effect of cultivation conditions on the synthesis of citric and isocitric acids in candida lipolytica on hexadecane medium.the influence of aeration, ph and iron concentration on the growth of yeast c. lipolytica 704 on the hexadecane medium and on the synthesis of citric and isocitric acids was investigated. the yeast synthesized citric acids actively during intensive aeration. the acid formation was strongly dependent on the medium acidity: ph 6.0 was most favourable for the synthesis of citric acids. the fe concentration influenced significantly the ratio of the acids synthesized. at a low concentration of iron ...19751720
control of fatty-acid synthetase levels by exogeneous long-chain fatty acids in the yeasts candida lipolytica and saccharomyces cerevisiae.endogeneous fatty acid biosynthesis in the two yeast species, saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida lipolytica is completely repressed by the addition of long-chain fatty acids to the growth medium. in candida lipolytica, this repression is accompanied by a corresponding loss of fatty acid synthetase activity in the cell homogenate, when the cells were grown on fatty acids as the sole carbon source. the activity of the saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthetase, however, remains unaffected by ...19767450
acetyl-coenzyme-a carboxylase of candida lipolytica. 1. purification and properties of the enzyme.acetyl-coenzyme-a carboxylase has been isolated in homogeneous form from candida lipolytica. the homogeneity of the enzyme preparation is evidenced by analytical ultracentrifugation, dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ouchterlony double-diffusion analysis. the purified enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 8.0 u/mg protein at 25 degrees c and contains 1 mol biotin/263000 g protein. the sedimentation coefficient (s20,w) of the enzyme is 18 s. it has been shown by dodecyl-sulf ...197612958
acetyl-coenzyme-a carboxylase of candida lipolytica. 2. regulation of cellular content and synthesis of the enzyme.the level of acetyl-coenzyme-a carboxylase activity in candida lipolytica undergoes large variations depending upon the carbon source on which the yeast is grown. cells grown on n-alkanes or fatty acids exhibit a lower activity level than do cells grown on glucose. among the n-alkanes and fatty acids tested, n-heptadecane, n-octadecane, oleic acid and linoleic acid reduce the enzyme activity to the lowest levels, which are 16-18% of the activity level in glucose-grown cells. immunochemical titra ...197612959
studies on the mechanism of interaction of glutaraldehyde with microorganisms (author's transl).the antimicrobial action of glutaraldehyde on candida lipolytica increases with reagent concentration, ph and duration of contact. the simultaneous study of the size distribution of the particles shows an agglutination of the cells. this result is confirmed by direct observation of the cells by electron microscopy. cell agglutination also occurs with other microorganisms (saccharomyces carlsbergensis, bacillus megaterium, escherichia coli) and increases their settling rate. the formation of such ...197614579
isolation and properties of cytoplasmic l(+)-lactatoxydase of candida lipolytica yeasts.the enzyme preparation of l(+)-lactatoxydase (k.f. with molecular weight of 230 000 has been isolated from the soluble fraction of the c. lipolytica cells and purified similar 360 times. the enzyme oxydizes l(+)-lactate, the optimum activity of the enzyme being observed at ph 8.0. oxydation of the substrate is followed by accumulation of h2o2. silver ions, p-chloromercurybenzoate and dicumarol inhibit the activity of l(+)-lactatoxydase. iron complexones, cyanide and l-malate do not inhi ...197614733
involvement of long-chain acyl coenzyme a for lipid synthesis in repression of acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in candida lipolytica.mutant strains of candida lipolytica defective in acyl-coa synthetase ii [acid:coa ligase (amp-forming), ec] have been isolated. the mutants fail to grow on fatty acid as a sole carbon source but are capable of incorporating exogenous fatty acid into cellular lipids. this observation, together with our previous finding that mutant strains defective in acyl-coa synthetase i cannot incorporate exogenous fatty acid into cellular lipids but are able to degrade fatty acid via beta-oxidation, ...197941242
[effect of cultivation conditions on growth of candida lipolytica yeasts and alpha-ketoacid biosynthesis in the presence of thiamine deficiency].the effect of ph and aeration on the growth of candida lipolytica and the biosynthesis of alpha-keto acids on acetate and glucose was studied in batch cultures at thiamine deficiency. if the initial thamine concentration was the same, then, irrespective of the carbon source, the yeast biomass in a medium saturated with oxygen by 5--10% was 1.5--2.0 times higher than in a medium with 60--90% [o2]. the rate of alpha-keto acid biosynthesis, on the contrary, decreased in the conditions of low aerati ...197943461
candida lipolytica isolated from guanabara bay and its ability to grow in marine and estuarine conditions.although the petroleum degrading ability of candida lipolytica is well known, its ability to grow in seawater is questionable. sixteen strains of c. lipolytica were isolated from marine sites in rio de janeiro. some variations from the standard description were noted including strains intermediate between the varieties lipolytica and deformans. a representative strain which grew well on petroleum was found to grow well in marine and estuary conditions which reinforces its potential as a seed org ...197943560
screening studies of yeasts capable of utilizing petroleum these studies, 23 yeast cultures belonging to 10 genera of ascosporogenous, ballistosporogenous, and asporogenous yeasts, were screened with respect to their abilities of hydrocarbon utilization in synthetic media. thus, kerosene, n-hexadecane, and wax distillate were compared as sole carbon sources in 2% final concentration. kerosene exhibited marked inhibition on the growth of the majority of the strains, whereas active growth was observed with debaryomyces vanrijii and many species of the ...197944934
[de novo biosynthesis of nicotinic acid in candida lipolytica]. 197552233
mixed cultures of different yeasts species and yeasts with filamentous fungi in the scp production. i. production of single cell protein by mixed cultures candida lipolytica and candida tropicalis.the aim of this study was to determine the application of mixed cultures candida lipolytica and candida tropicalis in the scp production. n-paraffin fraction of crude oil and individual n-alkanes c:7--c:17 and glucose were used as carbon sources. the cultures were grown on laboratory scale in shaking flasks and in a 7 1 fermentor. it was found that the mixed cultures gave about 18% higher yield of biomass than the individual cultures.197770971
