soil fungistasis: elevation of the exogenous carbon and nitrogen requirements for spore germination by fungistatic volatiles in soils.axenic, washed conidia of fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, aspergillus flavus, and verticillium albo-atrum were placed on washed difco purified agar discs along with an inorganic salt solution containing various levels of carbon and nitrogen substrates. these discs were exposed to volatiles from six soils (ph 5.1-8.6). fusarium solani macroconidial germination was inhibited mostly by volatiles from soils of ph 5.1, 6.1, 7.0, and 7.5, but high levels of glucose and nh4cl reversed this inhibition, ...1975135
a particulate chitin synthase from aspergillus flavus link: the properties, location, and levels of activity in mycelium and regenerating protoplast preparations.chitin synthase (ed has been characterized in aspergillus flavus. a k(m) value of 2.5 m(m) was obtained for the substrate udpglcnac. the enzyme had a requirement for glcnac, and mg2+ and activity was increased in the presence of soluble chitodextrins f1 and f2. the optimum activity was obtained using tris--hcl buffer, ph 7.5, with a secondary peak at ph 6.2 and an incubation temperature of 29.5 degrees c. distribution patterns of chitin synthase in protoplasts and mycelial material wer ...19769191
synthesis of chitin by particulate preparations from aspergillus flavus.cell-free extracts from aspergillus flavus catalyzed the synthesis of chitin from udp-glcnac. most of the activity was associated with membrane-rich fractions whereas no activity was detected in the cell walls. chitin synthetase was activated by fungal acid proteases; animal and plant proteases destroyed it. upon incubation at 0 c and 28 c chitin synthetase was inactivated, probably by the action of proteases present in the particulate preparations. maximal activity was obtained at ph 6.6-7.1 an ...197610833
use of aspergillus flavus to evaluate the relative nutritive value in cultivars of rye, wheat and triticale. 197611366
mycotoxicoses. 197615366
isolation, purification and investigation of physico-chemical properties and specificity of leu-gly-gly-amino peptidase.a highly purified (237-fold) preparation of extracellular leu-gly-gly aminopeptidase was isolated from the 716 strain of mould aspergillis flavus. the enzyme was found electrophoretically and enzymatically homogeneous, using leu-beta-naphthylimide as substrate. the ph optimum is 8.60; the temperature optimum is about 50 degrees c. the enzyme was inhibited by edta and completely reactivated by co2+ ions; ca2+ and mn2+ ions considerably restored the enzyme activity. the enzyme showed the optimal a ...197615640
influence of solute and hydrogen ion concentration on the water relations of some xerophilic fungi.germination and growth of six xerophilic fungi, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus ochraceus, eurotium chevalieri, chrysosphorium fastidium, wallemia sebi and xeromyces bisporus were examined on media of a wide range of water activities (aw). the influence of three solutes, nacl, glycerol and a glucose/fructose mixture, was studied at ph 4-0 and ph 6-5 using a plate-slide technique. germination times and growth rates were affected by solute type, but the influence of ph was less marked. except for ...197719558
effects of various acids and salts on growth and aflatoxin production by aspergillus flavus nrrl 3145.the effects of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, malonic acid, and sodium malonate on growth and aflatoxin production by aspergillus flavus were investigated in synthetic media. sodium chloride at concentrations equivalent to or greater than 12 g/100 ml inhibited growth and aflatoxin production, while at 8 g or less/100 ml, growth and aflatoxin production were stimulated. at 2 g or less/100 ml, sodium acetate also stimulated growth and aflatoxin production, but redu ...197619682
biosynthesis of aflatoxins. 197723090
biosynthesis of fat in surface culture of a local strain of aspergillus aspergillus flavus strain isolated from egyptian soil produced fat in appreciable amounts. general evidence for the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in this organism has been ascertained by the detection of citric, malic and fumaric acids in the metabolized culture solution. maximum fat yield was attained after seven days of incubation. the lower intial ph value of the media favoured the fat obtained from the felts and raised its acid value. when the felts were sterilized in their ac ...197940364
hepatitis due to aflatoxicosis. an outbreak in western of western india have experienced an outbreak of hepatitis affecting man and dogs and characterised by jaundice, rapidly developing ascites, portal hypertension, and a high mortality-rate. the disease was associated with the consumption of maize contaminated heavily with aspergillus flavus. analysis of contaminated samples showed that affected people could have consumed between 2 and 6 mg. of aflatoxin daily over a period of a month. a specimen of liver obtained at necropsy showed bileduct ...197548730
