d-mannitol dehydrogenase from absidia glauca. purification, metabolic role, and subunit interactions.when absidia glauca was grown in minimal media with d-mannitol as the only source of carbon, an nad+ specific d-mannitol dehydrogenase (ec was induced. the crude extract also gave evidence of mannitol kinase, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, and l-iditol dehydrogenase activity. the heat labile purified preparation was judged enzymically homogeneous based on evidence derived from substrate specificity studies and activity staining, following disc gel electrophore ...19765111
d-mannitol dehydrogenase from absidia glauca. steady-state kinetic properties and the inhibitory role of mannitol 1-phosphate.steady-state kinetic studies including initial velocity for mannitol oxidation and fructose reduction and product inhibition for mannitol oxidation using fructose and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nadh) are in accord with a reaction mechanism best described as ordered bi-bi with nad+ and nadh designated as the first substrate, last product, respectively at ph 8.8. all replots of slopes and intercepts from product inhibition studies were linear. dead-end inhibition studies using mann ...1977188444
[application of microbial enzymes in studies of steroid metabolism (author's transl)].in vitro models are necessary for studying the biotransformation of new steroid drugs and to determine the structure of the metabolites and their biological activity. for that reason microorganisms and their enzymes were used to investigate the anabolic steroid oral-turinabol (4-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadiene-3-one). clostridium paraputrificum transformed oral-turinabol into the hydrogenation products 4beta-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-5beta-1-androstene-3-one (i) ...1975818880
circular extrachromosomal dna codes for a surface protein in the (+) mating type of the zygomycete absidia glauca.a small protein with a molecular mass of 15 kda, which is specifically found on the hyphal surface of a (+) mating-type strain of the model zygomycete absidia glauca, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and partially sequenced. the corresponding gene was cloned by means of an oligonucleotide probe deduced from the protein sequence. it could be localized on an extrachromosomal circular dna element with a total length of 1250 bp. electron microscopic analysis of a. glauca dna showed that s ...19921394515
the seg1 element: a new dna region promoting stable mitotic segregation of plasmids in the zygomycete absidia glauca.a series of new vectors for the model zygomycete absidia glauca was constructed on the basis of the structural neomycin resistance (neor) gene controlled by the promoter of the gene for elongation factor 1 (tef). in order to select for transformed colonies with a stable neor phenotype, spores from primary transformants were pooled and grown for two sporulation cycles under non-selective conditions. southern blot analysis of dna from single spore isolates originating from independent transformant ...19921465090
transformation of the mycoparasite parasitella simplex to neomycin resistance.the facultatively parasitic zygomycete parasitella simplex was transformed to neomycin resistance by a vector, which had been developed primarily for transformation of its host absidia glauca. this plasmid, pamnef21, contained the bacterial resistance gene for neomycin (nptii) under the control of the promoter region from the gene for elongation factor 1 (tef) isolated from a. glauca. both flanking regions of the marker gene contain parts of the structural tef gene. dna isolated from two parasit ...19921568255
strain-dependent variation in ribosomal dna arrangement in absidia glauca.restriction analysis of total dna from the zygomycete absidia glauca reveals a pattern of prominent bands on a homogeneous background. by southern blot analysis with 32p-end-labelled ribosomal rna most of these bands could unequivocally be identified as repetitive copies of ribosomal dna. there are marked differences in restriction patterns of rdna between all seven strains tested, even of strains belonging to mating type pairs, presumably isolated from the same location. by using purified rrnas ...19852578394
cloned mitochondrial dna from the zygomycete absidia glauca promotes autonomous replication in saccharomyces cerevisiae.we have cloned fragments from mitochondrial and chromosomal dna of the zygomycete absidia glauca in saccharomyces cerevisiae using the ars selection vector yip5. though it has not been possible to select ars elements from chromosomal dna, we succeeded in isolating two clones of mitochondrial origin that support autonomous replication in bakers' yeast. dna from these plasmids has been shown to hybridize with mitochondrial dna from both mating types. generation times of the transformed yeast strai ...19863327605
