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current status of treatment of pneumonia.proper treatment of pneumonia is dependent upon a correct diagnosis. pneumonia may be due to infectious agents, allergic phenomena, or chemical causes. treatment regimens are outlined for the various types of pneumonia--pneumococcal, staphylococcal, fungal, and pneumonia due to gram-negative and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, to blastomyces dermatitidis, and to the parasite pneumocystis carinii. in discussing current concepts of treatment, several well-known methods are emphasized, as well as ...1975792
diagnosis and therapy of primary defects of immunity (author's transl).immunological responses are divided into those mediated by humoral antibody (b-cells) and those by cells (t-cells). both depend upon the activity of small lymphocytes which become thymus or bursa analogue dependent during embryonic development. primary immundeficiencies are therefor defects of lymphocytes attributed in most cases to gene defects. early diagnosis is the necessary prerequisit for possible treatment. tests for assessing the cellular immune status are: skin testes and in vitro tests ...19752800
neutrophil function in bone marrow transplant recipients.the neutrophil function of seven patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantion was studied. five of the patients had been transplanted for aplastic anaemia and two for acute leukaemia. determinations were made of neutrophil phagocytosis, chemotaxis, random migration, and microbicidal activity for candida albicans and staphylococcus aureus. one patient showed a decreased ability to kill c. albicans at a time when she had active pneumonia due to pneumocystis carinii. the remainder of the ...197715582
arthritis rounds. pneumocystis carinii associated with polyarteritis and immunosuppressive therapy.pneumocystis carinii characteristically causes pneumonia in patients with immunodeficiency disorders. it occurs most often in patients with malignancy or renal transplants whose immune response has been suppressed by corticosteroids or cytotoxic agents. individuals with connective tissue disease who receive immunosuppressive drugs become susceptible to pneumocystis. the incidence of pneumocystis infection in connective tissue disease is low but may increase if immunosuppressive drugs are used mo ...197717412
letter: pneumocystis carinii in a husband and wife. 197551439
editorial: pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. 197553502
letter: pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. 197553762
[therapy of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adult age]. 197766123
[morphological diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii].pneumocystis carinii pneumonia can only be diagnosed once the microorganism is demonstrated. the authors review and illustrate various staining technics, and discuss for each of them specific advantages. all samples must by systematically examined both by phase contrast microscopy and by light microscopy after gomori-grocott and gram-weigert stains. this morphological study is completed by ultrastructural photographs.197767587
efficacy of toluidine blue "o" stain for pneumocystis carinii. 197877128
false negative biopsy in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.unlike most pneumonias, the diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is based solely on identifying organisms by stain, usually with methenamine-silver. because of technical problems involved with adequate staining, control samples usually are done concurrent with tissue specimens to be examined. lung containing fungi often is used as a control. we recently observed false-negative biopsy specimens in a case of p carinii pneumonia where the pneumocystis organism failed to stain with methenamin ...197984733
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. an approach to rapid laboratory diagnosis.laboratory procedures used to establish the diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated using an experimental murine model. touch preparations and suspension smears were prepared from lung tissue know to contain pneumocystis cysts. these preparations were stained by a variety of methods known to demonstrate either cyst forms or sporozoites and trophozoites. suspension smears proved to be superior to touch preparations in terms of cyst content and homogeneity of staining. also, met ...197988179
[therapeutic and preventive aspects of diseases caused by pneumocystis carinii in children]. 197892047
histochemical observations on pneumocystis carinii: selective demonstration of honeycomb forms.histochemical investigations of pulmonary lesions indicated selective coloration of membranes of honeycomb stages of pneumocystis carinii by the periodic acid--sodium bisulfite--resorcin-fuchsin reaction for basement membranes; mucus, fibrin and other deposits in respiratory pathways did not react. these membranes were colored selectively also by the picro-sirius red f3ba method for collagens; fungi in tissues from patients with candidiasis remained unstained. for simultaneous demonstration of h ...197992466
endemic pneumocystis carinii in a marmoset colony. 197896156
pneumocystis carinii infection of the lung: radiologic and pathologic correlation.the incidence of pneumocystis carinii infection of the lung was determined in 100 consecutive autopsies on patients with hematologic malignancies and in a control group of 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. thirteen instances of infection were found in the study group and one instance in the control group. of the 14 patients with p. carinii infection, five were classified as uncomplicated p. carinii pneumonia with typical host response and fiv ...1979107738
