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comparative immunochemical studies of different antigens of deep mycosis pathogens.the disintegration of cells of coccidioides immitis, histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces dermatitidis and candida albicans by ultrasonical treatment, repeated freezing-thawing or mechanical methods permitted to obtain antigens with a high protein content. the treatment of these fungal cells with beta-naphthol, ethanol, glycerine or alkali makes it possible to isolate antigens containing mainly polysaccharides. the studied antigens turned out to be complex compounds. proteins, glycoproteins, nucl ...197879329
preparation of reference antisera for laboratory diagnosis of blastomycosis.antiserum was prepared in rabbits against the a antigen and a new antigen (labeled the d antigen) of yeast-phase cells of blastomyces dermatitidis by using immunoelectrophoretic precipitin arcs as vaccine. the antiserum can be used as a reference serum in the immunodiffusion test for identyfying antibodies to the a antigen in sera from patients thought to have blastomycosis. antibodies to the d antigen have not yet been found in human sera. the rabbit antiserum that was absorbed with histoplasma ...1979115894
role of the conidium in dimorphism of blastomyces dermatitidis.fine details of yeastlike cell development of blastomyces dermatitidis from its conidium are described and illustrated by electron micrographs. when cultured in an enriched medium at 37c, conidia of two strains of b. dermatitidis readily underwent ultrastructural changes consistent with mycelial to yeast dimorphism. although hyphal cells contained in the conversion cultures were observed consistently to undergo profound degenerative changes, the conidia rapidly germinated to give rise to short g ...1978213723
the use of fluorescein-labelled lectins in the detection and identification of fungi pathogenic for man: a preliminary study.fluorescein-labelled lectins of known specificities for different sugars were used in an attempt to identify fungi in paraffin sections of surgical and post-mortem material. aspergillus fumigatus, blastomyces dermatitidis, candida albicans, cryptococcus neoformans, paracoccidioides brasiliensis and rhizopus oryzae have been studied with five fluorescein-labelled lectins and with basis of differences in their reactions with these stains. the results accord well with what is known of the chemistry ...1978355633
the efficacies of common dyes in primary isolation media for recovery of pathogenic fungi.dyes incorporated into a basal medium of brain heart infusion, sabhi, tryptic soy, or yeast extract--pepton--glucose (yxpg) agar for selective isolation of fungi were investigated. dilutions of 1:500, 1:750, 1:1,000, 1:5,000, and 1:10,000 of 33 common dyes were tested against 11 gram-positive and 16 gram-negative bacteria. in addition, these dyes were tested against cryptococcus neoformans, candida albicans, and the dimorphic phases of histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis. twenty- ...1979389033
interactions between human granulocytes and blastomyces dermatitidis.we studied interactions in vitro between human granulocytes and the yeast-like form of blastomyces dermatitidis, because granulocytes are prominent in the host response to systemic blastomycosis. in boyden chamber assays, broth culture filtrates of b. dermatitidis contained levels of granulocyte chemotactic activity that were significantly higher than those present in similar culture filtrates of histoplasma capsulatum and cryptococcus neoformans, two fungi that characteristically do not elicit ...1979422234
common antigens among systemic disease fungi analyzed by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis.the interpretation of immunological results in systemic mycoses has been complicated by cross-reactions among specimens from patients with blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis. the fungal preparations used in these tests evidently contained one or more antigens in common. two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis techniques were used to determine the number of antigens contained in several soluble extracts from blastomyces dermatitidis and histoplasma capsulatum that were common wit ...1979422249
pleural effusion: a rare manifestation of acute pulmonary blastomycosis.a 47-year-old woman presented with cough, pleuritic chest pain and fever of three weeks duration. although the patient lived in an area where blastomycosis is endemic, this diagnosis was not initially considered owing to the presence of consolidation and a large pleural effusion on the initial chest roentgenogram. cultures of sputa, bronchial washings and pleural fluid documented the presence of pleuropulmonary infection with blastomyces dermatitidis. therapy with amphotericin b was associated w ...1977610419
mouse model of pulmonary blastomycosis: utility, simplicity, and quantitative parameters.a murine model of pulmonary mycotic disease using blastomyces dermatitidis is defined quantitatively. intranasal inoculation with yeasts avoids delays in growing microconidia and can be performed with routine precautions without sophisticated biohazard facilities. the particles rapidly reach the bronchioles and alveoli, producing a progressive focal pneumonia, studied histologically. in vitro growth conditions are defined to titer inocula reproducibly with visual methods. median survival can be ...1978646221
in vitro and in vivo studies of ambruticin (w7783): new class of antifungal antibiotics.ambruticin is a cyclopropyl-pyran acid, representing a new class of antibiotics. it has a relatively broad antifungal spectrum in vitro and is highly active against dimorphic as well as filamentous organisms. of 24 strains of dermatophytic fungi tested, the majority were susceptible to ambruticin at 0.049 mug/ml or less. the minimal inhibitory concentration for the systemic fungi histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis was 0.049 to 0.39 mug/ml. ambruticin is fungicidal for metabolizi ...1978666301
in vitro comparison of the antifungal activities of r34,000, miconazole and amphotericin b.in vitro susceptibilities of 78 isolates of pathogenic filamentous fungi to the imidazole compounds r34,000 and miconazole and to amphotericin b were determined using an agar dilution technique. allescheria boydii, sporothrix schenckii and the dematiaceous fungi (cladosporium, fonsecaea and phialophora spp.) were most susceptible to miconazole with minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) values ranging from less than or equal to 0.25 to 32 microgram/ml and with geometric mean mic (g-mic) values o ...1978699677