dna sequence and functional analysis of an ars-element from the zygomycete absidia glauca.a dna fragment of mitochondrial origin from the mucoraceous fungus absidia glauca promoting autonomous plasmid replication in saccharomyces cerevisiae was sequenced and functionally characterised. we could show that the original mitochondrial insert cloned in yip5 contains two regions with ars activity which mutually inhibit each other. all plasmid derivatives replicating in yeast are rapidly lost during growth under non-selective conditions. in addition to one ars consensus sequence with only o ...19873332251
structural organization of the genome of the zygomycete absidia glauca: evidence for high repetitive dna cell dna of absidia glauca has a gc-content of 44.6% +/- 0.5% as determined from optical melting profiles which is in good accordance with values from equilibrium centrifugation in bisbenzimide containing cscl gradients (46.2% +/- 1.1%), whereas mitochondrial dna has a gc-content of only 30%. the genome size of absidia glauca is approximately 36,000 kb, 8.6 times that of escherichia coli. three kinetically different fractions could be identified in reassociation experiments: a foldback-dna ...19863447743
neomycin resistance as a dominantly selectable marker for transformation of the zygomycete absidia glauca.a plasmid (pamn61) containing the npt ii structural gene (neomycin phosphotransferase) fused to the n-terminal region of a homologous actin gene was used for the transformation of absidia glauca protoplasts. neomycin resistant transformants could be selected for on complete medium containing 1.2 mg/ml neomycin sulfate. the physical presence of plasmid dna in absidia glauca was demonstrated by retransformation into escherichia coli and by southern blot analysis. no integration of plasmid dna at e ...19873502943
organization of enzymes in the common aromatic synthetic pathway: evidence for aggregation in fungi.centrifugation in sucrose density gradients of partially purified extracts from six species of fungi, i.e., rhizopus stolonifer, phycomyces nitens, absidia glauca (phycomycetes), aspergillus nidulans (ascomycetes), coprinus lagopus, and ustilago maydis (basidiomycetes), indicate that the five enzymes catalyzing steps two to six in the prechorismic acid part of the polyaromatic synthetic pathway sediment together. the sedimentation coefficients for these enzymes are very similar in the six specie ...19695802608
isolation and characterization of the ef-1 alpha gene of the filamentous fungus puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici.a gene of puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, coding for the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (ef-1 alpha), was isolated from a p. graminis genomic library using the ef-1 alpha gene sequence of absidia glauca. the coding region of 1389 nucleotides encodes a polypeptide of 463 amino acids and is interrupted by eight introns. an additional intron is located in the 5' untranslated region. a single transcription start point (tsp) was mapped by primer extension. a cdna fragment corresponding to p. ...19957614560
analysis of the gene for the elongation factor 1 alpha from the zygomycete absidia glauca. use of the promoter region for constructions of transformation vectors.the complete genomic dna sequence was determined for one of the gene for the elongation factor 1 alpha (tef), isolated from the zygomycete absidia glauca. sequence comparison with tef genes from other fungi show the highest similarity to tef-genes of the closely related zygomycete mucor racemosus (sundstrom et al. 1987). southern-blot analysis of genomic dna from a. glauca with the tef gene reveals six chromosomal copies in the genome. in transformation experiments of a. glauca, vector construct ...19957735720
sequence comparison of a segment of the gene for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase in this paper we compare the sequences of a segment of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a (hmg-coa) reductase gene, isolated from eleven different strains belonging to four species of the fungal order mucorales, parasitella parasitica, absidia glauca, mucor mucedo (mucoraceae) and blakeslea trispora (choanephoraceae). the segment was obtained by polynucleotide-chain-reaction amplification with primers derived from conservative regions of the gene. for the species m. mucedo and p. parasiti ...19948125097