acyl-coenzyme-a synthetase i from candida lipolytica. purification, properties and immunochemical studies.acyl-coenzyme-a synthetase i from candida lipolytica has been purified to homogeneity as evidenced by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of dodecylsulfate as well as by ouchterlony double-diffusion analysis. the purification procedure involves resolution of cellular particles with triton x-100 and chromatography on phosphocellulose, blue-sepharose and sephadex g-100. the purified enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 20--24 u/mg protein at 25 degree c, which is about ...1979108099
[occurrence of galactomannan in the cell wall of candida lipolytica]. 1979117647
[immunochemical method for study and identification of unicellular organisms (yeasts and bacteria) incorporated into food products as a protein source].the expected increase and diversification of single cell proteins production already requires the development of convenient methods for the identification of producing strains from the processed s.c.p., i.e. killed and dried cells. a simple immunological method based on double immunodiffusion analysis is proposed, that enables the identification of toprinal l (candida tropicalis), toprina g (candida lipolytica) and pruteen (pseudomonas methylotropha), all s.c.p. having received an approval from ...1979121872
[mechanism of action of some quinoline alkaloids on respiratory chain of mitochondria].the mechanism of action of some quinoline alkaloids and their derivatives on respiratory chain of rat liver and candida lipolytica yeast mitochondria was studied. the alkaloids were shown to inhibit electron transfer in the respiratory chain. the site of their action is localized between b and c cytochromes. besides their ability to inhibit electron transfer in the respiratory chain, alkaloids are shown to be specific inhibitors of "exogenous" nadh-dehydrogenase of c. lipolytica yeast mitochondr ...1976139172
characterization of a membrane-bound phospholipid desaturase system of candida lipolytica.several characteristics of the microsomal phospholipid desaturase of candida lipolytica are described. the phospholipid desaturase reaction required molecular oxygen and reduced pyridine nucleotides as essential cofactors and was inhibited by cyanide but not by carbonmonoxide, indicating that it required cytochrome b5. desaturation of both 1-acyl-2-[14-c]oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and 1,2-di-[14c] oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine appeared to follow michaelis-menten kinetics, with ...1975166662
mössbauer effect and electron paramagnetic resonance studies on yeast aconitase.mössbauer effect and electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) were measured for yeast aconitase [ec] purified from the cells of candida lipolytica (atcc 200114). mössbauer spectra suggested that yeast aconitase nostly contained two high-spin fe(iii) ions in an antiferromagnetically coupled binuclear complex that resembled oxidized 2 fe ferredoxins, together with a small amount of high-spin fe(ii). epr spectra recorded no signal at 77degreesk, but showed a slightly asymmetric signal centered ...1975178642
[reverse electron transfer from the cytochrome c level in cyanide-resistant mitochondria of the yeast, candida lipolytica].the ability of cyanide-resistant mitochondria of yeast candida lipolytica to perform reverse electron transfer from cytochrome c to alternative oxidase was studied. it was shown that the energy for such a transfer can be provided by high energy intermediates or membrane potential but not by atp. reverse electron transfer from cytochrome c is impossible due to energy of nadh and alpha-glycerophosphate oxidation via alternative pathway in the presence of cyanide. these results prove once again tha ...1978214172
[breakdown of n-hexadecane-1-14c by subcellular particles of candida lipolytica]. 1975242123
candida lipolytica mutants defective in an acyl-coenzyme a synthetase: isolation and fatty acid metabolism.mutant strains of candida lipolytica defective in an acyl-coa synthetase [acid:coa ligase (amp-forming); ec]were isolated. the mutant strains apparently exhibited no acyl-coa synthetase activity in vitro and were, in contrast to the wild-type strain, incapable of growing in the presence of exogenous fatty acid when cellular synthesis de novo of fatty acid was blocked. however, the mutant strains grew on either fatty acid or n-alkane as a sole carbon source at rates comparable to that obs ...1977270729
cellular content of the krebs cycle keto acids in yeasts grown on different nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.the cellular pool of krebs cycle keto acids was followed as a function of growth in three yeasts. the keto acids were analyzed as silylated methoximes by quantitative gas chromatography with capillary glass columns. the 2-oxoglutaric acid content was strikingly high in the hydroxylamine (ha)-tolerant, ha-utilizing endomycopsis lipolytica when compared to that in the nitrate-utilizing yeast cryptococcus albidus and saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. the content ...1977339867
[continuous citric acid synthesis by candida lipolytica cells immobilized in polyacrylamide gel]. 1979398097
[lipids of candida lipolytica cultivated in n-alkanes by the industrial method ("toprina")].the following lipidic classes are examined in the present study: total lipids, phospholipids, neutral lipids, sterols, and carotenoid pigments from dried biomasses of candida lipolytica grown on n-alkanes by industrial process following the bp technique ("toprina"). the composition of the lipid classes examined in "toprina" agree generally with bibliographic data about n-alkanes grown candida lipolytica in batch cultures.1979399846
[higher fatty acids of candida lipolytica grown in n-alkanes by the industrial method ("toprina")].the present study deals with the composition of superior fatty acids of total lipids, polar lipids, and neutral lipids from dried biomass of candida lipolytica grown by industrial process ("toprina") on n-alkanes (c10-c20) extracted from petroleum. the data related to our knowledge about yeast and candida lipolytica, lead to the conclusion that fatty acids feature of "toprina" are similar to the candida lipolytica ones grown in batch culture at the same conditions. in addition, a possible physio ...1979399847