effect of cetylpyridinium chloride on pathogenic fungi and nocardia asteroides in sputum.the effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (cpc) on pathogenic fungi and nocardia asteroides was studied. sputa seeded with each of 11 organisms (aspergillus flavus; aspergillus fumigatus, blastomyces dermatitidis, candida albicans, coccidioides immitis, cryptococcus neoformans, geotrichum candidum, histoplasma capsulatum; nocardia asteroides, paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and sporothrix schenckii) were treated with cpc and kept for 2, 5 and 9 days. the cpc reagent used (0.5% cpc and 0.5% sodium ch ...1976773957
amphotericin b and amphotericin b methyl ester ascorbate. i. chemotherapeutic activity against candida albicans, cryptococcus neoformans, and blastomyces dermatitidis in mice.amphotericin b methyl ester (ame) has been reported to possess in vitro antifungal activity similar to that of amphotericin b and to have less intrinsic toxicity in mice and dogs. for these reasons ame has been porposed as an alternative to amphotericin b in the therapy of deep mycoses. for comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of the two polyenes in laboratory animals before initiation of studies in humans, groups of mice were infected with candida albicans, cryptococcus neoformans, and blasto ...1976792355
case report: miliary blastomycosis with cerebral involvement.a patient was diagnosed as having labyrinthitis and an intracranial brain tumor. at the time a very fine nodularity to the bronchopulmonary markings was noted on the chest roentgenogram. subsequent follow up examination revealed diffuse nodular densities throughout both lung fields having the appearance of a miliary distribution. antituberculous therapy was begun empirically, but the patient expired within three weeks. at autopsy multiple granulomas were found in the cerebrum, cerebellum and men ...1977846556
investigation on dimorphism of blastomyces dermatitidis by agar-implantation method.by the agar-implantation developed by the authors the process of conversion on blastomyces dermatitidis from mycelial phase to yeast phase was observed. first of all slide cultures of the fungus were prepared at room temperature. upon confirmation of good hyphal growth, a cover glass was removed and a part of medium was cut out in a square of about 3 mm a side. after mice were laparotomied, each agar block cut out was implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mouse. the mice implanted with the agar ...1977846557
addison's disease secondary to north american blastomycosis.reported is the fifth known case of addison's disease due to adrenal involvement by north american blastomycosis (blastomyces dermatitidis infection). the fact that amphotericin b therapy precipitated an addisonian crisis suggests that patients with disseminated blastomycosis should have their adrenal function and reserve evaluated before undergoing systemic chemotherapy.1977877650
antigenic, chemical, and structural properties of cell walls of histoplasma capsulatum yeast-form chemotypes 1 and 2 after serial enzymatic hydrolysis.cell walls of histoplasma capsulatum yeast-form chemotypes 1 (chem 1) and 2 (chem 2) treated sequentially with several polysaccharolytic enzymes and pronase yielded soluble, nondialyzable polysaccharides at each step, which were analyzed for monosaccharides, protein composition, and serological activity. polysaccharide recovered after digestion of chem 1 walls with beta(1-->3)-glucanase contained glucose > mannose > glucosamine > galactose. this fraction (chem 1 betag(1)) was analyzed by polyacr ...1977405328
blastomyces dermatitidis treated during pregnancy: report of a case. 1977888871
blastomycosis: specificity of antigens reflecting the mating types of ajellomyces dermatitidis.in a study of sera from patients with proven or suspected blastomycosis, positive immunodiffusion tests were obtained in all active cases when fresh sera were tested with a cell sap (cs) antigen. false negatives occurred on occasion when an ethanol precipitate (epf) antigen was used alone. no false positives were found. the cs antigen from the (+) mating type had in common two lines of identity with the (cs) antigen of the (-) type. in addition, other lines were present when the patient was infe ...1977403475
the isolation of histoplasma capsulatum, cryptococcus neoformans and blastomyces dermatitidis from the same natural site. 1979394361
north american blastomycosis: a review.north american blastomycosis, first reported in 1894, and once thought to be a geographically localized disease, has now been reported worldwide. the greatest number of cases occur in the mississippi, missouri, and ohio river basins. the organism enters the body via the lungs with subsequent dissemination to other organs, including the skin, eyes, bones, and genitourinary system. patients most often present with cutaneous or pulmonary complaints. demonstration of characteristic fungal morphology ...1979391499
the effect of freezing and the influence of isolation medium on the recovery of pathogenic fungi from sputum.the primary objective of this study was to determine whether freezing sputa in dry ice had any effect on the recovery of pathogenic fungi. sputa seeded with each of five fungi (histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces dermatitidis, cryptococus neoformans, coccidioides immitis, and aspergillus fumigatus) were frozen and stored for 24, 48, and 72 hours on dry ice. h. capsulatum was killed, and only a few colonies of b. dermatitidis and c. neoformans were isolated from these sputa. however, a. fumigatus ...1977335251
in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune responses to a cell wall antigen of blastomyces dermatitidis.an alkali-soluble, water-soluble cell wall fraction of blastomyces dermatitidis, designated b-asws, was evaluated as an antigen for detecting in vivo (skin tests) and in vitro migration inhibition factor (mif) production and lymphocyte transformation (lt) responses in blastomyces-infected guinea pigs. the biological activity of b-asws was compared with that of blastomycin kcb-26. the superiority of b-asws, in terms of its sensitivity and specificity, was evident in in vivo and in vitro assays. s ...1977321349
light and electron microscopic observations of blastomyces dermatitidis in sputum.freshly expectorated sputum from a 52-year-old man with extensive pulmonary blastomycosis was examined by light and electron microscopy. wet preparations of the sputum, stained with 1% aqueous cresyl violet, revealed numerous thick-walled, spherical blastospores and occasional budding forms. ultrastructurally, the blastospores revealed a double-layered cell wall, the peripheral portion of which consisted of a thick, densely staining lamellar material of variable thickness, suggestive of the glyc ...1979294059
isolation of blastomyces dermatitidis from pigeon manure.we recently diagnosed and treated a 45-year-old white male horticulturist with acute progressive blastomycosis. epidemiologic studies revealed that the patient used a load of pigeon manure as fertilizer approximately 6 weeks before becoming ill. he used the pigeon manure only once, resealed the remainder, and stored it in his hothouse. samples of the pigeon guano were digested with 10 per cent koh, and the characteristic yeast forms of blastomyces dermatitidis were seen in large numbers. the fun ...19761034455