[altered morphopathological aspects of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia].the present paper reports a study on 27 children who died of interstitial pneumonia due to pneumocystis carinii in the clinics of pediatrics, cluj, in the course of 3 years (1971-1973). the incidence was 10% of the children who died from acute pneumonia. the authors show the morphopathologic possibilities of identifying the pictures modified by plasmocytic pneumonia due to association of the disease with bacterial and viral infections. these cases represent a quarter of the authors' cases. the i ...1975128100
roentgenographically atypical pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.two patients with renal transplants were admitted for evaluation of fever. during the course of hospitalization both had hectic fever and arthralgia. pulmonary symptoms were absent or minimal. in one patient the admitting chest roentgenogram was entirely normal and in the other only a small focal abnormality was apparent. hypoxemia occurred even in the presence of normal or nearly normal chest roentgenograms. the diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii infection was made by bronchoscopic brush biopsy ...1975163066
pneumocystis carinii: diagnosis during assisted ventilation. 1976174184
[anatomo-clinical and experimental studies on pneumocystis carinii. preliminary note].the authors have been interested over the last year in the detection of pneumocystis carinii in patients with immune deficiencies, whether natural or artificial. after a brief historical and general introduction, they discuss their procedures, the pathological substances available, the staining techniques and the examination of autopsy specimens. they undertook experimental work on this micro-organism, e.g. the development of the germ in immuno-depressed rats and, from this material, numerous va ...1976185701
[infectious complications observed during the use of antimitotic agents in hematology].during acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children, bacterial infections occur during initial treatment, whereas virus infections are observed during remission. mycoses and pneumocystis carinii infections are the commonest late complications. during agranulocytosis, any prolonged fever should be considered as due to infection and probably septicemia. the bacteria are usually of digestive origin. antibiotic therapy is only very inconstantly efficacious, and the course follows closely the number of g ...1976185705
[lung changes after organ transplantation].the morphological pulmonary alterations in renal transplant recipients have been investigated in the light of 62 autopsies. apart from the predominant pulmonary edema of septic, uremic or circulatory origin, pneumonic opportunistic infections were prominent. the most important agents proved to be bacteria, cytomegalovirus and fungi. in most cases, mixed infections were observed. at autopsy, pneumocystis carinii infections appeared to be of little importance. the pathology of the pulmonary change ...1977189389
maintenance of foals with combined immunodeficiency: causes and control of secondary infections.sixty-six cases of combined immunodeficiency (cid) in foals were studied to determine the most prevalent causes of infection and death. lesions of the respiratory system were observed in 59 of the foals and were attributable to infection with equine adenovirus. pneumocystis carinii, and bacteria. significant lesions were also observed in liver, pancreas, intestines, heart, and kidneys. maintenance of foals with cid for experimental purposes is directed at the prevention and control of these seco ...1978208432
modified grocott's methenamine silver nitrate method for quick staining of pneumocystis carinii. 197880411
pneumocystis carinii, toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus and the compromised host.pneumocystis carinii and toxoplasma gondii are the two major parasitic protozoan pathogens in the immunocompromised host. both organisms cause latent infection in humans and many animals. cats are the definitive hosts for toxoplasmosis; the animal vector for pneumocystis (if any) has not been defined. toxoplasma is an obligate intracellular parasite, whereas the available evidence suggests that pneumocystis carinii exists primarily extracellularly. in compromised hosts, pneumocystis infection us ...1979217182
rapid methenamine silver stain for pneumocystis and fungi.a rapid modification of the methenamine silver stain for pneumocystis carinii and fungi employs heat alone to accelerate the silver reduction step and is suitable for both sections and smears.197878698
pneumocystis carinii: new separation method from lung tissue. 1979221230
morphologic resemblance of zygomycete spores to pneumocystis carinii cysts in tissue.structures resembling the cyst form of pneumocystis carinii were noted in the lungs of alloxan-diabetic rabbits to whom spores of several species of fungi belonging to the class zygomycetes had been administered by intranasal instillation. at 24 to 168 hours after the instillation of spores, these rabbits succumbed to diabetes or zygomycete infection, or both, and the possibility of a mixed infection with both fungus and p. carinii could not be ruled out on morphologic criteria alone. to resolve ...197765138
