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some properties of a microsomal oleate desaturase from leaves.1. when 1-14coleoyl-coa was incubated with a pea-leaf homogenate oleate was both incorporated into microsomal 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine and released as the unesterified fatty acid. the proportion of oleate incorporated into this phospholipid was dependent on the relative amounts of thiol ester and microsomal preparation present in reactions. 2. at the concentrations of microsomal preparation and 14coleoyl-coa used to study oleate desaturation the metabolism of the thiol ester was essentially comp ...19767242
food protein sources.work on food, planned by the u.m. (use and management) section of the u.k. committe, was limited to sources of protein because we agreed that more problems calling for research were likely to arise in getting adequate supplies of protein than of other types of food. deer meat can be produced on land too rough and exposed for sheep; parts of the work on their metabolism and food requirements necessitated building a mobile laboratory. the manner in which the nutritive value of maize is affected by ...19768803
ecological distribution of spirillum lipoferum beijerinck.a survey in various countries revealed that the n2-fixing spirillum lipoferum beijerinck is a very common root and soil inhabitant in the tropics. more than half of the grass root and soil samples collected in tropical countries (four african countries and brazil) contained abundant s. lipoferum populations, while less than 10% of the samples collected in temperate south brazil, kenya, and the u.s.a. contained the organism. there is a pronounced vegetation effect. panicum maximum seems the most ...197610062
effect of dietary fats on ovine adipose tissue metabolism.the effects of different dietary fats on ovine adipose tissue metabolism have been investigated. six-month old sheep were fed for 6 weeks a control diet or diets supplemented with either tallow or a mixture of sunflower seed oil and soybean oil, treated to protect the fats from hydrolysis and hydrogenation in the rumen, or with maize oil. the rates of fatty acid, glyceride glycerol, and co2 formation were measured in perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissue slices by following the incorporation ...197611390
purification and some properties of an extracellular alpha-amylase from bacteroides amylophilus.a medium was developed to obtain maximum yields of extracellular amylase from bacteroides amylophilus 70. crude enzyme preparation, obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation of cell-free broth, contained six amylolytic isoenzymes that were detected by isoelectric focusing and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. one of these amylases was purified by diethylaminoethyl-sephadex a-50 ion-exchange chromatography and sephadex g-200 gel filtration techniques. some properties of the purified extracell ...197714926
effect of the composition of the medium and the conditions of aspergillus foetidus cultivation on the biosynthesis of glucoamylase.the optimal conditions for biosynthesis of exocellular glucoamylase were found in the course of submerged cultivation of aspergillus foetidus atcc 14916: ph 4.5 at the beginning of cultivation, cultivation for four days, a temperature of 30 degrees c, and an aeration in the fermenter of 1.5 volumes of the air per 1 volume of the medium with a stirring of 280 rpm. the material can be inoculated either as spores (1 x 10(7) spores per 100 ml of the medium) or a material germinated from spores (5% b ...197826852
purification and immunochemical characterization of malate synthase from euglena gracilis.malate synthase (ec 4.1.3.2) from dark-grown euglena gracilis was purified to homogeneity by the criterion of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. the enzyme was released from acetate-grown cells by treatment with ultrasonic waves and purified from broken-cell suspensions by high-speed centrifugation and (nh4)2so4 fractionation, followed by gel-filtration on sepharose 6b. the final enzyme preparation was purified 190-fold compared with the crude extract. the mol.wt. of the enzyme was about 350000 ...197828738
absorption of magnesium by the young steer.1. steers with rumen and simple duodenal cannulas were allowed to graze pasture or were given diets of dried grass or flaked maize with or without hay. for an experiment a solution or suspension of magnesium chloride, polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 4000) and either 144ce (as cerous chloride) or chromic oxide was added to the rumen with a morning feed. conditions in the rumen were sometimes modified by adding sodium chloride or hydrochloric acid. 2. changes in magnesium:marker in samples o ...197831168
nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes of diplodia maydis, a zea mays l. stalk rot causing fungus.the nitrogen source available to diplodia maydis in vivo is reported to affect the severity of stalk rot in maize. nitrate and (or) ammonium salts were tested for their effect on the type of nitrogen metabolism found in diplodia maydis in vitro. the level of glutamate dehydrogenase remained essentially constant on either nitrogen salt but nitrate reductase was induced by growth on nitrate salts and was not extractable on ammonium salts. properties of nitrate reductase reported here are similar t ...197935273
fiber of the maize tortilla.fiber concentrations were measured in maize tortillas and in masa, the lime-treated dough from which they are made, with the aid of van soest's methods. neutral detergent fiber of tortillas was 6.60 +/- 0.98% (mean and sd) and acid detergent fiber 3.75 +/- 0.83% of the dry weight corrected for ash. the hemicellulose fraction was 2.89 +/- 0.94%. both neutral and acid detergent fiber were significantly higher in tortilla than in masa. the gain in fiber by tortillas during baking is attributed to t ...197935971
cadmium concentration and distribution in corn (zea mays l.) grown on a calcareous soil for three years after three annual sludge applications.the disposal of digested sewage sludge on crop-producing land appeals to municipalities as an option but may pose a hazard to human and animal health if the plant material contains elevated levels of some heavy metals. this paper reports the levels of cadmium in corn grain and stover for six years -- three years with sludge applied annually and for three years after sludge applications were terminated. the cadmium concentration in corn grain from the sixth year was similar to values found in cor ...197938271
