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leaf ruminal digestion in sorghum bicolor cultivars as influenced by water deficit.a study was carried out on the effects of water deficit upon the specific leaf digestion of two sorghum cultivars: novillero and leoti red. using scanning electron microscopy it was established that after ruminal incubation, losses of structural integrity increased when the plants were submitted to drought conditions. this increase was marked in cv. novillero after 48 h of digestion. for both cultivars, the phloem, mesophyll, parenchyma and epidermis were the most susceptible tissues to bacteria ...19921293481
induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.the sequence of a partial cdna clone corresponding to an mrna induced in leaves of barley (hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cdna clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pron ...19911815765
possible repetitive dna markers for eusorghum and parasorghum and their potential use in examining phylogenetic hypotheses on the origin of sorghum species.genomic structures of two major species in section eusorghum (sorghum), sorghum bicolor and sorghum halepense, and their phylogenetic relationships with a species in section parasorghum, sorghum versicolor, were studied by using cloned repetitive dna sequences from the three species. of the five repetitive dna clones isolated from s. bicolor and s. halepense, four produced qualitatively similar hybridization patterns with detectable variations in copy numbers of some of the restriction fragments ...19912055449
larvicidal effects of grain sorghum (sorghum bicolor) seedling extracts upon culex pipiens larvae.a study of laboratory and field reared 2nd and 3rd instar culex pipiens larvae suggests that extracts from 2 varieties of sorghum bicolor seedlings are significant (p less than 0.05) larvicides under laboratory conditions. these plant extracts contain the organic cyanogen dhurrin and were calibrated to produce 90% mortality in 2nd instar culex pipiens larvae at 0.82 ppm and 90% mortality in 3rd instar larvae at 1.12 ppm. a preliminary behavioral assessment of late 3rd instar larvae exposed to 1. ...19902230780
effect of cooking, ph and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of a sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench) food, ugali.1. the present work was undertaken to study the effects of cooking, ph and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench). three different sorghum varieties; dabar, feterita and argentine containing zero, intermediate to low and high levels of polyphenols respectively were used in the study. from these varieties uncooked, uncooked acidified, cooked, and cooked acidified diets were prepared. diets were characterized with regard to res ...19883345303
rumen fungi: morphological types from georgia cattle and the attack on forage cell walls.fungal colonies developing in anaerobic media from zoospores in rumen fluid from cows eating cynodon dactylon or medicago sativa included types showing monocentric and polycentric growth. high energy supplements added to diets of sorghum bicolor silage increased fungal numbers in the rumen, but increases were also affected by the history and predisposition of the animal. mixed fungal types in rumen fluid and pure cultures of isolates showing monocentric and polycentric growth degraded and weaken ...19883395692
hemolytic activity in crude polysaccharide extracted from grain sorghum [sorghum bicolor (l.) moench].a crude polysaccharide that hemolyzed human red blood cells of the abo types was isolated from the condensed tannin fraction of sorghum bicolor. it contained primarily 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and glucose and had a molecular weight of greater than 6000. limit hemolytic activity for each of four blood group cells corresponded to a range of 110-27 micrograms of carbohydrate per assay.19863715899
the use of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata) in improving a popular nigerian weaning food.a weaning food commonly used in nigeria was simulated by mixing processed sorghum (sorghum bicolor) with skim-milk powder (830: 170, w/w). replacing 310 g/kg sorghum with processed cowpeas (vigna unguiculata) resulted in an increase in protein content from 96 to 113 g/kg and an increase in biological value of the protein from 0.74 to 0.87. the two mixtures were compared with an established commercial baby food by a panel of nigerian mothers and all three foods were found to be equally acceptable ...19854063322
species variation in kinetic properties of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.several kinetic parameters of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (rubp) carboxylase/oxygenase from different species were measured and compared. the co2/o2 specificity (vcko/vokc) was found to be about 80 in the enzymes from several c3 species and two c4 species. specificity values of 58 and 70, respectively, were found in enzymes from the c4 plants setaria italica and sorghum bicolor. two enzymes from cyanobacteria had values of about 50. substitution of mn2+ for mg2+ reduced the co2/o2 specificity by a ...19836582802