blastomycosis: report of three cases from alberta with a review of canadian cases.approximately 120 cases of blastomycosis have been reported from canada to-date. the great majority of these occurred in the eastern provinces. since 1970, three cases of blastomycosis have been seen in alberta. the first case, with meningeal and pulmonary involvements, was diagnosed at post-mortem. the second case was that of a 75-year-old male with a history of pancytopenia, aortic arteriosclerosis, exposure to mercury, and fever. koh and periodic-acid schiff (pas) stained smears of the lung t ...197991108
positive controls for fungal detection in tissue sections.lyophilized histoplasma capsulatum, coccidioides immitis, blastomyces dermatitidis and aspergillus fumigatus are rehydrated, evenly dispersed, and made into smears using a bacteriological loop and alcohol-cleaned slides. smears are air dried for 15 minutes, fixed in concentrated formaldehyde fumes for 30 minutes, postfixed for one hour in ten per cent buffered formaldehyde, and stored at room temperature. these preparations are used as positive controls for the grocott stain as recommended for c ...197660881
identification of yeast phase of pathogenic fungi by the specificity of their aminopeptidase(s).specificity of aminopeptidase(s) was fluorimetrically determined in the yeast phase of histoplasma capsulatum, h. duboisii, h. farciminosum, blastomyces dermatitidis, paracoccidioides brasiliensis, candida albicans and crytococcus neoformans. after individually incubating each of 26 amino acid-beta-naphthylamides with each yeast, the amount of each amino acid-beta-naphthylamide hydrolyzed was determined by measuring the free naphythylamine. this resulted in a reproducible profile of the aminopep ...1975808867
growth curves of the yeast-like form of paracocidioides bradiliensis.growth curves of the yeast-like form of 4 strains of paracoccidioides brasiliensis based on colony counts on ggy agar and on cell counts weree made. mean generation times wer 17, 13 and 21 h. for 3 of the strains. the kinetics of growth for all strains showed that dead cells were present in approximately the same proportion as living cells in the initial inocula and their number increased through the exponential phase of growth at a similar rate as that of living cells. viability counts made in ...19751091997
use of an alkali-soluble water-soluble extract of blastomyces dermatitidis yeast-phase cell walls and isoelectrically focused components in peripheral lymphocyte transformations.an alkali-soluble water-soluble extract of blastomyces dermatitidis yeast-phase cell walls was tested for its ability to elicit a response in lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of blastomyces-infected guinea pigs. sequential preparations of the antigen were reproducible and specific in the in vitro lymphocyte transformation assay. cross-reactivity of the antigen was not evident in lymphocyte transformation assays on lymphocytes obtained from histoplasma-infected guinea pigs or from a ...1978631880
disseminated pulmonary blastomycosis in an immunosuppressed patient. diagnosis by fiberoptic bronchoscopy.a 73-year-old man with malignant lymphoma who was undergoing treatment with systemic chemotherapy presented with an acute, febrile illness associated with cough and sputum production. the patient developed bilateral, diffuse, pulmonary interstitial infiltrates with rapidly progressive respiratory insufficiency. the diagnosis was made by demonstrating blastomyces dermatitidis in bronchial brush and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens obtained through fiberoptic bronchoscopy.1976946159
detection of fungi in clinical specimens by phase-contrast microscopy.during 1973 and 1974, the following fungi were detected in clinical specimens by using phase-contrast microscopy: blastomyces dermatitidis, 5; coccidioides immitis, 3; cryptococcus neoformans, 11; other yeasts 918; dermatophytes, 863; mucor species, 1; and aspergillus fumigatus, 16. this technique allows rapid detection and, in many instances, immediate identification of fungi in clinical specimens.19751100675
current status of treatment of pneumonia.proper treatment of pneumonia is dependent upon a correct diagnosis. pneumonia may be due to infectious agents, allergic phenomena, or chemical causes. treatment regimens are outlined for the various types of pneumonia--pneumococcal, staphylococcal, fungal, and pneumonia due to gram-negative and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, to blastomyces dermatitidis, and to the parasite pneumocystis carinii. in discussing current concepts of treatment, several well-known methods are emphasized, as well as ...1975792
[further experimental data on clotrimazole: effectiveness against cryptococcus neoformans, sporothrix schenkii and blastomyces dermatitidis gilchrist]. 19751099444
amino acid synthetic media for fungal pathogens based on aminopeptidase specificities: histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces dermititidis, paracoccidioides brasiliensis and cryptococcus neoformans.the development of simple and chemically defined liquid media for histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces dermatitidis, paracoccidioides brasiliensis and crypto-occus neoformans according to their aminopeptidases profiles as amino acid requirement was described. when 1.5% purified agar was added, these media also supported excellent mycelial growth and sporulation of the deep mycoses. h. capsulatum was converted to and maintained in yeast phase when 0.1% l-cystine was added to the solid medium incub ...19751099698
morphogenic effects of ramihyphin a in filamentous fungi.ramihyphin a at subfungistatic concentrations stimulates ramification of hyphae of filamentous fungi. stimulation of terminal ramification of hyphae that can be observed particularly in phytopathogenic fungi is most frequent. hyphae of microsporon canis, trichophyton mentagrophytes, blastomyces dermatitidis, coccidioides immitis and histoplasma capsulatum ramify intensively laterally. stimulation of the lateral ramification was observed in monilia fructigena, penicillium marneffei and penicilliu ...19751176042
rapid conversion of histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces dermatitidis and sporothrix schenckii in tissue culture.a simple method for positive identification of histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces dermatitidis, and sporothrix schenckii is given. primary tissue cultures of guinea pig peritoneal macrophage were inoculated with the mycelial phase of each organism and after 24 h the cells were stained and observed microscopically. the characteristic yeast phase could then be observed allowing for positive identification.19751236872
