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presence of two virus-like particles in penicillium citrinum.two icosahedral virus-like particles (28 and 19 nm in diameter, respectively) have been detected in sporogenic and asporogenic segregants of a strain of penicillium citrinum. the distribution of the two particles differed among the two segregants.197550049
the use of nuclease p1 in sequence analysis of end group labeled rna.a method is described for the direct sequence analysis of 20-25 nucleotides from the termini of 5'- or 3'-end-group [32p] labeled rna. the method involves partial endonucleolytic digestion of the labeled rna with nuclease p1 (from penicillium citrinum) followed by separation of the partial digestion products by two-dimensional homochromatography, the nucleotide sequence being determined by mobility shift analysis. this procedure has been applied to the sequence analysis of the terminal regions o ...1977202925
role of opportunistic fungi in ocular infections in nigeria.the importance of opportunistic fungal pathogens in causing ocular infections is emphasized. a study was conducted over a period of 4 years (1974--1977) to investigate the role of opportunistic fungi in causing mycotic keratitis and to elucidate certain aspects of epidemiology of this disease in nigeria. fifty-nine cases of corneal ulcers of suspected mycotic etiology were investigated. fungal etiology was confirmed in 42 of these cases. the predominant etiological agent was fusarium solani in 1 ...1978745623
mycotic keratitis in nigeria. a study of 21 cases.a clinical and mycological study of 21 cases of mycotic keratitis, a clinical entity not yet reported from nigeria or west africa, showed that fusarium solani was the predominant aetiological agent. it was isolated from 12 cases. four of the remaining nine cases were caused by aspergillus fumigatus, one by a. flavus, two by penicillium citrinum, and one each by p. expansum and penicillium sp. all the 12 isolates of f. solani grew well at 37 degrees c and survived at 40 degrees c. two cases, one ...1976791355
a cellulase complex in culture filtrates of penicillium citrinum.during growth in a liquid medium that contained a single soluble or an insoluble cellulosic carbon source penicillium citrinum released a complex of cellulase enzymes into the medium. a temperature of 30 degrees c was best for cellulase production. presence of carbon-containing compounds, particularly glucose, inhibited cellulase activity. the enzyme complex was separated by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography into 11 components, 4 of high molecular weight and 7 of low molecul ...1976963627
primary structure of a nuclease (nuclease pa3) from a penicillium sp.the complete primary structure of a nuclease from a penicillium sp. [nuclease pa3 (kazama et al., chem. pharm. bull., 38, 3081 (1990)] was determined. the sequencing was done by analysis of the peptides generated by digestion of reduced and carboxymethylated nuclease pa3 (rcm nuclease pa3) with lysylendopeptidase, and by digestion with staphylococcal v8 protease or chemical cleavage with brcn. it consisted of 270 amino acid residues and carbohydrate moieties attached to the 92nd, 138th, 184th, a ...19911369324
larvicidal effects of penicillium citrinum spores and extracts upon aedes aegypti. 19921401991
structure and mechanism of alkaline phosphatase.alkaline phosphatase was the first zinc enzyme to be discovered in which three closely spaced metal ions (two zn ions and one mg ion) are present at the active center. zn ions at all three sites also produce a maximally active enzyme. these metal ions have center-to-center distances of 3.9 a (zn1-zn2), 4.9 a (zn2-mg3), and 7.1 a (zn1-mg3). despite the close packing of these metal centers, only one bridging ligand, the carboxyl of asp51, bridges zn2 and mg3. a crystal structure at 2.0-a resolutio ...19921525473
crystal structure of penicillium citrinum p1 nuclease at 2.8 a resolution.p1 nuclease from penicillium citrinum is a zinc dependent glyco-enzyme consisting of 270 amino acid residues which cleaves single-stranded rna and dna into 5'-mononucleotides. the x-ray structure of a tetragonal crystal form of the enzyme with two molecules per asymmetric unit has been solved at 3.3 and refined at 2.8 a resolution to a crystallographic r-factor of 21.6%. the current model consists of 269 amino acid residues, three zn ions and two n-acetyl glucosamines per subunit. the enzyme is ...19911710977
purification and characterization of a nuclease (3'-nucleotidase) from a penicillium sp.a nuclease (3'-nucleotidase) similar to p1 nuclease from penicillium citrinum was purified from a commercial digestive from a penicillium sp. the activity of the nuclease (pa) was separated to three fractions by diethylaminoethyl-toyopearl 650m column chromatography, in total yield of 10%. the apparent molecular weight of these three nucleases, pa1, pa2 and pa3 was 35000, 33000, and 32000, respectively. all of them were homogeneous so far as checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate slab gel electrophor ...19901964878
nuclease p1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32p-postlabeling test for structurally diverse dna adducts.exceedingly sensitive procedures are required to detect the presence of covalent dna adducts in humans exposed to environmental genotoxicants because of low levels of such derivatives (1 adduct in 10(8)-10(10) dna nucleotides). a 32p-postlabeling assay for detection and quantitation of carcinogen--dna adducts with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(7)-10(8) nucleotides has been described previously. in the standard procedure, dna is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adduc ...19863017601
utilization of glutamate accumulating bacterial cells for production of ribonucleotides.corynebacterium glutamicum cells are industrially used for glutamate production. however, the waste that contains microbial cells, cellular debris, residual sugars, ammonia and metabolites seriously pollutes the environment. the cells are recovered and utilized for ribonucleotide production so that the pollution caused by the cells is eliminated. nucleic acid is extracted from the cells and is hydrolyzed with nuclease p1 from penicillium citrinum. the hydrolysate is fractionated with dowex-50 an ...19853033725
