effect of alcoholic extract of garlic in atherosclerosis. 1978717269
garlic on the reversibility of experimental. atherosclerosis. 1978700728
effect of garlic on human platelet aggregation in 6 healthy adults the effect of essential oil of garlic on platelet aggregation was studied in vitro with an aggreganometer. the blood was collected in a siliconized centrifuge tube containing sodium citrate. the aggregating agents used were adp, epinephrine and collagen. in each subject aggregation was studied 3 times: (i) initial fasting control; (ii) immediately after (i) but with essential oil of garlic drawn into the syringe together with the sodium citrate; (iii) 5 days after feeding 0.5 ...1978708492
some observations on the mechanism of fibrinolytic enhancing effect of garlic during alimentary lipaemia in man. 1978722609
the fungicidal and fungistatic effects of an aqueous garlic extract on medically important yeast-like fungi. 1977865503
effect of garlic oil in experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis.addition of cholesterol in the diet of male albino rabbits produced hypercholesterolaemia, increased tissue cholesterol, and atheromatous changes in the aorta. supplementation of garlic oil along with cholesterol significantly inhibited the hypercholesterolaemia, decreased tissue cholesterol and minimised the atheromatous changes in the aorta. these results show that the active constituent(s) in garlic responsible for its anti-atherogenic action is present in the oily fraction of garlic.1978646845
detection of salmonella in onion and garlic powders: collaborative study.the relative efficiency of trypticase soy broth with added 0.5% k2so3 and lactose broth as pre-enrichment media for recovering salmonella from onion powder and garlic powder was collaboratively studied. for each spice, 13 collaborators each received 5 duplicate samples; 4 of the 5 replicate samples were inoculated with 1 of 4 levels of s. thompson ranging, at initiation of analysis, from greater than 3 to 93 organisms/g onion powder and greater than 3 to 43 organisms/g garlic powder. salmonella ...1979479071
the effective of active principle of garlic and onion on blood lipids and experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits and their comparison with clofibrate. 1977614376
mutagenic factors in cooked foods.the charred surface of fish and beef showed strong mutagenic activity in salmonella typhimurium test strains when activated by s-9 mix of rat liver. the pyrolysis products of proteins and amino acids were also highly mutagenic. among the pyrolysis products of amino acids, those of tryptophan, serine, and glutamic acid were most active. the new gamma-carboline derivatives, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5h-pyrido[4,3-b]indole and 3-amino-1-methyl-5h-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, were purified from the pyrolysis pro ...1979389565
in vitro effect of aqueous extract of garlic (allium sativum) on the growth and viability of cryptococcus neoformans. 1978353553
[review on nonessential constituents of vegetables. ii. cruciferae (brassica vegetables, radish, turnip, rutabaga, horse-radish) and gramineae (onion, leek, chive, garlic, asparagus) (author's transl)].in this paper the hitherto known constituents of the titled vegetables except proteins, carbohydrates, triglyceride-fatty acids, and vitamins are reviewed, especially the volatiles, organic acids, phenolics, carotenoids and lipids.1977339600
the analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings--a critical review.a critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory conditions. at the same time, the margin of error of these methods has been determine ...1977336288
effect of essential oil of onion and garlic on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits.the effects of the essential oils of onion (extracted from 2 g of raw onion per kg body weight) and garlic (extracted from 1 g of raw garlic per kg body weight) have been observed on experimental atherosclerosis produced by cholesterol feeding (0.5 g/kg) in rabbits. the rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides was significantly reduced by both onion and garlic during the 4-month period of study. cholesterol feeding significantly increased beta-(p less than 0.01) and pre-beta (p less tha ...1977192252
inhibition of platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis by onion and garlic. 197986023
antibacterial property of allium sativum linn.: in vivo & in vitro studies. 1977598878
letter: onion and garlic in experimental atherosclerosis. 197548862
antimicrobial activity of crude juices of allium ascalonicum, allium cepa and allium sativum.crude juices of garlic (allium sativum), onion (allium cepa) and shallots (allium ascalonicum) were tested in an agar diffusion test for their growth inhibitory effect on five gram negative and three gram positive bacterial species and two yeast species. all test organisms were inhibited by garlic juice, whilst onion and shallot juice showed no effect upon gram negative bacteria. garlic juice was investigated in more detail. addition of complex-forming agents and organic matter to the crude juic ...197944616
isolation, purification, identification, synthesis, and kinetics of activity of the anticandidal component of allium sativum, and a hypothesis for its mode of action. 197719700
effects of onion (allium cepa) extract on platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis.oral administration of onion and garlic reportedly decreases platelet aggregation in both human and animal subjects. an oily chloroform extract of onion (allium cepa) was prepared and separated by column chromatography on silicic acid into six fractions by elution with solvents of increasing polarity. the least polar fraction contained most of the inhibitory activity towards platelet aggregation induced by either adp or arachidonic acid. further purification was afforded by thin-layer chromatogr ...1979552092