additional isolations of blastomyces dermatitidis from natural sites.the ecological niche of blastomyces dermatitidis has not been established. this paper describes the repeat isolation of this pathogenic fungus from organic debris collected at a natural site and another, previously not reported, isolation. although the precise environmental source of this pathogen still cannot be defined, each isolation of this fungus from a natural site adds to the understanding of the ecology of this organism.1979464190
histoplasmosis in south carolina: support for the microfocus concept.an outbreak of anthropurgic histoplasmosis occurred in rural south carolina when a canebrake which served as a blackbird roost was cleared with a bulldozer. seven days later the index patient became ill with histoplasmosis. nine other patients contracted the disease, but only the index case was fatal. serologic studies on the 10 patients demonstrated high titers in the histoplasmin latex agglutination test within two to three weeks after exposure. serologic titers to the yeast-form histoplasma c ...1979443245
new azasteroidal antifungal antibiotics from geotrichum flavo-brunneum. iii. biological activity.the a25822 antibiotic complex consists of seven biologically active factors. a comparative study of these factors determined that factor b possessed the greatest antifungal activity. the minimal inhibitory concentration of a25822b against isolates of candida albicans was less than 0.3 similar to 5.0 mug/ml, trichophyton mentagrophytes was inhibited at less than 0.0312 mug/ml. other pathogenic fungi such as cryptococcus neoformans, histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces dermatitidis, sporotrichum sc ...19751089623
synergy of itraconazole with macrophages in killing blastomyces dermatitidis.we examined in vitro interaction between the azole antifungal agents itraconazole and ketoconazole and macrophages and their activities against blastomyces dermatitidis. fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations for b. dermatitidis in vitro were assessed in a microculture system in which fungistasis was measured as inhibition of multiplication and fungicidal activity was measured as reduction of inoculum cfu. resident peritoneal murine macrophages, which surround but do not phagocytize the fungu ...19921336949
isolation of dermatophytes, candida species and systemic fungi from dermatologic specimens in montréal, 1963 to 1973.of 10 057 specimens of scrapings from skin, nails and scalp examined for dermatophytes, yeasts, pityriasis versicolor and systemic mycoses between 1963 and 1973, 30.4 percent were positive for fungi. skin produced the highest proportion (68.6 percent) of positive scrapings, scalp the lowest (4.2 percent). trichophyton rubrum was the predominant species (23.6 percent); of lesser prevalence were microsporum canis (9.3 percent), t. mentagrophytes (8.4 percent) and epidermophyton floccosum (4.8 perc ...19751091342
immunohistologic diagnosis of systemic mycoses: an update.fluorescent antibody, immunoperoxidase and gold-silver staining methods for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of systemic mycotic infections are currently performed in a few specialized laboratories. these methods have proved applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, and are reliable for identifying therein antigens of infectious dimorphic, monomorphic filamentous, and yeast-like fungal pathogens, i.e., aspergillus spp., blastomyces dermatitidis, candida spp., coccidioides immitis, ...19921397200
dual infection by "+" and "-" mating types of ajellomyces (blastomyces) dermatitidis.a culture of blastomyces dermatitidis isolated via bronchial washing from a patient with blastomycosis was studied intensively. the primary isolate was shown to have contained both the "+" and "-" mating type determiners of ajellomyces dermatitidis. this was evidenced by the observations that both a first and a second subculture, when paired with itself produced fertile ascocarps typical of a. dermatitidis. both these subcultures determined the production of ascospores when paired individually w ...1977879161
sensitivity of some human pathogenic yeasts and systemic fungi to myxin.myxin, a relatively new antibacterial and antifungal antibiotic, produced by a species of sorangium, was used to investigate its effectiveness against some yeasts and dimorphic fungi associated with human diseases. results indicated that the minimal fungicidal concentrations (mfc) of myxin for candida albicans, c. krusei, c. parapsilosis, c. tropicalis, and torulopsis glabrata were 0.39-6.25 mug/ml, and for c. guilliermondii and c. tropicalis 12.5-25 mug/ml. the mfc for blastomyces dermatitidis ...19751171116
in vitro studies with ambruticin, a new antifungal antibiotic.the in vitro antifungal inhibitory activities of ambruticin and of various antifungal drugs of choice against 190 fungal pathogens representative of the major human mycoses were compared using a modification of the ics agar dilution technique. ambruticin compared favorably with amphotericin b and miconazole when tested against the dimorphic pathogens coccidioides immitis, histoplasma capsulatum, and blastomyces dermatitidis and against aspergillus fumigatus. miconazole was the most active compou ...1978686712
comparison of the in vitro antifungal activities of miconazole and a new imidazole, r41,400.r41,400 is a recently synthesized, water-soluble imidazole. its antifungal properties were compared in vitro with those of miconazole using an agar dilution procedure and 175 isolates of human fungal pathogens. the filamentous forms of histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis were inhibited by less than or equal to 2 microgram of either drug/ml; coccidioides immitis was inhibited by less than or equal to 0.5 microgram of r41,400/ml. among the yeasts tested, cryptococcus neoformans and ...1978681800
endogenous activation in blastomycosis.recent work established the fact that the portal of entry in blastomycosis is the lung. after the initial exposure to the fungus, a pneumonic process develops that may heal spontaneously or progress locally or at distant sites, or both. frequently, however, patients present with disseminated disease, whose chest roentgenograms do not show any lesions. we have recently seen three patients with disseminated blastomycosis with negative chest roentgenograms at the time of diagnosis. past history sho ...1978619757
blastomycosis: a reminder of kentucky's other fungus.although not as common as histoplasmosis, the disease caused by blastomyces dermatitidis is also endemic in the commonwealth of kentucky. greater clinical awareness of this systemic mycosis and the newer effective forms of treatment may lessen the significant morbidity and mortality of this potentially serious infection. to illustrate the varied manifestations of this illness, we contrast the presentation of an urban female with blastomycosis and atypical chest radiographic changes to the more c ...19921479260