[unusual fatty acids in turkeys fed a diet containing "toprina". i. composition of the higher fatty acids in "toprina", the diet, feces and blood].totals lipids (tl) phospholipids (pl) and fatty acid composition of tl and pl (the latter in blood only) were estimated in candida lipolytica cultivated on n-alkanes by industrial method ("toprina"), in 0%, 10% and 15% "toprina" diets and in faeces and blood of turkeys, males and females, fed these diets. with increasing concentrations of dietary "toprina" phospholipids and 15:0 and 17:0 fatty acids increased, 17:1 and 17:2, typical of the product, appeared and increased in diets and blood. othe ...1979399848
the absence of energy conservation coupled with electron transfer via the alternative pathway in cyanide-resistant yeast mitochondria.electron transfer via the alternative pathway in cyanide-resistant mitochondria of the yeast candida lipolytica is not coupled with atp synthesis, generation of membrane potential or energy-dependent reverse electron transport in the main respiratory chain. we conclude that during transfer via the alternative pathway no accumulation of energy in the form of high-energy compounds or membrane potential occurs.1979427136
evaluation of industrial yeasts for pathogenicity.eleven yeasts representative of species of industrial interest were compared with candida albicans for their potential pathogenicity for untreated and cortisone-treated mice. only c. tropicalis produced a progressive infection similar to that produced by c. albicans. candida lipolytica, torulopsis spp., and hansenula polymorpha were not recovered from mice 6 days after inoculation. kluyveromyces fragilis, c. pseudotropicalis, c. utilis, c. guilliermondii and c. maltosa were recovered from mice b ...1979441902
lipase synthesis in hydrocarbon fermentation.a study was undertaken to establish conditions and relationships for the production of lipases during hydrocarbon fermentation. a culture of candida lipolytica was isolated by a kerosene enrichment technique from oil-soaked soil and this microbe was used to study the production of lipase on a kerosene-mineral salts medium. the optimum ph, medium, and temperature for lipase synthesis were established and the properties of the isolated enzyme in terms of its activity and lipid specificity were stu ...1979454806
[alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity of candida lipolytica during alpha-ketoglutarate biosynthesis].the activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (kgdh) was assayed in cell-free yeast homogenates with respect to studying the mechanism of alpha-ketoglutarate (kg) overproduction by the thiamine-heterotrophic culture of candida lipolytica in media with hexadecane. two types of yeast cells were used for analysis: (1) cells grown in the conditions of thiamine excess (500 mcg/l) and taken at the logariphmic growth phase; (2) cells grown in the conditions of thiamine deficiency and taken at the b ...1979470625
[respiratory cyanide resistance in candida lipolytica and the supersynthesis of citric acids].the interrelationship between the cyanide resistance of respiratio and the process of citric acid synthesis was studied with various strains of candida lipolytica. when the synthesis of citric acids was intensive, the respiration of cells was almost entirely inhibited by cyanide. the respiration became cyanide resistant only when the biosynthesis of citric acids was over. induction of the cyanide resistance of respiration with antimycin a stopped the biosynthesis of citric acids. the cyanide res ...1979481277
[kinetics of candida lipolytica yeast growth and biosynthesis of alpha-keto acids with thiamine deficiency in media with different carbon sources].the growth kinetics of candida lipolytica on glucose, acetate and hexadecane was studied in batch cultures at thiamine deficiency. the growth at the deceleration phase is of a linear character. the transition from the exponential phase to the linear one is accompanied with the accumulation of alpha-keto acids in the cultural broth, which is also observed in the stationary phase. the rate of acid production in the linear phase increases as the specific growth rate decreases, and reaches the maxim ...1979502909
[lipolytic activity of candida lipolytica (author's transl)]. 1979507665
an inducible n-alkane hydroxylase system containing cytochrome "o" from candida this work the terminal oxidase system of c. lipolytica grown on n-alkanes was identified, and partially purified. spectral characteristics typical of cytochrome o are obtained, inhibition and photodissociation of co are reported.1979530268
[biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids by the wild-type and mutant strains of candida lipolytica in media containing different carbon sources].experiments were carried out to examine the capacity of two strains of candida lipolytica, producing citric and isocitric acids in the alkane and glucose containing media, to grow on different two- and three-carbon compounds. the strains did not grow on oxalate, glyoxalate, glycolate, malonate or propionate. when cultivated in the media containing acetate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or hexadecane, supersynthesis of the acids started after complete consumption of the nitrogen source and resultant ...1979538009
substructural studies on sporulation of saccharomycopsis lipolytica.during sporulation of diploids from crosses between different strains of the yeast saccharomycopsis (candida) lipolytica irregular numbers of ascospores per ascus have been observed. using the serial section method it could be shown now by means of electron microscopy that in one-, two-, and three-spored asci unenclosed "naked" nuclei occur additionally to nuclei incorporated in mature spores. it was demonstrated that the production of less than four spores per ascus in this yeast is not the res ...1979538958
[different fatty acids in the egg, blood and feces of laying hens fed a diet containing "toprina"].total lipids (tl, phospholipids (pl) and fatty acid composition of tl and pl (the latter in blood and eggs only) were estimated in candida lipolytica cultivated on n-alkanes by industrial method ("toprina") in 0%, 10% and 15% "toprina" diets and in eggs, blood and faeces of laying hens fed these diets. with increasing concentrations of dietary "toprina" 15:0 and 17:0 fatty acids increased, 17:1 and 17:2, typical of the product, appeared and increased in diets, eggs, blood and faeces. other fatty ...1979548061
