genetic and biochemical studies of mutants of penicillium chrysogenum impaired in penicillin production.seventy-eight mutants of penicillium chrysogenum strain nrrl 1951, that were impaired in penicillin production, were isolated following treatment with various mutagens. twelve that yielded about 10% of their parental penicillin titre were studied in detail. analyses of heterozygous diploids formed between them revealed the existence of at least five complementation groups with respect to penicillin production--v, w, x, y and z. most mutants belonged to group y. a biochemical investigation of the ...1979113485
binding of messenger rna in initiation of eukaryotic translation. 1979110999
penicillin g production by immobilized whole cells of penicillium chrysogenum.penicillium chrysogenum was immobilized in polyacrylamide gel prepared from 5% acrylamide monomers (85% acrylamide and 15% n,n'-methylene bisacrylamide). penicillin produced from glucose by the immobilized mycelium was 17% of that produced by washed mycelium. however, the activity of penicillin production of the washed mycelium decreased with repeated use. on the other hand, the activity of the immobilized mycelium increased initially and decreased gradually with repeated use. the rate of oxygen ...1979106905
mycotoxins in foodstuffs. xii. the influence of the water activity (a-w) of cakes on the growth of moulds and the formation of mycotoxins.the influence of various a-w values (high, moderate and low, e.g. 0.92, 0.87, and 0.82) of cakes ("rührkuchen", made of wheat flour, sugar, eggs, fat and water) on the development and the mycotoxin production of aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), a. versicolor (sterigmatocystin), a. ochraceus (ochratoxin a), penicillium chrysogenum (citrinin) and p. expansum (patulin) was investigated. none of the moulds was able to germinate at an a-w of 0.82. an increase of the water activity resulted in a prono ...1978105507
atp sulfurylase from penicillium chrysogenum: is the internal level of the enzyme sufficient to account for the rate of sulfate utilization?the in vivo rate of sulfate activation in penicillium chrysogenum (wild-type strain atcc 24791) was determined to be 0.19 +/- 0.09 mumol g(-1) (dry weight) min(-1) by the following methods. (i) the maximum growth of the organism in synthetic medium was a linear function of the initial na(2)so(4) concentration between 0 and 8 x 10(-4) na(2)so(4). the growth yield was 1.64 x 10(-2) g (dry weight) of mycelium per mumol of added sulfate, corresponding to a minimum sulfur requirement of 61 mumol/g (d ...1979104967
adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase from penicillium chrysogenum. evidence for essential arginine, histidine, and tyrosine residues. 1979107174
development and evaluation of a potency index screen for detecting mutants of penicillium chrysogenum having increased penicillin yield. 1978100486
[physiological role of fats in the process of penicillin biosynthesis].the level of penicillin production in the presence of whale oil was shown to be higher. the stimulating effect of the oil was connected with accumulation of large biomass rather than with its specific effect on the biosynthesis. at the beginning of the process the oil eliminated the biomass accumulation lag-phase connected with beta-galactosidase repression by glucose. during the second part of the fermentation process the oil acclerated the culture growth in the presence of lactose. the rate of ...1979107853
influence of fatty acids on some microorganisms. 1979108863
enzymatic degradation by the sera of various animal species of penicillium chrysogenum mycophage double-stranded rna. 1978102327
identification of antibiotics of iturin group in various strains of bacillus subtilis.thirty eight strains of b. subtilis were tested for the presence of antifungal antibiotics of the iturin group. the characterization of these antibiotics was made on the basis of: antifungal activity against p. chrysogenum, isolation and purification of the active substance, quantitative analysis of alpha-aminoacids and identification of the liposoluble dipeptide obtained by partial hydrolysis. the only antibiotics of the iturin group found were: iturin a, mycosubtilin and bacillomycin l.197896084
[biosynthesis of penicillin upon periodic culturing of penicillium chrysogenum with an exponentially increasing glucose supply].penicillium chrysogenum was cultivated under controlled conditions and at constant specific growth rates regulated by glucose supply. the rate of penicillin synthesis (units/mg dry and pattern of time changes of the synthesizing capacity of the culture depended on the specific growth rate (hr-1). the arrest of penicillin synthesis was induced by the inherent changes of the culture rather than by external factors, e.g. use of substrates, changed limitation, accumulation of inhibitory m ...197995828
incorporation of double-labelled valine into delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine by penicillium chrysogenum.the incorporation of valine into the lld-tripeptide, delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine, a precursor of penicillin, was studied by incubating mycelial mats of penicillium chrysogenum wis. 49-2105 with double labelled valines. l-valine was incorporated into the lld-tripeptide without formation of an alpha, beta-didehydrovaline intermediate. intact d-valine was not incorporated into the lld-tripeptide.197665951
naturally-occurring double-stranded rna and immune responses. iv. influence of molecular size on antigenicity and adjuvant activity.the immunological properties of a naturally-occurring double-stranded ribonucleic acid (ds-rna), obtained from a mycophage of penicillium chrysogenum, have been studied in relation to molecular size. materials of reduced size, as reflected by molecular weight measurements, produced by ultrasonication of native ds-rna, exhibited progressively lowered ability to induce an anti-ds-rna response in mice. adjuvant and immunosuppressive activities were of similar magnitude in both high and low molecula ...197663377