ecological studies on azotobacter in egyptian soils.the present survey includes 156 representative soil samples. results obtained confirm the richness of egyptian soils, particularly the nile valley soils, in azotobacter (60% of the samples contained greater than 10(3) colonies/g soil). colony counts were lower than mpn estimations. glucose is recommended for use in plating medium. among the environmental factors affecting azotobacter densities in soils of egypt are: organic carbon content, total soluble salt content, ph and type of the soil, dep ...197944932
hepatitis due to aflatoxicosis. an outbreak in western india.parts of western india have experienced an outbreak of hepatitis affecting man and dogs and characterised by jaundice, rapidly developing ascites, portal hypertension, and a high mortality-rate. the disease was associated with the consumption of maize contaminated heavily with aspergillus flavus. analysis of contaminated samples showed that affected people could have consumed between 2 and 6 mg. of aflatoxin daily over a period of a month. a specimen of liver obtained at necropsy showed bileduct ...197548730
induction of avirulent variants in erwinia stewartii by incubation at supraoptimal temperatures.high temperatures (37 degrees c) induced non-pigmented, and (or) small colony variants in some erwinia stewartii strains. the former differed from the parent strain serologically and in having lost virulence to zea mays. the small colony variants retained phytopathogenicity.197551679
balkan (endemic) nephropathy and a toxin-producing strain of penicillium verrucosum var cyclopium: an experimental model in rats.cultures of an isolate of penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, obtained from stored maize in an area of balkan (endemic) nephropathy--vratza, bulgaria--has consistently induced renal tubular lesions when force-fed to rats for 20 days. the lesions, confined to the lower reaches of the proximal convoluted tublues (pars recta and junctional zone), closely resemble the tubular changes in patients with balkan nephropathy. preliminary evidence suggests that this nephrotoxin-producing strain of p. ve ...197766474
effect on rats and mice of a diet with low tryptophan content (maize flour).female wistar rats when crowded together become aggressive if fed a diet with low tryptophan (trp) content (maize, flour, mf). when isolated during 30 days and fed mf they show a decrease of weight, of total plasma trp, and of trp and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht) in brain stem, but 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-hiaa) of the same cerebral area does not change. these results partially agree with other authors observations. mice isolated during 47 days and fed with mf do not show any significant weigh ...197995611
serologic studies of the maize stalk rot pathogen erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae.with the help of serological techniques, namely microprecipitin, agglutination, and gel diffusion, sixteen isolates of maize stalk rot pathogen were proved to be identical. serological techniques have thus been utilized as an additional tool for identifying the pathogen erwinia carotovora f. sp. zea. it was also established that the pathogen does not perpetuate in the seed, either externally of internally. it could, however, be found through serological tests that infected ears carried the patho ...197896628
an ultrastructural investigation of nephrotoxicity in rats induced by feeding cultures of penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium.a renal tubular lesion was induced in male rats by giving them a culture homogenate or culture filtrate of penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium by gastric gavage for 20 days. the fungus was obtained from stored maize in an area of endemic nephropathy in bulgaria. changes in the proximal convoluted tubules were studied by light and electron microscopy. the lesion was confined to the pars recta in the outer stripe of the outer zone of the medulla. it consisted of degeneration and necrosis of epit ...1978103297
the current status of breeding for protein quality in corn.the current rapid expansion of the human population on earth, particularly in the less developed countries, raises the possibility of widespread, serious malnutrition and starvation for many unless agricultural technology can intervene with appropriate answers to these problems. plant breeders have been charged with developing varieties that will yield larger quantities of improved quality protein. since the realization that maize having the opaque-2 gene has markedly improved protein quality, m ...1978103373
evaluation of high-protein supplements in children with protein energy malnutrition.the present study was designed to test the comparative efficacy of cow's milk, a protein, vitamin and mineral mixture (pvm) and soybean textured vegetable protein (somos) as supplements to maize meal porridge in the dietary treatment of children with protein energy malnutrition (pem). each diet was designed to provide approximately 480 kj/kg with 2 protein/kg from the test protein, and 1,8 g protein/kg from maize. response to treatment was measured by loss of oedema, subsequent weight gain, rate ...1979111358
the electrophoretic isolation and partial characterization of three chlorophyll-protein complexes from blue-green algae.three chlorophyll-protein complexes have been resolved from blue-green algae using an improved procedure for membrane solubilization and electrophoretic fractionation. one complex has a red absorbance maximum of 676 nm and a molecular weight equivalency of 255 000 +/- 15 000. a second complex has an absorbance maximum of 676 nm, a molecular weight equivalency of 118 000 +/- 8000, and resembles the previously described p-700-chlorophyll a-protein (cpi) of higher plants and algae. the third chloro ...1979111710
a new n-nitroso compound, n-3-methylbutyl-n-1-methylacetonylnitrosamine, in corn-bread inoculated with fungi.a new n--nitroso compound, n--1--methylacetonyl--n--3--methylbutylnitrosamine (mambna) is found in corn-bread inoculated with the common fungi, such as fusarium moniliforme, geotrichun candidum, aspergillus terreus or a. flavipes, encountered in food of lin xian county, henan province. the preliminary identification of this compound with tlc has been confirmed by gc-ms analysis. furthermore, we have synthesized the mambna and the chemical analysis shows that it is identical with the mambna isola ...1979112677
[the occurrence of a toxigenic strain of fusarium tricinctum in connection with disease in a dairy cow].the fungus fusarium tricinctum, producing t-2 toxin, was isolated from mouldy maize silage. t-2 toxin was identified by tlc and by a bioassay. consumption of mouldy silage resulted in a disease in a dairy cow, which had to be killed. the patho-anatomical findings obtained in the slaughtered cow generally suggested trichothecene poisoning. it was derived from these findings that the disease was due to the presence of trichothecenes in the feed.1979115129