biogenesis of some antibiotics in the presence of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid.2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (cepa) affected both the growth of and antibiotic production in streptomyces aureofaciens, s. griseus, s. antibioticus, and penicillium citrinum. streptomyces strains seemed to be more sensitive to the presence of cepa in the medium than did the fungus. a decrease in both growth and antibiotic production was observed with a concomitant increase in the concentration of the ethylene-releasing compound in the medium. higher concentrations of cepa completely inhibited th ...19863096201
an immunochemical study of neurospora nucleases.nucleases derived from neurospora crassa mycelia with neutral single-strand (ss) endodeoxyribonuclease activity have been examined by immunochemical techniques and by sodium dodecyl sulfate - dna gel electrophoresis. all of the intracellular nucleases, which have different divalent metal ion requirements, different strand specificities with single- and double-strand dna, different modes of action on dna and rna, and other distinguishing characteristics, are immunochemically related to neurospora ...19863013242
temperature influence on penicillium citrinum thom growth and citrinin accumulation kinetics.to study the temperature influence on both penicillium citrinum growth and citrinin accumulation, a 20, 25 and 30 degrees c. radial and 30 degrees c. radial growth rate and lag phase were determined from the increase in colony diameter with time. the optimal temperature for p. citrinum growth was 30 degrees c. citrinin extracted from the agar medium was determined by thin layer chromatography. citrinin accumulation kinetics were analyzed by fitting the data to curves generated by using a logisti ...19883275316
action of citrinin on bacterial chromosomal and plasmid dna in vivo and in vitro.citrinin, a mycotoxin of penicillium citrinum and other species of the genera penicillium and aspergillus, caused the following effects at different concentrations in escherichia coli. in vivo at 100 micrograms/ml single-strand breaks were caused in the chromosomal dna. in the presence of 100 micrograms/ml, uv (254 nm)-induced dna damage was repaired in the bacterial cells without need for a complete growth medium. at 300 micrograms/ml lambda ts prophage was induced in a lysogenic e. coli strain ...19862947539
[presence of virus-like particles in a pleomorphic strain of penicillium citrinum]. 19734141234
action of some metal ions, edta, and heated milk on the milk-clotting process of penicillium citrinum rennin-like enzyme. 19734203564
activity and properties of the penicillium citrinum milk-clotting enzyme. 19744618965
[formation and length of storage in the soil of a toxin produced by penicillium citrinum]. 19724651559
some characteristics and rennetic activity of the pure rennin-like enzyme from penicillium citrinum. 19734801362
[identification of a toxin produced by penicillium citrinum n 19 and its herbicidal action]. 19675618850
the biosynthesis of phenols. xv. some metabolites of penicillium citrinum related to citrinin. 19685688882
32p-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-dna adducts: nuclease p1-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications.exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of dna adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. a 32p-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-dna lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(7) to 10(8) nucleotides has been described previously. in the standard procedure, dna is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are 32p-labeled at ...19872834194
the biosynthesis of citrinin in penicillium citrinum. i. production and degradation of citrinin. 19665959469
the biosynthesis of citrinin in penicillium citrinum. ii. tracer studies on the formation of citrinin. 19665959470
crystallisation and preliminary crystallographic analysis of p1 nuclease from penicillium citrinum.p1 nuclease, a zinc-dependent single-strand specific endonuclease from penicillium citrinum, has been crystallized in three different space groups using either ammonium sulphate or polyethylene glycol 4000 as the precipitating agent. the crystals diffract to between 3 a and 2.2 a. a 4.5 a electron density map has been calculated for a tetragonal crystal form, based on a platinum derivative, and was improved by solvent flattening. the boundaries of the two molecules in the asymmetric unit are cle ...19902170661
survey of molds and mycotoxins for their ability to cause feed refusal in chickens.the cause of feed refusal by poultry is an important problem that has not been established. t-2 toxin, a culture filtrate of fusarium roseum nrrl 1181 containing a high concentration of diacetoxyscirpenol, and a filtrate of penicillium citrinum containing an unknown factor produced refusal activity in week-old chickens. citrinin stimulated water consumption while aflatoxin did not affect feed consumption. detection of refusal activity was more sensitive when the refusal factor was presented in t ...19836657561
syntheses, characterization, and microbial activity of some transition metal complexes involving potentially active o and n donor heterocyclic ligands.the formation of binary as well as ternary metal complexes of type mll' (where m(ii) = cu(ii), ni(ii), co(ii), and zn(ii); l = 8-hydroxyquinoline, and l' = 2-furoic acid) has been studied. the complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight determination, the ir and electronic spectra, conductivity, and magnetic measurements. the presence of coordinated water molecules was demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis. the microbial activity of these ligands and ...19902086721
primary structure of nuclease p1 from penicillium citrinum.the primary structure of nuclease p1, which cleaves both rna and single-stranded dna, from penicillium citrinum was elucidated. the complete amino acid sequence consisting of 270 residues was determined by analysis of peptides obtained by digestion with achromobacter protease i of the reduced and s-aminoethylated protein and by digestion with staphylococcus aureus v8 protease of the reduced and s-carboxymethylated protein. four half-cystine residues were assigned to cys72-cys217 and cys80-cys85. ...19911915339
