs; 'polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons') possessing 3-6 aromatic rings in complex liquid media. the strain produced mainly mn-dependent peroxidase in media without pollutants. activity of ligninolytic enzymes was higher in a n-limited medium. however, after contamination with pahs (especially pyrene) the values increased and significant activity of mn-independent peroxidase appeared in ...200818759111
mathematical modeling of wastewater decolorization in a trickle-bed bioreactor.this work focuses on mathematical modeling of removal of organic dyes from textile industry waste waters by a white-rot fungus irpex lacteus in a trickle-bed bioreactor. we developed a mathematical model of biomass and decolorization process dynamics. the model comprises mass balances of glucose and the dye in a fungal biofilm and a liquid film. the biofilm is modeled using a spatially two-dimensional domain. the liquid film is considered as homogeneous in the direction normal to the biofilm sur ...201121930164
fungal bioremediation of the creosote-contaminated soil: influence of pleurotus ostreatus and irpex lacteus on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal and soil microbial community composition in the laboratory-scale study.the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of selected basidiomycetes in the removing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pah) from the creosote-contaminated soil. fungi pleurotus ostreatus and irpex lacteus were supplemented with creosote-contaminated (50-200mgkg(-1) pah) soil originating from a wood-preserving plant and incubated at 15°c for 120d. either fungus degraded pah with 4-6 aromatic rings more efficiently than the microbial community present initially in the soil. pah remova ...200818782639
gene cloning of cellobiohydrolase ii from the white rot fungus irpex lacteus mc-2 and its expression in pichia pastoris.a gene (cel4) coding for a cellobiohydrolase ii (ex-4) was isolated from the white rot basidiomycete, irpex lacteus strain mc-2. the cel4 orf was composed of 452 amino acid residues and was interrupted by eight introns. its deduced amino acid sequence revealed a multi domain structure composed of a cellulose-binding domain, a linker, and a catalytic domain belonging to family 6 of glycosyl hydrolases, from the n-terminus. cel4 cdna was successfully expressed in the yeast pichia pastoris. recombi ...200819060394
cytotoxic, immunosuppressive, trypanocidal and antileishmanial activities of basidiomycota fungi present in atlantic rainforest in brazil.one hundred three basidiomycota fungi representing 84 species and 17 families were collected from different atlantic rainforest in brazil. their basidiomes and fermentation broth extracts were screened in a bioassay panel that included three human cancer cells lines, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs), the enzyme trypanothione reductase (tryr) from trypanosoma cruzi, and amastigote forms of leishmania amazonensis. forty-two extracts representing 21 genera and 35 species presented a ...200919194781
biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and suppression of estrogenic activity by ligninolytic fungi.endocrine-disrupting compounds (edcs) represent a large group of substances of natural and anthropogenic origin. they are widely distributed in the environment and can pose serious risks to aquatic organisms and to public health. in this study, 4-n-nonylphenol, technical 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol a, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, and triclosan were biodegraded by eight ligninolytic fungal strains (irpex lacteus 617/93, bjerkandera adusta 606/93, phanerochaete chrysosporium me 446, phanerochaete magnol ...200919243809
degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals by genetic transformants in irpex lacteus with an inducible laccase gene of phlebia tremellosa.irpex lacteus was genetically transformed using an laccase expression vector to get increased laccase producing strains. stable integration of the vector was confirmed by pcr using the vector-specific primers, and the transformants showed increased laccase activities. when the transformants were grown with several endocrine disrupting chemicals, laccase activity of each transformant was induced up to six times higher than that of the wild type. they showed increased degrading activities against ...200919301129