fluorescent feulgen staining of fungal nuclei. 197553157
use of an immobilized penicillinase electrode in the monitoring of the penicillin fermentation. 197944848
phenylacetyl coenzyme a hydrolase. 1975237213
penicillin acylase (fungal). 1975237221
environmental factors affecting the degradation of dyfonate by soil fungi.the ability of selected fungi to degrade the soil insecticide dyfonate (o-ethyl s-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) into water-soluble, noninsecticidal metabolites was found to be dependent on the supply of nutrients, incubation time, temperature, ph, as well as other factors. with yeast extract as the carbon source (5 g/liter) and ammonium nitrate (1 g/liter) as the nitrogen source, both rhizopus arrhizus and penicillium notatum degraded the insecticide to a larger extent than with any other comb ...197546772
[penicillin biosynthesis and amino acid metabolism in penicillium chrysogenum in experiments with washed mycelium].the study of the amino acid metabolism in penicillium chrysogenum with the use of washed mycelium showed that the amount of the free intracellular amino acids significantly decreased during the process of penicillin production. still, such a decrease did not cover the nitrogen requirements of the culture for the antibiotic synthesis and mobilization of the protein nitrogen took place. by the end of the process the amount of the protein nitrogen markedly decreased. at the same time alpha-amino ni ...197941476
uptake and metabolism of alpha-aminoadipic acid by penicillium chrysogenum wis 54-1255.the uptake of 1-14c-dl-alpha-aminoadipate in resting mycelium of penicillium chrysogenum wis 54-1255 and its metabolism during benzylpenicillin formation were studied. the ph optimum for uptake at 25 degrees c was 6.4. over a range of concentrations from 0.01--1.0 mm, approximately 45% of 1-14c-dl-alpha-aminoadipate was taken up by carbon-starved mycelium. 14co2 was formed at a low rate, and the total formed amounted to only 1--3% of the 1-14c-dl-alpha-aminoadipate supplied. the intracellular po ...197831148
dependence of the mutagenic effect of n-nitroso-n-methylbiuret on the ph index.the mutagenic effect of nitrosocompounds is known to be dependent on ph. the effect of n-nitrozo-n-methylbiuret on the conidia of penicillium chrysogenum was studied within the ranges of ph from 5.0 to 7.0, the role of the buffer and distilled water being also considered. it was found that survival, morphological variation and induction of biochemical mutants depended on the value of ph. the optimal conditions for the culture treatment at the exposures tested were provided at ph 6.0 with the use ...197611741
choline sulfokinase of penicillium chrysogenum: partial purification and kinetic mechanism. 197718095
specificity of extracellular alkaline rnaase from penicillium chrysogenum 152a.specificity of chromatographically homogenous extracellular alkaline rnaase from pen. crysogenum 152a on rna, synthetic polynucleotides, dinucleosidemonophosphates and nucleoside-2',3'-cyclophosphates is studied. the enzyme is found to release from rna guanosine-3'-monophosphate and guanosine-2',3'-cyclophosphate only. guanylic acid is a 3'-terminal nucleotide of oligonucleotides of different length. the enzyme readily hydrolyses poly-i and practically do not splits poly-g. gpn is demonstrated t ...19751110
studies on a phospholipase b from penicillium notatum. purification, properties, and mode of action.1. phospholipase b which hydrolyzes both the acyl ester bonds of diacylphospholipids (diacyl-hydrolase) and the acyl ester bond of monoacylphospholipids or lysophospholipids, monoacyl-hydrolase or lysophospholipase, ec was purified from penicillium notatum about 2000-fold over the crude extract. the final preparation was homogeneous on disc electrophoresis. the apparent molecular weight, determined by gel filtration on sephadex g-200, was about 116,000. the isoelectric point was ph 4.0. ...19755402
the absolute configuration of the amino acids in delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)cysteinylvaline from penicillium chrysogenum.radioactive carbon-14 l-alpha-aminoadipic acid, l-cysteine, or l-valine were readily incorporated into the intracellular tripeptide, delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)cysteinylvaline (acv), by washed starved cells of penicillium chrysogenum. the labeled acv in each case was oxidized with performic acid and isolated as its corresponding sulfonic acid derivative. after acid hydrolysis, the configuration of the component acids was determined by l- and d-amino acid oxidases, which showed the tripeptide (acv) ...19762279
[physicochemical characteristics of the penicillium-bacterial virus type 5 and its nucleic acid].physico-chemical characteristics of pbv-5 virus and its nucleic acid were studied. morphologically, the virus is a rectilinear polyhedron 270 a in diameter, without a process. the sedimentation constant of a virus particle is 117s, the buoyant density of the virus in cesium chloride density is 1.437 g/cm3. as shown by qualitative reactions with orcinol and diphenylamine, the virus contains dna. the viral dna preparation in cscl gradient solution showed the buoyant density 1.719 g/cm3. electron m ...1979118588
effects of lysine analogs on penicillium chrysogenum.compounds structurally related to lysine were tested against penicillium chrysogenum wis. 54-1255 for inhibition of growth, sporulation, and penicillin formation. this strain is relatively resistant to lysine analogs. the compounds that were the more active inhibitors of growth and whose activities were reversed by l-lysine were diaminohexynoic acid, n-epsilon-methyllysine, n-alpha-methyllysine, and diaminopimelic acid. these four compounds also inhibited sporulation, which was more sensitive to ...1977413481