[growth and biomass accumulation by several strains of pseudomonas on nutrient with ethanol].the capacity to grow in a mineral medium with ethanol as a sole carbon source was studied in 147 pseudomonas strains. all of the strains can grow in this medium. the biomass accumulation in the mineral medium with ethanol (1%) and maize extract (0.2%) is 2.5--5.0 times higher than without the latter. strains which accumulate up to 3.5 g of dry biomass per litre (containing 62--66% of protein and 5.3% of nucleic acids) in the mineral medium with ethanol (1%) and maize extract (0.2%) have been sel ...1979116115
the effect of an unsaturated-fat diet on cataract formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.1. cataract formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats was reduced by approximately 85% when a diet rich in maize oil (300 g/kg diet) (fat diet) was given, thus confirming results of earlier studies. however, the concentration of sorbitol in the lens of diabetic animals remained high, the values for diabetic rats given the standard diet and the fat died being 65 and 40 mumol/g protein respectively. 2. with the standard diet, the fatty acid profile of the triglycerides of the epididymal ...1976133711
effect of corn and sorghum diets in n1 methylnicotinamide excretion and hepatic enzymes in rats.this study was carried out to compare the effects of corn (zea mays) and sorghum (sorghum vulgare) diets on urinary n1 methylnicotinamide (n'mn) excretion and on the activity of hepatic enzyme in young adult rats. thirty rats, weighing an average of 174.3 g at the beginning of the experiments, were divided into three groups and studied for 13 weeks. the two experimental diets supplied 7% protein, and a casein diet was used as control. niacin was excluded from the vitamin mixture used in the corn ...1978153892
[pathomorphological changes in the estrogenic syndrome of swine].epizootic, clinical and pathomorphological investigations were carried out on spontaneously arising oestrogen syndrome in swine following feeding with fodder mixture containing 35-63% maize in which the oestrogen substance z-2 (zearalenon) was found. clinical symptoms and pathomorphological changes observed in the course of the disease are described. varying in extent edematous processes were present in the regions around the anus, vulva, prepucium and the mammal complex. uteruses were twice or ...1979162016
effect of the fungal toxin (zearalenone) on the reproductive system and fertility of male and female rats.the fertility-inhibiting effects of long-term (8 weeks) consumption of maize infected with a fungus producing f2 toxin (zearalenone) was studied in adult male and female albino rats. the fertility rate was further decreased by 25-30% if the animals were kept on contaminated diet up to 14 weeks. the gonadal weight was decreased, follicular maturation and spermatogenesis were disturbed. the toxic diet consumed by mothers during pregnancy and lactation induced permanent changes in reproductive orga ...1979162329
[lipid overload induced in myocardial cells by vegetable oils. observation using electron microscopy].comparative studies were made to estimate the lipid overloading of myocardiac cells in rats fed by groups, for 3 and 6 days, one of the following dietary oils: peanut oil, maize oil, sunflower oi, soyabean oil, rapeseed-primor oil, rapeseed-canbra oil and rapeseed oil.1975171096
multiplication of vesicular stomatitis virus in the leafhopper peregrinus maidis (ashm.), a vector of a plant rhabdovirus.vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) was found to multiply efficiently in whole peregrinus maidis (ashm.). the leafhopper vector of maize mosaic virus (mmv), a plant rhabdovirus. insects were inoculated with vsv by means of a microsyringe, collected at 1-day intervals and tested individually for the presence of virus. exponential virus multiplication occurred within the first 4 days, reaching titres of 10(6) p.f.u. per insect in days 5 to 10 after inoculation. these observations show that a common h ...1976182911
regulative influence of o-aminobenzoic acid on the biosynthesis of nourseothricin in cultures of streptomyces noursei ja 3890b. iv. bistability of metabolism and the mechanism of action of aminobenzoic acids.using the semi-continuous cultivation technique we could establish that specifically in streptomyces noursei ja 3890b during growth on a medium supplied with d,l-alanine, nh4+, and maize starch there are two different phenotypes of the organism and stationary states of metabolism, respectively. the expression of either the metabolic state i with an enhanced capacity to oxidative deamination of alanine via the nad+-dependent alanaine dehydrogenase or the metabolic state 2 which may be characteriz ...1979231865
effects of a nitrate reductase inactivating enzyme and nad(p)h on the nitrate reductase from higher plants and neurospora.evidence is presented which suggests that the nad(p)h-cytochrome c reductase component of nitrate reductase is the main site of action of the inactivating enzyme. when tested on the nitrate reductase (nadh) from the maize root and scutella, the nadh-cytochrome c reductase was inactivated at a greater rate than was the fadh2-nitrate reductase component. with the neurospora nitrate reductase (nadph) only the nadph-cytochrome c reductase was inactivated. p-chloromercuribenzoate at 50 mum, which gav ...1975235300
a relationship between the molar proportion of propionic acid and the clearance rate of the liquid phase in the rumen of the sheep.1. four rumen-cannulated sheep were given a forage mixture (f) of chopped hay-ground, pelleted, dried grass (92:8, w/w) and two concentrate mixtures (c and s) of ground barley-ground hay-flaked maize (46:24:30 and 56:24:20, by wt respectively) in twenty-four hourly meals each day. each of the diets was offered in successive periods of 16 d to give a feeding sequence f-s-c-s for one pair of sheep and c-s-f-s for the other pair. 2. the average composition (mol/100 mol) of the mixture of short-chai ...1975235941
l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (maize, potato, and rhodotorula glutinis). studies of the prosthetic group with nitromethane.highly purified enzyme (ec 4.1.3.5) from rhodotorula glutinis was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to have subunits which if not identical are closely similar in molecular weight. like the enzyme from maize and potato [havir, e. a., and hanson, k. r. (1973), biochemistry 12, 1583] it is a tetramer of molecular weight similar to 4 times 83,000. enzyme from all three sources inactivated and labeled at the active site with 14-ch3no2 gave on hcl hydrolysis 14-co2, h-14-co2h, d- an ...1975235961
[unsaponifiable extract of zea mays l. insadol in oral surgery]. 1978292031