onion, garlic, and experimental atherosclerosis.forty-two healthy male albino rabbits weighing around 1 kg were divided into 4 groups. group i (8)- fed on normal stock diet, group ii (8)- fed on stock diet plus cholesterol (0.5 gm in 5 ml of olive oil). group iii (15)- received stock diet plus cholesterol plus garlic (0.25 gm) juice. group iv (11)- received stock diet plus cholesterol plus onion (2.5 gm) juice. the animals were closely observed and followed for 16 weeks. approximately every 4 weeks, blood samples were collected for estimation ...1979459102
[the characteristics of the antibacterial activity of garlic (author's transl)].it has been found by cavallito (1944) that garlic (allium sativum l.) has a strong antibacterial activity and the active principle of garlic is named "allicin" and it has been confirmed by stoll et al. (1948) that the allicin is derived from the alliin-alliinase system. nevertheless, one worker in japan (1951) stands on another view point which the effective component of garlic is some sugar-proteim because he could not find alliin in the native garlic. we intend to make sure that the alliin is ...19751099271
letter: garlic oil in experimental atherosclerosis. 197658191
[bactericidal properties of volatile fractions of garlic phytoncids].changes in the bactericidal effect of volatile fractions of garlic were examined during storage. b. coli communis, proteus vulgaris and staph. pyogenes aureus 209 were used as test-organisms. bactericidal properties of volatile fractions of garlic phytoncids were most pronounced prior to storage. during storage they reduced. at higher temperature (16 degrees) the decline in the bactericidal properties was much more significant than at low temperature of storage (2 degrees).19751107992
onion and garlic in experimental cholesterol induced atherosclerosis. 19761017864
[genetic-physiological compatibility and karyotypes of stem nematode].the paper presents literary and the authors own data. the potato stem eelworm ditylenchus destructor has a set of chromosomes 2n=44-48 and does not cross with the close species d. dipsaci from onion, garlic, parsley and parsnip. most stem eelworms of the collective species d. dipsaci have n=12 and cross with each other producing fertile progeny. some forms of stem eelworms, e.g. those of broad beans, plantain, dandelion and falcaria are polyploid. intraspecies and intrapopulation polymorphism ac ...19761026912
[course of beta-hemolytic e. coli carrier state in piglets during weaning].the investigations were carried out on 22 sows and 44 piglets (one sow and 2 piglets from each litter). the pigs were divided into 4 groups according to the different additions to their diet during weaning which might have an effect on the carrier state and dissemination of beta-haemolytic e. coli. group i was given a feed concentrate and separated milk, group ii - a feed concentrate and sour milk, group iii - a feed concentrate and milk with addition of garlic (200 mg/kg of body weight), group ...19751103097
garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. 19751146717
plants and hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action.however great the success in the therapy of hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease has been gained today by recent efficient drugs, the definite healing of patients is not yet attained. the late discovery of reserpine, such an efficient drug of plant origin against hypertension, convinced so far reluctant scientists to consider the chemical compounds of the plant world. with respect to this traditional medical knowledge, it seems necessary to define more accurately the specific ...1979574353
effect of leaf extract of garlic on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, sclerotinia sclerotiorum and on gram seeds. 1979574190
the protective action of essential oils of onion and garlic in cholesterol-fed rabbits.the effects of the essential oils of onion and garlic have been investigated in cholesterol-fed rabbits and have been compared with the effects of clofibrate. the marked rise in serum cholesterol and blood coagulability that followed 3 months of cholesterol feeding (0.2 g/kg/day) was significantly reduced by the essential oils of both onion and garlic. fibrinolytic activity was actually increased even above the normal control levels. the essential oils of onion and garlic (equivalent to 1 g/kg/d ...19751156467
garlic in stress induced myocardial damage. 1979500107
screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human ascaris lumbricoides: part--ii.alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of alpinia galanga, andrographis paniculata, bark of cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of citrus decumana, desmodium triflorum, seeds of hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of kaempfaria galanga, lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of pollia serzogonian, tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human ascaris lumbricoides. while, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of alibzzia lebbe ...19751158424
selenium deficiency in on selenium (se) deficiency in yugoslavia are presented. the results include se content of soil, cereal crops, and garlic grown in these soils, and human serum and scalp hair from several towns and regions. all data indicate a serious se deficiency: soil (n = 140), the mean value of 200 +/- 69.6 micrograms/kg se; wheat, (58) mean = 20.5 +/- 12.4 micrograms/kg; corn, (79) mean = 13.7 +/- 13.6 micrograms/kg; and garlic, (66) mean = 13.7 +/- 17.1 micrograms/kg se. analyses of human tissue show ...19921379455
[the ajoene blockade of integrin-dependent processes in an hiv-infected cell system].ajoene, (e,z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene-9-oxide, isolated from extracts of garlic (allium sativum) has been previously shown to inhibit platelet aggregation by inactivating allosterically the platelet integrin, gp iib/iiia. the structural and functional similarity of integrins led the authors to suggest that ajoene may also inhibit adhesive interactions and fusion of leukocytes. synthetic stereoisomers of ajoene synthesized by the authors exhibited equal antiaggregatory activities (ic100 ...19921284227