molecular evolution of the fungi: human pathogens.the morphological, ecological, and clinical diversity among ascomycete fungi that are pathogenic to humans suggest that the potential for pathogenicity may have arisen multiple times within these higher fungi. we have obtained 18s ribosomal dna sequences from a diverse group of human pathogenic fungi in order to determine their evolutionary origins. the fungi studied include a skin pathogen that is confined to humans (trichophyton rubrum) and three systemic, facultative parasites that cause hist ...19921528111
filamentous forms of ajellomyces (blastomyces) dermatitidis in a dog. 1979442457
distribution of blastomyces dermatitidis in dogs with skin test and serologic results following airborne infection.reported is a short term (16 week) experiment to determine the distribution of b. dermatitidis in dogs when infected by the natural inhalation route by receiving about 250,000 viable particles during a 24h. exposure. four dogs were positive to blastomycin and 1 to histoplasmin prior to exposure. post exposure, all dogs developed positive skin tests to blastomycin by the 4th week with considerable cross reaction to histoplasmin. serologic tests showed more poritive cf tests to histoplasma than to ...19751162541
western immunoblot analysis and serologic characterization of blastomyces dermatitidis yeast form extracellular antigens.a major 98-kda extracellular protein antigen of blastomyces dermatitidis was shown in western blot (immunoblot) analysis to be highly reactive with serum antibodies from patients with blastomycosis. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of yeast form b. dermatitidis culture filtrates and cell extracts demonstrated over 50 proteins, only 24 of which were immunoreactive. of these, a 98-kda protein was found to be the most specific and was isolated. this protein was fou ...19921452683
splenic abscess caused by blastomyces dermatitidis in association with peritoneal involvement: case report and review.we report a rare case of a patient with blastomycosis who presented with splenic abscess and peritoneal involvement. this case is unique in that no historical or radiographic evidence of antecedent pulmonary infection was apparent and therapy with orally administered ketoconazole was effective. we reviewed the english-language literature on blastomycotic splenic abscess and compared findings from other cases with findings from the current case.19921571449
otitis media due to blastomycosis: report of two cases.blastomycosis as a causative agent in cases of otitis media has not previously been reported. two patients recently presented with otitis media and head and neck masses due to blastomyces dermatitidis. initial evaluation suggested neoplastic disease, but biopsy confirmed a fungal etiology for the masses in both patients. relapse after administration of ketoconazole was noted in one patient, who was an adult; the other patient was a child. otitis media and masses of the head and neck are unusual ...19921571452
viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees c.one thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees c for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees c to determine their viabilities. thirty-three isolates, alternaria alternata (n = 1), apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), cokeromyces ...19921572955
occurrence of blastomyces dermatitidis in israel. first autochthonous middle eastern case.a nodule from the infrapatellar region of the left knee of a patient in israel was found by fluorescent antibody staining to contain the tissue form cells of blastomyces dermatitidis. the diagnosis was confirmed by culture and other mycological studies when a second lesion appeared below the right knee. this represents the first autochthonous case of blastomycosis from israel and the middle east.1978727325
comparative evaluation of a chemiluminescent dna probe and an exoantigen test for rapid identification of histoplasma capsulatum.a chemiluminescent dna probe (accuprobe) assay developed by gen probe, inc., for the rapid identification of histoplasma capsulatum was evaluated and compared with the exoantigen test by using 162 coded cultures including histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum, histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, blastomyces dermatitidis, coccidioides immitis, paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and morphologically related saprobic fungi. each test uses a chemiluminescent, ...19921452692
factors affecting viability of blastomyces dermatitidis in soil. 1979470979
blastomycosis of the tongue: a case report.a clinically malignant tongue ulcer in a 63-year-old white man was proved by histological examination and culture to be due to blastomyces dermatitidis. in addition, pulmonary lesions caused by b. dermatitidis were found at autopsy.1977897859
effect of immunosuppressants on dogs exposed two and one-half years previously to blastomyces dermatitidis.observation of 33 dogs exposed to blastomyces dermatitidis over a 2 1/2 year period is reported. during the first 1 1/2 years six dogs died and 23 (77%) developed skin lesions. clinical evidence of disease in all the animals then subsided and remained so through another year of observation. nine animals were sacrificed after 120 weeks and several tissues were cultured from each one. the remaining 18 were given immunosuppressants--azathioprine, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide--for eight weeks p ...1976961697
isolation of a purified skin test antigen from blastomyces dermatitidis yeast-phase cell wall.preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to isolate individual components of an alkaline-soluble-water-soluble fraction of the cell wall of blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase. one component isolated demonstrated exceptional specificity and reactivity when tested on guinea pigs infected with b. dermatitidis. this component displayed no cross-reactivity when tested on animals infected with histoplasma capsulatum. the significance of isolation of a purified, specific antigen is dis ...1976965086
thymosin restoration of cellular immunity to blastomyces dermatitidis in t-cell-depleted mice.the immunopotentiating properties of thymosin in thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice (thyxbm) were characterized, using footpad sensitivity to blastomyces dermatitidis. normal mice were shown to exhibit increasing delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to killed yeast cells of b. dermatitidis after injections of the organism on days 0 and 7, as measured by footpad swelling tests. the footpad response of normal thymosin-treated mice was similar to that of normal, n ...1979500201
efficacy of seed-based media for the mould-yeast conversion of blastomyces dermatitidis.the efficacy of 20 seed-based media is reported for the in vitro mould-yeast conversion of blastomyces dermatitidis, employing pharmamedia agar, peptone glucose agar, glucose agar and water agar as controls. the mould-yeast conversion varied significantly according to the culture medium, fungal strains and incubation period (p less than 0.01). garden-pea, chick-pea, cow-pea, soybean, peanut, green gram, french bean, lentil, okra and cottonseed converted all of the 7 b. dermatitidis test strains ...19911780002