isolation and fusion studies on protoplasts from pollen tetrads.different enzymes were tested for isolation of intact protoplasts from pollen tetrads. about 80% isolation was achieved from pollen tetrads of cajanus cajan and zea mays and about 60% from luffa cylindrica and lycopersicon esculentum after 4 h of treatment with 5% cellulase. when these mononucleate protoplasts were incubated in presence of 0.05 m cacl2 in 0.3 m glucose at ph 10.5, 70-80% fusion was achieved. fusion was rare in sodium nitrate solutions.1977321241
application and standardization of various procedures for inoculation of maize by erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae.hypodermic syringe and toothpick methods were best for evaluating pathogenicity of the maize plant against erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae, both in glass house and in the field. the portion of the stalk above the ground was best suited for reproducing the disease symptoms. leaf and leaf whorl did not show any rotting hero. seed inoculation showed least mortality percentage. root inoculation was suitable only for young seedlings. cotyledons, as an organ for inoculation for getting best reproducibl ...1977324175
maize silage: incidence of moulds during conservation.the basic principle of silage making--preservation under anaerobiosis--is recognized. with this environment the substrate can harbour a spontaneous and active microflora that can be divided into two sequential phases; a bacterial phase followed by a yeast phase. the imperfections of the techniques used in making silage, however, frequently result in invasion by fungi. the moulds that are responsible for serious changes (loss of nutrients, mycotoxins) are classified into a dozen characteristic di ...1977328359
the effect of partially replacing urea nitrogen with protein n on n capture in the rumen of sheep fed a purified diet.1. the influence of replacing 10% of the urea nitrogen in a purified diet with casein, maize gluten or white fish meal on the efficiency of conversion of dietary-n into microbial n was examined using sheep equipped with rumen fistulas and duodenal re-entrant cannulas. 2. total nitrogen (tn), non-ammonia nitrogen (nan) and amino acid nitrogen (aan) flowing to the proximal duodenum were significantly higher (p smaller than 0.05) when maize gluten was added to the diet, and this appeared to be due ...1978339943
trna isopentenyltransferase from zea mays l. characterization of the isopentenylation reaction of trna, oligo (a) and other nucleic acids.the extraction and purification of the trna isopentenyltransferase from maize root tips and kernels are reported. the relative amounts of this enzyme in different organs of maize have been determined. root tips have the highest enzyme activities, followed by kernels and young leaves. old leaves exhibit very low activity. the molecular mass of the monomeric enzyme was determined to be 57000 - 63000 dalton. ph and mg2 optima are in full agreement with the data reported for the enzymes from yeast a ...1978342386
comparison of a nitrate reductase-inactivating enzyme from the maize root with a protease form yeast which inactivates tryptophan synthase.a maize root fraction which inactivates nitrate reductase has been shown to have protease activity which can be measured by the hydrolysis of azocasein. this inactivating enzyme was also found to inactivate yeast tryptophan synthase. yeast proteases a and b, which inactivate this latter enzyme, also gave a specific inactivation of the maize nitrate reductase. the maize root inactivating enzyme, like yeast protease b, degraded casein, and was inhibited by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride. a partial ...1978352401
potential of plant genetic systems for monitoring and screening mutagens.plants have too long been ignored as useful screening and monitoring systems of environmental mutagens. however, there are about a dozen reliable, some even unique, plant genetic systems that can increase the scope and effectiveness of chemical and physical mutagen screening and monitoring procedures. some of these should be included in the tier ii tests. moreover, plants are the only systems now in use as monitors of genetic effects caused by polluted atmosphere and water and by pesticides. the ...1978367768
[behavior of some microorganisms cultivated in the presence of irradiated maize starch].the bactericidal effect of water soluble radiolysis products of maize starch on escherichia coli cultures declines when the initial population grows. this toxicity varies with the culture environment and the bacterial species: bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum, streptococcus faecalis, enterobacter sp. moreover, for the eucaryote cell saccharomyces cerevisiae, wild strain or muting "small colonies", only the generating time is altered by the active parts of radiolysis products. the resul ...1977410543
[selection of screening methods for the detection of aflatoxins in animal feed].five different screening methods of the detection of aflatoxin b1 are compared as to their usability in ten feeds, feed concentrates, and complete feed mixtures. method ii, i. e. the author's modification of the method of pons et al. (1973) was found to be the best for the highest number of different feeds. aflatoxin b1-positive findings were obtained in samples of groundnut cake and protein concentrates a) for laying hens and b) for breeding pigs. no aflatoxins were detected in other feed sampl ...1977416542
studies on digestion and absorption in the intestines of growing pigs. 5. measurements of the flow of nitrogen.1. digesta were collected from twenty-three pigs, initially of 30 kg live weight, and fitted with single ash re-entrant cannulas in either the duodenum, jejunum or ileum. a further twenty-four pigs were used in a conventional digestibility trial. 2. three approximately isonitrogenous diets were used; they contained: barley, fine wheat ofal, white fish meal, minerals and vitamins (diet bwf), starch, sucrose, maize oil, cellulose, minerals, vitamins and either groundnut (diet ssg) or casein (diet ...1979420745
studies on digestion and absorption in the intestines of growing pigs. 6. measurements of the flow of amino acids.1. digesta were collected from seventeen pigs initially of 30 kg live weight fitted with single re-entrant cannulas in either the duodenum, jejunum or ileum. a further twenty-four pigs were used in a conventional digestibility trial. 2. the pigs received three types of diet containing: barley, fine wheat offal, white fish meal, minerals and vitamins (diet bwf); starch, sucrose, maize, oil, cellulose, minerals and vitamins and either groundnut (diet ssg) or casein (diet ssc). 3. amino acids were ...1979420746