the specificity of proanthocyanidin-protein interactions.the proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins, phenolic polymers which are synthesized by many plants, characteristically bind and precipitate proteins. the specificity of the interaction was investigated using a competitive binding assay to compare directly the affinities of various proteins and synthetic polymers for the tannin obtained from sorghum bicolor (lin.) moench. at ph 4.9, the relative affinities range over more than 4 orders of magnitude, indicating that this proanthocyanidin interacts ...19817217094
purification and characterization of recombinant cytochrome p450tyr expressed at high levels in escherichia coli.the multifunctional tyrosine n-hydroxylase, cytochrome p450tyr (cyp79), from sorghum bicolor catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenyl-acetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin, has been expressed in escherichia coli using the isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible vector psp19g10l, containing the cdna encoding cyp79. the expression construct was optimized by reducing the length of the n-terminal hydrophobic core of the signal sequence of cytoc ...19957574710
immunological evidence for accumulation of two high-molecular-weight (104 and 90 kda) hsps in response to different stresses in rice and in response to high temperature stress in diverse plant genera.rice seedlings accumulate stainable amounts of the 104 and 90 kda polypeptides in response to high temperature stress. we have purified and raised highly specific polyclonal antisera against both of these polypeptides. in western blotting experiments, we find that these proteins are accumulated to different extents in rice seedlings subjected to salinity (nacl), water stress, low-temperature stress and exogenous abscisic acid application. these proteins also accumulated when rice seedlings grown ...19957579180
neuroaxonal degeneration in sheep grazing sorghum pastures.during the fall of 1992, 250 (10%) of 2,500 rambouilet cross feeder lambs grazing sorghum bicolor developed neurologic signs including weakness, ataxia, head shaking, knuckling of the fetlocks, inability to rise, and opisthotonos. one hundred fifteen (46%) of the affected lambs died. twenty of the surviving lambs exhibited residual neurologic signs of ataxia when stressed. at the same time, 275 (25%) of 1,100 ewes grazing a nearby sudex pasture (s. sudanese x s. bicolor) gave birth to lambs that ...19957619906
effect of sulfur fertilization on chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and utilization by lambs of sorghum silage.effects of s fertilization, 0 or 138 kg of s/ha, as (nh4)2so4 on chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and utilization of sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.) silage by wether lambs was investigated. pioneer 947' sorghum forage was ensiled at the soft dough growth stage. sulfur fertilization increased (p < .01) concentrations of s, n, k, mn, and water-soluble carbohydrates (wsc) and decreased (p < .05) concentrations of fe, cu, al, and acetic acid after ensiling. sulfur-fertilized sorghum sila ...19957673075
[chemical and nutrition evaluation of whole sorghum flour (sorghum bicolor, l. moench), complementation with bean and milk whey, application in baking].the chemical characteristics nutritive value and technological properties of the whole sorghum flour for consumption were studied. the chemical analyses indicated 11.5% of protein, 2.7% of fat, 1.3% of fiber and 72% of carbohydrate. major mineral in the flour were sulphur 0.25%, phosphorus 0.21%, potassium 0.15%, magnesium 0.07% and calcium 0.03%. the amino acid analyses showed lysine as the first limiting amino acid (score 31.3%) and as the second treonine (score 61.5%). the essential fatty aci ...19947786097
construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of sorghum bicolor.the construction of representative large insert dna libraries is critical for the analysis of complex genomes. the predominant vector system for such work is the yeast artificial chromosome (yac) system. despite the success of yacs, many problems have been described including: chimerism, tedious steps in library construction and low yields of yac insert dna. recently a new e.coli based system has been developed, the bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) system, which offers many potential advant ...19947800481
the tortilla making properties of two improved maicillo cultivars from honduras.grains of two improved maicillo hybrids (sorghum bicolor (l) moench) and their criollo (landrace) counterparts grown at two farmsites in honduras were lime-cooked and processed into table tortillas. kernels from the criollos were less dense and softer than kernels from the improved cultivars. the improved maicillos had straw or red plant and glume colors while the criollos were less dense and softer than kernels from the improved cultivars. the improved maicillos had straw or red plant and glume ...19937872831
effects of early experience on voluntary intake of low-quality roughage by sheep.this study determined 1) how experience early in life with cured weeping lovegrass (eragrostis curvula) (low-quality roughage) or fresh oats (avena sativa) (high-quality roughage) affected consumption of low- or high-quality roughage by lambs later in life and 2) whether this early dietary experience affected passage of undigested residues through the digestive tract and digestion of low-quality roughage. from 1 to 5 mo of age, experienced lambs (el) were grazing cured weeping lovegrass, whereas ...19948056663