[selenium toxicity in domestic animals].the earliest written report of selenium poisoning is thought to be the description by marco polo of a necrotic hoof disease of horses that occurred in china in 13. century. however recognition of se as toxic principle come in the early 1930s. severity of se poisoning depends on chemical forms of the element, species of animals and routes of administration. the soluble se salts (na2seo3 and na2seo4) appear to be among the more toxic compounds; the se inherent in grains and selenoamino acids (sele ...19921340480
reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin.the effect of certain food additives on aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus has been studied in vitro. extracts of turmeric (curcuma longa), garlic (allium sativum) and asafoetida (ferula asafoetida) inhibited the aflatoxin production considerably (more than 90%) at concentrations of 5-10 mg/ml. similar results were also seen using butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and ellagic acid at concentration 0.1 mm. curcumin, the antioxidant principle from curcuma longa did no ...19921394115
enhancing effects of diallyl sulfide on hepatocarcinogenesis and inhibitory actions of the related diallyl disulfide on colon and renal carcinogenesis in has been reported that diallyl sulfide (ds) and diallyl disulfide (dds), major volatile compounds in garlic (allium sativum), exert anticarcinogenic activity in several organs in rodents. the modifying effects of these two chemicals were therefore assessed using two-step liver and multi-organ carcinogenesis models. in experiment 1, male f344 rats were given a single i.p. injection of n-diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body wt) and then received ds or dds by intragastric intubation at doses of 20 ...19921394833
antiproliferative effect of the garlic compound s-allyl cysteine on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro.a variety of compounds derived from garlic bulbs have been shown in animal systems to possess anticancer properties. however, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of garlic in the prevention or treatment of human cancers. in the current study, we have assessed the ability of s-allyl cysteine (sac), a derivative of aged garlic extract, to affect the proliferation and differentiation of la-n-5 human neuroblastoma cells in vitro. time-and dose-dependent inhibition of cell gro ...19921349504
potassium channel activation in vascular smooth muscle.1. numerous compounds and changes in physical state functions shift the membrane potential of vascular smooth muscle to more negative values. the consequence is a vasodilatation because ca2+ channels are closed. k+ channel opening frequently causes the hyperpolarization. 2. acidification of the blood substitute solution and a fall in o2 partial pressure dilate arterial vessels. acidosis is associated with a rise in k+ permeability and a simultaneous fall in na+ permeability. prostacyclin has a 2 ...19921382365
the effect of garlic extract on the activity of some enzymes. 1976137842
mammary cancer prevention by regular garlic and selenium-enriched garlic.the anticarcinogenic activities of regular (soil-grown) garlic and selenium-enriched garlic (cultivated in the greenhouse) were evaluated using the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-(dmba) induced mammary tumor model in rats. in experiment 1, milled regular garlic powder was added to the basal ain-76a diet at 20 g/kg. the results from different schedules of supplementation suggested that a continuous treatment, which started before dmba and persisted for the entire duration of the study, was most e ...19921437646
inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors and dna adducts by garlic powder.the present studies determined the influence of dietary supplements of garlic powder (0, 1, 2 or 4%) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba)-induced mammary tumors and on the in vivo occurrence of mammary dmba-dna adducts in rats. diets were offered 2 weeks before and 2 weeks following dmba treatment (25 mg/kg body wt). an additional group was fed the 2% garlic powder diet throughout the 20 week study. although food intake and weight gain were not influenced, dietary garlic powder supplementati ...19921423843
[folk medicine, experience therapy, a component of modern therapeutics?].empirical medicine has three main supporting pillars: physical treatment, dietetics and phytotherapy. in this area of medicine, a number of therapeutical methods have been evolved which stand up to investigations employing scientific criteria, and which, in consequence, have become officially recognized by medical science. examples are: diet rich in bulkage, digitalis, products of papaver somniferum (poppy) and salicylates. the acceptance of phytotherapeutic agents into the drug armamentarium of ...1976964878
[treatment of primary chronic polyarthritis in special cases].empirical medicine has three main supporting pillars: physical treatment, dietetics and phytotherapy. in this area of medicine, a number of therapeutical methods have been evolved which stand up to investigations employing scientific criteria, and which, in consequence, have become officially recognized by medical science. examples are: diet rich in bulkage, digitalis, products of papaver somniferum (poppy) and salicylates. the acceptance of phytotherapeutic agents into the drug armamentarium of ...1976964883
modulation of n-nitrosomethylbenzylamine bioactivation by diallyl sulfide in vivo.diallyl sulfide (das), a major component of garlic oil, is an inhibitor of tumorigenesis by various metabolically activated carcinogens. in rats, pretreatment with das has been observed to suppress completely the induction of oesophageal neoplasms by n-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (nmbza) (wargovich et al. (1988) cancer res., 48, 6872-6875). this communication reports the effects of das on overall nmbza metabolism and on dna methylation of nmbza in vivo under conditions equivalent to a single treatm ...19921473259