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase: enzymic conversion of 3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)-l-alanine to trans-3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)acrylic acid.the phenylalanine analogue 3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)-l-alanine is converted to the hitherto unknown cinnamate analogue trans-3-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)acrylic acid by l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (ec 4.3.1.5) from maize, potato, or rhodotorula glutinis. the structure assigned to the product is confirmed by its 1h nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and by the chemical synthesis to be described in a subsequent paper. on comparing the above substrate analogue with l-phenylalanine, the km was lowered o ...1979427124
nutritional evaluation of hard endosperm opaque-2 maize (zea mays l.). 1979429693
two-year oral toxicity and multigeneration studies in rats on two chemically modified maize starches. 1979437606
associative symbiosis of azotobacter chroococcum and higher plants.the association between a selected strain of azotobacter chroococcum and seven plants was investigated in water cultures under sterile conditions. azotobacter population progressively increased in the nutrient solution and on the rhizoplane. microbial propagation depends on the type of plant, being much higher in presence of wheat, followed by barley, maize, broad bean, and cotton, while in presence of fenugreek and lentil lower rates of multiplication were recorded. inoculation increased the dr ...1979473964
studies on digestion and absorption in the intestines of growing pigs. 7. measurements of the flow of total carbohydrate, total reducing substances and glucose.1. seventeen pigs were fitted with single re-entrant cannulas in either the duodenum (posterior to the entry of the bile and pancreatic ducts), the mid-jejunum, or the terminal ileum. a further twenty-four pigs were used in a conventional digestibility trial. 2. three diets were used: these contained barley, fine wheat offal, white fish meal, minerals and vitamins (diet bwf) ; starch, sucrose, maize oil, cellulose, minerals, vitamins and either groundnut meal (diet ssg) or casein (diet ssc). 3. ...1979476042
studies on digestion and absorption in the intestines of growing pigs. 8. measurements of the flow of total lipid, acid-detergent fibre and volatile fatty acids.1. seventeen pigs fitted with single re-entrant cannulas in either the duodenum (posterior to the point of entry of the bile and pancreatic ducts), the mid-jejunum, or the terminal ileum, and a further twenty-four non-cannulated pigs were used. 2. three diets were used: these contained barley, fine wheat offal, white fish meal, minerals and vitamins (diet bwf); starch, sucrose, maize oil, cellulose, minerals, vitamins and either groundnut meal (diet ssg) or casein (diet ssc). 3. the quantities o ...1979476043
effect of organic matter supplementation on nitrogen transformations in soils. i. chemical and bacteriological changes.the effect of supplementation with different organic materials on nitrogen transformations and on certain bacterial groups in soil was studied. addition of wide c/n ratio organic matter, sawdust and maize stalks prevented no3-n from being lost through leaching out or dentrification and favoured the development of azotobacter and n2-fixing clostridia that in turn resulted in marked gains in nitrogen through n2-fixation. nitrifying bacteria were adversely affected. application of such materials to ...1979494849
effect of amino acid(s) and pulse supplementation on nutritional quality of normal and modified opaque-2 maize (zea mays l.). 1979512234
balkan (endemic) nephropathy.the clinical and pathological features of balkan (endemic) nephropathy are discussed and correlations of incidence with excess late summer and autumn rainfall outlined. cultures of a strain of penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium isolated from maize collected in an endemic area were fed to rats and lesions were produced in the straight third segment of the proximal kidney tubules. extensive degeneration and nuclear changes were seen and on prolonged feeding further nuclear enlargement (to great ...1979467065
cell morphology and flagellation of nitrogen-fixing spirilla.twenty isolates of n2-fixing spirilla were isolated from the rhizosphere of maize and sugar cane grown in egyptian and belgian soils. electron microscopy distinguished two morphological groups. the first includes short and thick curved rods with an unipolar flagellum while cells of the second group are much longer with the typical appearance of spiral cells and most probably possess a bipolar tuft of flagella.1979527912
the effect of dietary fats on the composition of the liver endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative drug metabolsim.1. the dependence of the rate of oxidative demethylation in the liver endoplasmic reticulum on the fatty acid composition of the endoplasmic reticulum has been studied by varying the lipid content of the diet. 2. the rate of oxidative demethylation was markedly dependent on the percentage of linoleic acid (18:2) incorporated into the membrane. feeding diets containing (g/kg) 100 coconut oil, 100 lard or 100 maize oil caused respectively the incorporation of 7.6, 10.3 and 25.1% linoleic acid (18: ...1979465437
population, food and nutrition during the remainder of this century: part ii. south africa.whether south africa can grow enough food over the next 20 years to meet the needs of a population estimated to be increasing by up to 1 million a year depends primarily on the extent, nature and condition of its natural resources and secondly on how they will be conserved and used. these, together with other relevant matters, are the subjects considered for both white and black areas, especially as they affect the production of our basic foodstuff--maize. the maize production potential of the h ...1979542882
effect of dietary fats and triiodothyronine administration on the lipid components of serum and tissues in the rat.twelve groups of rats were included in this study. six groups (3 males and 3 females) received high fat diets containing 20% of either peanut oil, maize oil or lard. the other six groups received the same diets plus triiodothyronine. triiodothyronine t3 added to diets containing peanut oil caused slight increase in total serum lipids in female rats, while in male rats serum total lipids were increased about 20-fold. t3 administration caused almost no change in aortic total and all lipid fraction ...1979549273