alpha amylase inhibitors in sorghum (sorghum bicolor).forty varieties of sorghum grown locally and four cereals were screened for inhibitory activity against human salivary amylase. three varieties of sorghum (is-22422, nagi monadi and ngd marnm) had maximum inhibitory activity of 124 units. among the cereals rice had the lowest inhibitory activity. amylase inhibitory activity was lost on germination and heating the seeds.19938295866
a chloroplast dna deletion located in rna polymerase gene rpoc2 in cms lines of sorghum.fertile lines of sorghum (sorghum bicolor) were shown to differ from cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) lines by the presence of a 3.8 kb hindiii chloroplast dna fragment in the former and a smaller (3.7 kb) fragment in the latter. dna/dna hybridization studies showed that these two fragments are homologous. fertile plants from s. versicolor, s. almum, s. halepense, and sorghastrum nutans (yellow indiangrass) also have the 3.8 kb fragment, and cms lines studied containing a1, a2 and a3 cytoplasms ha ...19938437572
cloning of the amphibolic calvin cycle/oppp enzyme d-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (ec 5.1.3.1) from spinach chloroplasts: functional and evolutionary aspects.exploiting the differential expression of genes for calvin cycle enzymes in bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of the c4 plant sorghum bicolor l., we isolated via subtractive hybridization a molecular probe for the calvin cycle enzyme d-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (r5p3e)(ec 5.1.3.1), with the help of which several full-size cdnas were isolated from spinach. functional identity of the encoded mature subunit was shown by r5p3e activity found in affinity-purified glutatione s-transferase fusio ...19958616224
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a cdna encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from sorghum bicolor seedlings.a 711-bp cdna encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) was isolated from a cdna library prepared from 7-10 cm sorghum bicolor seedlings. the nearly full-length cdna clone encodes 130 amino acid residues, which include the gin-val-val-ala-gly motif, conserved among most of the known cystatins as a probable binding site for cysteine proteinases. the amino acid sequence of sorghum cystatin deduced from the cdna clone shows significantly homology to those of other plant cystatins. the sor ...19968709954
persistence of the effects of early experience on consumption of low-quality roughage by sheep.the aim of this study was to determine the effects of experience early in life with cured weeping lovegrass (eragrostis curvula) (low-quality roughage) or fresh oats (avena sativa) (high-quality roughage) on voluntary intake and nitrogen retention when sheep ate a low-quality roughage 9 mo after initial exposure. from 1 to 5 mo of age, experienced wethers (ew) grazed cured weeping lovegrass, whereas inexperienced wethers (iw) grazed fresh oats (initial exposure). then both ew and iw were fed sor ...19968726727
characterization of cytochrome p450tyr, a multifunctional haem-thiolate n-hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin.the haem-thiolate n-hydroxylase cytochrome p450tyr involved in the biosynthesis of the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in sorghum bicolor had recently been isolated. reconstitution of enzyme activity by insertion of cytochrome p450tyr and nadph-cytochrome p450-reductase into l-alpha-dilauroylphosphatidylcholine micelles and using tyrosine as substrate results in the formation of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. quantitative substrate binding spectra demonstrate that tyrosine and ...19958820857
a conserved repetitive dna element located in the centromeres of cereal chromosomes.repetitive dna sequences have been demonstrated to play an important role for centromere function of eukaryotic chromosomes, including those from fission yeast, drosophila melanogaster, and humans. here we report on the isolation of a repetitive dna element located in the centromeric regions of cereal chromosomes. a 745-bp repetitive dna clone psau3a9, was isolated from sorghum (sorghum bicolor). this dna element is located in the centromeric regions of all sorghum chromosomes, as demonstrated b ...19968943086
isolation and reconstitution of the heme-thiolate protein obtusifoliol 14alpha-demethylase from sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.the heme-thiolate (cytochrome p450) enzyme which catalyzes the 14alpha-demethylation of obtusifoliol has been isolated from microsomes prepared from etiolated seedlings of sorghum bicolor (l.) moench. the obtusifoliol 14alpha-demethylase is a key enzyme in plant sterol biosynthesis and a target for the design of phyla-specific sterol 14alpha-demethylase inhibitors. microsomal cytochrome p450s were solubilized by using the detergents renex 690 and reduced triton x-100, and the obtusifoliol 14alph ...19968955137
molecular characterization of transketolase (ec 2.2.1.1) active in the calvin cycle of spinach chloroplasts.a cdna encoding the calvin cycle enzyme transketolase (tkl; ec 2.2.1.1) was isolated from sorghum bicolor via subtractive differential hybridization, and used to isolate several full-length cdna clones for this enzyme from spinach. functional identity of the encoded mature subunit was shown by an 8.6-fold increase of tkl activity upon induction of escherichia coli cells that overexpress the spinach tkl subunit under the control of the bacteriophage t7 promoter. chloroplast localization of the cl ...19968980496