compatible bone marrow transplantation and immunologic reconstitution of combined immunodeficiency disease.to date, bone marrow transplantation affords the only successful means of achieving full immunologic reconstitution of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (scid). we have achieved immunologic reconstitution in 6 of 7 scid patients using marrow transplants from compatible sib donors. one child died of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia following early immunologic reconstitution. a second child died of sepsis without evidence of engraftment, despite 3 marrow grafts, and a third died ...1975238681
pneumocystis carinii in vitro: a study by scanning electron microscopy.pneumocystis carinii is a parasitic microorganism which induces an often fatal pneumonitis in a variety of compromised patients (e.g., premature infants, those with congenital immune deficiency disorders, those therapeutically immune suppressed, etc.). organisms derived from murine sources were cultivated in vitro on monolayers of primary embryonic chick epithelial lung cells. the infected cultures were then examined by scanning electron microscopy. an examination of the surface ultrastructure r ...1977299987
organisms mimicking pneumocystis carinii. 197662922
current status of laboratory diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. 197552430
pneumocystis carinii in a pig. 1977300522
new aspects of the life cycle of pneumocystis carinii.pneumocystis is recognized as a cause of pneumonitis in vertebrates, including man. so far an extra-cellular life cycle has been proposed; thick-walled cysts are the site of the formation of so-called intracystic bodies. these intracystic bodies are set free and are supposed to develop into free living thin-walled pneumocysts ("trophic" stage) (seifert and pliess, 1960; vavra and kucera, 1970; campbell, 1972). in this paper we present, based on elaborative ultrastructural studies, data on the ex ...1977300530
signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology of pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis.in 80 patients with pneumocystis pneumonitis, the intial signs and symptoms of infection were usually fever and cough, followed by tachypnea and coryza. flaring of the nasal alae and cyanosis occurred later. blood gas composition was markedly altered in its acid-base profile in most patients at admission. there was moderate to severe respiratory alkalosis and hypoxia. clinical manifestations were correlated with the extent of histopathologic changes in the lung. (deprivation of protein in the di ...197614304
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. clinical aspects and therapy]. 1978209318
treatment of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in children.eighteen children with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia diagnosed over a period of 16 years at a children's hospital are reviewed. all had an underlying disease, either congenital immunodeficiency or a malignancy. 15 patients were treated, 10 with pentamidine isethionate alone, 2 with both pentamidine and co-trimoxazole, and 3 with co-trimoxazole alone. 12 of the treated group recovered and the 3 untreated patients died. the 3 deaths after treatment occurred in children receiving pentamidine alone ...1977301010
[a case of pneumocystis carinii penumonia complicated with lung cancer (author's transl)]. 1978209234
diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in compromised hosts.sixteen patients with cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection are described. in 11 the diagnosis was made antemortem by lung aspirate or biopsy, and in five the diagnosis was made at postmortem by typical lung histology and positive viral lung cultures. all patients were immunosuppressed by both their underlying diseases and treatment with corticosteroids and other chemotherapy. although other pathogens were identified at lung biopsy in most patients (73 per cent), primarily pneumocystis carinii, ev ...1976183499
an autopsy case of generalized cytomegalic inclusion disease associated with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. 1975173920
diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients.six hundred patients underwent diagnostic flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (ffb). the two diseases most frequently encountered were bronchogenic carcinoma in 330 patients (55 percent) and bacterial infection in 94 (16 percent). a positive cytology on biopsy material was obtained in 279 of 330 patients (85 percent) with primary lung cancer. fluoroscopy was a valuable aid in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma, since 42 percent of the tumors were not visible endoscopically and required fluoroscopic ...1975168036
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in children. a problem of hospital infections]. 1977302011
the air bronchogram in interstitial disease of the lungs. a radiological-pathological correlation.the air bronchogram classically signals an end-air-space or "alveolar" filling process such as alveolar proteinosis and bronchioloalveolar-cell carcinoma. however, it can also occur in interstitial diseases, possibly leading to compressive atelectasis and causing crowding of tissue around open airways. in addition, such disease processes may encroach on distal airways, producing obstructive pneumonia which may then surround open proximal airways, as in sarcoidosis and lymphoma. in mixed "alveola ...1975166409