purification and characterization of membrane-bound chitin synthase.the membrane-bound chitin synthase, a key enzyme of chitin biosynthesis, was purified, for the first time to homogeneity as a zymogen form. digitonin could solubilize the enzyme from microsomal fraction of the filamentous fungus absidia glauca, with 60-70% of the enzyme activity. the solubilized form of the enzyme was effectively purified by a sequence of chelating sepharose, concanavalin a-sepharose, and mono q column. on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified e ...19938420947
transfer of genetic information from the mycoparasite parasitella parasitica to its host absidia glauca.the infection of the model organism absidia glauca by p. parasitica is accompanied by the fusion of both mycelia. by two lines of evidence we were able to show that this process is associated with the transfer of genes. first, auxotrophically labelled a. glauca mutants are efficiently complemented as a consequence of transfer of the parasite's genetic material. second, for a plasmid-coded dominant marker (neomycin resistance), which is expressed in either organism, we proved the presence of plas ...19938467531
4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase from mucor mucedo, an enzyme of the sexual hormone pathway: purification, and cloning of the corresponding gene.we have purified the nadp-dependent 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase from the zygomycete mucor mucedo. the enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of trisporic acid, the sexual hormone of zygomycetes, which induces the first steps of zygophore development. protein was obtained from the (-) mating type of m. mucedo after induction with trisporic acid, and purified by gel filtration and affinity chromatography steps. on sds-page a band with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kda was ascribed t ...19968828234
microbial transformation of sampangine.microbial transformation studies of the antifungal alkaloid sampangine (2) have revealed that it is metabolized by a number of microorganisms. using a standard two-stage fermentation technique, beauvaria bassiana (atcc 7159), doratomyces microsporus (atcc 16225), and filobasidiella neoformans (atcc 10226) produced the 4'-o-methyl-beta-glucopyranose conjugate (3), while absidia glauca (atcc 22752), cunninghamella elegans (atcc 9245), cunninghamella species (nrrl 5695), and rhizopus arrhizus (atcc ...199910425122
microbial transformation of benzosampangine.microbial transformation studies of the synthetic antifungal alkaloid benzosampangine (1) have revealed that 1 is metabolized by a number of microorganisms. using a standard two-stage fermentation technique absidia glauca (atcc 22752), cunninghamella blakesleeana (atcc 8688a), cunninghamella species (nrrl 5695), fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (csih #c-5), and rhizopogon species (atcc 36060) each produced a beta-glucopyranose conjugate of benzosampangine (2). the identity of 2 was established ...200010757729
green fluorescent protein as a reporter for gene expression in the mucoralean fungus absidia glauca.mucoralean fungi (zygomycota) are used for many industrial processes and also as important model organisms for investigating basic biological problems. their genetic analysis is severely hampered by low transformation frequencies, by their strong tendency towards autonomous replication of plasmids instead of stable integration, and by the lack of reliable genetic reporter systems. we constructed plasmids for transforming the model zygomycete absidia glauca that carry the versatile reporter gene ...200111271415
structurally novel bioconversion products of the marine natural product sarcophine effectively inhibit jb6 cell transformation.sarcophytol a (1) and b (2) (see chart 1) are cembrane-type diterpenes known to inhibit tumor promotion. indicative of this inhibitory response, we currently report sarcophytol a (1) mediates dose-dependent diminution of 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (tpa)-induced transformation of jb6 cells. moreover, a structurally related furanocembrane diterpene, sarcophine (3), isolated in good yield from the red sea soft coral sarcophyton glaucum, was also found to serve as an effective inhibitor of ...199811672397
transformations of testosterone and related steroids in absidia glauca the following study, the course of transformations of testosterone and its derivatives with an additional c(1)-c(2) double bond and/or 17alpha-methyl group or without 19-methyl group in absidia glauca culture was investigated. the fungi were observed to hydroxylate these compounds and to oxidise the 17beta-hydroxyl group. the products of 6beta, 7alpha, 7beta, 11alpha, 12beta or 15beta hydroxylation were obtained. 19-nortestosterone was also hydroxylated at the 10beta position.the position and ...200312746853
[diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].the numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of cfu per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. this group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders hypocreales (fusarium solani, f. oxysporum, fusarium sp., clonostachys grammicospora, c. rosea. acremonium sp., gliocladium penicilloides, trichoderma aureoviride, t. harzianum, t. polysporum, t. viride. t. koning ...200818365728
in vitro activity of phenothiazines and their combinations with amphotericin b against zygomycetes causing rhinocerebral zygomycosis.the in vitro antifungal activities of two phenothiazine (ptz) compounds, trifluoperazine (tfp) and chlorpromazine (cpz) separately and in combination with amphotericin b (amb) were tested against eight fungal isolates known to be possible agents of rhinocerebral zygomycosis. while both ptzs individually had antifungal effects against these filamentous fungi, only the antifungal activity of tfp increased in presence of amb. tfp and amb acted synergistically and caused full inhibition of all strai ...200918798117
microbial transformation of (-)-carvone.the cyclic monoterpene ketone (-)-carvone was metabolized by the plant pathogenic fungus absidia glauca. after 4 days of incubation, the diol 10-hydroxy-(+)-neodihydrocarveol was formed. the absolute configuration and structure of the crystalline substance was identified by means of x-ray diffraction and by spectroscopic techniques (ms, ir and nmr). the antimicrobial activity of the substrate and metabolite was assayed with human pathogenic microorganisms.200418998407
spore swelling and germination as a bioassay for the rapid screening of crude biological extracts for antifungal activity.screening for bioactivity is commonly performed in vivo in a bioassay purposefully designed for revealing a defined bioactivity (e.g. fungicide or antibacterial activity). this allows the testing of many crude extracts. in the present work a new method (bioassay) targeting spore swelling and germination to assess antifungal susceptibility is developed and evaluated. traditionally, antifungal activity has been investigated using disk diffusion assays or micro-well plates. inhibition is measured a ...200919699766
biotransformation of 3-oxo-oleanolic acid by absidia glauca.3-oxo-oleanolic acid (1) was biotransformed in growing cultures of the fungus absidia glauca, resulting in three novel hydroxylated metabolites, identified as 1β-hydroxy-3-oxo-olean-11-en-28,13-lactone (2), 1β,11α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (3), and 1β,11α,21β-trihydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4).201020549595
enantioselectivity of hydroxylation of racemic piperitone by fungi.the biotransformation of racemic piperitone ((±)-1) was investigated using four strains of fungi selected in the screening procedure. the substrate was transformed by botrytis cinerea am235, absidia cylindrospora am336, absidia coerulea am93, and absidia glauca am177 into more polar metabolites. the transformation of racemic piperitone ((±)-1) catalyzed by b. cinerea am235 gave 7-hydroxypiperitone (2) as the only product. the biotransformation of (±)-1 by a. cylindrospora am336 afforded mixture ...201020872669
microbial glycosylation of daidzein, genistein and biochanin a: two new glucosides of biochanin a.biotransformation of daidzein, genistein and biochanin a by three selected filamentous fungi was investigated. as a result of biotransformations, six glycosylation products were obtained. fungus beauveria bassiana converted all tested isoflavones to 4″-o-methyl-7-o-glucosyl derivatives, whereas absidia coerulea and absidia glauca were able to transform genistein and biochanin a to genistin and sissotrin, respectively. in the culture of absidia coerulea, in addition to the sissotrin, the product ...201728054950
the fate of mitochondria after infection of the mucoralean fungus absidia glauca by the fusion parasite parasitella parasitica: comparison of mitochondrial genomes in zygomycetes.absidia glauca and parasitella parasitica constitute a versatile experimental system for studying horizontal gene transfer between a mucoralean host and its fusion parasite. the a. glauca chondriome has a length of approximately 63 kb and a gc content of 28%. the chondriome of p. parasitica is larger, 83 kb, and contains 31% gc base pairs. these mtdnas contain the standard fungal mitochondrial gene set, small and large subunit rrnas, plus ribonuclease p rna. comparing zygomycete chondriomes reve ...201628034347