incidence of heat-resistant fungi in nsukka, southern nigeria.a total of 42 soil samples collected from different parts of nsukka, southern nigeria, and 20 freshly plucked mango fruits were screened for the presence of heat-resistant fungi. each soil sample, suspended in sterile water, and washings from each mango fruit were separately heated at 70 degrees c for 1 h before plating on double-strength potato dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol and incubating at approx. 28 degrees c. approximately 98% of all soil samples and 17% of mango fruits contained ...19911909547
[research and development of pravastatin].the attempts to find a potent inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a (hmg-coa) reductase which catalyzes the rate limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis were started from 1971. the first potent inhibitor, ml-236b (compactin), was found from the culture broth of penicillium citrinum. among many derivatives of ml-236b, pravastatin sodium (hereafter refer to pravastatin) was finally selected because of its potency and tissue selectivity. since pravastatin has a hydroxyl group at 6 be ...19911762049
purification and characterization of a nuclease from lentinus edodes.an endonuclease with 3'-nucleotidase activity (nuclease le1) was purified from fruit bodies of lentinus edodes in a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the apparent molecular weight of nuclease le1 was about 27000. the nuclease was inactivated in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta) and reactivated by the addition of zn2+. hydrolysis of poly u by the nuclease showed many intermediate size oligomers prior to the formation of 5'-uri ...19911725278
imi descriptions of fungi and bacteria no. 1104. penicillium citrinum. 19921640980
molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the genomic dna for 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase gene, msdc from penicillium citrinum.a gene encoding 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase (ec 3.2.1.113) was cloned from penicillium citrinum genomic dna using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the coding region of the gene, msdc, occupied 1737 bp and was separated into four exons by three introns. the predicted protein consisted of 511 amino acid residues with m(r) 56,569. penicillium enzyme had a hydrophobic signal peptide at the n-terminal region as did mammalian membrane-bound alpha-mannosidases, but in this case a proteolytic cleavage o ...19957640307
specificity of a new metalloproteinase form penicillium citrinum. 19911368736
transfer reaction catalyzed by exo-beta-1,4-galactanase from bacillus subtilis.a transfer reaction catalyzed by an exo-beta-1,4-galactanase from bacillus subtilis was studied. the enzyme had a broad acceptor specificity and transferred galactobiosyl residues to acceptors such as various alcohols, including hydroxy benzenes and saccharides. transfer products of glycerol formed by the enzyme were compared with those formed by escherichia coli beta-galactosidase and by penicillium citrinum endo-galactanase. e. coli enzyme transferred 90% of galactose residues to the primary h ...19911368730
mycotoxin-producing potential of mold flora of dried beans.to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in dried beans, the mold flora of 114 samples was determined both before and after surface disinfection of the beans with 5% naocl. surface disinfection substantially reduced mold incidence, indicating that contamination was mainly on the surface. the flora, both before and after disinfection, was dominated by species of the aspergillus glaucus group, the toxicogenic species a ochracues, penicillium cyclopium, and p. viridicatum, and sp ...19751168442
effect of citrinin, a mycotoxin produced by penicillium citrinum, on laying hens and young broiler chicks.citrinin fed to mature laying hens at levels of 0, 50, and 250 mug/g. of diet for three weeks had no effect on body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight or egg shell quality. a moderate diarrhea occurring about three days after feeding 250 mug. citrinin/g. of diet was observed. however, the diarrhea subsided once the birds were returned to a normal diet. young broiler chicks were fed a diet containing either 0, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 mug. citrinin/g. of diet from hatching to thre ...1976951361
high-pressure liquid-chromatographic assay of nucleotide-pool concentrations during polysaccharide biosynthesis in four ascomycetes.high-resolution liquid-chromatographic methods developed for analyzing nucleotide pools at the nanogram level in four representative species of ascomycetes (penicillium citrinum, aspergillus niger, fusarium moniliforme, and cladosporium herbarum) were used to study polysaccharide biosynthesis. nucleotides extracted from the mycelial mat were preseparated from interfering polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and nucleic acids on a column of biogel p-2. resolution of 18 nucleotides from each fungal spe ...1977912696
electrophoretic free mobility and viability of microbial cells: a preliminary study in preparation for space experiments.electrophoretic free mobilities (efm) of four fungal spores and five bacterial cells were determined in 7 mm triethanolamine/acetate (tea) buffer by means of microscopic electrophoresis (me) and free flow electrophoresis (ffe). spores of aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, gliocladium virens, and rhizopus oryzae had similar efm from 2.2 to 3.1 microns sec-1/v cm-1. the resolution of the spore mixture by ffe was therefore determined to be poor. bacterial cells of salmonella typhimurium lt2 ...19947880880
production and analysis of citrinin in corn.a convenient method for the production and analysis of citrinin in corn is described. up to 2.964 g of citrinin can be produced by penicillium citrinum per kg of corn by harvesting on day 21 or later. the analysis method has a lower detection limit of 0.25 ppm. heating citrinin-contaminated corn destroys citrinin but may produce another toxin instead.1978727774
toxicity of penicillium citrinum aua-532 contaminated corn and citrinin in broiler chicks. 1978724592
production of citrinin by penicillium citrinum in different liquid media.citrinin production by penicillium citrinum nrrl 5907 and nrrl 1842 on liquid media was investigated. maximum yields of pure citrinin (1.7 g./1.) were produced by p. citrinum nrrl 5907 growing on 2% yeast extract and 5% sucrose.1977605090