[activity and substrate specificity of the alcohol dehydrogenases of n-alkane oxidizing yeasts].the activity and substrate specificity of alcohol dehydrogenases (adh) in the fractions of cytosol and membrane particles were compared in the yeasts torulopsis candida, candida lipolytica and candida tropicalis grown in media with glucose and hexadecane. in all studied yeast cultures growing in the medium with hexadecane, nad-dependent adh specifically dehydrogenating only medium and higher alcohols are induced in the membrane structures of the cells. soluble adh are found in the cytosol of the ...1979574184
separation and characterization of two long-chain acyl-coa synthetases from candida lipolytica. 1978624276
control of citrate and 2-oxoglutarate formation in candida lipolytica mitochondria by adenine nucleotides. 1978626752
secretion of extracellular lipases by candida lipolytica [proceedings]. 1978648726
[the absence of coupling between the formation of membrane potential and electron transfer via the alternative pathway of cyanide-resistant mitochondria].the estimation of membrane potential of cyanide-resistant mitochondria of candida lipolytica yeast was carried out using positively charged dye phenosafranine. the electron transfer via alternative pathway of cynide resistant mitochondria was shown not to be coupled with the formation of potential on membrane mitochondria.1978656513
[multiphasic growth of microorganisms: modeling and computer simulation of linear growth phases].a phenomenological and a more causal model are developed for the multiphasic discontinuous growth. the first model distinguished between the lag-phase, the exponential phase, the transient phase from the exponential to the linear phase, the linear phase, the transient phase from the linear to the stationary phase, and the stationary phase. the parameters are rate constants, critical values of biomass, and time constants. the parameters are estimated for experimental data of growth of candida lip ...1978676354
[growth kinetics of thiamine requiring candida lipolytica during thiamine limitation: the existence of a linear growth phase].the growth kinetics of batch cultures of the thiamine requiring candida lipolytica 695 was investigated. it was established that a phase of logarithmic growth is followed by a linear growth phase. the time length of the linear phase and the relative increasing of the biomass during the linear phase are nearly constant and independend of the concentration of thiamine. the existence of the linear phase is discussed in connection with a constant activity of one of the two 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases ...1978695707
[effect of detergents on the main respiratory chain and cyanide-resistant pathway of electron tranfer of candida lipolytica yeast mitochondria].effects of detergents--triton x-100 and deoxycholate--on the main respiratory chain and cyanide-resistant electron transfer pathway in the mitochondria of candida lipolytica yeast were studied. triton x-100 and deoxycholate were shown to completely inhibit the activity of alternative oxidase at concentrations of 0.7 and 1.2 mm, respectively. at these concentrations the detergents did not inhibit the activity of the main respiratory chain. the inhibiting effect of triton x-100 was exerted both in ...1978698309
subcellular localization of two long-chain acyl-coenzyme-a synthetases in candida lipolytica.studies have been made on the subcellular localization of two long-chain acyl-coenzyme-a synthetases as well as glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and the acyl-coa-oxidizing system in candida lipolytica grown on oleic acid. acyl-coa synthetase i is distributed among different subcellular fractions, including microsomes and mitochondria where glycerolphosphate acyltransferase is located. on the other hand, acyl-coa synthetase ii is localized in microbodies where the acyl-coa-oxidizing system is lo ...1978710394
[kinetics of citric acid production in candida lipolytica].the kinetics of citrate and isocitrate accumulation by candida lipolytica has been studied, with special emphasis of the carbon sources glucose and n-alkanes and the shifts from one carbon source to the other. the accumulation of the citric acids starts with the beginning of ideophase. trophophase and ideophase behaviour is in parts different. ideophase behaviour may be influenced by exogenic factors during growth. from the course of the curves for the citric acids two phases can be distinguishe ...1978735163
cytological and genetic studies of the life cycle of saccharomycopsis the alkane yeast saccharomycopsis lipolytica (formerly: candida lipolytica) the variability in the ascospore number is caused by the absence of a correlation between the meiotic divisions and spore wall formation. in four spored yeasts, after meiosis ii, a spore wall is formed around each of the four nuclei produced by meiosis ii. however, in the most frequently occurring two spored asci of s. lipolytica, the two nuclei are already enveloped by the spore wall after meiosis i due to a delay of ...1976785204
[metabolic products of microorganisms. 156. synthesis and biosynthesis of substituted tryptanthrins (author's transl)].candida lipolytica synthesizes the antibiotic tryptanthrin from 1 mole tryptophan and 1 mole anthranilic acid. when feeding tryptophan and substituted anthranilic acids, or substituted tryptophans and anthranilic acid, we could isolate and identify the expected derivatives of tryptanthrin. the enzymes of the biosynthesis of tryptanthrin, with the exception of bromotryptophan, had no specifity for these substrates. in addition to these experiments substituted tryptanthrines were chemically synthe ...1976818968
glucose-phosphorylating enzymes of candida yeasts and their regulation in vivo.three glucose-phosphorylating enzymes having different specificities for glucose and fructose were separated from the cell-free extract of candida tropicalis by means of ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on deae-cellulose and sephadex g-100. two of them, which phosphorylated fructose 1.5 times faster than glucose, were designated as hexokinase i and ii (atp : d-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, ec, and the other with very low or no fructose-phosphorylating activity, as gluco ...1977836848
characteristics of hydrocarbon uptake in cultures with two liquid hydrocarbon fermentation, the efficiency of hydrocarbon uptake by cells is one of the keys to the economical production of single-cell protein. this work is concerned with characterization of cultures with two liquid phases for understanding the hydrocarbon uptake process by cells. batch cultivation of candida lipolytica was carried out in shaking flasks and in a tower fermentor with motionless mixers. microscopic observation and cell and hydrocarbon concentration distribution in batch cultiv ...1977843616