studies of aflatoxins in chiang mai, thailand.aflatoxins become an economical problem in our country due to its contamination in agricultural commodities for export. the toxin may also cause hepatoma and liver diseases in the thais as well. it is, therefore, necessary to search for and to develop efficient technology to combat and control such dangerous mold and mycotoxins. this paper is a collection of our previous and present studies towards reduction of risk from aflatoxins in foods and feedstuffs. the investigation of mold and aflatoxin ...19921479782
garlic in the ovine fetal environment.we investigated whether the odor of garlic can cross the placental barrier from the mother to the fetal environment. samples of amniotic fluid, allantoic fluid, fetal blood, and maternal blood were collected 0, 50, 100, and 150 min after a pregnant ewe (approximately day 110 of gestation) was gavaged with 6 ml of egyptian garlic oil. a panel of judges detected (p < 0.05) garlic odor in samples of allantoic fluid, fetal blood, and maternal blood collected 50, 100, and 150 min after the ewe was gi ...19921484865
in vitro virucidal effects of allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds.garlic (allium sativum) has been shown to have antiviral activity, but the compounds responsible have not been identified. using direct pre-infection incubation assays, we determined the in vitro virucidal effects of fresh garlic extract, its polar fraction, and the following garlic associated compounds: diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thiosulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, ajoene, alliin, deoxyalliin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide. activity was determined against s ...19921470664
inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by a water-soluble garlic extract in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.cultured rat hepatocytes continually synthesize cholesterol form radiolabeled acetate during a 24 h incubation period and export it, presumably as vldl (very low density lipoprotein) to the culture medium. mevastatin inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis by 90%. incubation of the cultures with water-soluble extracts of garlic powder (kwai, sapec) diminish cholesterol biosynthesis (20-25%) as well as its export into the medium (30-35%). the ic50-value is 90 micrograms/ml. between about 0.25 and 10 mg ...19911781801
inhibition of aflatoxin production & growth of aspergillus flavus by eugenol & onion & garlic extracts.efficacy of natural non-toxic materials including extracts of onion and garlic as well as eugenol was tested against aflatoxin production by a. flavus in liquid smky medium and in maize grains. maximum inhibition in the mycelial growth occurred with garlic extract (61.94%), whereas inhibition of aflatoxin production was highest (60.44%) due to onion extract. eugenol was most suitable for inhibiting aflatoxin production (60.35%) on maize grains.19921512040
identified diallyl polysulfides from an aged garlic extract which protects the membranes from lipid peroxidation. 19921470670
inhibitory effect of diet related sulphydryl compounds on the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines.n-nitroso compounds (nocs) are known to be strong carcinogens in various animals including primates (preussman and stewart, (1984) n-nitroso compounds). human exposure to these compounds can be by ingestion or inhalation of preformed nocs or by endogenous nitrosation from naturally occurring precursors (bartsch and montesano, carcinogenesis, 5 (1984) 1381-1393; tannebaum (1979) naturally occuring carcinogens, mutagens and modulators of carcinogenesis; shephard et al., food chem. toxicol., 25 (19 ...19921516037
inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced bone marrow micronuclei formation by diallyl thioethers in mice.diallyl thioethers (dates), naturally occurring compounds present in garlic, were investigated for their putative ability to inhibit benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity in icr and c3h strains of mice. the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay was used as an indicator of in vivo genotoxicity. a dose of 0.67 mmol total dates/kg body weight inhibited formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mpces) by 24%, and 0.33 mmol dates inhibited formation of mpces by 45%. possibly the toxicity o ...19921522606
[resistance of toxoplasma gondii to sodium chloride and condiments in pork sausage].the aim of this study was to determine the resistance of toxoplasma gondii cysts to salt (sodium chloride) and condiments (black pepper and garlic) in fresh sausages prepared with experimentally infected pork. the sausages were treated with 1.25, 2.00, and 2.50% salt with condiments added, and were refrigerated for 2, 24, and 48 hours, after which they were artificially digested. mice were then inoculated with the digested matter. after 42 days the surviving mice were sacrificed and their serum ...19921531110
induction of peroxisomal fatty acyl-coenzyme a oxidase and total carnitine acetyl-coenzyme a transferase in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes by garlic extracts.garlic has been proposed as a natural hypolipidemic substance. most hypolipidemic compounds induce peroxisomal proliferation and increase enzyme activities associated with peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rat liver. here we report that garlic methanol-extracts behave as hypolipidemic drugs, increasing the activity of peroxisomal fatty acyl-coenzyme a oxidase and of total carnitine acetyl-coenzyme a transferase in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. both enzymes are considered markers associated wi ...19921539178
inhibitory effects of diallyl sulfide on the metabolism and tumorigenicity of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk) in a/j mouse lung.diallyl sulfide (das), a component of garlic oil, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis by several chemical carcinogens. our previous work demonstrated that das inhibited the metabolic activation of carcinogenic nitrosamines, including the tobacco-specific 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk), in rat lung and nasal mucosa microsomes. in the present study, the effects of das on the tumorigenicity and the metabolism of nnk in a/j mouse lung were examined. female a/j mice at 7 wee ...19921587006