diagnostic dilemma of a 13-month-old boy with 'late-onset' combined immunodeficiency.a 13-month-old boy had a "late-onset" form of combined immunodeficiency and a fulminant pneumocystis carinii pneumonia of one month's duration. there was no evidence of cutaneous-delayed hypersensitivity responses to diphtheria-tetanus toxoids, candida albicans, or streptokinase-streptodornase, or of lymphocyte dna synthesis after in vitro stimulation with the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin a, and only 2% to 4% of peripheral blood e-rosetted t lymphocytes. the serum igm level was n ...197988898
[occurrence of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in tracheotomized children]. 1977302931
the morphologic identification of pneumocystis carinii.the diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii infection is dependent upon morphologic identification of the organism, making the staining properties of p. carinii important to the cytologist engaged in clinical service or research. several special stains specific for p. carinii are described; in addition, the staining characteristics of the organism in papanicolaou and in hematoxylin and eosin stains are described. the successful identification of p. carinii with the latter two stains has not been repor ...197986265
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. occurrence in a healthy american infant. 1977303294
pneumocystis carinii infection.over the past decade, p carinii has become an important cause of pneumonia in the compromised host. progress has been made in clinical awareness of the organism, in methods of diagnosis, and in developing new forms of treatment. however, there is still a lack of basic knowledge about the biology, taxonomy, and epidemiology of p carinii; of specific host immune factors involved in the pathogenesis of the infection; and of a clinically reliable serologic test. with recent advances in p carinii res ...1977303379
rapid grocott's methenamine--silver nitrate method for fungi and pneumocystis carinii. 197770994
percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration of the lung. diagnosing pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis.percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration was performed on 228 occasions to obtain lung specimens from 202 patients with suspected pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. in 121 patients the diagnosis was established by identifying p carinii organisms in lung aspirates. six patients whose aspirates did not contain p carinii were found to have the organism at autopsy. findings from toluidine blue o and gomori methenamine silver nitrate stains were equally satisfactory for detecting p carinii, but th ...197770167
lung biopsy in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a histopathologic study of typical and atypical features.this study of 36 patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia emphasizes a spectrum of histopathologic changes that have not been classically considered features of the infection. these atypical microscopic findings were present in 69% of the cases as defined in this retrospective examination. as expected, the suggestion of the correct diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia on the basis of a frozen section and without the aid of appropriate special stains was extremely difficult in the majo ...197764112
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. diagnosis by examination of pulmonary secretions.to determine if examination of respiratory secretions is useful in diagnosing pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, smear preparations of expectorated sputum, tracheal aspirates, and transtracheal aspirates stained by the gomori methenamine silver nitrate method were examined. pneumocysts were observed more frequently in material obtained by transtracheal aspiration than in secretions obtained by the other methods. transtracheal aspiration yielded material containing pneumocysts in 8 (13%) of 60 patie ...197662065
letter: early diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii infection. 197552098
bone marrow transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency disease. reported from 1968 to 1977.patients who received bone marrow transplantation (= bmt) for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (= scid), and who were reported in the medical literature from 1968 to 1977, were collected and analysed. eighteen of these 80 children are still alive, 10 months to 9 years after transplantation. it is thus the first successful form of therapy for this otherwise invariably fatal disease. fifteen of the 18 survivors received bone marrow cells from hla and mlc compatible donors; the rem ...197938963
an autopsy case of lymphosarcoma associated with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus infection, and miliary tuberculosis. 1975181106
pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation.seventy-five pulmonary infections out of 173 kidney transplantations have been observed in 62 graft-recipients, from 1965 to 1973. the aetiologic organism is a bacteria in 80% of the cases, a fungus in 8% of the cases, cytomegalovirus and pneumocystis carinii in 11% of the cases. a close relationship between infection and a previous transplant crisis was noted in 66% of the cases. the most efficient diagnostic procedures were pleural and open lung biopsy as well as cultures of blood, pleural fl ...1975172885