physiology and characterization of a fungal milk-clotting enzyme from aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus produced extracellularly an active rennin-like enzyme when grown aerobically in whey media. the enzyme was detected at early stages of growth reaching a maximum after three to four days at 25 degrees. the activity was destroyed by heating to temperatures higher than 50 degrees, whereas the presence of skim milk during heating preserved the enzyme activity, at least, up to 70 degrees. calcium chloride significantly stimulated the milk-clotting activity up to 1% final concentrat ...197665107
characterization of antigens from aspergillus fumigatus. iii. comparison of antigenic relationships of clinically important aspergilli.antigenic relationships between strains of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus fumigatus var. elipticus, aspergillus phialiseptus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus niger were analyzed by fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis and by skin tests. seventy-three to 89 % of the numbers of antigens detected between strains and species of the a. fumigatus series were shared. the degree of sharing between antigens of a. flavus, a. fumigatus series, and a. niger was much lower and ranged from 19 to 35 %. i ...197992906
antimicrobial activity of some fatty acid derivatives. 197896164
the influence of metabolic inhibitors and incubation time on aflatoxin release from aspergillus flavus. 197897529
[orbital aspergillosis caused by aspergillus flavus]. 197897750
aspergillus flavus keratitis.corneal infection due to the species aspergillus flavus is rare and often destructive. this report describes a case of aspergillus flavus corneal ulcer that failed to respond to amphotericin b, pimaricin, and clotrimazole. the eye subsequently became phthisical. the rational approach to the management of fungal corneal infection is to culture or perform sensitivity tests on the isolated organism. early surgical intervention should be done if the infection fails to respond to medical treatment, a ...197898087
evaluation of potential for aflatoxin occurrence on celery, cauliflower, lettuce, and taro root inoculated with aspergillus flavus and a. parasiticus.culture samples of lettuce, cauliflower, celery, and taro root (colocasia esculenta) were assayed for the presence of aflatoxin after inoculation with aspergillus flavus and a. parasiticus. cultures of a. flavus produced both aflatoxins b1 and g1 on taro root, but produced by b1 on lettuce, cauliflower, and celery. for taro root, the percentage of aflatoxin g1 produced was considerably greater than that of b1. while a. parasiticus did produce mycelia and spores on the lettuce and taro root sampl ...197898514
[some aspects relating to the aflatoxin generation during the self-heating of cereals].in a stored batch of grain which was already affected by mould-formation tests were carried out with the known aflatoxin producer aspergillus flavus. a significantly lower aflatoxin production ensued if the mould growth was not connected with self-heating of the stored product. however, in conformity with increasing mould formation the germinating power was adversely affected and the significant signs (fatty acid number, reductive and none-reductive sugars) were influenced in the grain, irreleve ...197898933
aflatoxin production on high moisture corn and sorghum with a limited incubation.samples of ground, cracked, or whole kernels of sorghum or corn were inoculated with aspergillus flavus no. 15546. the samples were incubated at 25 or 30 c and 90% relative humidity for 48 or 72 h. in all treatments, the 72-h samples contained more aflatoxins b1 and b2 than the 48-h samples. cracked sorghum at 30 c for 72 h and whole sorghum at 25 c for 72 h contained more aflatoxins than any other treatment. even in these short incubation periods, enough aflatoxin could be produced to be harmf ...197899461
[synthesis and biological activity of 3-quinolineacetic acid derivatives (author's transl)]. 197899509
regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. iii. comparative study of adenine nucleotide pool in aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains.the adenine nucleotide pools were studied in toxigenic (nrrl 3240) and non-toxigenic (nrrl 3537) strains of aspergillus flavus group in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis. the levels of adp and amp were comparatively low in the non-toxigenic strain throughout the growth period. in the toxigenic strain the levels of adp and amp increased significantly during the stationary phase. the atp content of the toxigencic strain had higher atp levels during the stationary phase compared to the toxigenic s ...197799643
regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. 2 comparative study of tricarboxylic acid cycle in aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of aspergillus flavus.the presence of a functional tca cycle and its intermediates has been shown in aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus. the role of the tca cycle in aflatoxin biosynthesis has been studied. in a. parasiticus the tca cycle was activated on the second day of growth (exponential growth phase) resulting in the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. pyruvate accumulation to toxic levels in a. parasiticus is suggested to shift the growth phase from exponential to stationary with the onset of aflatoxi ...197799644
aflatoxin is degraded by mycelia from toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of aspergilli grown on different substrates.the ability of 9-day-old mycelia of aspergillus parasiticus nrrl 2999 to degrade aflatoxin varied depending on the substrate used to grow the mold. substrates which allowed substantial mycelial growth yielded mycelia which actively degraded aflatoxin. substrates which allowed minimal growth of mycelia yielded mycelia with little ability to degrade aflatoxin. biodegradation of aflatoxin was also strain-dependent. a. parasiticus nrrl 2999 and nrrl 3000 actively degraded aflatoxin, a. flavus nrrl 3 ...197899656
alpha-mannosidases of genera aspergillus and rhizopus. activity and capacity to utilize saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan of the best alpha-mannosidase producer aspergillus flavus link 69.strains of fungi imperfecti of genera aspergillus and rhizopus were tested for the ability to produce alpha-mannosidases. the most suitable alpha-mannosidase producer of a total of 20 strains under study was aspergillus ravus link 69. the parameters studied during the cultivation included the growth rate expressed as cell dry weight, alpha-mannosidase activity of the extracellular medium with p-nitorphenyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside as substrate, and utilization of saccharomyces cerebisiae mannan v ...1978100400
[effect of fungicides on aspergilus fungi]. 1977100848
experimental aspergillosis in monkeys. 1978100889
production of aflatoxins and other fluorescent metabolites by strains of aspergillus flavus isolated from staple foods and their toxicity to rats. 1978101430
orbito-cranial aspergillosis (clinicopathological case report). 1978101444
[mechanism of action of proteolytic enzymes]. 1978103081
determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of amphotericin b and miconazole for 21 strains of aspergillus.the susceptibility of 21 strains of aspergillus (11 of a. fumigatus, 8 of a, niger, and 2 of a. flavus) isolated from human pathologic specimens to amphotericin b and miconazole has been comparatively studied. determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of both drugs in a liquid medium showed a noticeably variability for the different strains. the values obtained for amphotericin b varied between 0.25 microgram/ml (2 strains) and 1.25 microgram/ml (5 strains) after 48 hours, and betwee ...1978104180
mycotoxins in foodstuffs. xii. the influence of the water activity (a-w) of cakes on the growth of moulds and the formation of mycotoxins.the influence of various a-w values (high, moderate and low, e.g. 0.92, 0.87, and 0.82) of cakes ("rührkuchen", made of wheat flour, sugar, eggs, fat and water) on the development and the mycotoxin production of aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), a. versicolor (sterigmatocystin), a. ochraceus (ochratoxin a), penicillium chrysogenum (citrinin) and p. expansum (patulin) was investigated. none of the moulds was able to germinate at an a-w of 0.82. an increase of the water activity resulted in a prono ...1978105507
invasive aspergillosis in acute leukemia: correlation with nose cultures and antibiotic use.aspergillosis in cancer patients is a problem. because not all patients can undergo invasive procedures, we sought other methods for diagnosis. we reviewed the data from all patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia treated at our center during a 3-year period. of 125 patients, 18 had invasive aspergillosis (cases). eleven patients had nose cultures growing aspergillus flavus or a. fumigatus; 10 of these 11 had aspergillosis, whereas only eight of 114 without such nose cultures had invasive di ...1979105657
the use of cell free extracts derived from fungal protoplasts in the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis.a supernatant fraction derived from protoplasts of aspergillus flavus was shown to be capable of converting both sterigmatocystin and versiconal hemiacetal acetate to aflatoxin b1. versicolorin a was not converted under the same conditions.1979105924