lysine regulation of penicillin biosynthesis in low-producing and industrial strains of penicillium chrysogenum.the inhibitory effect of l-lysine on penicillin biosynthesis by penicillium chrysogenum has been compared in a low-producing strain (wis. 54-1255) and a high-producing strain (asp-78). lysine inhibited total penicillin synthesis to a similar extent in both strains. however, in the high-producing strain the onset of penicillin synthesis occurred even at a high lysine concentration, whereas in the low-producing strain lysine had to be depleted before penicillin production commenced.1979119032
the ultrastructure of penicillium chrysogenum in the course of benzyl-penicillin biosynthesis.the find structures of high- and low-yield mutants of penicillium chrysogenum, producing 100 and 10,000 units/ml of penicillin g, were compared. the cells of both mutants demonstrated a typical eukaryotic ultrastructure. in the cytoplasm nuclei, mitochondira, lipid bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi vesicles were observed. in the cells of high-yield mutant, during the biosynthesis of penicillin, the number of lipid bodies decreased. it is possible that the lipids are metabolized in the pro ...1979120749
the site of benzyl penicillin accumulation in penicillium chrysogenum.benzyl penicillin was localized in cells of penicillium chrysogenum by means of enzymatical and immunological methods, enabling the determination of minute amounts of penicillin. the reactions were performed on ultrathin sections. they allow to determine the antibiotic inside of the cells. the results indicate that benzyl penicillin is present in the vesicles belonging to the golgi apparatus. benzyl penicillin is transported from the cytoplasm outside the cell membrane by the golgi vesicles.1979120750
phosphofrucktokinase and glucose catabolism of mucor and penicillium species.the primary catabolic pathways in the fungi penicillium notatum and p. duponti, and mucor rouxii and m. miehei were examined by measuring the relative rate of 14co2 production from different carbon atoms of specifically labelled glucose. it was found that these organisms dissimilate glucose predominantly via the embden--meyerhof pathway in conjunction with the tricarboxylic acid cycle and to a lesser extent by the pentose phosphate pathway. phosphofructokinase (ec activity could not be ...1977143338
behaviour of tritium-labelled isopenicillin n and 6-aminopenicillanic acid as potential penicillin precursors in an extract of penicillum chrysogenum.1. 3h was incorporated into solvent-soluble penicillin from isopenicillin n and 6-aminopenicillanic acid 3h-labelled in the 2beta-methyl group when the labelled compounds were incubated with a crude extract of penicillum chrysogenum. 2. with a soluble protein fraction of the extract incorporation from isopenicillin n occurred on addition of phenyl-acetyl-coa. 3. labelled benzylpenicillin was isolated after incubation of the crude extract with phenylacetyl-coa and isopenicillin and the addition o ...1975175788
mannitol production in fungi during glucose catabolism.the levels of phosphofructokinase (ec and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (ec have been determined in a number of mucor and penicillium species. mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase was found in only one species of mucor, mucor rouxii, and this with a specific activity much lower than that found in penicillium species. all of the fungi tested in the ascomycetes class exhibited mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. interference from both mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogen ...1976179688
[mutagenic action of n-nitrosodimethylurea on actinomyces rimosus and penicillium chrysogenum].high mutagenic activity of n-nitrozodimethylurea (ndmu), an agent of the group of the nitrozo compounds not studied in detail was shown with respect to prototrophic and auxotrophic strains of actinomyces rimosus, an organism producing oxytetracycline and penicillium chrysogenum, an organism producing penicillin. the rate of direct and back mutations in the auxotrophic strain of act. rimosus under the effect of ndmu was many times higher than that of spontaneous mutations. ndmu was used at one of ...1976182067
kinetic and chemical properties of atp sulphurylase from penicillin chrysogenum.adenosine triphosphate sulphurylase (atp: sulfate adenylyltransferase, ec has been purified from the filamentous fungus. penicillium chrysogenum, and characterized physically, kinetically, and chemically. the p. chrysogenum enzyme is an octomer (mol. wt. 440 000) composed of eight identical subunits (mol. wt. 55 000). some physical constants are s20,w = 13.0 x 10(-13)s, d20,w = 2.94 x 10(-7) cm2 x s-1, v = 0.733 cm3 x g-1, a1%1cm = 8.71 at 278 nm. the enzyme catalyses (a) the synthesis ...1979232997
[rate of benyzylpenicillin inactivation in native solutions during extraction].the constants of benzylpenicillin inactivation in acidified fermentation broth filtrates were different in various filtrate batches. marked inactivation of the antibiotic in the filtrates immediately after their acidification was observed. possible losses of the antibiotic due to inactivation under conditions of extraction were estimated.1975235238
acyl coa:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase. 1975237211
phenacyl:coenzyme a ligase. 1975237212
[paramagnetic properties of the conidial pigments of aspergillus niger and penicillium notatum fungi isolated from the mesosphere].the conidia of aspergillus niger and penicillium notatum detected in the upper atmospheric layers of the earth (58--77 km) were found to contain stable paramagnetic centres (pmc) at concentrations of 0.2 x 10(18) and 1.6 x 10(18) per gram of dry biomass, respectively. aspergillin, the black pigment of asp. niger, was shown to have (0.1--0.6) x 10(18) pmc per gram of dry substance (depending on the fraction). stable paramagnetism of the conidial pigments with respect to their active protecting ac ...1978213700