metabolism of garlic constituents in the isolated perfused rat liver.the metabolic and kinetic behaviour of different garlic (allium sativum l., alliaceae) constituents were investigated in the isolated perfused rat liver, using aqueous extracts of garlic powder as well as isolated allicin, the main product of the enzymatic degradation of alliin. allicin (allyl thiosulfinate) showed a remarkable first pass effect and passed the liver unmetabolized only at high concentrations which caused considerable cell injuries. diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan were ident ...19921438588
[in vivo cell activation effect of alcohol extracts of garlic and their preparations]. 19751240256
antidiabetic effects of s-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic allium sativum linn.s-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (sacs), a sulphur containing amino acid of garlic which is the precursor of allicin and garlic oil, has been found to show significant antidiabetic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. administration of it at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight decreased significantly the concentration of serum lipids, blood glucose and activities of serum enzymes like alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and liver glucose-6-phosphatase. it increased significantly ...19921506036
pharmacokinetics of vinyldithiins, transformation products of allicin.the pharmacokinetic behaviour of vinyldithiins, the main constituents of oily preparations of garlic (allium sativum l.), was investigated after oral administration of 27 mg 2-vinyl-4h-1,3-dithiin and 9 mg 3-vinyl-4h-1,2-dithiin to rats. in serum, kidney, and fat tissue, both vinyldithiins could be detected by gc-ms over a period of 24 h, whereas in liver only 1,3-vinyldithiin was found. pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2, ke, cltot, auc, and vd) were determined using compartment models, elucidati ...19921620748
inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in vitro by extracts and isolated compounds prepared from garlic and wild garlic.using a modified liver homogenate model to assay for the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis, different garlic and wild garlic extracts as well as pure compounds isolated from them were investigated for their influence on cholesterol synthesis. chloroform and acetone/chloroform extracts of garlic and wild garlic inhibited cholesterol synthesis 44-52% at a concentration of 166 micrograms/ml, while the 5 individual sulfur-containing compounds ajoene, methylajoene, allicin, 2-vinyl-4h-1,3-dithii ...19921632861
garlic oil extract ameliorates the severity of copper deficiency.this study was undertaken to determine whether a reduction in hepatic lipogenesis would be beneficial in the amelioration of copper (cu) deficiency when fructose is fed. garlic was chosen as the agent for reducing hepatic lipogenesis. forty-eight weanling rats were fed cu-deficient or adequate diets containing fructose or starch with or without garlic for 5 weeks. garlic ameliorated the signs associated with cu deficiency, although hepatic lipogenesis was not affected. administration of garlic r ...19921619186
[a sos induction test screening study for vegetables inhibiting mutagenicity caused by antineoplastic drugs].using mutational and anti-mutational synchronous in sos inductest (+/- s9), we found that 7 out of 11 kinds of commonly eaten vegetables had the ability to inhibit mutagenicity caused by chemical drugs such as mitomycin c, bleomycinia, fluorouracil, cis-diaminodichloroplatinum, arabinosylcytosin and mustargen, they were garlic, green chinese onion, onion, garlic bulb, tomato, cucumber and water radish. the other 4 lacking this ability were rape, chinese toon, ginger and asparagus lettuce stalk. ...19921451586
effect on active oxygen species of alliin and allium sativum (garlic) powder.considering that oxygen toxicity and the related free radical attack are involved in many pathophysiological conditions, and that allium sativum (asp) has been used therapeutically for many of them since antiquity, we examined the intervention of asp and alliin in free radical processes. it was found that asp presented antioxidant activity and alliin was a very good hydroxyl radical scavenger. asp presented good reducing ability, interacting with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl stable free radical ...19911667340
taste-active components in some foods: a review of japanese research.japanese research of taste-active components in seafoods, meat and tomatoes is reviewed. the omission (or addition) test with synthetic extracts simulating natural extracts was employed in most of that research. in abalone, sea-urchin, snow crab, scallop and short-necked clam, glutamic acid (glu) and glycine were recognized commonly to be taste-active. it was also reported that the synergism between glu and 5'-ribonucleotides and the presence of sodium and chloride ions were required to produce ...19911679558
potassium channel activation, hyperpolarization, and vascular relaxation.1) numerous compounds and changes in physical state functions shift the membrane potential of vascular smooth muscle to more negative values. the consequence is a vasodilatation because ca2+ channels are closed. k+ channel opening frequently causes the hyperpolarization. 2) acidification of the blood substitute solution, a fall in o2 partial pressure, and an increase in blood flow dilate arterial vessels. acidosis is associated with a rise in k+ permeability and a simultaneous fall in na+ permea ...19911724332
[dietary supplementation in the treatment of hyperlipidemia].while dietary and pharmacological therapies are the mainstay of treatment of hyperlipidemia, there has been a surge of interest for nonpharmacological treatments such as dietary fibre and food flavourings. in placebo-controlled studies, oat bran in relatively large doses of 56-95 grams per day have been shown to reduce serum cholesterol by 5-9%. psyllium has caused a 5-15% reduction of serum cholesterol with doses of 10.2 grams per day, and guar gum a reduction of 5-17% with doses of 15 grams pe ...19911665257