hemorrhagic syndrome of chicks produced by penicillium citrinum aua-532 contaminated corn.rations containing 0%, 6.2%, and 62% penicillium citrinum contaminated corn were fed to white leghorn chicks for 5 weeks. the 62% ration induced hemorrhaging throughout the digestive tract which resembled the lesions observed in acute cases of the poultry hemorrhagic syndrome. the 6.2% ration caused atrophy of lymphoid tissue, anemia, leucopenia, and fatty bone marrow which resembled the lesions observed in chronic cases of the poultry hemorrhagic syndrome. the syndrome was reproduced in chicks ...1979493216
studies on the sequence of the 3'-terminal region of turnip-yellow-mosaic-virus rna.a fragment representing the 3'-terminal 'trna-like' region of turnip yellow mosaic (tym) virus rna has been purified following incubation of intact tym virus rna with escherichia coli 'rnase p'. this fragment, which is 112+3-nucleotides long has been completely digested with t1 rnase and pancreatic rnase and all the oligonucleotides present in such digests have been sequenced using 32p-end labelling techniques in vitro. the tym virus rna fragment is free of modified nucleosides and does not cont ...1977402264
double-stranded ribonucleic acid in viruses of penicillium citrinum.the nucleic acid content of two viral populations in a strain of penicillium citrinum is shown to be double-stranded ribonucleic acid, resolved through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into 10 size groups ranging from 1.17 to 3.98 megadaltons.1977339838
the influence of glucose on simazine decomposition.glucose added to soil and to the culture medium of penicillium citrinum stimulated simazine decomposition. differences in the rate of simazine decomposition depended on the dose of glucose. both in soil and in the medium the rate of simazine decomposition was connected with the intensity of development of microorganisms.1975241211
dihydrocompactin, a new potent inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-a reductase from penicillium citrinum. 19817275844
synthesis and physicochemical properties of oligonucleotides built with either alpha-l or beta-l nucleotides units and covalently linked to an acridine derivative.modified deoxynucleosides 2'-deoxy-beta-l-uridine, beta-l-thymidine, alpha-l-thymidine, 2'-deoxy-beta-l-adenosine and 2'-deoxy-alpha-l-adenosine were synthesized and assembled as homooligomers, respectively: octa-beta-l-deoxyuridylates, octa beta-l and alpha-l-thymidylates and tetra beta-l and alpha-l-deoxyadenylates. these unnatural oligomers were then substituted with an acridine derivative. the binding studies of these modified oligonucleotides with d-ribo- and d-deoxyribopolynucleotides were ...19911651474
medium-scale production of citrinin by penicillium citrinum in a semisynthetic medium.a convenient method is described for the production of up to 1.75 g of citrinin per liter by penicillium citrinum growing in stationary culture in a 5-gallon (18.925 liters) carboy containing 4 liters of 4% sucrose and 2% yeast extract medium.19751089161
seedborne fungi of sesame (sesamum indicum l) in sierra leone and their potential aflatoxin/mycotoxin production.sesame seeds (sesamum indicum l) from four different geographic locations in sierra leone were sampled for their mycoflora. three toxigenic aspergillus species: a. flavus link ex fries, a. ochraceus wilhelm, and a. tamarii kita were common to all samples. penicillium citrinum thom and two fusarium sp. were found in samples from two localities. the mycotoxins aflatoxin b1 and g1, ochratoxin a and b, and citrinin were positively identified.19883146700
the use of sodium [2-2h3,1,2-13c2]acetate in determining the biosynthetic origins of hydrogen atoms in fungal metabolites: the biosynthesis of citrinin by penicillium citrinum. 19873570976
noncitrinin toxicity of penicillium citrinum contaminated corn.day-old white leghorn chicks were fed p. citrinum-contaminated corn at 3.88, 7.75, 31, or 62% levels in the ration for a period of 5 weeks. high treatment levels (31 and 62%) of contaminated corn in the ration caused severe growth depression, high mortality, and significant decreases in feed consumption. necrosis of periportal and centrilobular hepatocytes, glomerular atrophy and hyperplasia, degeneration and necrosis of tubular cells, lymphoid depletion, suppression of hematopoiesis, necrosis o ...19827134117
studies on shared antigenic/allergenic components among fungi.fungal allergens have been found to be one of the most prevalent aeroallergens in india. knowledge of shared/unique components among different fungi is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment of patients allergic to fungi. in the present study, crude extracts (ce) of 11 common fungi (alternaria alternata, aspergillus flavus, asp. fumigatus, asp. niger, asp. tamarii, asp. versicolor, cladosporium herbarum, curvularia lunata, mucor hiemalis, penicillium citrinum, and fusarium solani) were cha ...19958607563
15 beta-hydroxysteroids (part v). steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 beta, 15 beta, 17 alpha-trihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one from 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione.a simple three-step synthetic method is reported on the conversion of delta 4-3-ketosteroids to the corresponding 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-steroid analogues. 17 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (10a) was used as a model to develop a method for the synthesis of 3 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (16). the major problem being the synthesis of 3,17 alpha-diacetoxy-3,5-pregnadien-20-one (14) was solved by acetylating using a mixture of acetic anhydride and perchloric acid. the conversion of ...19968789731
molecular cloning and expression of a penicillium citrinum allergen with sequence homology and antigenic crossreactivity to a hsp 70 human heat shock protein.penicillium citrinum has been identified as the most prevalent airborne penicillium species in the taipei area. however, detailed studies on allergens of this ubiquitous penicillium species are still lacking.19979208190