[tubular inclusions within microbodies of saccharomycopsis (candida) lipolytica-protoplasts (author's transl)]. 1977850745
regulation of extracellular protease production in candida lipolytica.production of extracellular protease by candida lipolytica nrrl y-1094 was derepressed upon transfer to carbon-, nitrogen- or sulphur-free medium but not upon transfer to phosphorus-free medium. the protease activities produced under the three nutrient limitations had alkaline ph optima and similar substrate and inhibitor specificities. any one of the following three conditions was found to be sufficient for derepression of extracellular protease: (a) "poor" carbon source, (b) cysteine intracell ...1977870075
extracellular proteolysis by candida lipolytica. 1977876273
[cyanide insensitive respiration of candida lipolytica yeasts].the effect of rotenone, antimycin a, oligomycin, 2,4,-dnp, and various subtrates on the appearance of cyanide-resistant respiration of candida lipolytica yeast was studied. rotenone inhibited the development of cyanide-resistant respiration, but did not prevent its origination. antimycin a and oligomycin increased the rate of the appearance of cyanide-resistant respiration. if the resting yeast culture was incubated with 2,4-dnp, glucose, or glycerol, the development of the alternative pathway o ...1977882005
hydrocarbon uptake in hydrocarbon fermentations.candida lipolytica (strain atcc 8662) was grown on a simple defined medium with n-hexadecane as the main carbon source under batch fementation conditions. the relative importance of the cells growing in the aqueous phase on the overall kinetics was studied. the effect of interfacial tension, unoccupied interfacial area, and pseudosolubility on the specific growth was also studied. results are presented and discussed here.1977890084
[infrared spectrum of yeast cell walls].infrared spectra of whole cells and cell walls were studied with schizosaccharomyces pombe, endomyces magnusii. rhodotorula rubra, and candida lipolytica. qualitative analysis of the spectra and comparison of the spectra recorded for the cells and for their walls led to a conclusion that, contrary to the common viewpoint, an ir spectrum of the whole cell of any yeast species was determined by the components contained in the cell rather wall than by all components of the cell.1977895561
[study of the reversible inactivation of the cyanide-resistant pathway of electron transfer in mitochondria of the yeast candida lipolytica].the study of reversible inactivation process of alternative pathway of electron transfer in cyanide-resistant mitochondria of c. lipolytica yeast was carried out. the appearance of sensitivity of respiration of cyanide-resistant mitochondria to cyanide and lowering of sensitivity of substrate oxidation to benzohydroxamic acid (the inhibitor of electron transfer along the alternative pathway) during the incubation was observed. the increase of temperature and the presence of magnesium ions in the ...1977922075
[detection of cyanide resistant respiration among candida lipolytics yeasts].conditions causing cyanide-resistant respiration were studied in the yeast candida lipolytica. this type of respiration was found when the culture growing on glucose, glycerol, hexadecane, or acetate exhuasted the substrate and passed from the logarithmic to stationary growth phase; the same phenomenon can be induced by exhaustion of phosphorus or nitrogen in the glucose medium. the yeast culture growing on lactate, ethanol, pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, or succinate is characterized by ...1976940487
lipolytic fermentations of stickwater by geotrichum candidum and candida lipolytica.stickwater, a by-product of the fish meal and oil industry, is an aqueous suspension of fish proteins, lipids, and other materials, and also contains soluble nonprotein nitrogen but not carbohydrate. it is usually partially evaporated by heat to a marketable form called "fish solubles," which is sold with an acid preservative as an animal feed supplement. however, fish solubles are only used to a limited extent in feeds, because the lipids of solubles (averages 11%) are relatively prone to oxida ...1976944554
[metabolic activity of candida lipolytica adsorbed to bentonite with hydrophobic chains].the respiration of candida lipolytica on n-tetradecane is decreased in the presence of bentonite. this inhibition is less pronounced by the introduction of hydrophobic chains on the bentonite. oxygen demand of resting cells varies with the length of hydrophobic chains. in fermentor, addition of adsorbant does not stimulate growth, but assimilation of n-tetradecane is enhanced with certain concentrations of the adsorbant. on glucose, addition of hydrophobic chains on the adsorbant does not change ...1976963620
[enzyme activity of citrate, glyoxylate and pentosephosphate cycles during synthesis of citric acids by candida lipolytica].the activity of key enzymes of the citrate and glyoxylate cycles was compared in yeast cells during intensive synthesis of citric acids and in its absence in the course of growth of candida lipolytica on glucose ("glucose" yeast cells) and on hexadecane ("hexadecane" yeast cells). citrate and isocitrate were found to be formed by the yeast in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. the ability of the yeast for "overproduction" of citrate and isocitrate during its growth on glucose and hexadecane depends o ...19761004246
the aconitase of yeast. iv. studies on iron and sulfur in yeast aconitase.chemical analyses were carried out to determine the active components of the crystalline aconitase [ec] of candida lipolytica. the enzyme contained 2 atoms of non-heme iron, 1 atom of labile sulfur, and 6 sulfhydryl groups per molecule. one atom of the non-heme iron was released by the addition of metal-chelating agents such as sodium citrate, sodium nitrilotriacetate (nta) or sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (edta) without loss of the enzyme activity. the non-heme iron and labile sulf ...19761010845
[3 cases of ocular candidiasis caused by candida lipolytica]. 19761021048
carbohydrates from hydrocarbons. ii. free and bound sugars from yeast cells grown on n-hexadecane.candida lipolytica (strain 10) was grown on an n-hexadecane medium with and without yeast extract. the harvested dry cells were weighed at various stages of growth. the free sugars from the cultures were obtained by soxhlet extraction with 85% ethyl alcohol. further qualitative and quantitative analyses of free monosaccharides in the concentrated alcoholic extracts were made by paper chromatography. glucose was the only free monosaccharide that could be identified at various stages of growth. th ...19761025983