cross-reactivity between antigens of coccidioides immitis, histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis in lymphocyte transformation assays.the cross-reactivity of four coccidioides antigens, three histoplasma antigens, and two blastomyces antigens were determined in lymphocyte transformation assays of 11 coccidioidin-reactive, histoplasmin-nonreactive subjects (group i), 13 coccidioidin-nonreactive, histoplasmin-reactive persons (group ii), and 13 subjects who were skin test negative to both antigens (group iii). mycelial and yeast (or spherule)-phase antigens of the three fungi were included. significant cross-reactivity was obtai ...1979500193
clinical and roentgenographic manifestations of acute and chronic blastomycosis.roentgenograms and hospital records of 50 patients with blastomycosis proven by cultures were analyzed to determine possible differences between the acute and chronic forms of the illness. six patients had acute blastomycosis with symptoms occurring three weeks or less prior to hospitalization. the remaining 44 patients had chronic illnesses with symptoms occurring up to six years (mean duration, ten months before hospitalization). the acute illness was characterized by toxic symptoms, chest pai ...1976971603
[blastomyces dermatitidis blastomycosis in africa. first algerian case].a case of fatal generalized blastomycosis is reported. it was the first case of that mycosis observed in algeria. the parasitic yeast-like cells of the fungus were seen in pus and tissue sections and blastomyces dermatitidis cultured from pathological specimens. yeast-like form was obtained in vitro on kurung's agar at 37 degrees c. male hamsters infected with this strain failed to develop an experimental disease. the occurrence and distribution of blastomycosis in africa are discussed.19761037088
an outbreak of human and canine blastomycosis.in the summer and fall of 1988, three humans and one dog in a lakeshore community in northern wisconsin were found to have blastomycosis on the basis of the results of cultures and histologic studies; the infection was also suspected in one human and four dogs on the basis of clinical data. serologic testing with use of enzyme immunoassay for antibody to the a antigen of blastomyces dermatitidis was performed for 77 additional human residents and visitors in the area an average of 9 months after ...19911962106
wi-1, a novel 120-kilodalton surface protein on blastomyces dermatitidis yeast cells, is a target antigen of cell-mediated immunity in human blastomycosis.a large body of experimental data has demonstrated the central role of t cells in acquired resistance to the dimorphic fungus blastomyces dermatitidis. we examined the human t-cell response to wi-1, a 120-kda b. dermatitidis yeast cell surface protein recently shown to be an immunodominant antigen of the b-cell response in infected humans. peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 blastomycosis patients studied proliferated in response to wi-1 (mean, 19,431 cpm) and to the standard, crude cell wall a ...19921383148
a basis for resistance of blastomyces dermatitidis killing by human neutrophils: inefficient generation of myeloperoxidase system products.the mechanism by which the yeast form of blastomyces dermatitidis resists killing by human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (pmn) was investigated. the metabolic products of the oxidative burst generated during the interaction of pmn and b. dermatitidis or candida albicans were detected by lucigenin- or luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (cl). interaction of pmn and c. albicans resulted in luminol-enhanced cl 100-fold greater than that generated by pmn and b. dermatitidis. this cor ...19921325554
improved culture method for the isolation of histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis form contaminated specimens.studies were performed to evaluate a method for selective isolation of histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis from contaminated specimens. ammonium hydroxide placed on an agar medium surface was found to inhibit the growth of many bacteria, yeasts, and saphrophytic fungi normally found in specimens such as animal tissues and sputum. in one study involving the culture of b. dermatitidis from canine tissues, 24% more isolations were obtained on a medium using nh4oh compared with a sim ...19751115035
comparison of enzyme immunoassay and immunodiffusion for the detection of canine blastomycosis.two blastomyces dermatitidis commercial immunodiffusion antigens, meridian diagnostics and nolan-scott laboratories, and two b. dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens, t-58 and k-le, prepared in our laboratory were utilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies in 61 serum specimens from dogs with blastomycosis. all antigens used in the elisa were diluted to 50 ng of protein ml-1. immunodiffusion (id) tests were also performed on the sera using a nolan ...19902128645
blastomycotic cranial osteomyelitis.this is the second case report of a temporal bone osteomyelitis caused by blastomyces dermatitidis, which presented as a chronic serous otitis media. the presenting serous otitis media was refractory to conventional medical and surgical management and progressed to a temporal bone osteomyelitis prior to diagnosis. b. dermatitidis is a rare fungal pathogen that causes a systemic pyogranulomatous disease that primarily manifests itself in the skin, bones, pulmonary, and genitourinary systems. if l ...19921449188
cell wall studies of histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis using autologous and heterologous enzymes.enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cell walls of blastomyces dermatitidis and chemotypes i and ii of histoplasma capsulatum were prepared in the laboratory or obtained from commercial sources. they included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, beta-1,6-glucanase, and pronase. monosaccharides and disaccharides of glucose released from the cell walls by the enzymes were determined qualitatively by paper and gas-liquid chromatography, and monosaccharides were quantitated by the latter technique as well. an ...1977870437
morphological conversion of 13 strains of three dimorphic fungi in tap and stream water.various strains of sporotrichum schenckii, histoplasma capsulatum and paracoccidioides brasiliensis show partial to complete (ca 70%) conversion to yeast when the mycelial culture is grown on sabouraud's dextrose agar at 25degreesc and palced in tap or stream water at 37degreesc. conversion (ca 70%) to mycelial phase occurs when the yeast culture is grown on brain heart infusion agar at 37degreesc and then placed in tap or stream water at 25degreesc. it was observed that, with the dimorphic orga ...19751242119