fungal microflora biodiversity as a function of pollution in oued sebou (morocco).an inventory of the fungal microflora present in sediments collected at 11 sites along oued sebou has been established. the influence of some climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall) and of pollution on the composition of the fungal communities has been questioned. emericella nidulans, eurotium amstelodami, neosartotya fisheri var. glabrum (ascomycetes), dreschslera biseptata (dematiaceae), penicillium citrinum (mucedinaceae) and phoma sp. (sphaeropsidale) can be considered as strains sensiti ...19979253167
6-methyl-5(1-methyl-2-formyloxypropyl)-resorcinol, a novel metabolite of penicillium citrinum. 19665910135
mycoflora of paddy and milled rice produced in the region of northeastern argentina and southern paraguay.thirty samples of paddy rice and twenty-five of milled rice were obtained from processing centers located in two northern provinces of argentina and one southern province of paraguay. contaminating fungi were enumerated by direct plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar and oxytetracycline glucose yeast extract agar before and after surface disinfection. all fungi were isolated and identified to the genus level and percentage infection of samples calculated. those belonging to the g ...19979310860
effects of fungal metabolites on the germination of sweet fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.) seeds.the metabolites of some test fungi adversely affected the seed germination. the maximum reduction was caused by a culture filtrate of penicillium citrinum followed by fusarium moniliforme and f. equiseti, while the minimum was caused by mucor sp. a gradual increase in effective metabolite production was observed by all the fungi up to 15 days.19836623513
cloning and sequence analysis of the gene (epra1) encoding an extracellular protease from aeromonas hydrophila.a gene (epra1) encoding the extracellular protease of aeromonas hydrophila ah1 has been cloned and sequenced. nucleotide sequence analysis of epra1 predicted a single open reading frame (orf) of 1038 bp encoding a 346 amino acid (aa) polypeptide, with a potential 21-aa signal peptide. when the epra1 gene was expressed in minicells, one major band of approx. 37 kda was identified, while protease activity staining experiments identified a caseinolytic band of approx. 29 kda determined by sds-page ...19979358060
relationship between fluorescein diacetate-stained hyphae and oxygen utilization, glucose utilization, and biomass of submerged fungal batch cultures.the relationship between fungal activity and staining with fluorescein diacetate (fda) was investigated by growing penicillium citrinum and rhizoctonia solani in submerged batch cultures at different initial glucose concentrations and aeration rates. a modified fda staining method, similar to the jones and mollison technique (p. jones and j. mollison, j. gen. microbiol. 2:54-69, 1948), was developed to assess both total and fda-stained hyphae. in previous studies, soil hyphae stained with fda we ...19827125653
solid support synthesis of all-rp-oligo(ribonucleoside phosphorothioate)s.the first method for solid support synthesis of all-rp-oligo(ribonucleoside phosphorothioate)s is presented as well as attempts to increase the stereoselectivity of the key step in this approach. the synthetic strategy consists of (i) a solid support synthesis procedure, using 5'-o-(4-methoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-o-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-ri bon ucleoside 3'-h- phosphonates, that due to stereoselectivity in the condensation step, gives oligomers with mostly sp-h-phosphonate diesters (72-89% under ...19968871563
chinese hamster cell mutant resistant to ml236b (compactin) is defective in endocytosis of low-density lipo-protein.a fungal metabolite, ml236b (compactin), isolated from penicillium citrinum, is a specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (hmg)-coenzyme a reductase (ec 1.1.1.34). three ml236b-resistant (ml236br) mutants, mf-1, mf-2, and mf-3, were isolated from v79 after n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. the fluctuation test showed 2.2 x 10(-6) mutants per cell per generation of a spontaneous mutation frequency of ml236br clones. these ml236br clones showed a four- to fivefold-higher r ...19827162516
1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase from penicillium citrinum: molecular and enzymic properties of two isoenzymes.two isoforms of acidic 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidases have been isolated from culture filtrate of penicillium citrinum. the pi values of the two forms, designated 1,2-alpha-mannosidase ia and ib, were 4.6 and 4.7 respectively. isoenzymes ia and ib exhibited the same molecular mass which was determined to be 53 kda by sds/page and 54 kda by gel-permeation chromatography. enzymes ia and ib hydrolysed yeast mannan and 1,2-alpha-linked mannooligosaccharides, but did not hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl alpha-d-man ...19938452520
cloning and characterization of the cdnas and genes (mep20) encoding homologous metalloproteinases from aspergillus flavus and a. fumigatus.aspergillus fumigatus (afu) and a. flavus (afl), two causative agents of invasive aspergillosis, produce highly homologous serine proteinases. in addition, the former produces a 42-kda metalloproteinase (mep), whereas the latter produces a 23-kda mep. the cdna and the gene encoding the 42-kda mep were cloned and sequenced. here, we report the cloning of the cdna and the gene encoding the 23-kda mep from afl and a homologous gene from the afu. using degenerate primers based on the amino acid (aa) ...19957489900
isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the surface membrane 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease of leishmania donovani.leishmania donovani and related trypanosomatid protozoa possess an externally oriented surface membrane enzyme capable of hydrolyzing both 3'-nucleotides and nucleic acids. by virtue of these activities, this 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'-nt/nu), previously shown to be analogous to fungal and plant class-i single-strand-specific nucleases, is thought to play a critical role in the salvage of purines, essential for the survival of these organisms. the 43-kda 3'-nt/nu was purified from l. donovani ...19957630383
molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase gene, msds, from aspergillus saitoi and expression of the gene in yeast cells.a full-length cdna encoding 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase (ec 3.2.1.113) from aspergillus saitoi was cloned. analysis of the 1718 bp nucleotide sequence of the cdna revealed a single open reading frame with 1539 nucleotides of 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase gene, msds. the predicted amino-acid sequence of 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase consists of 513 residues with a molecular mass of 55,767 and is 70%, 26% and 35% identity with those of penicillium citrinum 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase, yeast alpha-mannosidase, and mou ...19958519794
immunoblot analysis of components of penicillium citrinum recognized by human ige and igg antibodies.penicillium species are well-known indoor fungi and have been considered as one of the causative agents of extrinsic bronchial asthma. we have identified that penicillium citrinum is the most prevalent penicillium species in the taipei area. in the present study, components of this airborne fungus recognized by human ige and igg antibodies were analyzed by immunoblotting. eight components ranging in mws from 112 to 17.5 kd reacted with ige antibodies in 11 serum samples. the component with an mw ...19947701013
a heat-labile serine proteinase from penicillium citrinum.a serine proteinase from penicillium citrinum was purified. the m(r) and isoelectric point were determined as about 26,000 and 9.5, respectively. activity was retained up to above 40 degrees at ph 7 for 30 min, but the enzyme was completely inactivated at 50 degrees. the first amino acids in the n-terminal region were anvvqsnvpswglarisskrpgttsytydstagegvvfygvdtg. the specificity differs from that of other serine proteinases. kinetic studies on fluorogenic substrates were determined.19937763554
antibacterial activity of marine-derived fungi.a total of 227 marine isolates of ubiquitous fungi were cultivated on different media and the secondary metabolite content of the extracts (ethyl acetate/chloroform/methanol 3:2:1) characterized by hplc. the fungi were secured from animals, plants and sediments of venezuelan waters (0-10 m) including mangroves and lagoonal areas. the extracts were tested for antibacterial activity. a total of 7 were active towards vibrio parahaemolyticus and 55 towards staphylococcus aureus, representing 18 diff ...199810409050
specificity and molecular properties of penicillolysin, a metalloproteinase from penicillium citrinum.the specificity and mode of action of penicillolysin, a metalloproteinase from penicillium citrinum, were investigated with several bioactive-oligopeptides. the enzyme showed a high affinity toward the pro-x (x = gln, lys, leu or arg) bonds of substance p, dynorphin a (1-13), neurotensin and chicken brain pentapeptide, and the r-r bonds in dynorphin a and neurotensin. preferential cleavage of bonds by the enzyme with hydrophobic amino acid residues at the p1 position were observed on the peptide ...19937763945
molecular cloning and enzymatic characterization of a trichoderma reesei 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase.a cdna encoding 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase mds 1 from trichoderma reesei was cloned. the largest open reading frame occupied 1571 bp. the predicted sequence contains 523 amino acid residues for a calculated molecular mass of 56,266 da and shows high similarity to the amino acid sequences of 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidases from aspergillus saitoi and penicillium citrinum (51.6 and 51.0% identity, respectively). t. reesei mannosidase was produced as a recombinant enzyme in the yeast pichia pastoris. replace ...200010682284
isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase, inactivating m-subunit of lactate dehydrogenase, from penicillium citrinum ke-1.a selective inactivating enzyme for the m-subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) was found in the culture filtrate of penicillium citrinum ke-1, newly isolated from soil. the enzyme was purified from the culture filtrate by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography on cm-sepharose cl-6b, and gel filtration on sephadex g-100. the purification was 124-fold with an activity yield of 81%. the purified enzyme gave a single band, corresponding to a molecular weight of 32,000, on sds polyac ...19947764863
antifungal activity of new compounds from nepeta leucophylla and nepeta clarkei.iridodial beta-monoenol acetate, isolated from the essential oil of nepeta leucophylla benth, and actinidine from n. clarkei benth were screened for antifungal activities against aspergillus flavus, aspergillus ochraceus, penicillium citrinum, and penicillium viridicatum, all known mycotoxin-producing taxa, and sclerotium rolfsii and macrophomina phaseolina, potential soybean pathogens. iridodial beta-monoenol acetate was most effective against s. rolfsii, while actinidine was highly active agai ...19968593072
cathestatins, new cysteine protease inhibitors produced by penicillium citrinum.new cysteine protease inhibitors, named cathestatin a and b, have been discovered as metabolites of penicillium citrinum. cathestatins were found to be decarbamidoyl analogs of estatins and showed a specific inhibition for cysteine proteases. cathestatins suppressed parathyroid hormone (pth)-stimulated 45ca release in organ cultures of chick embryonic calvaria.19957766039
chemical modification of penicillium 1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase by water-soluble carbodi-imide: identification of a catalytically important aspartic acid residue.1,2-alpha-d-mannosidase from penicillium citrinum was inactivated by chemical modification with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodi-imide (edc). most of the activity was lost after modification in the absence of a nucleophile, glycine ethyl ester. 1-deoxymannojirimycin (dmm), a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, showed partial protection against the inactivation. after the modification by edc without the presence of a nucleophile, proteolytic digests of the enzyme were analysed by revers ...19947945271