[exogenous allergic alveolitis during childhood (author's transl)].four children aged 31/2 to 13 years, who developed allergic alveolitis as a result of antigenic exposure in a domestic situation are described. the clinical symptoms consisted of gradual onset of increasing dyspnoea, chronic cough and weight loss. lung function tests showed characteristic reduction in vital and diffusion capacity. serologically, antibodies against animal antigens were demonstrated in all patients. radiologically there were pronounced reticular changes in both lungs affecting mos ...1978147824
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adult: report of two cases. 1977305672
inhibition of toluidine blue o stain for pneumocystis carinii by additives in the diethyl ether. 197989811
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment of pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. 1978305955
abnormal gallium scintigraphy in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with a normal chest radiograph.the authors describe a patient with malignant lymphoma in whom the use of a 67ga citrate lung scan assisted in the diagnosis of p. carinii pneumonia. in immunodeficient patients presenting with unexplained fever, abnormal pulmonary function tests, a normal chest radiograph, and few chest symptoms, the 67ga citrate scan may lead to the early detection and successful treatment of this potentially lethal infection.1978306119
adult t-cell leukemia with generalized cytomegalic inclusion disease and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.an autopsy case of adult t-cell leukemia with generalized cytomegalic inclusion disease and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is reported. tumor cells had t-cell characteristics (e-rosette) and cerebriform nucleus similar to sèzary cells. generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and an ectopic pancreas in the ileum were found at the time of autopsy. histologically, leukemic infiltration was observed in almost every organ, and perivascular infiltration, vascular invasion were conspicuous find ...1979233285
treatment of advanced hodgkin's disease with b-cave following mopp failure.between march 1973, and december 1976, 22 patients who developed disease progression during or after mopp therapy were treated with a new combination, b-cave (bleomycin 5 mg/m2 iv days 1, 28, 35; ccnu 100 mg/m2 po day 1; adriamycin 60 mg/m2 iv day 1; and vinblastine 5 mg/m2 iv day 1). objective responses were achieved in 17 of 22 patients (77%) and 11 of 22 responses were complete (50%). the actuarial survival for all patients is 16.4 months. for complete responders the median is 24 months with ...197877180
[diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the adult]. 1977300321
propagation of pneumocystis carinii in vitro.pneumocystis carinii was propagated in vitro with primary embryonic chick epithelial lung (cel) cells. viability and growth of the organism were demonstrated by direct observation of the reproductive cycle in the sykes-moore chamber, serial passage with an increase in the number of mature cysts forms, the cytopathic effect of the organism on cell culture, and inhibition of growth of the organism by specific antiserum and pentamidine isethionate. attempts to culture p. carinii indefinitely were n ...1977300475
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with pneumatocele formation. 1977300563
propagation of pneumocystis carinii in vero cell culture.pneumocystis carinii derived from infected murine lung was found to be capable of limited growth in vero african green monkey kidney cell cultures. the observed increase in the number of cyst forms was influenced by the ratio of cysts to host cells in the inocula, duration of passage, and formulation of the cell culture media. maximum growth was achieved by inoculating 1.3 x 10(5) cysts per 75-cm2 flask containing about 2 x 10(7) vero cells (cyst-to-cell ratio=1:154) maintained on minimal essent ...1978307535
combination of pentamidine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in therapy of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in rats.treatment with either pentamidine isethionate or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole significantly reduces the mortality of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. it is not known whether a combination might act in an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic manner. we studied the interaction of these two agents in the steroid-conditioned rat model of pneumocystosis. of animals receiving pentamidine alone, 48% died and 45% had p. carinii cysts at autopsy. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone resulted in 21% mort ...1978307941
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia]. 1978308558
ultrastructure in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary histiocytosis and pneumocystosis.a child with histiocytosis x initially diagnosed at the age of 4 months had a series of pulmonary biopsies later in the course of the disease. the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy. the primary disease was complicated by pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. this study demonstrates the limitation of light microscopy and the necessity of ultrastructural examination to verify the simultaneous occurrence of an infiltrative disorder such as histiocytosis x in the presence of an infe ...1977300618