[production of candida lipolytica protoplasts].optimal conditions were found for the production and isolation of the protoplasts of candida lipolytica. the maximum amount of the protoplasts was produced after 90 minutes of the incubation with a crude preparation of the enzyme from helix pomatia (100 mg/g wet biomass). longer incubation results in lysis of the protoplasts and structural damages of the intracellular components. the yield of the protoplasts does not depend on the nature of stabilizing agent. a decrease in the stabilizer concent ...19751160627
[activity of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in alkane-oxidizing yeast cells].the activity of the key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transketolase) was determined in cell-free homogenates of candida lipolytica 695 and candida tropicalis 303 growing on different carbon sources. the activity of these enzymes remained almost the same in the course of growth of both cultures. the activity of the enzymes differed only slightly in the cells metabolizing hexadecane and glucose. the activity of glucos ...19751160634
lipid components of the hydrocarbon assimilating yeast candida lipolytica (strain 10).the utilization of n-hexadecane by candida lipolytica (stain 10) was studied with respect to the lipid content, phospholipid and fatty acid profiles resulting at various growth times. thin layer chromatography of the lipid extracts showed quantitative changes in the different lipid classes. the phospholipid fraction obtained at each growth time was separated into 8 classes: lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, glycophospholipid, phosphatidylglyce ...19751199134
studies on hydrolysis and synthesis of fats in staphylococcus aureus and candida lipolytica.hydrolysis of triglycerides via di- and mono-glycerides has been obtained from washed cells and crude lipolytic enzyme from staphylococcus aureus and candida lipolytica. the same strains were unable to synthesize triglycerides starting from oleic acid and glycerol, while synthesis was obtained starting from mono- and di-oleate.19751203083
[isolation and some properties of mitochondria from yeast candida lipolytica 695].mitochondria is obtained from yeast candida lipolytica 695 grown in the presence of glucose, lactate or citrate. yeast mitochondria were shown to be practically indistinguishable from animal tissue mitochondria in [adp]/[o] values and in their sensitivity to electron transport inhibitors, to inhibitors and uncoupling agents of oxidative phosphorylation. the only exception was more low value of the respiration control under succinate oxidation. mitochondria from yeast, grown in the presence of la ...19751203360
mutagenic effect of ethionine on candida lipolytica. 19751213055
[yeast growth on solid natural oil].two strains of the yeast candida lipolytica with a specific response to n-alkanes could grow on a medium with paraffins only in the case of contact of the cells with the particles of hydrocarbons. a mixture of paraffins with a solidification point of 35 degrees c contained 41.6% of n-alkanes with the carbon chain from c8 to c36. assimilation of n-alkanes was studied along with the yeast growth in the course of fermentation. penetration of the hydrocarbons into the yeast cells and the specificity ...19751214608
the production of extracellular polysaccharides by a hydrocarbon assimilating yeast.investigations were made on the extracellular polysaccharides production by a hydrocarbon assimilating yeast. the yeast candida lipolytica was grown on two different media containing n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source. polymeric materials precipitated from the culture medium with ethanol were determined gravimetrically at various growth periods. the hydrolysis of the precipitated material and their chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of mannose, glucose and galactose in the yeast ...19751227255
antibodies directed against a yeast carboxyl-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal specifically recognize peroxisomal proteins from various yeasts.the carboxyl-terminal tripeptide ala-lys-ile is essential for targeting candida tropicalis trifunctional enzyme (hydratase-dehydrogenase-epimerase) to peroxisomes of both candida albicans and saccharomyces cerevisiae (aitchison,j.d., murray, w.w. and rachubinski, r. a. (1991).j. biol. chem. 266, 23197-23203). we investigated the possibility that this tripeptide may act as a general peroxisomal targeting signal (pts) for other proteins in the yeasts c. tropicalis, c. albicans, yarrowia lipolytica ...19921279909
a mutant of 7sl rna in yarrowia lipolytica affecting the synthesis of a secreted protein.the yeast yarrowia lipolytica contains two genes, scr1 and scr2, encoding a 7sl rna associated with a signal recognition particle (srp). to study 7sl rna function in vivo we have systematically substituted the two conserved nucleotides g128 and a130 in loop 1 of scr2-encoded 7sl rna. all single mutations in either nucleotide have no effect. all double mutations are lethal except for one which results in temperature-sensitive growth. we have studied the synthesis and secretion of an alkaline extr ...19921309803
characterization of mutants of the yeast yarrowia lipolytica defective in acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase.the expression of the glyoxylate cycle enzymes is required for growth of the yeast yarrowia lipolytica on acetate or fatty acids as sole carbon source. acetyl-coenzyme a, which is produced by acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase (acs) from acetate, is needed for induction of this expression. acetate-non-utilizing mutants of this yeast were investigated in order to identify mutants which express no or strongly reduced activity of this enzyme. mutations in gene icl2 exhibited the strongest effects on the ...19921349449
secretion of human blood coagulation factor xiiia by the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.the industrial yeast, yarrowia lipolytica, secretes high yields of an alkaline extracellular protease (aep), which is synthesized as a preproprotein encoded by the xpr2 gene. we investigated the possibility of using this system for the secretion of human coagulation factor xiii subunit a (fxiiia). this protein is naturally secreted in the plasma by an unknown, signal peptide-independent mechanism and has so far been found to be nonsecretable in yeast. we have designed six hybrid genes encoding f ...19921358760