cloning and expression in escherichia coli of the obtusifoliol 14 alpha-demethylase of sorghum bicolor (l.) moench, a cytochrome p450 orthologous to the sterol 14 alpha-demethylases (cyp51) from fungi and mammals.obtusifoliol 14 alpha-demethylase from sorghum bicolor (l.) moench has been cloned using a gene-specific probe generated using pcr primers designed from an internal 14 amino acid sequence. the sequence identifies sorghum obtusifoliol 14 alpha-demethylase as a cytochrome p450 and it is assigned to the cyp51 family together with the sterol 14 alpha-demethylases from fungi and mammals. the presence of highly conserved regions in the amino acid sequences, analogous substrates and the same metabolic ...19979076987
effect of nacl-tolerant lactic acid bacteria and nacl on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of silage.nacl-tolerant lactic acid bacteria (lab) strains lc-10 (lactobacillus casei) and lp-15 (lact. plantarum) and nacl were used as additives to sorghun (sorghum bicolor). numbers of lab were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in all the additive-treated silages than in the control silage at an early stage of ensiling. during the fermentation process, addition of nacl or lab effectively inhibited the growth of aerobic bacteria and clostridia, but not yeasts. all the additive-treated silages had signific ...19979351210
characterization of a sorghum bicolor gene family encoding putative protein kinases with a high similarity to the yeast snf1 protein kinase.c4 photosynthesis is functionally dependent on metabolic interactions between mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. although the c4 cycle is biochemically well understood many aspects of the regulation of enzyme activities, gene expression and cell differentiation are elusive. protein kinases are likely involved in these regulatory processes providing links to hormonal, metabolic and developmental signal transduction pathways. we have identified several protein kinases that are differentially expre ...19989484448
cloning of three a-type cytochromes p450, cyp71e1, cyp98, and cyp99 from sorghum bicolor (l.) moench by a pcr approach and identification by expression in escherichia coli of cyp71e1 as a multifunctional cytochrome p450 in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin.a cdna encoding the multifunctional cytochrome p450, cyp71e1, involved in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin from sorghum bicolor (l.) moench was isolated. a pcr approach based on three consensus sequences of a-type cytochromes p450- (v/i)kex(l/f)r, fxperf, and pfgxgrrxcxg-was applied. three novel cytochromes p450 (cyp71e1, cyp98, and cyp99) in addition to a pcr fragment encoding sorghum cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase were obtained. reconstitution experiments with recombinant cyp7 ...19989484480
reduction of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in inoculated sorghum mesocotyls. implications for a compensatory role in the defense response.sorghum (sorghum bicolor l. moench) accumulates the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-dimalonyl glucoside in etiolated mesocotyls in response to light. inoculation with the nonpathogenic fungus cochliobolus heterostrophus drastically reduced the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanin by repressing the transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase. in contrast to these repression effects, fungal inoculation re ...19989501130
herbicide safener-binding protein of maize. purification, cloning, and expression of an encoding cdna.dichloroacetamide safeners protect maize (zea mays l.) against injury from chloroacetanilide and thiocarbamate herbicides. etiolated maize seedlings have a high-affinity cytosolic-binding site for the safener [3h](r,s)-3-dichloroacetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-1, 3-oxazol-idine ([3h]saf), and this safener-binding activity (safba) is competitively inhibited by the herbicides. the safener-binding protein (safbp), purified to homogeneity, has a relative molecular weight of 39,000, as shown by sodium dodecyl ...19989501141
fungi associated with sorghum grain from argentina.sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench) is an important cereal produced in and exported from argentina. the risk of contamination by mycotoxins is related to the mycoflora associated with the sorghum grain. this paper reports on the identification of internal mycoflora of sorghum grain harvested in argentina in 1991, 1992 and 1993, years with different total rainfall levels. a mycological survey was carried out on sorghum samples, from a location at the humid argentinian pampa, using a fusarium/de ...19979511235
molecular diversity of sterol 14alpha-demethylase substrates in plants, fungi and humans.metabolism of lanosterol (lan), 24-methylene-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (24-methylenedhl), dihydrolanosterol (dhl) and obtusifoliol (obt) by purified human, plant (sorghum bicolor) and fungal (candida albicans) sterol 14alpha-demethylase (cyp51; p450(14dm)) reconstituted with nadph cytochrome p450 reductases was studied in order to elucidate the substrate specificity and sterol stereo- and regio-structural requirements for optimal cyp51 activity. both human and c. albicans cyp51 could catalyse 14al ...19989559662