[linuron breakdown by fungi of the genus aspergillus].aspergillus flavus isolated from soil as well as museum cultures from the genus aspergillus transform linuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline by the reaction of demethylation with following hydrolysis of the amide bond; 3,4-dichloroaniline is then acetylated yielding 3,4-dichloroacetanilide. these products regulate the enzymes involved in demethylation and hydrolytic elimination of the side chain. carbon sources added to a buffer mixture inhibit decomposition of the side chain.1979106223
metabolism of a prototype mycotoxin, aflatoxin b1, and its genetic regulation. 1978106281
cyclopiazonic acid production by aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of aspergillus flavus.twenty-eight of 54 isolates of aspergillus flavus grown on autoclaved agricultural commodities such as wheat, rice and corn were found to produce the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid. eighteen of the a. flavus isolates produced aflatoxin, and fourteen isolates produced both cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxin. a preliminary screening of some aflatoxin-contaminated corn samples revealed for the first time the natural occurrence of cyclopiazonic acid in agricultural commodities.1978108598
aflatrem, the tremorgenic mycotoxin from aspergillus flavus. 1979108599
filtering hospital air decreases aspergillus spore counts.we performed counts of airborne spores in a hospital with filtered air where a decrease in nosocomial infection with aspergillus organisms had been documented. for comparison, similar studies were performed at a nearby general hospital in a ward with open windows. the total spore count inside the hospital with filtered air was significantly less than inside the ward with open windows. the total count of aspergillus organisms in the filtered air was significantly less than that in the room with o ...1979109022
comparative mutagenicity of palmotoxin bo and aflatoxins b1 and m1.the mutagenicity of palmotoxin bo and of aflatoxin m1 relative to that of aflatoxin b1, the potent mutagen, was studied in five ames' tester strains of salmonella typhimurium (ta-98, ta-100, ta-1535, ta-1537, ta-1538). aflatoxins b1 and m1 are both highly mutagenic in a microsome-mediated system in ta-100. the prediction of the relative carcinogenicity of aflatoxin m1 to aflatoxin b1 posed by the mutation of ta-100 is probably more authentic than ta-87. the mutagenic potency of palmotoxin bo is ...1979109559
kinetics of inactivation of asperigillus flavus and aspergillus terreus conidiospores by amphotericin b in the presence of serum. 1979110762
[effect of the fungal metabolites of aspergillus flavus and a. niger on the tissue sorptive capacity of the large intestine].effects of metabolites of the tiny fungi of aspergillus flavus and a. niger on the ability of mucuos membrane cells of the large intestine to absorb and exterminate certain dyes has been studied experimentally on guinea-pigs. it has been shown that under these influences, a violation of the cell and tissue metabolism in the large intestine occurs, namely, the absorbtion of the neutral red increased by 1.7 and 1.4 times, respectively, and the processes of extermination of the cells were inhibited ...1979111381
[biosynthetic pathways of important mycotoxins]. 1978111430
toxic strains among air-borne isolates of aspergillus flavus link. 1979112049
formation of carcinogenic n-nitroso compounds in corn-bread inoculated with fungi.dmna, dena and mbna are formed in corn-bread which has been inoculated with the most common species of fungi found in foodstuffs of lin xian county, henan province, such as f. moniliforme, a. flavus and others, and then, added with small amount of nano2 after a few days of incubation. these carcinogenic n-nitroso compounds can induce cancer of the liver or/and esophagus in experimental animals. results of the present study show the capability of some fungi to produce chemical carcinogens as well ...1979112676
a new n-nitroso compound, n-3-methylbutyl-n-1-methylacetonylnitrosamine, in corn-bread inoculated with fungi.a new n--nitroso compound, n--1--methylacetonyl--n--3--methylbutylnitrosamine (mambna) is found in corn-bread inoculated with the common fungi, such as fusarium moniliforme, geotrichun candidum, aspergillus terreus or a. flavipes, encountered in food of lin xian county, henan province. the preliminary identification of this compound with tlc has been confirmed by gc-ms analysis. furthermore, we have synthesized the mambna and the chemical analysis shows that it is identical with the mambna isola ...1979112677