[carbon metabolism under conditions of regulated penicillin biosynthesis].carbon metabolism of p. chrysogenum under conditions of periodical addition of the nutrients was studied. it was found that a proper rate of the carbon source addition to the culture was of significant importance for intensive biosynthesis. the use of carbon for the energetic and constructive needs was not the same at different fermentation periods.1975235237
microbial transformations of natural antitumor agents: oxidation of lapachol by penicillium notatum.the naphthoquinone lapachol (1) is readily metabolized by several fungi and streptomycetes. preparative-scale fermentations with penicillium notatum (ui 1602) provided a major polar metabolite (4), which was isolated and identified as an intermediate of the hooker oxidation. the metabolite was synthesized by reacting lapachol with hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions.1978637549
kinetics of sulfate transport by penicillium notatum. interactions of sulfate, protons, and calcium.the active transport of inorganic sulfate by an atp sulfurylase-negative strain of penicillium notatum is promoted by h+ ions and metal ions (divalent metal ions being more effective than monovalent metal ions). initial velocity studies suggest that h+ and so4(2-) add to the carrier in an ordered sequence (h+ before so4(2-)), with h+ at equilibrium with free carrier and carrier-h+ complex. the linear reciprocal plots and replots suggest a 1:1 stoichiometry between h+ and so4(2-). ca2+ and other ...1975241386
mechanism of the antimicrobial action of pyrithione: effects on membrane transport, atp levels, and protein synthesis.pyrithione is a general inhibitor of membrane transport processes in fungi. a brief preincubation of penicillium mycelia with pyrithione resulted in a marked decrease in the activities of a variety of independently regulated transport systems, including those for inorganic sulfate, inorganic phosphate, methylamine (actually, the nh(4) (+) permease), choline-o-sulfate, glucose, l-methionine (a specific system), and several hydrophobic l-alpha-amino acids (the general amino acid permease). the deg ...197828693
the stereochemistry of beta-lactam formation in penicillin biosynthesis.1. (2r,3s)-[u-14c,3-3h1]- and (2r,3r)-[u-14c,2,3-3h2] cysteine hydrochlorides have been separately synthesised. the latter compound has been shown to have uniform distributions of tritium between c-2 and c-3. 2. the abvoe cysteines and (2r)-[u-14c,3,3,3',3'-3h4]cystine have been converted to samples of penicillin g by penicillium chrysogenum. 3. incorporation results indicate that all but 14% of the tritium is lost from the (2r,3s)-[3-3h1]isomer; that 42% of tritium is retained by the non-stereo ...1977405213
effect of media composition on the penicillin production.the conventional penicillin fermentation medium is composed of corn steep liquor, glucose, lactose, minerals, oil, and precursor. the penicillin activity was not affected, due to the addition of carbonate 0-1% or whale oil 0.5% instead of 1%. also the omission of cupric, magnesium, manganese, zinc sulphates, and acetic acid did not affect the penicillin activity, while the omission of ammonium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate decreased the penicillin activity in the medium. the penicil ...1977406754
[metabolites toxic for penicillin biosynthesis in p. chrysogenum fermentation].substances toxic for biosynthesis of penicillin accumulated in the medium at the end of the process during penicillin fermentation. accumulation of such substances was associated with the mycelium autolysis. addition of nutrient substances as soon as they are consumed prevented autolysis of the mycelium and accumulation of the toxic metabolites.1975813562
mycotoxins in foodstuffs. x. production of citrinin by penicillium chrysogenum in bread. 1977412758
a taxonomic study of the penicillium chrysogenum series.the taxonomy of the penicillium chrysogenum series is reconsidered. on account of the observations of the available type strains and numerous isolates mainly obtained from food products, penicillium notatum westling, p. meleagrinum biourge and p. cyaneofulyum biourge are placed in synonymy with p. chrysogenum thom. synonymy and variability of the species are discussed.1977413477
conditions for induced fusion of fungal protoplasts in polyethylene glycol containing polyethylene glycol mw 6000 (peg) induced fusion of protoplasts of penicillium chrysogenum. balanced heterokaryons were formed by fusion of nutritionally complementing protoplasts. heterokaryotic fusion products were obtained up to a frequency of 4% of the number of protoplasts, surviving the fusion treatment. investigation of the conditions, necessary to achieve this high fusion frequency, showed that supplementing the peg solution with ca++ and adjustment to high ph gave t ...1975242297
[study of the effect of microconcentrations of glucose on the biosynthesis of penicillin].a method of "acute" experiments with significant dilution of the fermentation broth is proposed for studying the effect of easily assimilable substrates on growth of the culture and production of the antibiotic by it. the effect of microconcentrations of glucose on the parameters of the process kinetics was studied with respect to penicillin. the specific effect of microconcentrations of glucose on the specific rate of the culture growth and productivity was noted.1977407839
homocitrate synthase as the crucial site of the lysine effect on penicillin biosynthesis.homocitrate reverses the lysine inhibition of penicillin bisynthesis. since lysine is known to inhibit homocitrate synthase, reversal by the reaction product identifies this enzyme as the crucial site of the lysine effect.1977411778
degradation of lignocellulosic material and humus formation by fungi.cellulase activity and degradation of cellulose and lignin in wheat straw and formation of humus during degradation by aspergillus sp., chaetomium globosum, fusarium solani, paecilomyces varioti, penicillium chrysogenum and trichoderma viride qm9414 were studied. c. globosum, f. solani, p. varioti and p. chrysogenum produced little or no cellulase when grown on cellulose powder. however, all produced cellulase (filter paper degrading activity) when grown on wheat straw. all the cultures degraded ...1979507620