the causes of interstitial pneumonitis in immunocompromised children: an aggressive systematic approach to diagnosis.a systematic, aggressive approach to the immunocompromised child with interstitial pneumonitis has been used in 24 consecutive patients. parent and physician awareness of early symptoms and signs had been emphasized. when laboratory data confirmed clinical suspicion, open lung biopsy was done and lung tissue was studied by impression smears, sections, and culture techniques. the etiologic agent was established by stained impression smears within three hours of receipt of tissue in 21 of 24 patie ...1977301628
nude mouse: a new experimental model for pneumocystis carinii infection.experimental infection with both human- and rat-derived pneumocystis carinii has been produced in nude mice by intrapulmonary injection of lung homogenates that contained p. carinii and by environmental transmission. most infected mice did not appear ill, and their lungs exhibited a mild and nonspecific inflammatory response. thus, p. carinii can be transmitted from one animal species to another, and this result suggests that a defect in thymic-dependent lymphocytes is important in the developme ...1977301657
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in children.from a retrospective study at the university of california, san francisco, medical center, it is evident that pneumocystic carinii pneumonia is being seen more frequently as a secondary complication to the use of immunosuppressive drugs. this disease presents with nonspecific respiratory symptoms, therefore a high degree of suspicion and knowledge of the population at risk are necessary for an early diagnosis. except for x-ray films of the chest, physical and laboratory studies are of minimal di ...1977301686
diagnosis and treatment of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. 1978305232
[a study of 14 cases with pneumocystis carinii infection accompanied with hematopoietic disorders (author's transl)]. 1979311388
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia complicated by varicella in an infant with persistent ductus arteriosus]. 1977302000
[a study of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (author's transl)]. 1979311866
management of severe respiratory insufficiency due to pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in immunosuppressed hosts: the role of continuous negative-pressure ventilation.continuous negative-pressure therapy was used to assist ventilation in 19 spontaneously breathing patients, 6 months to 17 years of age, who developed progressive respiratory insufficiency (arterial po2 less than 70 mm hg despite a fraction of inspired o2 larger than or equal to 50 per cent) due to pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. within 1 hour of therapy, arterial po2 increased from a mean +/- se of 61.9 +/- 3.7 to 75.4 +/- 7.0 mm hg (p less than 0.05) and, by 6 hours, to 79.9 +/- 4.7 mm hg (p ...1977302099
interstitial pneumonitis in the immunologically suppressed child: an urgent surgical condition.thirty-eight children were evaluated for interstitial pneumonia by open lung biopsy. in most instances the patients were immunosuppressed as a result of cancer chemotherapy and irradiation. pneumocystis carinii infection was the most common cause of pneumonitis (60.4%), especially in children with leukemia (78.3%). the clinical triad of hypoxemia, tachypnea, and a diffuse interstitial infiltrate on chest x-ray, is an indication for early open lung biopsy. survival was 91.7% in cases of acute pne ...1977302327
[cellular and humoral immunity in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a 4-month-old infant with congenital heart defect]. 1979313037
clinical characteristics of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. 1979313176
radiation pneumonitis complicated by pneumocystis carinii. 1978305915
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia as the presenting infection in congenital hypogammaglobulinemia. 1979314502
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a study of 22 postmortem cases at chulalongkorn hospital. 1979314966
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in children.previous descriptions of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia have emphasized a variety of radiographic patterns which most often apply to advanced disease. we reviewed the chest roentgenograms of children taken at or just after the onset of clinical symptoms. subtle but definite abnormalities of pulmonary vessels, hila, parenchyma, and aeration were observed. appreciation of these early changes is necessary to initiate prompt treatment. the role of lung biopsy and the histologic features of these pat ...1979315614
developmental biology of pneumocystis carinii, and alternative view on the life cycle of the parasite.in this paper we present, based on elaborate ultrastructural studies, data on the existence of both intracellular and extracellular stages of pneumocystis carinii, which result in a proposal of a new life cycle of the parasite. up to now the formation of daughter cells in thick-walled pneumocysts is supposed to be the only way of multiplication. the present study shows that in rats treated with cortisone acetate the formation of daughter cells also takes place within thin-walled pneumocysts. in ...1978306160
limited effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on pneumocystis carinii.trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been proven effective in the treatment and prevention of pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in lower animals and humans. how effective the drug combination is in eradicating p. carinii from the host is not known. the immunosuppressed rat model was used to determine whether or not trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole effectively eradicated the organism. animals treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for as long as 6 weeks were then placed in individual isolator cages, ...1979315754