purification and characterization of manganese peroxidase of the white-rot fungus irpex lacteus.the production of manganese peroxidase (mnp) by irpex lacteus, purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by acetone precipitation, hiprep q and hiprep sephacryl s-200 chromatography, was shown to correlate with the decolorization of textile industry wastewater. the mnp was purified 11.0-fold, with an overall yield of 24.3%. the molecular mass of the native enzyme, as determined by gel filtration chromatography, was about 53 kda. the enzyme was shown to have a molecular mass of 53.2 and 38.3 kda on ...200516410766
purification, characterization, and mode of action of a rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase from irpex lacteus, tolerant to an acetylated substrate.a novel rhamnogalacturonase (rgase) acting on an acetylated substrate was detected in the commercial preparation driselase, an enzymatic mixture derived from the basidiomycete irpex lacteus. the activity was isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, gel filtration, and preparative isoelectric focusing, resulting in the isolation of five different rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases exhibiting various isoelectric points from 6.2 to 7.7. sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresi ...201019862512
irpex lacteus, a white-rot fungus with biotechnological potential--review.white-rot fungi that are efficient lignin degraders responsible for its turnover in nature have appeared twice in the center of biotechnological research - first, when the lignin degradation process started being systematically investigated and major enzyme activities and mechanisms involved were described, and second, when the huge remediation potential of these organisms was established. originally, phanerochaete chrysosporium became a model organism, characterized by a secondary metabolism re ...200919937209
diversity of fungi in creosote-treated crosstie wastes and their resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.this study was conducted to generate information regarding the diversity of fungi inhabiting creosote-treated wood in a storage yard for crosstie wastes in gwangmyeong, korea. additionally, the resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) of indigenous fungi that mainly occupy creosote-treated wood was evaluated. we isolated fungi from the surface and inner area of crosstie wastes and identified them using a combination of traditional methods and molecular techniques. overall, 179 isola ...201020127413
enzymatic saccharification of biologically pre-treated wheat straw with white-rot fungi.wheat straw was submitted to a pre-treatment by the basidiomycetous fungi euc-1 and irpex lacteus, aiming to improve the accessibility of cellulose towards enzymatic hydrolysis via previous selective bio-delignification. this allowed the increase of substrate saccharification nearly four and three times while applying the basidiomycetes euc-1 and i. lacteus, respectively. the cellulose/lignin ratio increased from 2.7 in the untreated wheat straw to 5.9 and 4.6 after the bio-treatment by the basi ...201020307975
fungal treatment of cornstalks enhances the delignification and xylan loss during mild alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility of glucan.fungal treatment with irpex lacteus was used to enhance the delignification and xylan loss during mild alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic conversion in this research. the 15-day bio-treatment can modify the lignin structure and increase losses of lignin (from 75.67% to 80.00%) and xylan (from 40.68% to 51.37%) during alkaline pretreatment, making the enzymatic conversion more efficient. the high digestibility of glucan can be obtained after the bio-treatment and alkaline pretreatment ...201020400301
an efficient pah-degrading lentinus (panus) tigrinus strain: effect of inoculum formulation and pollutant bioavailability in solid matrices.this study comparatively investigated the pah degradation ability of lentinus tigrinus and irpex lacteus in a historically polluted soil and creosote-impregnated shavings. with this regard, the effect of type of inoculum carrier (i.e., wheat straw, corn cobs and commercial pellets) and contaminant bioavailability was thoroughly determined. although degradation performances of l. tigrinus were not significantly affected by the type of the support, they were invariably better than those of i. lact ...201020728989
biological pretreatment of corn stover by irpex lacteus for enzymatic hydrolysis.the feasibility of biological pretreatment for subsequent saccharification largely depends upon an effective pretreatment system. a significant enhancement of saccharification was discovered with corn stover pretreated by white rot fungus irpex lacteus cd2. the highest saccharification ratio reached 66.4%, which was significantly higher than what was reported. hemicellulose was first destroyed in the process and then lignin. lignin and hemicellulose were selectively degraded over cellulose, resp ...201020882980