[penicillium chrysogenum mycelial productivity in the 1st phase of penicillin biosynthesis].the course of the mycelium low productivity during the first phase of the usual two-stage process of penicillin biosynthesis was studied. it was found that the low productivity of the mycelium at the beginning of the fermentation process was probably associated with catabolic regression of the penicillin-producing system. the high specific growth rate registered in the experiments (0.06-0.08 hours-1) had no negative effect on the mycelium productivity. it was not possible to connect the producti ...1978414656
adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase from penicillium chrysogenum equilibrium binding, substrate hydrolysis, and isotope exchange studies. 1978415663
in vitro actions of some antibiotics on phospholipases.the effects of some antibiotics on activities of phospholipase a2, b and c were investigated in vitro. tetracyclines, macrolides, chloramphenicol and carbenicillin inhibited the activity of crotalus adamanteus phospholipase a2 towards phospholipids of egg-yolk emulsions. when the ability to inhibit the activity of penicillium notatum phospholipase b towards mixed micelles of phosphatidylcholine and triton x-100 was investigated, polymyxin b was found to be inhibitory while chloramphenicol and ca ...1979541266
inhibition of protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates by double-stranded rna and oxidized glutathione: indirect mode of action on polypeptide chain the presence of added double-stranded rna or oxidized glutathione, protein synthesis in heminsupplemented reticulocyte lysates declines abruptly after 8-12 min of incubation at 30 degrees. the kinetics of amino-acid incorporation are very similar to those seen when lysates incorporation are very similar to those seen when lysates are incubated in the absence of added hemin. the inhibitory effects of double-stranded rna (dsrna) and oxidized glutathione (gssg) are partially overcome by a homoge ...1975805425
[the protective role of pigments against uv rays in fungi isolated from the mesosphere].five among six species of microorganisms isolated from the mesosphere contained pigments which made them more resistant to the action of uv as compared to pigmentless microorganisms in the atmosphere of earth. uv irradiation in the atmosphere is supposed to select resistant pigmented forms, so that they predominate in the mesosphere. to confirm this assumption, mutants of aspergillus niger, penicillium notatum and circinella muscae were sported by irradiating them four times and then subjecting ...1977600090
ionic strength effects on the stability and conformation of penicillium chrysogenum mycophage double stranded rna.the effect of [na+] on the stability and conformation of penicillium chrysogenum mycophage dsrna (pcmdsrna) was investigated using cd and uv optical techniques. thermal melting profiles reveal prominent fine structure attributed to at least four regions of structural dissimilarity. a constant increased thermal stability of the dsrna compared to dna of the same base composition was observed over a concentration range of 1.5 times 10- minus 4 m to 4.5 times 10- minus 2 m na+. at low ionic strength ...1975806900
studies on a phospholipase b from penicillium notatum. substrate specificity.1. the action of a highly purified phospholipase b from penicillium notatum on 1-o-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-, 1-o-alkyl-2-acyl-, 1,2-diacyl-, 1-acyl- and 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, monoacyl-, diacyl- and triacylglycerols, cholesteryl oleate and p-nitrophenyl acetate was studied. 2. the hydrolysis products of the monoethermonoacylglycerophospholipids were identified as fatty acids, 1-o-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-o-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. the hydrolysis rates were ...1978638179
the characteristics of inhibition of protein synthesis by double-stranded ribonucleic acid in reticulocyte lysates.all types of double-stranded rna (dsrna) tested inhibit protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. the inhibition is characterized by its strongly biphasic kinetics, and can be enhanced by preincubation of the lysate with dsrna in the absence of protein synthesis. only properly and extensively matched dsrna (greater than about 50 base pairs) has this property; no form of dna, single-stranded rna or even rna-dna hybrids act as inhibitors in this way. the cause of the inhibition appears to ...1975803491
[microbial hydroxylation of estratrienes].incubation of the synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinyl-estradiol-3-methylether (mestranol) with cultures of penicillium chrysogenum gave 6alpha-hydroxy-17alpha-ethinylestradiol-3-methylether and 6beta-hydroxy-17alpha-ethinylestradiol-3-methylether. the corresponding 3-demethylated compound, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, gave the 6alpha- and 6beta-hydroxy derivatives in lower yields. if the 6-hydroxy compounds were incubated, they were partially isomerized to a mixture of the 6alpha- and 6beta-hydroxy ...1975808060
[properties of alkaline ribonuclease from penicillium chrysogenum 152a]. 1975239761
incorporation of double-labeled l-cystine and dl-valine in penicillin.l-[3,3'-(3)h]cystine was incorporated into penicillin with retention of one tritium. this result can be explained by beta-lactam formation through ring closure between c3 of cysteine and nh of valine. no radioactivity of dl-[2,3-(3)h]valine was incorporated into penicillin. the loss of isotope at c2 occurs during the inversion of configuration. the loss of label at c3 is discussed in terms of possible intermediates for the formation of the thiazolidine ring of penicillin.1975809001
[fungal allergens]. 1975809938