refractory pneumocystis carinii infection in chronic granulomatous disease: successful treatment with granulocytes.pneumocystis carinii pneumonia developed in an 11-year-old girl with chronic granulomatous disease who had normal cellular and humoral immunity. the patient remained febrile during treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and pentamidine but became afebrile when treated with a series of 12 granulocyte transfusions combined with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. in addition to documenting p carinii infection in chronic granulomatous disease our findings suggest that granulocyte transfusions may ...1979316128
treatment of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and pentamidine: efficacy and toxicity.a 39-year-old man with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia responded poorly to oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smx) therapy, despite excellent serum concentrations of the drug. he developed severe thrombocytopenia when pentamidine was added to the regimen. this case illustrates problems of drug efficacy and toxicity in the treatment of p carinii pneumonia and suggests caution in the use of tmp-smx and pentamidine in combination.1979316194
cultivation of pneumocystis carinii with wi-38 cells.pneumocystis carinii has been successfully cultured with wi-38 human embryonic lung fibroblasts. inoculum was obtained from infected lungs of cortisone-treated sprague-dawley rats. trophozoites reached peak numbers between days 4 and 8 and grew in two subcultures, but then proliferation ceased. if primary cultures were harvested and new medium were added, a second and sometimes a third harvest could be obtained. cell monolayers were not destroyed. after growth of the initial inoculum had ceased, ...1979316433
pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis was diagnosed on lung biopsy in an immunosuppressed patient. therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole led to a rapid clinical recovery with no side-effects being observed.1977303097
indication of primary immune deficiency in fanconi's anemia.a girl with various congenital malformations developed pancytopenia and hypoplastic bone marrow at the age of 6 year. a chromosome study of lymphocytes showed numerous breaks, gaps and rearrangements, allowing the diagnosis of fanconi's anemia. treatment with corticosteroids and splenectomy did not result in hematologic remission. repeated immunologic studies showed increasingly deficient t cell function as judged by lymphocyte transformation studies and skin test reactivity, whereas t cell numb ...1977303430
relapse of pneumonia caused by cytomegalovirus in two recipients of renal transplants.two cases of relapse of pneumonia caused by cytomegalovirus (cmv) in recipients of renal transplants were studied. between episodes of pneumonia, both patients recovered completely as judged by x-ray clearing and by resolution of fever and respiratory symptoms. cmv was isolated during each episode of pneumonia from lung tissue, pleural fluid, or buffy coat cultures. serologic studies revealed a rise in titer of antibody, confirming recent infection with cmv during the first epidose of pneumonia ...1979220337
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in infants and small children]. 1977303761
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in chronically immunosuppressed patients. apropos of 33 cases].the availability of drugs that are active against pneumocystis carinii has renewed interest in and underlined the difficulties of the early diagnosis pneumocystis pneumonia. a retrospective study of 33 cases was undertaken to define the optimal management. it is necessary to take into consideration the high mortality of the untreated condition and the risks of investigation and of treatment. pneumocystis pneumonia affects only those patients who are immunologicaly incompetent, particularly those ...1979318016
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: clinical and epidemiological studies]. 1977303835
[pneumocystis carinii]. 1977303984
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. 1977337137
an outbreak of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia at a pediatric hospital.eleven cases of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were diagnosed during a 3 1/2-year period at a pediatric hospital where this infection had never been identified previously despite appropriate studies. the incidence of infection was 3.0, 7.4, and 4.2 cases per 1,000 patient months in children being treated for acute leukemia, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively. the outbreak coincided with increased intensity of chemotherapy for these malignancies. ten of the patients had received fo ...1978310539
[pneumocystis carinii pneumonia].a study is carried out in 8 infants with a diagnosis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia which was established through the study of histologic lung sections, and a microscopic study of protozoas. the following are some of the factors predisposing to this disease: prematurity, significant denutrition, primary immunodeficiencies, extended use of antibiotics, malignancies, and immunosuppressive treatments.1977354646
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