[role of the mycelium in the elimination of aflatoxin b1 from contaminated substrates].when the aflatoxin-producing strain of aspergillus flavus, nr 14409 developed in mixed cultures with non toxigenic strains, in solid or liquid media, it produced less aflatoxin than in pure culture. investigations in view to elucidate the process promoting the toxin disappearance showed that the mycelium could immobilize a large amount of aflatoxin by adsorption on its walls.1979112901
[effect of fungi on the strength of asphalt road surface]. 1979113651
multiple toxin production by an isolate of aspergillus flavus.three toxins were recovered from rice and wheat cultures of an isolate of aspergillus flavus. the toxins were present simultaneously in the cultures after one or two weeks incubation and were identified as aflatoxin, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem, a recently identified indole-mevalonate metabolite.1979113681
polychlorinated biphenyls as unjustified or gratuitous inducers in aspergillus flavus cultures. 1979114253
[electron microscopic aspects of opportunistic fungi after pretreatment].the ultrastructive of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus niger was studied when treated in vitro with 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1% econazole nitrate and econazole base. the very first morphological alterations appear faster than in normal-growing fungus and consist in a convoluted cytoplasmic membrane, large mesosomes and lomasomes and an extensive vacuolization. acid phosphatase is found in the mesosomes and lomasomes and also in the center of the vacuoles. this is an early sign ...1979114432
[saphrophytic life of opportunistic fungi].probably all pathogenic fungi can cause opportunistic infections in compromised hosts. this paper briefly reviews our knowledge on the saprophytic life - geographic distribution and habitat - of the most common pathogenic fungi. some mycoses are of endogenous origin - e.g. candida albicans is an endosaprophyte - others of epigenon origin - e.g. pityrosporum ovale is an episaprophyte - but most mycoses are caused by fungi which have an exosaprophytic (or exosaprobic) life: one becomes infected af ...1979114433
[opportunistic fungi in the atmosphere].our knowledge in aerobiology has considerably increased in the last 20 years due to new trapping methods. the use of volumetric spore traps permits to accurately analyze the particles suspended in the air and their evolution, while the deposition method gives an incomplete picture of the real air content. the air microflora changes considerably during 24 h: some groups of spores occur in the morning, others in the afternoon and yeast-like organisms during the night. the most common fungi in the ...1979114434
[fungi in pulmonary pathology].the author presents the most frequently observed pulmonary infections due to some opportunistic fungi (yeast, aspergillus, mucor). he describes the criterial for a correct diagnosis of pulmonary mycosis.1979114435
production of sclerotia by aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains of aspergillus flavus and a. parasiticus. 1979114828
aflatoxin produced by five species of aspergillus on rice. 1979114865
invasive mycotic infections in the immunocompromised child.oncologic therapy creates a highly vulnerable group of children with little or no natural immunity. in addition to the problems of coagulopathies, these children are prone to unusual infectious diseases. one group of saprophytic infections, the mycotic organisms, represents stubborn and often lethal diseases challenging present diagnostic and therapeutic skills. this is a case report of invasive aspergillus organisms in the nose and premaxilla in a 9-year-old child suffering from acute monocytic ...1979116184
genetics of aspergillus flavus: complementation and mapping of aflatoxin mutants. 1979116906
[dynamics of b1 aflatoxin and aspergillus flavus spore formation on rye and wheat grain].rye and wheat grain was infected with aspergillus flavus spores. the dynamics of b1 aflatoxin and spore formation was studied. the synthesis of b1 aflatoxin in the mold-affected grain started simultaneously with the emergence of fungal spores; its further accumulation in the grain correlated with an increase in the spore number till the stage of maximum spore formation. the highest level of aflatoxin synthesis was inversely proportional to the number of aspergillus flavus spores which infected t ...1979117447
[the effect of high doses of aflatoxin on the pig].in two experiments, 18 pigs were given feed contaminated with aflatoxin which had been prepared by the extraction of the cultures of toxinogenic strains of the fungus aspergillus flavus. after the ingestion of aflatoxin (afb1) at a dose of 5.4 to 10.5 mg per kg of live weight, the pigs showed symptoms of peracute aflatoxicosis and died within 12--20 hours. after ingestion of afb1 at a dose of 1.4 or 3.1 mg per kg live weight, the pigs suffered from acute aflatoxicosis and died within 3 to 26 day ...1979117602