terminal structure involving a single-stranded stretch in the double-stranded rna from penicillium chrysogenum virus. 1977408972
[biosynthesis of penicillin and the biphasal development of a p. chrysogenum culture].the two-phase pattern of penicillin biosynthesis was observed only under definite cultivation conditions. when the conditions of the culture growth changed, the productivity curve also changed. the most high productivity levels on the glucose medium and the medium with glucose and lactose were noted at the beginning and in the middle of the process respectively. under more or less equal conditions the productivity remained at the same level.1975813566
presence of delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine in fermentations of penicillium chrysogenum.cultures of penicillium chrysogenum, growth with [(35)s]sulfate or labeled amino acids, were examined by ion-exchange chromatography for possible peptidic precursors of penicillin. a sulfur-containing compound, present in both the mycelial extracts and the culture filtrates, was eluted at the location of the synthetic lld-tripeptide delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine. since this compound was also labeled when the cultures were incubated with dl-[6-(14)c]alpha-aminoadipic acid, l-[3 ...1975813571
theoretical conversion yields for penicillin synthesis.the efficiency of conversion of the carbon-energy source to product is of primary importance in many fermentation processes. in order to assess the efficiency of a process, one must know how close the actual conversion yield is to the theoretical maximum. theoretical conversion yields are useful, therefore, as guides in improving a process. this knowledge is particularly important today because the cost of raw materials is rapidly rising. in this study, the biochemical pathway of penicillin synt ...1977409442
a quantitative evaluation of the antifungal properties of glutaraldehyde. 1977409708
[large-scale purification, crystallization and some physicochemical properties of extracellular guanyl-rnases c2 and pch1].the purification of rnase c2 from 76.5 1 of asp. clavatus cultural fluid and rnase pch1 from 160 1 of pen. chrysogenum 152 a cultural fluid was described. 1150-fold purification of rnase c2 was attained by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, ion-exchange chromatography and rechromatography on deae-cellulose, gel chromatography on sephadex g-75, and crystallization from diluted acidic buffer. during the preparation of rnase pch1 additional chromatography on cm-cellulose was used before crystalli ...1977410458
action of nucleases on double-stranded rna.double-stranded rnas from penicillium chrysogenum virus have been treated with rnase iii, pancreatic rnase a and rnase t1 and the degradation of the rnas has been studied under different conditions. it was found that only the two former enzymes cut across both strands, rnase t1 cannot cleave double strands. rnase iii was shown to digest double-stranded rna by a two step process: an initial phase of specific cleavage is followed by random degradation. in the first phase the enzyme exhibited a def ...1976813998
[bacteria-infectious viruses in penicillium chrysogenum strains with differing antibiotic activity].a new virus capable of replication on e. coli c was isolated from penicillium chrysogenum. six strains of p. chrysogenum differing in the cultural-morphological and biochemical properties and the titer of virus pbv5 were studied. the data provided a supposition that there were definite connections between the titer of virus pbv5 in the mycelium and the fungus ability for the antibiotic production.1975817655
genetics of biosynthesis and overproduction of penicillin. 1976823642
[pbv5 virus induction in penicillium chrysogenum mycelium].the effect of some physical (increased temperature, uv light) and chemical (n-nitrosomethylbiuret, proflavin, acridine orange) factors on the virus titer in 2 strains of penicillium chrysogenum was studied. thermoinactivation of the virus and its induction under the effect of uv light and proflavin were shown. slight induction was observed with n-nitrosomethylbiuret and acridin orange. it was supposed that induction of the virus in the mycelium of penicillium chrysogenum was spontaneous.1975817656
somatic hybridisation of penicillium roquefortii with p. chrysogenum after protoplast fusion. 1976822346
effect of temperature cycling on the production of aflatoxin by asperfillus parasiticus.aspergillus parasiticus (nrrl 2999) was grown under cycling temperature conditions on rice and nutmeat substrates. under conditions of diurnal and nocturnal time-temperature sequencing, total heat input is an important factor of toxin production. when expressed in degree hours per day, thermal input becomes more definitive and provides a finite number, which can be related to observable changes in the culture such as sporulation and toxin biosynthesis. three well-defined levels of response were ...1976825039
adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase from penicillium chrysogenum. steady state kinetics of the forward and reverse reactions.the kinetic mechanism of atp sulfurylase was established from initial velocity, product inhibition, and dead-end inhibition studies. in the forward direction, the reaction is steady state ordered, with mgatp=a, sulfate=b, mgpp1=p, and aps=q.kma=0.38 mm, kia=0.71 mm, kmb=0.50 mm. nitrate and chlorate are competive with sulfate and uncompetitive with mgatp. kino3-=0.25 mm; kic1o3-= 0.15 mm. amp and various mgatp analogs are competitive with mgatp and mixed-type inhibitors with respect to so42-. th ...1976819440
synthesis of delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)cysteinylvaline and its role in penicillin biosynthesis.1. the stereoisomers of delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinylvaline (lld, lll and dld) were synthesized from valine labelled with 3h in its methyl groups or in the alpha position. l-cysteinyl-d-[4,4'-3h]valine was also synthesized. 2. 3h was incorporated into a compound that behaved like penicillin n when the lld tripeptide containing either a methyl- or an alpha-labelled valine residue was incubated with a cell-free system prepared by lysis of protoplasts of cephalosporium acremonium. 3. incorp ...1976825110