comparison of l-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyases of cunninghamella elegans and penicillium citrinum.l-aspartate 4-carboxy-lyase of cunninghamella elegans and penicillium citrinum has a ph optimum of 5.5. maximal activity of both enzymes is obtained at 40 degrees c, and both are thermolabile. the km of the c. elegans enzyme for l-aspartate is 25 mm, while that of the p. citrinum enzyme is 27 mm. the two enzymes are specific for l-aspartate. they are activated by pyridoxal 5-phosphate and a number of alpha-keto acids. the catalytic activity of both enzymes is stimulated by co2+, fe2+, ni2+ and m ...19947987614
[characterization of the minimal lethal dose of gamma irradiation for penicillium citrinum].the use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microorganisms which cause food decay, and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. penicillium citrinum is a fungus which produce mycotoxins responsible for intoxication in humans and animals as a result of eating contaminated food. there is little informations on the resistance of p. citrinum to radiation. the objective of this research is to determine the lethal dose of gama radiation for these microorganisms. seventy ...19937997757
lipase from a brazilian strain of penicillium citrinum.a lipases (glycerol ester hydrolases e. c. 3.1.1.3) from a brazilian strain of penicillium citrinum has been investigated. when the microorganism was cultured in the simple medium (1.0% olive oil and 0.5% yeast extract), using olive oil in as carbon source in the inocula, the enzyme extracted showed maximum activity (409 iu/ml). in addition, decrease of yeast extract concentration also reduces the lipase activity. nevertheless, when yeast extract was replaced by ammonium sulfate, no activity was ...19947998807
molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the complementary dna for penicillolysin gene, plnc, and 18 kda metalloendopeptidase gene from penicillium citrinum.a full-length cdna encoding the penicillolysin, an 18 kda metalloendopeptidase from penicillium citrinum, was cloned. analysis of the 1284 base pair nucleotide sequence of the cdna revealed a single open reading frame coding for 351 amino acid residues. the coding region of penicillolysin gene, plnc, occupies 1053 base pairs of the cdna. the sequence consists of a putative 19-residue signal sequence, a 155-residue propeptide segment, and the 177-residues of penicillolysin with a molecular weight ...19948049277
the normal mycoflora of commodities from thailand. 1. nuts and oilseeds.a comprehensive study was carried out of the fungi occurring in commodities normally traded in thailand. samples of major commodities were obtained from farmers' stocks and middlemen in major producing areas throughout the country. retail samples were obtained from outlets in and around bankok. samples were divided into two portions, one being examined in bangkok, and the second in sydney. after surface disinfection, fungi were enumerated by direct plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenico ...19938110599
development of a transformation system for the filamentous, ml-236b (compactin)--producing fungus penicillium citrinum.we present here the first report of a transformation system developed for the filamentous, ml-236b (compactin)-producing fungus penicillium citrinum. hygromycin b-resistant colonies were obtained after treatment of protoplasts with a vector containing an escherichia coli hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene fused to a 3-phosphoglycerate kinase promoter from aspergillus nidulans. the transformation rate was 194 transformants per microgram circular dna per 4 x 10(5) viable protoplasts under optimi ...19938381335
safety evaluation of phosphodiesterase produced from penicillium citrinum: summary of toxicological data.the toxicity of enzyme rp-1, an enzyme preparation used to hydrolyze yeast rna to produce flavor enhancers for use in the food industry, was evaluated in a series of studies. a 5-week dietary toxicity study in wistar rats was conducted in which animals received enzyme rp-1 in feed at concentrations of 0, 500, 2000, or 8000 mg/kg body wt/day. a 13-week dietary toxicity study in sprague-dawley rats was conducted in which animals received rp-1 concentrate at 0, 0.125, 0.5, or 2% in their diets. at ...200111259174
[effect on microelements on biosynthes of secondary metabolites in the fungus penicillium citrinum thom vkm f-1079].penicillium citrinum vkm f-1079 was found to produce clavine ergot alkaloids and citrinin, a secondary o-heterocyclic metabolite. citrinin was produced in the idiophase, whereas the production of ergot alkaloids paralleled fungal growth. the addition of manganese ions to the growth medium stimulated the biosynthesis of both citrinin and ergot alkaloids. zinc ions stimulated only citrinin synthesis. the presence of these microelements in the growth medium influenced the proportion between the erg ...200011314650
survival of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) eggs in surface and subterranean breeding sites during the northern queensland dry season.the effect of a protracted dry season on the viability of ae. aegypti (l.) eggs was examined in townsville, northern queensland, australia. eggs were placed in several different surface and subterranean larval habitats; and after four dry season months, only 1-10% of eggs remained viable in the surface and subterranean sites, respectively. low humidity and predation by periplaneta americana (l.) were the major causes of egg mortality in eggs in surface sites. p. americana was the most significan ...200111372971
cloning and sequencing of the 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) gene from penicillium citrinum and its application to heterologous gene expression.the gene coding for 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) in ml-236b (compactin)-producing penicillium citrinum was isolated from the recombinant phage lambda library using the corresponding aspergillus nidulans pgk gene as a probe. the p. citrinum pgk gene has an open reading frame of 1,254 bp, encoding a protein of 417 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,079 daltons. the position of the two introns, 59 and 60 bp respectively, was deduced from an homology comparison with the sequence ...19938431954