role of aspergillus and candida species in allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. a comparative study.allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (abpa) and allergic bronchopulmonary candidiasis (abpc) has been diagnosed in 20 and 13 cases respectively with one case in common, on the basis of laboratory and clinical findings. most of the abpa cases (60%) diagnosed had an early onset of respiratory symptoms, i.e. below the age of 30 years, while most of abpc cases (69%) had a late onset of respiratory symptoms, i.e. after the age of 30 years. the precipitin bands in abpa and abpc were r-type and h-ty ...1979118528
aflatoxin variation among corn samples with varying ratios of aspergillus flavus-inoculated/noninoculated kernels.aflatoxin levels and physical properties of corn kernels inoculated with aspergillus flavus during development and noninoculated kernels were compared in samples with various proportions of the 2 kernel types. the relationship between mean toxin levels and associated standard deviations of 5 samples demonstrated a linear association from the lowest toxin in noninoculated corn through a mixture of 60% inoculated/40% noninoculated. however, at the highest toxin level in the 100% inoculated materia ...1979118963
a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of antibody to aspergillus in invasive aspergillosis.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (spria) to measure antibody responses to aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus flavus antigens in invasive aspergillosis (ia) was developed and compared with immunodiffusion (id) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (cie). spria detected significant elevations in levels of aspergillus antibody in 15 (79)% of 19 patients with ia. fewer patients with ia were positive by id (give of 19) or cie (four of 19). only seven )8%) of 58 subjects with other fungal or bacterial inf ...1979118999
[adsorption of phenylurea derivative and chlorine-substituted aniline herbicides by microorganisms].adsorption of phenylurea derivatives and chlorosubstituted anilines by pseudomonas and aspergillus was studied. all these substances were adsorbed by the microorganisms in large quantities. the bacteria adsorbed more of these substances per biomass unit than the fungi. adsorption of herbicides by the microorganisms is a physical process and is characterized by the same correlation as adsorption of herbicides by soil. derivatives of phenylurea and chlorosubstituted anilines are easily washed from ...1979119144
[effect of sterigmatocystin on the toxinogenesis of the aspergillus flavus group].the aflatoxinogenesis of aspergillus parasiticus is significantly enhanced by the presence, in the medium, of sterigmatocystin at a high level (35--50 microgram/ml); low concentrations, in the order of 175 microgram/ml, have no effect on the production of aflatoxins. during the period where the aflatoxinogenesis of the culture is high, no variation of the sterigmatocystin level is noted, experiments with 14c-sterigmatocystin indicate that the mold does not utilize the metabolite itself as a prec ...1979119164
[on the serodiagnosis of aspergillosis: comparison of various aspergillus extracts (author's transl)]. 1979121207
[determination of aflatoxins and toxicogenic fungi in mixed feed for poultry].the presence of aflatoxins was determined in 155 samples of chicken feeds, as well as their fungal contamination. aflatoxins were detected in 3 of the analized samples; one of them contained 1620 micrograms/kg, a highly dangerous amount for chickens. the amount found in the remaining 2 samples was 30 micrograms/kg. a study of toxigenic fungus showed a prevalence of 69.3% of aspergillus flovus: 72.4% of this percentage corresponded to aflatoxins producing strains. the prevalence of aspergillus oc ...1979122389
otomycosis. 1978153329
improvements in the thin-layer chromatography of natural products. i. thin-layer chromatography of the aflatoxins.during the period which has elapsed since the aflatoxins were first isolated, one of the main problems has been the separation of the individual aflatoxins in pure form from aflatoxin-containing extracts. this separation has been best effected by thin-layer chromatography, and in this paper we describe how some of the difficulties may be overcome by using an appropriate combination of solvent system and silica gel preparation. for the examination of aflatoxin-containing extracts from the mycelia ...1975168220
induction of liver tumors by aflatoxin b1 in the tree shrew (tupaia glis), a nonhuman primate.the epidemiological studies suggest that aflatoxins, the toxic metabolites of the ubiquitous mold aspergillus flavus, may play a significant role in the evolution of hepatocellular carcinoma in man in certain geographic areas of the world. to ascertain their carcinogenicity in nonhuman primates, we have administered highly purified aflatoxin b1, intermittently in the diet at 2 ppm, to 10 female and 8 male tree shrews. the tree shrew (tupaia glis) is a nonhuman primate occurring throughout southe ...1976174805