mutagenic activity of south indian food items.dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in south india were screened for their mutagenic activity. kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seed ...19911769715
binding of aflatoxin b1 to dna inhibited by ajoene and diallyl sulfide.components of garlic have been shown to inhibit a variety of tumors induced by chemical carcinogens. in this study we determined the effects of ajoene and diallyl sulfide (das), two organosulfur compounds of garlic, on the metabolism and dna binding of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) using rat liver 9000xg supernatant as the metabolic activation system. organosoluble and water-soluble metabolites of [3h]afb1 were isolated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the effects of ajoene ...19911776837
evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (allium sativum) extract in hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis.the effect of serial dilutions of crude garlic (allium sativum) extract on adult hymenolepis nana was studied to detect the minimal lethal concentration which was found to be 1/20. a. sativum was tried in the treatment of 10 children infected with h. nana and 26 infected with g. lamblia as 5 ml crude extract in 100 ml water in 2 doses per day, or commercial preparation (0.6 mg capsules) 2 capsules twice/day for 3 days. a sativum was found to be efficient, safe and shortens the duration of treatm ...19911875077
histopathological evidence of protective action of garlic against collagen and arachidonic acid toxicity in rabbits.soluble rat tail tendon collagen produced respiratory distress, agitation, convulsions and finally death in rabbits when infused intravenously (i.v.) in lethal doses. similar observations were noted when a lethal dose of arachidonic acid (unsaturated essential fatty acid) was infused. these agents caused thrombocytopenia, indicative of in vivo platelet aggregation, hypotension and increased levels of thromboxane (tx) b2 (a stable metabolite of txa2) in the plasma. histopathological examination o ...19921409768
experimental cardiovascular depressant effects of garlic (allium sativum) dialysate.the objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of a garlic dialysate on diastolic blood pressure (dbp), heart rate (hr) and electrocardiogram (ecg) of anaesthetized dogs and its effects on frequency and tension of isolated rat atria. garlic dialysate led to a drop in dbp (from 112.5 +/- 3.67 to 70 +/- 3.16 mmhg) and a decrease in hr (from 198 +/- 9.81 to 164 +/- 16.59 beats/min) in a dose-dependent manner. the ecg showed a regular sinus bradycardic rhythm. the addition of garlic dia ...19921434688
initiation and post-initiation chemopreventive effects of diallyl sulfide in esophageal carcinogenesis.diallyl sulfide (das), one of a number of organosulfur compounds accounting for the flavor and smell associated with garlic, has been shown to inhibit a number of chemically induced forms of cancer. in this study, das was examined for its chemopreventive effects in both the initiation and post-initiation phases of nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal carcinogenesis in the sprague-dawley rat. although highly inhibitory during initiation, das is ineffective when given after the carcinogen. ...19921596875
effect of garlic supplementation to atherogenic diet on collagen biosynthesis in various tissues of rabbits.feeding of cholesterol-rich diet to male rabbits increases collagen biosynthesis and accumulation in aorta, liver, kidney, heart and lungs. however, when garlic supplemented atherogenic diet was fed to the animals, the above effects were partially suppressed particularly in the aorta. cholesterol content of plasma, aorta and liver, which was tremendously increased on atherogenic diet, was suppressed when garlic was included in this diet. it is suggested that garlic possibly reduced the accumulat ...19902081618
in vitro inhibition of cytochrome p-450 reductases from pig liver microsomes by garlic extracts.the activity of microsomal nadph-cytochrome-p-450-reductase and nadh-cytochrome-b5-reductase are inhibited after the addition of an aqueous extract of a pharmaceutical preparation of garlic (allium sativum, l.) to buffer-suspended microsomes. incubation of garlic extract with isolated pig liver microsomes also decreases the activity of cytochrome p-450-dependent ethoxycoumarin deethylation. as measured by malondialdehyde release, the effects on the enzyme system are evidently not due to lipid pe ...19921610423
effect of ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound from garlic, on platelet thrombus formation.ajoene, (e,z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide, is a potent antiplatelet compound isolated from alcoholic extracts of garlic (allium sativum). ajoene reversibly inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation as well as release reaction induced by all known agonists. we used a well characterized cylindrical perfusion chamber to study the effect of ajoene on platelet deposition onto physiological substrates such as pig aortic subendothelium and tunica media as a model of mildly and severely damag ...19921475777
alterations in hepatic phase i and phase ii biotransformation enzymes by garlic oil in rats.studies were conducted to examine the effect of a single and repeated administrations of garlic oil (diallyl sulfide) on phase i and phase ii biotransformation enzymes in rats. adult, male sprague-dawley rats treated with a single dose of garlic oil (500 mg/kg i.p.) showed a significant depression of hepatic cytochrome p-450, aminopyrine n-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase while microsomal protein content, cytochrome b5, nadph-cytochrome c reductase, benzphetamine n-demethylase and cytosolic g ...19921595088