a new cyclodextrin-agar medium for surface cultivation of microbes on lipophilic substrates.inclusion of cyclodextrins into an agar gel enabled a homogeneous incorporation of water-immiscible lipophilic organic liquids and solids as substrates for surface microbial growth or conversion. surface cultivation of candida lipolytica and c. tropicalis was demonstrated in alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin/hexadecane-agar media.19901366583
use of ars18 based vectors to increase protein production in yarrowia lipolytica.the isolation of ars sequence from the yeast yarrowia lipolytica has recently been reported (fournier et al., 1991). vectors containing ars18 have been used to increase homologous and heterologous protein production. examples presented are the yarrowia lipolytica alkaline extracellular protease (aep), the porcine alpha 1-interferon and the bovine prochymosin. a 2- to 6-fold increase in the corresponding protein production was observed and in several cases it was established that it corresponded ...19911367240
growth of fermentative and non-fermentative yeasts in natural yoghurt, stored in polystyrene cartons.permeation of oxygen through polystyrene packaging is a factor in the growth of yeasts in natural yoghurt. diffusion of oxygen through the packaging material can permit the growth of non-fermentative yeasts in yoghurt stored at refrigeration temperatures. yarrowia lipolytica, a non-fermentative yeasts which does not utilize lactose was isolated from yoghurt. the growth in natural yoghurt of yarrowia lipolytica and the lactose-fermenting yeast kluyveromyces marxianus was investigated. both yeasts ...19921419544
complementation of saccharomyces cerevisiae acid phosphatase mutation by a genomic sequence from the yeast yarrowia lipolytica identifies a new phosphatase.a yarrowia lipolytica gene library was constructed in vector yrp7 and transformed into a saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking both major acid phosphatase activities. a 2.18 kb genomic sequence restoring the ability to hydrolyze alpha-naphthyl phosphate was isolated. its sequencing revealed an orf encoding 358 amino acids without significant homology with any known phosphatase. a putative signal peptide and several possible sites for n-glycosylation were identified. phosphate-regulated express ...19921423722
the isolation and characterization of the pyruvate kinase-encoding gene from the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.the dimorphic yeast, yarrowia lipolytica, has been developed as a useful expression/secretion system for heterologous proteins such as chymosin and tissue plasminogen activator. to further develop this expression system, we have cloned the gene (pyk) encoding the highly expressed glycolytic enzyme, pyruvate kinase (pyk). genomic clones were selected by their specific hybridization to synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on regions of the enzyme that were conserved through evolution. t ...19921511886
cloning of the mating-type gene mata of the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.the mating type gene mata of the dimorphic yeast yarrowia lipolytica was cloned. the strategy used was based on the presumed function of this gene in the induction of sporulation. a diploid strain homozygous for the mating type b was transformed with an integrative gene bank from an a wild-type strain. a sporulating transformant was isolated, which contained a plasmid with an 11.6 kb insert. this sequence was rescued from the chromosomal dna of the transformant and deletion mapping was performed ...19921588911
study on fatty acid binding by proteins in yeast. dissimilar results in saccharomyces cerevisiae and yarrowia lipolytica.1. the presence of soluble proteins with fatty acid binding activity was investigated in cell-free extracts from saccharomyces cerevisiae and yarrowia lipolytica cultures. 2. no significant fatty acid binding by proteins was detected in s. cerevisiae, even when grown on a fatty acid-rich medium, thus indicating that such proteins are not essential to fatty acid metabolism. 3. an inducible fatty acid binding protein (k0.5 = 3-4 microm) was found in y. lipolytica which had grown on a minimal mediu ...19921617937
lipid hydrogenation induces elevated 18:1-coa desaturase activity in candida lipolytica microsomes.microsomal membranes prepared from the mesophilic yeast candida lipolytica grown at 10 degrees c were hydrogenated by the homogeneous pd-catalyst, palladium di (sodium alizarine sulfonate) (pd(qs)2). after hydrogenation to various levels, the microsomes were washed free of the pd-complex and transferred to a reaction mixture (containing nadh, mgcl2, atp, coa and [14c]18:1-coa) for assay of 18:1-coa desaturase activity. microviscosity alterations were also followed by measuring changes in dph flu ...19911680004
fluid-phase endocytosis in yeasts other than saccharomyces cerevisiae.a fitc-dextran internalization assay with saccharomyces cerevisiae as positive control was used to determine whether fluid-phase endocytosis is a general characteristic of yeasts. schizosaccharomyces pombe, pichia polymorpha, kluyveromyces phaseolosporus, yarrowia lipolytica and candida albicans were clearly positive, whereas results obtained with debaryomyces marama were inconclusive. in all cases internalized fitc-dextran was found to be localized in the vacuoles and the process was always tim ...19901696233
on the false positive urease activity of yarrowia lipolytica.the ability of yarrowia lipolytica to produce ammonia from urea was found variable on some media. the colour change of the indicator in christensen's urea agar was not due to the urease activity of this species but was a non-specific alkalization reaction. rapid urea broth was reliable giving no false positive results. it was found that y. lipolytica is a urease negative yeast species.19911796808
cloning of the his3 gene of yarrowia lipolytica.the his3 gene of the yeast yarrowia lipolytica has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of the his3 mutation of saccharomyces cerevisiae. the gene was subsequently subcloned in escherichia coli and characterized by restriction enzyme mapping.19911804031
characterization of a camp-independent ca2(+)-inhibited protamine kinase from candida lipolytica.a camp-independent protamine kinase has been purified from extracts of the yeast candida lipolytica by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. two subunits with apparent mr's of 52,000 and 36,000 were resolved by sds-page. the purified kinase exhibited about 20% activity with casein and histone type vii-s as substrates relative to protamine. the enzyme was inactive against other protein substrates tested, and was essentially insensitive to amp, camp, cgmp up to 0.2 mm, the polyamines spermine ...19911850244