polyploidy and domestication: the origin and survival of polyploids in cytotype mixtures.the origin and survival of a polyploid in a mixture of this polyploid and its parent(s) is reviewed. with several examples a picture is drawn of the interference of cytotypes in a mixture of cytotypes. some natural polyploids, both wild and domesticated, are very successful. they, like bread wheat and banana, largely replaced their parents. the same is true for some artificial polyploids like autotriploid hybride sugar beet in europe and autotetraploid perennial ryegrass. but when grown together ...1979550834
incidence of fusarium moniliforme sheld. in zea mays l. in the rainforest zone of nigeria.45 seed samples from 7 states of the rainforest zone of nigeria (ogun, ondo, oyo, bendel, anambra, imo, and cross river) were screened for phytopathogen incidence. whereas drechslera maydis was found in 30 and cephalosporium maydis in 79% of the samples were infected by fusarium moniliforme, with 70% of the samples showing heavy infection. in view of the widespread nature of this economically important fungus on maize in the main cultivation area of nigeria, the necessity for routine laboratory ...1979550860
some aspects of feeding of brood gilts and sows.the amounts of feed required during each of the reproductive phases are graphically illustrated and supported by specific recommendations where possible with discussion of the underlying rationale and of the often conflicting considerations. for flushing, an increase of 50 to 100% of energy requirements above maintenance level is recommended, supplied, for example, by one to two kg maize extra per day during the week before expected oestrus, in order to increase the ovulation rate. during pregna ...1979551191
an outbreak of white muscle disease in lambs born of ewes on a zero grazing system in natal.white muscle disease appeared in lambs born of ewes in the zero grazing group during the course of a comparative fertility trial on ewes on various systems of husbandry. analysis of the feed showed barely adequate selenium in the maize silage and a deficiency in the soil on which the high lysine maize was grown. treatment of the lambs with a selenium/vitamin e injection rapidly controlled the condition. this deficiency may be more widespread than is presently realised.1979551200
[determination of lysine requirement in growing rats as based on the catabolism rate of 14-c- and 15-n-labeled lysine].male wistar rats (weighing some 80 g at the start of the experiment) were fed diets containing maize gluten as protein carrier and which was supplemented with amino acids (except lysine) in such way that their concentrations came up to the requirement norms. lysine was gradually supplemented this resulting in 10 diets of different lysine content (1.6-10.6 g lysine/16 g n). on the 7th experimental day, 4 animals of each group were labelled with 14c-lysine and subjected to 2-hour measuring of 14co ...1978556575
purification and partial characterization of maize mosaic virus.leaf extracts containing maize mosaic virus (mmv) were purified by treatment with activated charcoal followed by filtration through celite. virus was concentrated from the filtrate by sedimentation onto a sucrose pad and then further purified by centrifugation in a 20--50% continuous sucrose density gradient. buoyant density of virus particles in sucrose solution was 1.181 g/ml. nucleic acid extracted from virus preparations reacted with orcinol and behaved like rna in pederson's diphenylamine t ...1979429149
[impact on the state of health of lambs fed large amounts of concentrated fodder].experiments were carried out with a total of 18 male lambs at the age of 5 months, included in three groups. the test period lasted 150 days during which the animals of the first group were fed daily 1200-1500 g each of pelleted concentrates, those of the second group--1200, 1300, and 3000 g of wheat straw, and the lambs of the third one--800 and 1050 g of pelleted concentrates as well as 540-720 g of pelleted whole maize plants. it was found that continuous feeding with high amounts of concentr ...1979516436
mycotoxicological investigations on zambian maize. 1978564851
[parasitic fusaria in corn an attempts to isolate phytoestrogens from them].a total of 123 fungus strains of the fusarium genus were found in 181 samples of maize. fusarium moniliforme was most frequently isolated. it was found that 14 of the strains produced f-2 toxin. experiments were carried out with 50 male and female guinea pigs. each of the test animals was given orally 0.2 ml (daily, in the course of twenty days) crude toxin obtained through growing the fungus--selected strains--on sterile maize flour. it was established that most of the tested toxins affected th ...1977565100
the problem of aflatoxic human disease in parts of india-epidemiological and ecological aspects.an outbreak of a disease characterised by jaundice, rapidly developing ascites and portal hypertension associated with 20 p. 100 mortality rate was investigated in 1974. analysis of food samples revealed that the disease outbreak was due to the consumption of maize (corn) heavily infested with the fungus aspergillus flavus. unseasonal rains prior to harvest, chronic drought conditions, poor storage facilities and ignorance of dangers of consuming fungal contaminated food seem to have caused the ...1977566071
[new analytic criteria for the characterization of wines].isotopic analysis, determination of radioactivity are factors allowing a better characterization of wines. the analysis of the composition in stable isotopes of the constituants of wine can provide new analytic criteria for characterizing wines. thus, the concentration of 13c in ethanol can allow the disclosure of an addition of cane sugar or maize sugar to the musts. a study of the composition in stable isotopes of the water of wines of a certain region made it possible to show a correlation be ...1978573085
selective infection of maize roots by streptomycin-resistant azospirillum lipoferum and other bacteria.the percentage of low-level streptomycin-resistant (20 microgram/ml) bacteria in surface-sterilized or washed maize roots was more than a thousand times higher than that in soil populations. there was also a higher incidence of resistant bacteria in rhizosphere as compared with non-rhizosphere soil and bacteria isolated from maize roots were relatively tolerant to several other antibiotics. azospirillum lipoferum was predominant in surface-sterilized roots of field-grown maize and was low-level ...1979540253
the protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate. 1. nitrogen retention of growing pigs in relation to diet.1. measurements were made of the losses of nitrogen in the faeces and urine of sixty pigs of approximately 33 kg, given dietary regimens comprising twenty-nine combinations of fish flour (0-800 g/d) and maize starch (0-1200 g/d). 2. the results were used to develop a generalized equation describing n retention as a joint function of n intake and starch intake. 3. the protein-sparing effect of starch was exerted in all circumstances. it was greatest when protein intake exceeded 220 g/d but some e ...1977588546