aflatoxin inhalation and alveolar cell carcinoma. 1976175881
possible effects of aflatoxin consumption by man. 1976178583
silica gel medium to detect molds that produce aflatoxin.a chemically defined nutrient solution containing tartaric acid was made solid by mixing it with an alkaline silicate solution. production of aflatoxin by asperfilli growing on the silica gel medium coincided with the presence of a blue fluorescent area surrounding colonies, as observed under long-wave ultraviolet light. presence of aflatoxin in the medium was confirmed by drying the gels, extracting them with chloroform-methanol, and examining extracts for fluorescent materials by viewing them ...1976185957
regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. 1 comparative study of mycelial composition and glycolysis in aflatoxigen and nonaflatoxigenic strains.a comparative biochemical study of an aflatoxigenic strain aspergillus parasiticus nrrl 3240 and a nonaflatoxigenic strain a. flavus nrrl 3237 was carried out in order to have a better idea of regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. the results obtained revealed continuous primary metabolic activity (protein synthesis) in the nonaflatoxigenic strain while the aflatoxigenic stain showed inhibition of protein and nucleic acid synthesis. the aflatoxigenic strain showed higher levels of oxygen uptake, ...1977204853
[effect of the toxic metabolites of the fungus, aspergillus flavus, on the functional activity of the large intestine]. 1979228515
inhibition of growth of aspergillus flavus and trichoderma viride by peanut embryos.growth of aspergillus flavus and trichoderma viride on agar media was inhibited around embryos of green peanut seeds but not around embryos of cured seeds, intact peanut seeds, or testae. both fungi were able to colonize intact seeds and testae. substances inhibitory to a. flavus and t. viride were extracted with acetone from cotyledons of freshly harvested peanut seeds. four compounds inhibitory to a. flavus were detected in crude acetone extracts. three of the compounds demonstrated properties ...1975239349
[randomised investigations of some tyrolean swimming pools for the presence of trichomonas vaginalis and pathogenic fungi (author's transl)].trichomonads were not demonstrated either microscopically or by culture in water samples from 15 public open air swimming pools in the tyrol. on the other hand, a small number of pathogenic fungi (candida albicans, trichophyton mentagrophytes, tr. verrucosum) were cultured from pool water with a free chlorine content of less than 0.35 mg/l (dpd 1). dermatophytes could also be demonstrated by cultures of the coatings on the surfaces of tiles in the showers, and of pool surrounding-and cabin tract ...1975239503
[mycotoxins in foods. iv. the influence of different packing foils on the growth of aspergillus flavus and the formation of aflatoxins b1 and g1 from various kinds of sliced bread]. 1975239888
aspergillus vegetative endocarditis and complete heart block in a patient with acute leukemia.aspergillus flavus vegetative endocarditis together with myocardial abscesses and pneumonitis developed in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia. the initial diagnosis was not suspected until 67gallium imaging revealed a radiographically undetectable thoracic abnormality. despite apparently "early" diagnosis, antifungal therapy was inadequate to prevent disruption of the bundle of his, complete heart block and death.1979289479
detection of mutagens produced by fungi with the salmonella typhimurium assay.forty-one fungal isolates (one isolate per species) representing common plant pathogens and food crop contaminants were grown on sterile, polished rice and assayed for mutagenic activity in the salmonella typhimurium-microsome system. initially, single doses of aqueous and chloroform extracts of the moldy rice were assayed against the ta100 tester strain by incorporating extracts into the growth medium and by applying small quantities on disks placed on the agar surface. suspected activity was e ...1978354528
mutant of aspergillus flavus producing more aflatoxin b2 than b1.a mutant of aspergillus flavus having a high and relatively stable aflatoxin b2/b1 ratio was recovered after treatment with nitrosoguanidine.1977402111
production of cyclopiazonic acid by aspergillus flavus link.production of cyclopiazonic acid by aspergillus flavus is reported for the first time. a procedure for its production by agitated solid substrate fermentation on red wheat is described along with the isolation procedure and physical and chemical properties of this indole derivative. the compound has been found to exert antibacterial activity.1977402112