characterization of two new records of zygomycete species belonging to undiscovered taxa in korea.during a biodiversity survey of undiscovered taxa in korea, two zygomycetous fungal strains were isolated. the first strain, eml-fsdy6-1 was isolated from a soil sample collected at dokdo island in the east sea of korea in 2013, and the second strain, eml-dg-nh3-1 was isolated from a rat dung sample collected at chonnam national university garden, gwangju, korea in 2014. based on the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, 18s and 28s rdna, act ...201627103852
complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the mucoralean fungus absidia glauca, a model for studying host-parasite interactions.the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) ofabsidia glaucahas been completely sequenced. it is 63,080 bp long, has a g+c content of 28%, and contains the standard fungal gene set.a. glaucais the recipient in a laboratory model for horizontal gene transfer withparasitella parasiticaas a donor of nuclei and mitochondria.201627013042
characterization of in vitro antifungal activities of small and american cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccos l. and v. macrocarpon aiton) and lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea l.) concentrates in sugar reduced fruit this study, cranberry and lingonberry concentrates were added to commercial sugar-reduced fruit spreads (raspberry-aloe vera, strawberry-guava, and strawberry-lime), and tested for their antifungal activities. selected strains of the species absidia glauca, penicillium brevicompactum, saccharomyces cerevisiae and zygosaccharomyces bailii, as well as xerophilic environmental isolates of the genera penicillium and eurotium were used for challenge testing. initially, varying concentrations of sy ...201525868124
microbial transformations of halolactones with p-menthane system.biologically active piperitone-derived racemic iodo-, bromo- and chlorolactones (1-3) were transformed with the use of microbial enzymatic systems. four strains of filamentous fungi absidia glauca am254, absidia cylindrospora am336, mortierella vinaceae am149 and nigrospora oryzae am8 transformed halolactones (1-3) to four new halohydroxylactones (4-7). in all biotransformations the hydroxy group was incorporated in inactivated methine carbon atom at isopropyl substituent. in n. oryzae am8 cultu ...201525027724
complementation of a stable met2-1 mutant of the zygomycete absidia glauca by the corresponding wild-type allele of the mycoparasite parasitella parasitica, transferred during infection.compared with prokaryotes, where horizontal gene transfer events are frequently found and can be studied in the laboratory at the mechanistic level, few systems are known that allow direct experimental access to parasexual phenomena in eukaryotes. in zygomycetes, a basal lineage of fungi, several mycoparasitic fungi are known that inevitably form a cytoplasmic continuum with their hosts during infection. we provide evidence that, corresponding to the expectation suggested by the morphology of th ...201323704789
lactones 41. synthesis and microbial hydroxylation of unsaturated terpenoid lactones with p-menthane ring systems.racemic [(±)-4-isopropyl-1-methyl-7-oxa-cis-bicyclo[4.3.0]non-4-en-8-one] and optically active δ,ε-unsaturated lactones [(-)-(1r,6r)-4-isopropyl-1-methyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-4-en-8-one and (+)-(1s,6s)-4-isopropyl-1-methyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0] non-4-en-8-one)] with the p-menthane system were obtained and their odoriferous properties were evaluated. biotransformations of the racemic lactone with three fungal strains: absidia cylindrospora am336, absidia glauca am177 and syncephalastrum racemosum ...201323455669
transformation of the fungus absidia glauca by complementation of a methionine-auxotrophic strain affected in the homoserine-acetyltransferase gene.transformation of fungi by complementation of auxotrophs is generally much more reliable than usage of antibiotic resistance markers. in order to establish such a system for the model zygomycete absidia glauca, a stable methionine auxotrophic mutant was isolated after x-ray mutagenesis of the minus mating type and characterized at the molecular level. the mutant is disrupted in the coding region of the met2-1 gene, encoding homoserine o-acetyltransferase. the corresponding wild type gene was clo ...201223650600
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