intensive fattening of beef cattle by stall feeding on the lilongwe plain, malawi. ii. utilisation of crop residues, crop by-products and leucaena.experiments were conducted over three dry seasons to investigate the value for fattening beef cattle, of crop residues (maize stover, groundnut haulm) and madeya (maize bran) with varying levels of dried leucaena leaf or cottonseed cake. the inclusion of groundnut haulm in the roughage increased animal performance when madeya was restricted. increasing the protein content of the madeya supplement but restricting the quantity of madeya fed did not influence liveweight gain although the efficiency ...1977595137
the digestibility of wheat starch and maize starch by the pre-ruminant calf. 1977601020
l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (maize, potato, and rhodotorula glutinis) explaining the kinetic effects of substrate modification by linear free-energy relationships. 1977558738
[maize pollen as a biostimulator and source of supplementary protein in poultry diets. 1. its effect on the development of broilers]. 1977610215
[maize pollen as a biostimulator and source of supplementary protein in poultry diets. 2. its effect on the growth of young replacement hens]. 1977610216
ethylene production during seed germination of some plants.the volatile and gaseous exudates emanating during seed germination of cotton, maize, and broad bean were analyzed chromatographically for ethylene production. the amount of ethylene produced could be arranged in the following descending order: cotton, maize, broad bean. ethylene production decreases with the increase in the germinating seed age.1977610230
seasonal effects of dietary intake on kalahari san.san living in the northwestern kalahari desert may be grouped according to different kinds and proportions of dietary habits. at one end of a continuous scale are those whose food is obtained almost entirely from wild bush sources; at the other extreme are those who obtain large amounts of food from domestic sources, principally milk and maize meal. the majority fall between these poles. the region is also home to a substantial number of pastoralists and horticulturalists. data have been collect ...1978618757
protein utilization in rats receiving a low-protein diet with various limiting amino acids.1. a study was made of protein utilization in rats given a variety of low-protein diets containing (g/kg) egg albumin 18, casein 49, gluten 50, or mixtures of either maize protein and gelatine 58, or casein and gelatin 37, each with supplemental methionine. the diets were limiting in leucine, tryptophan or lysine, or in both tryptophan and the sulphur-containing amino acids. 2. values obtained for net protein utilization (npu) at these low levels of nitrogen intake were markedly higher than the ...1978619965
relationship between fungal growth and aflatoxin production in varities of maize and groundnut. 1978621329
influence of dietary cereal and energy content on the accumulation of lipids in the liver in fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome in the fowl.isocaloric diets supplying about 2900 kcal/kg and based on maize, wheat and barley respectively, were fed to pullets for 13 weeks from point of lay. the number of cases of subclinical fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome and the mean total lipid, triglyceride and monoglyceride content of the liver decreased in the above order of diets. the final body weight, weight gain and abdominal fat score followed the order wheat greater than maize greater than barley. reduction of the energy content of the wh ...1978625604
lipoprotein lipase activity in the tissues of guinea pigs exposed to different dietary fats from conception to three months of age.long-term exposure of guinea pigs to a diet rich in maize oil caused an increase in adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipase activity. a similar diet rich in beef tallow had no such effect, and neither diet affected the enzyme activity in heart, lung, diaphragm or skeletal muscle.1978629774
effects of diet on the protozoa population in permeable continuous cultures of rumen contents.1. responses of the protozoa population to the composition and the components of the diet were studied in permeable continuous cultures of rumen contents. 2. in expt 1 a study was made of responses to diets containing different combinations of rice straw, lucerne meal and mixed concentrates given to the cow supplying inocula for cultures. it was found that (1) when a diet devoid of concentrates was fed, entodiniomorphs decreased in numbers; (2) their numbers increased with the increase in the am ...1978629916
intensive fattening of beef cattle by stall feeding on the lilongwe plain, malawi. i. type of forage and level and type of supplementation.experiments were undertaken with malawi zebu steers over three wet seasons to investigate the effects of feeding improved forages (zero grazed) and supplements on animal performance. the forages fed were guinea grass and pearl millet and the supplements maize: madeya (maize bran) or maize: madeya: cottonweed cake. the daily allowance of supplement was, on a dm basis, liveweight equivalent to 0-6, 1-1 or 1-5 per cent of cattle (1973, 1974). in 1975 the supplementation treatments were nil, maize: ...1977578596
ultrastructural effects of helminthosporium maydis race t toxin on mitochondria of corn roots and protoplasts.zea mays inbred w64a in texas (t, toxin sensitive) male sterile and non-male sterile (n, toxin resistant) cytoplasms were utilized. roots of freshly germinated seeds were treated for 15 min of 2 hr with culture filtrate from liquid grown helminthosporium maydis race t, or with a chloroform extractable purified fraction from the culture filtrate. in the susceptible w64a t line, toxin treatment, both crude and purified, caused swelling and loss of matrix densiy in mitochondria of root cap and vacu ...1977561458
effects of liquid feeding of concentrate from a pail on growth and on the digestibility of the diet in young calves.1. studies were done on the effects of giving calves two types of concentrate diet, both in a liquid form from an open pail or in a dry pelleted form, on the closure of oesophageal groove, body-weight gains and the digestibility of rations. 2. twenty-four holstein calves were used in an experiment by dividing into two groups of twelve calves each. the 'dry-fed' group (dfg) was given a pelleted concentrate, f1, from 25 to 42 d of age, and then given another type of pelleted concentrate, f2, from ...1978638117