[changes in the nuclear material of the germinating conidia of penicillium chrysogenum].changes in the nucleic acids during germination of the conidia were studied. it was shown that the procedure of the conidia cultivation on millet followed by vacuum drying may be considered as a means of the spore synchronization. it was found that exogenic 3h-thimidine was intensively incorporated into nucleic acids. the incorporation of the label was most intensive during the first 3 hours of incubation. changes in the quantitative content of dna in the conidia were also most intensive during ...1976826214
discrimination of competent bacillus subtilis with respect to ribonucleic acids.a study has been made of the affinity of double-stranded helical rna for dna receptors in competent bacillus subtilis. in competition experiments, using homologous and heterologous dna samples which had been sheared to molecular weights comparable to that of the rna (about 2 x 10(6)), and which still exhibited appreciable competition in dna uptake experiments, the replicative form of phage f2 rna showed no evidence of affinity for receptor sites. a second double-stranded rna preperation from a w ...1976827684
otomycosis: a survey in the eastern province of saudi arabia.the eastern province of saudi arabia is characterized by a high perennial relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. one hundred and forty-eight cases clinically suspected of being otomycotic were examined by culture over a period of 13 months; 120 gave positive results and yielded 131 fungal isolates, of which 110 were single infections and 10 mixed infections of two or more fungi. a. niger was the most common (51.15%), then a. flavus (18.32%) penicillium notatum (5.34%), c. albicans and a. te ...1978712219
upper boundary of the using meterological rockets fitted with specially designed analyzers, samples for microbiological investigation have been taken. the analyzer design prevented extraneous microorganisms from penetrating into the analyzer. before being used, the analyzers were sterilized with high gamma-ray doses. for the first time microorganisms have been detected in the mesosphere at an altitude of 48 to 77 km. the microorganisms are microscopic fungi having black conidia or spores (circinella muscae, asperg ...1978623455
free and bound magnesium in fungi and yeasts.the content of total, bound and osmotically free magnesium was estimated in various fungi and in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae. total magnesium increases at lower growth rates of endomyces magnusii and penicillium chrysogenum 140a as well as during the logarithmic stage of growth of penicillium chrysogenum q-176. the binding of magnesium requires orthophosphate, decreasing during lack of external phosphate when the intracellular concentration of free magnesium rises. the fungi were found to ...1975811509
cellulose-decomposing fungi of salt marshes in egypt.seventy-five species and three varieties which belong to thirty-four genera were identified from 74 soil samples collected from salt marshes in egypt. the most frequent fungi were aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, cladosporium herbarum and alternatia alternata, followed by aspergillus terreus, curvularia spicifera and penicillium notatum. six genera were of moderate occurrence: penicillium, fusarium, curvularia, rhizopus, stachybotrys, and chaetomium. five genera were of low occurrence: ...1978624509
[study of the mycelial carbohydrates of penicillium chrysogenum and of its inactive mutant].metabolism of carbohydrates was studied in penicillium chrysogenum 194 and in its inactive mutant growing on a defined medium, and also in the washed mycelium of these cultures. the percentage of nitrogen decreased in the mycelium of both strains with aging as a result of the accumulation of carbohydrate-containing substances dissolved in cold and hot hydrochloric acid. the rate of synthesis of these substances in the inactive mutant is higher than in the strain 194. the difference is especially ...1975813089
microbial assimilation of alkyl nitro compounds and formation of nitrite.66 representative strains of bacteria, yeasts and fungi were tested for their ability to grow in a semidefined medium containing 0.5% nitroethane as a nitrogen source. about half of them were found capable of growing in the medium. hansenula beijerinckii, candida utilis, and penicillium chrysogenum were most active in assimilating nitroethane. 2-nitropropane inhibited growth of most of the microorganisms tested in a medium containing 0.2% peptone and 0.2% glycerol. hansenula mrakii was found to ...19751217935
genomic dna sequences of mitochondrial trna genes in fungi penicillium chrysogenum kctc1262: trna(arg), trna(asn) and trna(tyr) genes. 19921280811
positional specificity of phospholipase b of penicillium notatum.phospholipase b[ec] of penicillium notatum was shown to catalyze the following two reactions successively: diacylphospholipidlead to 1-monoacylphospholipid+fatty acid; and 1-monoacylphospholipid lead to glycerylphosphoryl-base+fatty acid. 1-monoacylphospholipid was accumulated measurable in a reaction mixture containing methanol. an attempt to classify phospholipase b according to positional specificity is described.1977863863
fatal necrotizing esophagitis due to penicillium chrysogenum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.although blue-green molds of the genus penicillium are ubiquitous in the human environment, invasive penicilliosis is uncommon and primarily encountered among immunosuppressed patients. a patient with hiv infection who died of severe necrotizing esophagitis caused by penicillium chrysogenum is reported and the relevant english language literature on human penicilliosis is reviewed. although infectious esophagitis is commonly associated with aids, penicillium esophagitis has not been described in ...19921291312