preparation and in vitro antifungal activities of some quinolizidine derived hemiaminals and beta-tert-amino sulfides.new alpha-thiohemiaminals, 7alpha-phenylthio-7-epideoxynupharidin-6-ol, the diasteriomeric 7beta-phenylthiodeoxy-nupharidin-6-ol, and 3-methyl-3-methylthio-4-hydroxyquinolizidine, were prepared and reduced to the corresponding beta-tert-amino sulfides. the configuration at c-7 of the beta-tert-amino sulfides was determined by observing the direction of the solvent-induced shift of the c-7 methyl proton resonance. the configuration at c-7 of the new alpha-thiohemiaminals was established by correl ...19761249801
preliminary studies on conidial liberation of blastomyces dermatitidis and histoplasma capsulatum.controlled attempts to release viable conidia from cultures of blastomyces dermatitidis and histoplasma capsulatum with air samplers were unsuccessful. air velocity was not fount to be a limiting factor since the conidia remained attached after conidiophores had been violently shaken by air currents in an observation chamber. wetting these same conidiophores readily released the conidia. it is inferred that in nature conidia may be liberated by exposure to water and then dispersed by air current ...1976959945
blastomycosis: fungal infections of the lung update: 1989.three additions to the understanding of blastomycosis have been noted over the past several years. first, blastomyces dermatitidis has now been grown from soil in association with epidemics of infection, indicating that microfoci of the organism exist in nature. second, immune markers of previous infections have been used to help confirm that subclinical or asymptomatic cases occur in endemic areas. this is well recognized for other fungal infections, like histoplasmosis, and is increasingly rec ...19902247705
chronic fibrosing mediastinitis and superior vena caval obstruction from blastomycosis.chronic fibrosing mediastinitis is most commonly a complication of granulomatous disease caused by histoplasmosis. we report a case of blastomyces dermatitidis causing superior vena caval obstruction from fibrosing mediastinitis.19921417237
evaluation of a commercial dna probe assay for the identification of clinical isolates of blastomyces dermatitidis from dogs.a dna probe assay (accuprobe, gen-probe, inc., san diego, ca) for culture confirmation of blastomyces dermatitidis in clinical isolates was evaluated using 72 isolates of b. dermatitidis (62 dog isolates, five from other animals, four human isolates and one soil isolate). in addition, specificity determinations were performed using 28 american type culture collection (atcc) fungal isolates, other than b. dermatitidis, representing 21 different genera. the non-isotopic hybrid protection assay, th ...19921573520
two cases of blastomycosis from a common source: use of dna restriction analysis to identify strains.two friends, one with aids, developed severe pulmonary blastomycosis but differed markedly in clinical course. the human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient responded completely to ketoconazole; the patient with aids died of progressive disseminated infection despite treatment with fluconazole and amphotericin b. epidemiologic investigation suggested a common source of infection, but serologic evaluation and environmental cultures were unrevealing. ecori digestion of the blastomyces dermatit ...19911674750
comparison of fluconazole and ketoconazole in experimental murine blastomycosis.fluconazole, a new oral triazole antifungal agent, was tested against blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro and in a murine model (pulmonary challenge) and compared with ketoconazole, an oral imidazole known to be effective against this agent in mice and in humans. although fluconazole appeared less active than ketoconazole in vitro, in experiments involving 3 weeks of treatment and 2 months of observation, fluconazole was greater than 10 times as potent (mg/kg) in vivo against blastomycosis (prolon ...19902139516
giant forms of blastomyces dermatitidis in the pulmonary lesions of blastomycosis. potential confusion with coccidioides immitis.typical yeast-phase cells of blastomyces dermatitidis have a characteristic appearance in tissue sections. fungal morphologic variation occurs infrequently in the lesions of blastomycosis, yet it can complicate the differential diagnosis, particularly if fresh tissue is not available for microbiologic culture. the authors report a case of pulmonary blastomycosis, confirmed by culture and direct immunofluorescence, in which some of the yeast-like cells were abnormally large. these giant yeast-lik ...19902321590
endophthalmitis due to blastomyces dermatitidis. case report and review of the literature.blastomycosis very rarely affects ocular structures other than the eyelid. it is even more unusual for involvement to occur in the absence of active widespread disease. the authors report a 71-year-old woman with unresponsive endophthalmitis of the right eye who underwent enucleation. results of microscopic examination of the globe showed severe acute and chronic granulomatous and nongranulomatous endophthalmitis as well as numerous fungi having the histologic features of blastomyces dermatitidi ...19902326009
accidental inoculation blastomycosis.the pathogenesis of blastomycosis as a primary pulmonary infection has been well established and widely accepted. the rate cases of primary cutaneous inoculation are in all documented instances related to "laboratory" accidents. a case of inoculation with a culture suspension of blastomyces dermatitidis is herein reported. a slow healing chancre remained active for about eight months.1977844336
recognition of histoplasma capsulatum yeast-cell antigens by human lymphocytes and human t-cell clones.we have prepared a detergent extract from the cell wall and cell membrane of histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells that is recognized by t cells from mice immunized with viable organisms or with the extract. a 62-kd antigen from this extract has been isolated and has been shown to be antigenic and to confer protective immunity in mice. in this study, we examined the in vitro proliferative response by human lymphocytes and human t-cell clones to both the extract from the cell wall and cell membrane ...19921602236
[blastomycosis localized in the brain stem].a 33-year old male tunisian developed, without any apparent cause, an abscess of the brainstem which was shown by various mycological investigations to be due to a blastomyces dermatitidis infection. this case is of interest not only because of the exceptional location of the abscess in the brainstem, but also because of its treatment: this was the first case where the fluconazole-flucytosine combination was used against blastomycosis with fully satisfactory results after a 28-month follow-up.19921532086