potential of combined fungal and bacterial treatment for color removal in textile wastewater.low efficiency of dye removal by mixed bacterial communities and high rates of dye decolorization by white-rot fungi suggest a combination of both processes to be an option of treatment of textile wastewaters containing dyes and high concentrations of organics. bacteria were able to remove mono-azo dye but not other chemically different dyes whereas decolorization rates using irpex lacteus mostly exceeded 90% within less than one week irrespective of dye structure. decolorization rates for indus ...201020888761
fungal pretreatment: an alternative in second-generation ethanol from wheat straw.the potential of a fungal pretreatment combined with a mild alkali treatment to replace or complement current physico-chemical methods for ethanol production from wheat straw has been investigated. changes in substrate composition, secretion of ligninolytic enzymes, enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and ethanol yield after 7, 14 and 21days of solid-state fermentation were evaluated. most fungi degraded lignin with variable selectivity degrees, although only eight of them improved sugar recovery co ...201121646018
Competition between two wood-degrading fungi with distinct influences on residues.Many wood-degrading fungi colonize specific types of forest trees, but often lack wood specificity in pure culture. This suggests that wood type affects competition among fungi and indirectly influences the soil residues generated. While assessing wood residues is an established science, linking this information to dominant fungal colonizers has proven to be difficult. In the studies presented here, we used isolate-specific quantitative PCR to quantify competitive success between two distinct fu ...201122067023
The promoting effect of byproducts from Irpex lacteus on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of bio-pretreated cornstalks.ABSTRACT:201121985037
biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids by ligninolytic fungi.we investigated the abilities of several perspective ligninolytic fungal strains to degrade 12 mono-, di- and trichloro representatives of chlorobenzoic acids (cbas) under model liquid conditions and in contaminated soil. attention was also paid to toxicity changes during the degradation, estimated using two luminescent assay variations with vibrio fischeri. the results show that almost all the fungi were able to efficiently degrade cbas in liquid media, where irpex lacteus, pycnoporus cinnabari ...201121963171
bioremediation of the heavy metal complex dye isolan dark blue 2sgl-01 by white rot fungus irpex lacteus.the present study was conducted to evaluate the decolorization and degradation of the chromium metal complex dye isolan dark blue 2sgl-01 by irpex lacteus, a white rot lignolytic fungus. i. lacteus effectively decolorized the sulphonated reactive dye at a high concentration of 250mg/l over a wide range of ph values of 5-9 and temperatures between 20 and 35°c. complete (100%) decolorization occurred within 96h, and i. lacteus demonstrated resistance to the metallic dye. uv-vis spectroscopy, hplc, ...201122071260
biodegradation and saccharification of wood chips of pinus strobus and liriodendron tulipifera by white rot fungi.degradation and glucose production from wood chips of white pine (pinus strobus) and tulip tree (liriodendron tulipifera) by several white rot fungi were investigated. the highest weight losses from 4 g of wood chips of p. strobus and l. tulipifera by the fungal degradation on yeast extractmalt extract-glucose agar medium were 38% of irpex lacteus and 93.7% of trametes versicolor mrp 1 after 90 days, respectively. when 4 g of wood chips of p. strobus and l. tulipifera biodegraded for 30 days wer ...200819047827
comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.the effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. the results indicated that the ...201121851098
ability of white-rot fungi to remove selected pharmaceuticals and identification of degradation products of ibuprofen by trametes versicolor.a screening using four white-rot fungi (trametes versicolor, irpex lacteus, ganoderma lucidum and phanerochaete chrysosporium) was performed on the degradation of 10 mg l(-1) of ibuprofen (ibu, anti-inflammatory), clofibric acid (clofi, lipid regulator) and carbamazepine (carba, antiepileptic/analgetic) after 7 d of incubation. whereas ibu was extensively degraded by all the fungi tested, t. versicolor was the only strain able to degrade either clofi (approximately 91%) and carba (approximately ...200919062071