a study of the protein and amino acid requirements of the growing new zealand white rabbit with emphasis on lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acids.1. new zealand white (nzw) rabbits were given, between 4 and 8 weeks of age, a range of diets, based on oats and fish meal, containing from 104 to 255 g crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25; cp)/kg to establish the level of cp below which growth was retarded. 2. in three experiments each diet was fed to four animals and food intake, growth and n balance were measured over 4 weeks. body analysis was also carried out after two of the experiments. 3. the rates of food intake and growth of animals increas ...1978638127
necessity of vitamin b12 for growth of rats fed on an odd- or even-carbon-number fat.1. the effect of vitamin b12 on growth was studied in young male and female rats fed on diets sufficient (+b12) or deficient (-b12) in vitamin b12 containing 30% of the dietary energy as fat, either maize oil (co) or triundecanoin (tud). 2. vitamin b12 deficiency severely depressed growth. after 6 weeks the weight gain of co(-b12) rats was only 72% of that of co(+b12) rats and the gain of tud(-b12) rats was only 47% of tud(+b12) rats. 3. after fasting 24 or 96 h tud-fed rats, both +b12 and -b12, ...1978638128
isolation and purification of moniliformin.a bulk purification procedure is described for moniliformin, a mycotoxin produced by fusarium moniliforme. the method involves methanol extraction of suitably molded maize, aqueous extraction of the methanol-free residue, ion exchange chromatography with a nacl concentration gradient, desalination, and crystallization. a pka value of 1.70 as well as molar absorptivities of 19100 (lambda (h2o) max 229 nm), 5600 (lambda (h2o) max 260 nm), and 4700 (lambda (meoh) max 260 nm) l/mole/cm are reported ...1978649549
influence of starches from different sources on protein utilization in rats.1. the role of the starch component of cereals and legumes on the utilization of casein-protein was studied. 2. in comparison with maize starch the legume and potato starches caused a significant lowering of net protein utilization (npu). and this reduction in npu could be partially restored by cooking the diets before they were fed to the rats. 3. it is suggested that in npu studies involving rats the experimental diet should always be cooked so that the conclusions drawn may be applicable to h ...1978666992
toxicity of a moniliformin-producing strain of fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans isolated from maize. 1977604234
parallel changes between lipoprotein lipase activating capacity and lipid concentrations in the serum of rats and ferrets during development and dietary manipulation.1. the lipoprotein lipase activating capacity of serum from 5 to 22 day old rats and male ferrets fed on diets rich in either beef tallow or maize oil was significantly correlated with the triglyceride concentration in the serum. 2. these increases in activating capacity associated with increased serum triglyceride concentrations were similar to those reported for human serum.1978668264
[feed conversion and the energy requirement of pregnant heifers].eight holstein heifers were subjected to experiments running over the entire pregnancy period to investigate the conversion of rations mainly made up of maize silage (85% of the ration's dry matter) by the experimental animals. both digestible and metabolizable energy (me) and the energy requirement were studied. the live weight (lw) of the heifers was found to rise linearly during the entire pregnancy period being 422 kg at service and reaching 565 kg at calving. feed intake, referred to 1 kg l ...1978678113
[nutrient composition of some newly bred high protein and/or high lysine grains and their digestibility determined on growing pigs].with the view to complementing the feedstuff data store and, consequently, to further improving the gdr feed evaluation system, some newly bred high-protein and/or high-lysine cereal varieties and strains (spring barley, winter wheat, maize) were studied for their nutrient composition and digestibility. apart from from weender's feed analysis technique, more recent methods were applied to determine total fat (after hcl treatment), carbohydrates (enzymatic method), lignin and amino acids. the dig ...1978678116
[effect of the roughage sequence and concentrates in animal feed on carbohydrate digestion and bacterial protein synthesis in the rumen of dairy cows].in experiments with dairy cows provided with rumen fistulas and duodenal re-entrant canulas, the order of feeding roughage (chopped forage and pellets) and concentrates (maize and barley) was found to influence carbohydrate digestion and bacterial protein synthesis in the rumen. feeding the roughage 90 min. before the concentrate caused a wider c2:c3 ratio and a sustained course of the ph-value (greater than 6.5) than the ratio other way round. this favoured cellulose digestion in the rumen when ...1978637728
studies on digestion and absorption in the intestines of growing pigs. 2. measurements of the flow of dry matter, ash and water.1. digesta were collected from twenty-three pigs, initially of 30 kg live weight, and fitted with single ash re-entrant cannulas in either the duodenum, jejunum or ileum. a further twenty-four pigs were used in a conventional digestibility trial. 2. the diets contained: barley, fine wheat offal, white fish meal, minerals and vitamins (diet bwf); starch, sucrose, maize oil, cellulose, minerals, vitamins and either groundnut (diet ssg) or casein (diet ssc). 3. the flow-rates of dry matter (dm), as ...1978638121
membrane proteins synthesized but not processed by isolated maize chloroplasts.one-dimensional maps of proteolytic fragments generated by digestion with staphylococcus aureus protease in sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) were used to identify three polypeptides synthesized by isolated zea mays chloroplasts. this technique does not depend upon proper incorporation of the newly synthesized polypeptides into a more complex structure for their identification. the only preliminary purification required is electrophoretic separation on sds-polyacrylamide gels. the pattern of radioact ...1978701358
[maize and pea silage in the feeding of neoruminant calves]. 1978697991
dietary influences on fatty acid metabolism in the liver of the neonatal lamb.a "protected" polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement was fed to ewes during the last 8 weeks of pregnancy. the effect of this dietary supplement on the essential fatty acid composition of the liver phospholipids and associated changes in the liver delta9- and delta6-desaturase activities were investigated and compared with the effects of directly dosing the newborn lambs for 8 days with an unprotected polyunsaturated oil, maize oil. the maternal dietary supplement produced significant changes in ...1978737245
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