[selection of penicillium chrysogenum--producer of penicillin with several valuable technologic features].the efficiency of the routine methods for improvement of p. chrysogenum providing specific selection by several features with testing one of them was studied. a new highly potent strain of p. chrysogenum producing phenoxymethylpenicillin was isolated. the strain is characterized by a shorter fermentation cycle, lower viscosity of the fermentation broth and capacity for synthesizing 32,600 units/ml of phenoxymethylpenicillin under industrial conditions (in a lactose medium) by the 97th hour of th ...19921304123
reversion of l-lysine inhibition of penicillin g biosynthesis by 6-oxopiperidine-2-carboxylic acid in penicillium chrysogenum pq-96.6-oxopiperidine-2-carboxylic acid (oca; cyclic alpha-aminoadipic acid) reverses the l-lysine inhibition of penicillin g production by penicillium chrysogenum pq-96. the reaction probably depends on the recovery of l-alpha-aminoadipic acid for penicillin g production from oca.19901367520
comparison of the biophysical and biochemical properties of penicillium cyaneo-fulvum virus and penicillium chrysogenum virus.the biophysical and biochemical properties of penicillium cyaneo-fulvum virus (pc-fv) and penicillium chrysogenum virus (pcv) have been compared. in sucrose density gradient sedimentation, purified virus preparations gave one major component, l, and three minor components e1, e2 and h with sedimentation coefficients of 145s, 80s, 102s and 172s respectively in each case. e1, e2 were shown to be empty particles. pc-fv l particles contained only double-stranded rna, which separated in polyacrylamid ...1977833575
evaluation of two unstructured mathematical models for the penicillin g fed-batch fermentation.the mathematical model for the penicillin g fed-batch fermentation proposed by heijnen et al. (1979) is compared with the model of bajpai & reuss (1980). although the general structure of these models is similar, the difference in metabolic assumptions and specific growth and production kinetics results in a completely different behaviour towards product optimization. a detailed analysis of both models reveals some physical and biochemical shortcomings. it is shown that it is impossible to make ...19921285644
comparison of the performances of stirred tank and airlift tower loop reactors.following a consideration of the prerequisites for reactor comparison and the fundamental differences between stirred tank and airlift tower loop reactors, their performances are compared for the production of secondary metabolites: penicillin v by penicillium chrysogenum, cephalosporin c by cephalosporium acremonium, and tetracycline by streptomyces aureofaciens. in stirred tank reactors, cell mass concentrations, volumetric productivities, and specific power inputs are higher than in airlift t ...19901367443
the biosynthesis of proteases with fibrinolytic activity in immobilized cultures of penicillium chrysogenum h9.the yield of fibrinolytic and other proteolytic enzymes by ca-alginate immobilized cells of penicillium chrysogenum h9 was compared to that of free cells. the gel matrix protected the immobilized cells from lysis providing higher stability to the biocatalyst. the highest fibrinolytic activity/caseinase activity ratio was obtained in immobilized cell cultures. the composition of culture medium influenced enzyme production, showing different patterns in free and immobilized cultures. an alginate c ...19901367445
penicillin production by glucose-derepressed mutants of penicillium chrysogenum.wild-type strains of penicillium chrysogenum produce lower penicillin v titers in media containing excess glucose. two mutant strains were isolated and shown to produce normal penicillin v titers in the presence of excess glucose. these strains, designated as glucose-repression insensitive (gri) mutants, produced higher penicillin v titers than the wild-type strain in media containing lactose as the main carbohydrate source. in lactose-based media, the production of penicillin v was depressed to ...19901367481
molecular characterization and functional analysis in aspergillus nidulans of the 5'-region of the penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin n synthetase gene.the isopenicillin n synthetase gene (pcbc) was isolated from a genomic library of penicillium chrysogenum bc39813, a penicillin production strain. the nucleotide sequence, including 555 bp upstream of the translation start site was determined. various deletions within the pcbc 5'-region were constructed and linked to the escherichia coli lacz gene. an aspergillus nidulans argb strain was transformed with dna of these constructions. the region essential for promoter function could be localized be ...19911367495
strain improvement of penicillium chrysogenum by recombinant dna techniques.the pende gene from penicillium chrysogenum has been isolated; the gene is located in close vicinity of the pcbc gene. amplification of the pcbc-pende gene cluster in penicillium chrysogenum wis54-1255 leads to a significant increase in penicillin production. in selected transformants an increase of up to 40% is observed.19911367496
decreased production of para-hydroxypenicillin v in penicillin v fermentations.penicillin v (phenoxymethyl penicillin) is produced by industrial strains of penicillium chrysogenum in the presence of phenoxyacetic acid (poac), a side-chain precursor for the penicillin v molecule. the wild-type strain of p. chrysogenum produces an undesirable penicillin byproduct, para-hydroxypenicillin v (p-oh penicillin v), in addition to penicillin v, via para-hydroxylation of poac and subsequent incorporation of the p-oh phenoxyacetic acid into the penicillin molecule. most of the p-oh p ...19911367508
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