Isolation and evaluation of terrestrial fungi with algicidal ability from Zijin Mountain, Nanjing, China.Approximately 60 fungal isolates from Zijin Mountain (Nanjing, China) were screened to determine their algicidal ability. The results show that 8 fungi belonging to Ascomycota and 5 belonging to Basidiomycota have algicidal ability. Of these fungi, Irpex lacteus T2b, Trametes hirsuta T24, Trametes versicolor F21a, and Bjerkandera adusta T1 showed strong algicidal ability. The order of fungal chlorophyll-a removal efficiency was as follows: T. versicolor F21a > I. lacteus T2b > B. adusta T1 > T. ...201121887638
isolation and transcriptional analysis of a cellulase gene (cell) from the basidiomycete irpex lacteus.a gene (named cell) homologous to the cellobiohydrolase i gene (cbhl) of trichoderma reesei was isolated and sequenced from the white rot basidiomycete irpex lacteus mc-2. the cell open reading frame consists of 1551 bp, which is interrupted by two introns, encoding a polypeptide of 517 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 54,522 da. the deduced amino acid sequence showed that cel1 (the protein encoded by cell) has a modular structure consisting of a catalytic domain of 449 am ...199916232432
purification, characterization and gene analysis of exo-cellulase ii (ex-2) from the white rot basidiomycete irpex lacteus.a new exo-type cellulase, named exo-cellulase ii (ex-2), was purified from the crude enzyme preparation of irpex lacteus. ex-2 was very similar to the previously characterized exo-cellulase i (ex-1) with respect to enzymatic features such as optimal ph, temperature, heat stability, and catalytic activity. however, ex-2 exhibited greater ph stability than ex-1. the molecular mass and carbohydrate content of ex-2 (56,000, 4.0%) were different from those of ex-1 (53,000, 2.0%). a cellulase gene (na ...199916232497
lignocellulose degradation and enzyme production by irpex lacteus cd2 during solid-state fermentation of corn stover.the white rot fungus irpex lacteus cd2 was incubated on corn stover under solid-state fermentation conditions for different durations, from 5 days up to 120 days. lignocellulose component loss, enzyme production and fe3+-reducing activity were studied. the average weight loss ranged from 1.7% to 60.5% during the period of 5-120 days. in contrast to lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose were degraded during the initial time period. after 15 days, 63.0% of hemicellulose was degraded. cellulose was d ...200919804859
molecular cloning and expression in pichia pastoris of a irpex lacteus exo-beta-(1-->3)-galactanase gene.a gene encoding exo-beta-(1-->3)-galactanase from irpex lacteus was cloned by reverse transcriptase-pcr. the deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with exo-beta-(1-->3)-galactanases from other sources. the molecular mass of the mature form was calculated to be 45,520 da. the gene product expressed in pichia pastoris specifically hydrolyzed beta-(1-->3)-galactooligosaccharides, as did other exo-beta-(1-->3)-galactanases. the recombinant enzyme showed high activity toward arabinogalac ...200919809200
cloning and expression in pichia pastoris of an irpex lacteus rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase tolerant to acetylated rhamnogalacturonan.in order to produce a recombinant rhamnogalacturonase from the basidiomycete irpex lacteus using a molecular approach, pcr primers were designed based on a sequence alignment of four known ascomycete rhamnogalacturonases. using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) experiments, a 1,437-bp full-length cdna containing an open reading frame of 1,329 bp was isolated. the corresponding putative protein sequence is of 443 amino acids and contains a secretion signal sequence of 22 amino aci ...201122101785
sugar recoveries from wheat straw following treatments with the fungus irpex lacteus.irpex lacteus is a white-rot fungus capable of increasing sugar recovery from wheat straw; however, in order to incorporate biopretreatment in bioethanol production, some process specifications need to be optimized. with this objective, i. lacteus was grown on different liquid culture media for use as inoculums. additionally, the effect of wheat straw particle size, moisture content, organic and inorganic supplementations, and mild alkali washing during solid-state fermentation (ssf) on sugar yi ...201223347930
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