[aflatoxins-- mycotoxins of aspergillus species]. 1977403158
soluble amino and carbohydrate compounds in the testae of six experimental peanut lines with various degrees of aspergillus flavus resistance. 1977404344
factors affecting aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed i. contamination of cottonseed with aspergillus flavus at harvest and during storage. 1977405413
toxigenic fungi in food and foodstuffs of thailand a re--evaluation of its pathologic features. 1977405448
experimental aspergillosis in buffaloes: histopathological, histochemical and serological studies. 1977405583
[paronychia caused by aspergillus flavus link]. 1977405584
modification of the radiation resistance of aspergillus flavus mycelial units by some chemicals.survival curves for the mycleium of aspergillus flavus link var. columnaris raper and fennell were constructed after irradiation with gamma rays in the presence of nacl, nabr, nai, kcl, kbr, ki, cacl2, cabr2, cai2, ca(no3)2, nano2, nano3, kno2, iodoacetic acid, iodoacetamide and vitamin k5. in addition iodized salt was also tested. all the chemicals tested exhibited initial toxicity at zero dose. however, most of the chemicals demonstrated a synergism when present during irradiation. compounds c ...1977405704
[aminopeptidase system of aspergillus flavus].the aminopeptidases system contained in a complex of exocellular peptidhydrolases synthetized by asp. flavus was studied. separation of the system into individual enzymes of the type of leucin aminopeptidase, aminotripeptidase and specific leucyl-glycyl-glycine-aminopeptidase by the methods of salt fractionation. deae-sephadex a-50 and deae-cellulose chromatography. these enzymes are characterized by a different degree of purification as well as by the presence of the multiple forms, anion and c ...1977405779
natural occurrence of sterigmatocystin in in-shell pecans.the natural occurrence of sterigmatocystin (s) in in-shell pecans is reported. aspergillus versicolor was not isolated from contaminated samples. incidence of a. flavus and a. glaucus, species known to produce sterigmatocystin under laboratory conditions, was high (43 and 35%, respectively). isolation data suggest sterigmatocystin may have been produced by one or both of these species.1977406023
genetic analysis of a mutant of aspergillus flavus producing more aflatoxin b2 than b1. 1977406559
new species of aspergillus producing sterigmatocystin.a number of species belonging to the genus aspergillus were evaluated for their toxicity to ducklings and the ability to produce sterigmatocystin. three new species capable of producing sterigmatocystin were found, namely, aspergillus aurantio-brunneus, aspergillus quadrilineatus, and aspergillus ustus. all three were toxic to ducklings. the production of sterigmatocystin by aspergillus rugulosus was confirmed, and the toxicity of aspergillus stellatus and aspergillus multicolor is described.1977406838
reverse phase analytical and preparative high pressure liquid chromatography of aflatoxins. 1977408324
[study of the chemical makeup of lignin after fungal infestation by aspergillus flavus and a. niger]. 1977408590
[lipolysis and aflatoxin production in aspergillus flavus (author's transl)].lipolysis in relation to toxinogenesis has been studied in various strains of aspergillus flavus. toxinogenic strains show a lipolytic activity which is twice the activity of non-toxinogenic strains. this enzymatic activity seems to be directly linked to the biosynthesis of toxins.1977410341
reduction of sterigmatocystin and versicolorin a hemiacetals with sodium borohydride. 1977410911
opportunistic mycotic osteomyelitis: bone infections due to aspergillus and candida species. 1977411015
partial characterization of the mode of action of benzoic acid on aflatoxin biosynthesis.aflatoxin production by a toxigenic strain of aspergillus flavus was greatly reduced by benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in synthetic media. the reduction was accompanied by the appearance of a yellow pigment. spectral analyses partially characterized this pigment as closely related to an acetyl derivative of a versiconal-type compound. a cell-free extract prepared from a. flavus grown in synthetic media was active in converting this yellow compound into aflatoxin b1 in the presence of reduced n ...1977411562
electrophoretic variation in esterases in 3 wild-type and respective mutant strains of aspergillus flavus.wild-type strains and auxotrophic mutants of aspergillus flavus, differing regarding aflatoxin production, were tested for esterases isozymes. esterases variation was found in all strains used, and a possible correlation between the pattern of esterase bands and aflatoxin production is suggested.1977411683
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