[susceptibility to miconazole (base) of isolates from the oral cavity and esophagus of patients with mycosis].an antifungal agent of the imidazole class, miconazole (mcz) (base), was investigated for its in vitro antifungal activities against isolates from the oral cavity and esophagus of patients with mycosis, and the following findings were obtained: 1. those yeast-like fungi which were presumed to be the causative agents were isolated from the oral cavity and esophagus of patients with mycosis, and identified. candida albicans was the most frequently occurring species, accounting for 71.4% of all the ...19911880917
identification of oral yeasts by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.protein profiles of sonicated cells for 9 species of yeast isolated from oral samples were obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), and visualized with a silver stain. the profiles obtained on 12% acrylamide gels were distinct, and characteristic for 6 species of candida, and torulopsis glabrata, yarrowia lipolytica, and saccharomyces cerevisiae. using this method, 79 fresh isolates of yeasts from saliva samples were identified; 58 as candida albicans, 9 ...19911945503
structure-activity relationships of the nikkomycins.the structure-activity relationships of different nikkomycins were studied to evaluate the structural requirements for a potent chitin synthase inhibitor. we investigated the transport of the nikkomycins via the peptide transport system of the yeast yarrowia lipolytica and determined the kinetic parameters for nikkomycin z uptake [km = 24 microm, vmax = 2.2 nmol min-1 (mg dry wt)-1]. we demonstrated that the beta-methyl group of the n-terminal amino acid of dipeptide nikkomycins protects the mol ...19911955867
characteristics and identity of obligately aerobic spoilage yeasts from fish silage.yarrowia (candida) lipolytica was the predominant organism isolated from the surface film of growth derived from ground hake gurry to which only phosphoric acid was added to give a ph of 4.0. the optimum ph for the crude extracellular protease activity of two distinguishable strains of y. lipolytica, designated cl1 and cl2, with casein as substrate was 7.0. the optimum temperature of the crude extracellular protease activity from both strains was 50 degrees c. the addition of 2.0% glucose to bro ...19911960111
role of the proregion in the production and secretion of the yarrowia lipolytica alkaline extracellular protease.the yeast yarrowia lipolytica secretes an alkaline extracellular protease (aep). it is first synthesized as a precursor comprising a putative signal peptide, a stretch of 10 x-ala or x-pro sequences that are substrates for a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, a large pro-region that contains a glycosylation site and two lys-arg sites that can be cleaved by a kex2-like endoprotease and finally the mature protease itself. a defect in the xpr6 (kex2-like) gene results in the secretion of an inactive proenz ...19911995632
evolutionary relationships among pathogenic candida species and relatives.small subunit rrna sequences have been determined for 10 of the most clinically important pathogenic species of the yeast genus candida (including torulopsis [candida] glabrata and yarrowia [candida] lipolytica) and for hansenula polymorpha. phylogenetic analyses of these sequences and those of saccharomyces cerevisiae, kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis, and aspergillus fumigatus indicate that candida albicans, c. tropicalis, c. parapsilosis, and c. viswanathii form a subgroup within the genus ...19912007550
scarcity of ars sequences isolated in a morphogenesis mutant of the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.previous attempts is isolate autonomously replicating sequences (ars) from the dimorphic yeast yarrowia lipolytica have been unsuccessful. we isolated a fil- mutant unable to produce hyphae and growing only in a yeast form to facilitate ars isolation. this mutant was transformed with a y. lipolytica dna bank and several unstable clones were obtained. extrachromosomal plasmids were evidenced in yeast, recovered in escherichia coli and characterized by restriction mapping. they were able to retran ...19912021082
the pentafunctional fas1 genes of saccharomyces cerevisiae and yarrowia lipolytica are co-linear and considerably longer than previously estimated.the fatty acid synthetase (fas) gene fas1 of the alkane-utilizing yeast yarrowia lipolytica was cloned and sequenced. the gene is represented by an intron-free reading frame of 6228 bp encoding a protein of 2076 amino acids and 229,980 da molecular weight. this protein exhibits a 58% sequence similarity to the corresponding saccharomyces cerevisiae fas beta-subunit. the sequential order of the five fas1-encoded enzyme the sequential order of the five fas1-encoded enzyme domains, acetyl transfera ...19912034224
ribosomal dna spacer probes for yeast identification: studies in the genus test whether dna probes derived from ribosomal dna spacer sequences are suitable for rapid and species-specific yeast identification, a pilot study was undertaken. a 7.7 kb entire ribosomal dna unit of the type strain of metschnikowia reukaufii was isolated, cloned and mapped. a 0.65 kb bamhi-hpai fragment containing non-transcribed spacer sequences was amplified and selected for testing as a 32p hybridization probe with total dna from the type strains of m. reukaufii, m. pulcherrima, m. luna ...19912063626
relative effectiveness of yeast cell wall digesting enzymes on yarrowia lipolytica.novozym 234 at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml yielded 95.5% spheroplasts within 30 min at 37 degrees c, ph 7.0, with 36% regeneration which was the highest level of regeneration observed. yeast lytic enzyme at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml yielded 99.8% spheroplasts with only 1.5% regeneration. glusulase was significantly less active in producing osmotically sensitive cells. all three enzymes yielded significantly higher levels of osmotically sensitive cells when cells were harvested from the mid-l ...19902259286
transfer and expression of heterologous genes in yeasts other than saccharomyces the past few years, yeasts other than those belonging to the genus saccharomyces have become increasingly important for industrial applications. species such as pichia pastoris, hansenula polymorpha, schizosaccharomyces pombe, yarrowia lipolytica and kluyveromyces lactis have been modified genetically and used for the production of heterologous proteins. for a number of additional yeasts such as schwanniomyces occidentalis, zygosaccharomyces rouxii, trichosporon cutaneum, pachysolen tannophil ...19902291442
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