history of the treatment of chronic bronchitis.although chronic bronchitis was first named and described in 1808, the disease has been known since earliest time, and numerous drugs have been utilized in its therapy. the basic historic theories of human function have readily been applied to bronchitis; thus in greek medicine, the disease was appreciated as one of excess phlegm. early remedies included garlic, pepper, cinnamon, and turpentine, whereas later therapies of choice emphasized coffee, ipecac, and potassium nitrate. most of the favor ...19911925077
[cholesterol-lowering effects of garlic?]. 19921544340
metabolism of carcinogenic nitrosamines by rat nasal mucosa and the effect of diallyl sulfide.rat nasal cavity is one of the target organs for carcinogenesis induced by n-nitrosodimethylamine (ndma), n-nitrosodiethylamine (ndea), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk). the present work investigated the metabolism of these nitrosamines by rat nasal microsomes, as well as the possible modulating factors. microsomes prepared from rat nasal mucosa were efficient in metabolizing these nitrosamines. in general, the metabolism of the nitrosamines was slightly higher in 9-week- ...19911997191
influence of spices on utilization of sorghum and chickpea protein.influence of eight common indian spices on the protein quality of sorghum and chickpea was studied. spices used include red chillies (capsicum annum), black pepper (piper nigrum), coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) cumin seeds (cuminum cyminum), garlic (allium sativum), asafoetida (ferula foetida), dry ginger (zingiber officinale) and ajowan (carum copticum). addition of spices did not affect protein digestibility (td) of sorghum. the bv of all sorghum diets with spices was higher than that of ...19911924191
old and new natural products as the source of modern antithrombotic drugs.natural compounds have been the first historical source of antithrombotic compounds (heparin, vitamin k antagonists, streptokinase, urokinase); molecules extracted from plants or animals still provide some of the most original and promising approaches for the discovery of new drugs in this class. in this review, we will briefly describe three examples of current research trends that could lead to the development of new antithrombotic drugs of natural origin. flavonoids have been shown to be inhi ...19911956960
evaluation of a microbiological method for detection of irradiation of spices.the suitability of a microbiological method, a combination of the direct epifluorescent filter technique (deft) and the total aerobic plate count (apc), for the detection of irradiation of spices was evaluated. the evaluation was carried out using different kinds of spices including peppers, paprika, cardamom, cinnamon, ginger; herbs such as thyme, marjoram, basil, and oregano; and garlic powder. ground spices were tested as well as cut and whole spice samples. samples were analysed before and a ...19912038893
[toxic effects induced by the repeat administration of allium sativum l].female and male rats were given 300 and 600 mg/kg/24 h of a garlic bulb aqueous extract for 21 days. the results showed that garlic extract causes toxic effects affecting weight growth, biologic parameters and histologic structures.19911783970
beneficial effects of allium sativum, allium cepa and commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.oral administration of petroleum ether extract of allium sativum, allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. all the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.19911784023
the role of adhesive interactions and extracellular matrix fibronectin from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the respiratory burst.the arg-gly-asp (rgd) tripeptide and ajoene were used for studying the role of adhesive receptors in the respiratory burst. activation of the respiratory burst was examined by using luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. recently, it was shown that ajoene, (e, z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-trien-9-oxide, a substance isolated from garlic extract, inhibits the binding of fibrinogen to activated platelets by direct interaction with fibrinogen receptor (apitz-castro, r., lederm ...19912001408
evidence for direct coupling of primary agonist-receptor interaction to the exposure of functional iib-iiia complexes in human blood platelets. results from studies with the antiplatelet compound ajoene.ajoene, (e,z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide, is a potent antiplatelet compound isolated from alcoholic extracts of garlic. in vitro, ajoene reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation as well as the release reaction induced by all known agonists. in this paper we show that ajoene has a unique locus of action, that is not shared by any other known antiplatelet compound. for example, ajoene inhibits agonist-induced exposure of fibrinogen receptors, as well as intracellular responses such ...19911911878
effect of garlic supplementation to cholesterol-rich diet on development of atherosclerosis in rabbits.feeding of cholesterol-rich diet in male rabbits resulted in increased levels of cholesterol in plasma, aorta and liver and total lipids, phospholipids, free fatty acids in aorta and liver. garlic supplementation to this diet suppressed these effects but their levels were still higher as compared to control rabbits. the plasma fibrinolytic activity which was decreased on cholesterol feeding was considerably increased when this diet was supplemented with garlic. there was increase in the activity ...19911869301
diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects produced by allium sativum (garlic) in anaesthetized dogs.gastric administration of encapsuled garlic powder to anaesthetized dogs induced dose-dependent (2.5 to 15 mg/kg) natriuretic and diuretic responses which reached maximum 30-40 min after garlic administration and decreased to basal levels after 100-150 min. a simultaneous decrease in arterial blood pressure was observed which continued past the 250 min-mark. high garlic doses (15 and 20 mg/kg) provoked bradycardia and t-wave inversion during the first 10-15 min of the experiment with recordings ...19912056760