characterization of the 33-kilodalton major allergen of penicillium citrinum by using moabs and n-terminal amino acid sequencing.the 33 kd component has been identified as a major allergen of penicillium citrinum, the most prevalent penicillium species in the taipei area of taiwan.19979117886
fatal penicillium citrinum pneumonia with pericarditis in a patient with acute leukemia.we report here a case of fatal penicillium citrinum infection. the patient, who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia, developed signs and symptoms typical of fungal pneumonia and pericardial tamponade after undergoing standard induction chemotherapy. despite attaining complete remission of her leukemia, the patient succumbed 8 weeks after presentation. at autopsy, multiple nodular cavitary pulmonary lesions with invasion by fungal hyphae were found. pericardial and lung tissue obtained at autops ...19979316926
biochemical and molecular approaches for production of pravastatin, a potent cholesterol-lowering drug.the intensive search for inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis by screening culture broths has spanned more than 20 years here at sankyo. resulting from our efforts, ml-236b was discovered in japan as the first potent and specific inhibitor of hmg-coa reductase. this compound contributed-to the nobel prize-winning work of goldstein and brown in which they elucidated the mechanisms of the ldl receptor pathway. after the discovery of ml-236b, many attempts were performed to find other hmg-coa red ...19969704102
overproduction of 1,2-alpha-mannosidase, a glycochain processing enzyme, by aspergillus oryzae.a recombinant strain of aspergillus oryzae has been constructed in which 1,2-alpha-mannosidase, an intracellular glycochain processing enzyme with specificity toward 1,2-alpha-mannosidic linkages, has been overexpressed. for the construction, the n-terminal signal-encoding sequence of the 1,2-alpha-mannosidase gene (msdc) from penicillium citrinum was replaced with that of the aspergillopepsin i signal, and the fused gene was inserted between amyb promoter-terminator elements in the expression p ...19989532788
alkaline serine proteinase: a major allergen of aspergillus oryzae and its cross-reactivity with penicillium citrinum.aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been considered as causative agents of human allergic disorders. however, allergens of different aspergillus species have not been effectively characterized. the object of this study was to identify and characterize ige-binding components of aspergillus oryzae.19989623506
fungal spoilage of bottled mineral water.the occurrence of filamentous fungi together with bacteriological parameters was assessed in 126 samples of still bottled mineral water of eight different commercial brands in argentina. in spoiled samples with visible mycelium growth, the most frequently isolated fungal species were penicillium citrinum, p. glabrum, other penicillium species, cladosporium cladosporioides and alternaria alternata. in unspoiled samples, the genera found were penicillium, cladosporium, rhizopus, aspergillus and ph ...200211843415
synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by penicillium citrinum.1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. we describe the synthesis of acc by penicillium citrinum, purification of acc synthase [ec 4.4.1.14] and acc deaminase [ec 4.1.99.4], and their properties. analyses of p. citrinum culture showed occurrence of acc in the culture broth and in the cell extract. acc synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% l-methionine and acc deaminase ...199910227140
a simple method for extraction of fungal genomic dna.we have developed a new, simple and effective method for extraction of fungal genomic dna. the initial steps involved suspension of freeze-dried mycelium in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulphate, detachment of dna from polysaccharides by mild shearing, nacl precipitation of polysaccharides and protein, chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. the ethanol precipitate was then subjected to a second round of mild shearing, nacl precipitation, chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitat ...200010728561
inhibitory effects of eugenol and thymol on penicillium citrinum strains in culture media and cheese.in the present work we studied the antifungal effect of eugenol and thymol on the growth and production of citrinin from penicillium citrinum (nrrl 2274 and nrrl 2269) in culture media and in different spanish cheeses (arzúa-ulloa, cebreiro and san simón). the rate of growth was assessed by measuring colony diameters and the production of citrinin was measured using a rapid semi-quantitative fluorometric technique confirmed by rp-hplc. a stronger inhibitory effect of eugenol than thymol was evid ...200111482565
quinolactacins a1 and a2, new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from penicillium citrinum. 200111776439
a major decomposition product, citrinin h2, from citrinin on heating with moisture.citrinin is one of the mycotoxins produced by penicillium citrinum. we examined the decomposition products after heating citrinin in water at 140 degrees c and isolated a major product, citrinin h2 (3-(3,5-dihydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-2-formyloxy-butane). citrinin h2 did not show significant cytotoxicity to hela cells up to a concentration of 200 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 39%) in 63 h of incubation, but citrinin showed severe toxicity at a concentration of 25 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 73%). hplc ...200211866110
structure of penicillium citrinum alpha 1,2-mannosidase reveals the basis for differences in specificity of the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi class i enzymes.class i alpha1,2-mannosidases (glycosylhydrolase family 47) are key enzymes in the maturation of n-glycans. this protein family includes two distinct enzymatically active subgroups. subgroup 1 includes the yeast and human endoplasmic reticulum (er) alpha1,2-mannosidases that primarily trim man(9)glcnac(2) to man(8)glcnac(2) isomer b whereas subgroup 2 includes mammalian golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases ia, ib, and ic that trim man(9)glcnac(2) to man(5)glcnac(2) via man(8)glcnac(2) isomers a and c. th ...200211714724
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