cottonseed extract versus pharmamedia for the in vitro mould-yeast conversion of blastomyces dermatitidis.a cottonseed medium, based on a 1% aqueous extract of seeds of any of the eight indigenously available varieties of cotton belonging to gossypium hirsutum or gossypium arboreum, was evaluated for the mould-yeast conversion of blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro, and compared with pharmamedia agar as a control. the cottonseed agar was found to be as efficient as pharmamedia agar for the mould-yeast conversion of the 19 b. dermatitidis strains tested. therefore, cottonseeds provide an adequate and i ...19902380881
detection of antibody responses and delayed dermal hypersensitivity with blastomyces dermatitidis yeast and mycelial lysate antigens.yeast cell lysate and mycelial lysate antigens prepared from one strain (t-58) of blastomyces dermatitidis were evaluated with respect to the detection of antibodies and delayed dermal hypersensitivity. comparable elisa sensitivity values were evidenced with the two antigens when assayed against serum specimens from dogs with blastomycosis, sera from non-infected dogs residing in endemic and non-endemic areas for blastomycosis and sera from rabbits that were hyperimmunized with b. dermatitidis a ...19911886639
enzyme immunoassay detection of antibodies in canine blastomycosis using blastomyces dermatitidis lysate antigens.a blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigen (t-58) prepared in our laboratory was used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies in 201 serum specimens from dogs with blastomycosis. in addition 36 sera from non-infected dogs from an endemic area for blastomycosis and 36 sera from non-infected dogs residing in a blastomycosis non-endemic area were assayed. sensitivity values ranged from 96.2% (53 pre-treatment sera) to 88.5% (148 post-treatment sera ...19902093845
small subunit ribosomal rna of blastomyces dermatitidis: sequence and phylogenetic analysis.we determined the small subunit (18s) ribosomal rna sequence of the dimorphic fungus blastomyces dermatitidis. the sequence was compared to that of fourteen other eukaryotic organisms, ten of which were higher fungi, and an evolutionary tree was constructed based on these sequences. b. dermatitidis aligned most closely with the ascomycetes neurospora crassa and podospora anserina, in agreement with previous phylogenetic analysis based on morphological criteria. phase-specific cdna clones derived ...19921564447
kinetics and requirements for activation of macrophages for fungicidal activity: effect of protein synthesis inhibitors and immunosuppressants on activation and fungicidal mechanism.peritoneal-and pulmonary macrophages can be activated in vitro with lymphokines (lk) or ifn-gamma, without exogenous lipopolysaccharide, for fungicidal activity against several pathogenic fungi. however, neither the biochemical nor metabolic events of the activation process or of the effector phase have been defined. in the present work we sought to elucidate these events with time-course studies using inhibitors of protein synthesis as well as immunosuppressive agents. we found that protein syn ...19911712253
concurrent pulmonary blastomyces dermatitidis and mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an hiv-1 seropositive man. 19892509572
isolation and partial characterization of a plasma membrane-enriched fraction of blastomyces dermatitidis.the isolation and characterization of a plasma membrane-enriched fraction is reported from the pathogenic fungus blastomyces dermatitidis employing a simplified and inexpensive procedure. the yeast cells, suspended in an osmotic stabilizer buffer, were subjected to gentle mechanical disruption followed by a three-step differential centrifugation to obtain a 40,000 x g sediment. this fraction showed 2.7- and 3.3-fold relative enrichment of the plasma membrane marker enzymes mg2(+)-atpase and 5'-n ...19902139489
fluconazole: a new triazole antifungal agent.fluconazole is a fluorine-substituted, bis-triazole antifungal agent. its mechanism of action, like that of other azoles, involves interruption of the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol via binding to fungal cytochrome p-450 and subsequent disruption of fungal membranes. activity against aspergillus spp., blastomyces dermatitidis, candida spp., coccidioides immitis, cryptococcus neoformans, histoplasma capsulatum, and paracoccidioides brasiliensis has been demonstrated in several animal mode ...19902260347
fulminant blastomycosis with blastomycotic infection of a cerebral glioma. light microscopic and ultrastructural observations.except for isolated case reports, blastomycosis has not been identified as a significant problem in immunosuppressed patients. we describe an unusual case with blastomycotic infection of a cerebral glioma in a 56-year-old man who underwent radiotherapy for his tumor and died of fulminant blastomycotic pneumonia. this is believed to be the first reported case of blastomyces dermatitidis infection of a cerebral glioma. the light microscopic and ultrastructural features of b. dermatitidis, the gian ...19911767635
dna probe for the identification of histoplasma capsulatum.a 1.85-kilobase hindiii nuclear dna probe from histoplasma capsulatum g217b detected polymorphic restriction fragments within whole-cell dna from different clinical isolates of h. capsulatum, consistent with the previous system of classification. the probe failed to hybridize to dna from blastomyces dermatitidis, candida spp., saccharomyces cerevisiae, sepedonium chrysospermum, and chrysosporium keratinophilum under low-stringency conditions and therefore may have value as a diagnostic reagent t ...19892573616
peritoneal blastomycosis.blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by blastomyces dermatitidis. involvement of the peritoneum is unusual, with only two previously reported cases that occurred in association with disseminated disease. a single case of histopathologically proven blastomycosis involving the peritoneum is presented, as well as a short overview of previously published cases on gastrointestinal and peritoneal blastomycosis. the case is unique in that chronic peritonitis was the only manifestation of ...19911998318
blastomyces dermatitidis infections in the rsa.twenty cases of blastomycosis have been confirmed in the rsa, 9 of which are presented for the first time. patients came from all four provinces and the mean age was 40 years. six cases were diagnosed between 1985 and 1987. differences between strains of blastomyces dermatitidis isolated in the rsa and in north america include morphological and cultural characteristics, mycelial-yeast conversion, antigenic structure, and compatibility in cross-mating experiments. the diagnosis of this disease ca ...19892662433
blastomycosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.to describe the clinical, demographic, radiographic, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of blastomycosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids).19921567099
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