maternal diet alters the sensory qualities of human milk and the nursling's behavior.although the majority of human infants are breast-fed for the first few months of life, there is a paucity of information regarding the sensory qualities of human milk and how these qualities are affected by maternal diet. the present study investigated the effects of garlic ingestion by the mother on the odor of her breast milk and the suckling behavior of her infant. evaluation of the milk samples by a sensory panel revealed garlic ingestion significantly and consistently increased the perceiv ...19911896276
efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic & allicin in experimental shigellosis in rabbits.the aqueous extract of garlic (allium sativum) and allicin both showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity against isolates of multiple drug-resistant shigella dysenteriae 1, sh. flexneri y, sh. sonnei and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli. the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the aqueous extract and allicin against sh. flexneri y were 5 and 0.4 microliters/ml, respectively. the two agents also showed promising in vivo antibacterial activity against sh. flexneri y when tested in the r ...19912022399
an equine case of urticaria associated with dry garlic feeding. 19911834221
inhibition of cytochrome p-450 2e1 by diallyl sulfide and its metabolites.diallyl sulfide, a major flavor ingredient from garlic, was previously shown to inhibit chemically induced carcinogenesis and cytotoxicity in animal model systems. it modulated cytochrome p-450 compositions by inactivating p-450 2e1 and inducing p-450 2b1. the present studies examined the inhibition of p-450 2e1 mediated p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity by diallyl sulfide and its putative metabolites diallyl sulfoxide and diallyl sulfone (daso2). each compound displayed competitive inhibition ...19911807447
effect of allixin, a phytoalexin produced by garlic, on mutagenesis, dna-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin b1.allixin, a phytoalexin isolated from garlic, was examined for its effects on aflatoxin b1(afb1)-induced mutagenesis using salmonella typhimurium ta100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver s9 fraction as the metabolic activation system. the effects of allixin on the binding of [3h]afb1 to calf thymus dna and on the formation of metabolites of [3h]afb1 were also determined. allixin showed a dose-related inhibition of histidine+ revertants induced by afb1. allixin at 75 micrograms/ml inhibi ...19911909211
organosulfur compounds of garlic modulate mutagenesis, metabolism, and dna binding of aflatoxin b1.the effects of two organosulfur compounds of garlic (ajoene and diallyl sulfide) and a crude garlic extract on aflatoxin b1 (afb1)-induced mutagenesis were determined using rat liver 9,000 g supernatant (s-9) as the activation system and salmonella typhimurium ta-100 as the tester strain. the effects of these compounds on afb1 binding to calf thymus dna were also measured. metabolites of afb1 were isolated and analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. all these compounds ...19911903884
inhibition of dmba-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis by garlic oil and inhibition of two tumor-promotion stages by garlic and onion oils.a single 2-mg dose of garlic oil applied 30 minutes before a single carcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (dmba) inhibited papilloma production in sencar mice. the three groups were controls (group 1), garlic oil applied 30 minutes before dmba (group 2), and garlic oil applied 30 minutes after dmba (group 3). the percents of mice with papillomas at 20 weeks were 94, 72, and 79, respectively. the decreases in groups 2 and 3 were significant. the number of papillomas per mouse was 4 ...19902128117
inhibition of experimental carcinogenesis by painting with garlic extract.the inhibitory effect of topical garlic extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba)-induced oral carcinogenesis in syrian hamsters was studied to define the local anticarcinogenicity of garlic. two other chemicals, benzo[a]pyrene (bp) and 5-nitroso-2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (ntp), were also testing materials. all chemicals were applied topically to the cheek pouches of hamsters. the tumorigenesis and architecture of blood vessels on pouch mucosa were examined periodically. the amount of dna ...19902128118
direct relaxant effects of garlic juice on smooth and cardiac muscles.the effects of garlic juice on smooth and cardiac muscles of rabbit and guinea pig were tested in vitro using isolated segments of aorta, trachea and intestines and isolated rabbit hearts. garlic juice inhibited the contractions of rabbit and guinea pig aortic rings induced by norepinephrine in ca(2+)-free and ca(2+)-containing krebs-henseleit solutions. also, garlic juice inhibited the contractions of rabbit and guinea pig tracheal smooth muscles induced by acetylcholine and histamine, respecti ...19911943161
antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of allium sativum.commercial allium sativum (garlic) extract was given intravenously to two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and three patients with other types of meningitis. plasma titers of anti-cryptococcus neoformans activity rose twofold over preinfusion titers. anti-c. neoformans activity was detected in four of five cerebrospinal fluid samples but not in pooled normal cerebrospinal fluid.19902188589
antiplatelet constituents of garlic and onion.we have identified three main antiplatelet constituents, namely adenosine, allicin and paraffinic polysulfides in both garlic and onion. adenosine and allicin both inhibited platelet aggregation without affecting cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid. the trisulfides inhibited platelet aggregation as well as thromboxane synthesis along with induction of new lipoxygenase metabolites. the data indicate that the observed in vivo antiplatelet effects of ingesting onion and ...19902111084
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