[antiphysiological and nutritional factor changes in sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench) seeds during germination].the purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of germination on the nutritional quality of two commercial varieties of low tannin content sorghum: brown sorghum without testa (icsy-cm89513) and white sorghum (isiap dorado). after 24 hours of germination the condensed tannin concentration (catechin equivalent) was reduced 60% and 40% for brown and white sorghum respectively. however, tannin levels increased up 100% at 96 h germination. phytic acid concentration decreased about 90% in 96 ho ...19979659428
an unusual reversible sol-gel transition phenomenon in organogels and its application for enzyme immobilization in gelatin membranesan unusual phenomenon is observed for gelatin solutions (1.7-6.8%) in the microemulsion system of 0.3 m bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt in isooctane and 14.5% distilled water. highly viscous gels obtained at temperatures above 30 degreesc become free-flowing liquids at low temperatures (5-10 degreesc). this reversible temperature-dependent sol-gel transition phenomenon is used to immobilize several enzymes, such as lipase from candida rugosa, alcohol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast, ...19999933519
reference standards for determination of dna content of plant nuclei.flow cytometry was used to compare 14 potential reference standards for plant dna content determination. both chicken and plant internal standards were used, as were propidium iodide (pi) and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (dapi) as fluorochromes. means and standard errors of the means are presented for the 14 potential reference standards, and the means are compared to those obtained by feulgen densitometry. five species are recommended as an initial set of international standards for future pla ...199910330063
isolation from the sorghum bicolor mycorrhizosphere of a bacterium compatible with arbuscular mycorrhiza development and antagonistic towards soilborne fungal pathogens.a gram-positive bacterium with antagonistic activity towards soilborne fungal pathogens has been isolated from the mycorrhizosphere of sorghum bicolor inoculated with glomus mosseae. it has been identified as paenibacillus sp. strain b2 based on its analytical profile index and on 16s ribosomal dna analysis. besides having antagonistic activity, this bacterium stimulates mycorrhization.199910543835
effect of process improvement on the physico-chemical properties of infant weaning food from fermented composite blends of cereal and soybeans.saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactobacillus plantarum atcc 10776 were used as starters to ferment various composite blends of cereals and legumes produced through malting and toasting of two varieties of maize--zea mays (dmr-lsr white & dmr-esr yellow), sorghum--sorghum bicolor (dawa white & dawa red) and one variety of soybeans (glycine ax). compared to the untoasted and unmalted fermented blends, a relatively lower ph (3.6), highly sour product was obtained with 12 h of fermentation. results al ...199910716405
effect of grazing sorghum (sorghum bicolor) infected with ergot (claviceps africana) on beef cattle. 200010736675
cloning and expression of cytochrome p450 enzymes catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in triglochin maritima.two cdna clones encoding cytochrome p450 enzymes belonging to the cyp79 family have been isolated from triglochin maritima. the two proteins show 94% sequence identity and have been designated cyp79e1 and cyp79e2. heterologous expression of the native and the truncated forms of the two clones in escherichia coli demonstrated that both encode multifunctional n-hydroxylases catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides tax ...200010759528
transgenic tobacco and arabidopsis plants expressing the two multifunctional sorghum cytochrome p450 enzymes, cyp79a1 and cyp71e1, are cyanogenic and accumulate metabolites derived from intermediates in dhurrin biosynthesis.novel cyanogenic plants have been generated by the simultaneous expression of the two multifunctional sorghum (sorghum bicolor [l.] moench) cytochrome p450 enzymes cyp79a1 and cyp71e1 in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum cv xanthi) and arabidopsis under the regulation of the constitutive 35s promoter. cyp79a1 and cyp71e1 catalyze the conversion of the parent amino acid tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile, the aglycone of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. cyp79a1 catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to ...200010938360
genetic variation in wild sorghum (sorghum bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum (l.) moench) germplasm from ethiopia assessed by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd).the extent and distribution of genetic variation in wild sorghum (sorghum bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum (l.) moench) collected from five different geographical regions in ethiopia were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers for 93 individuals representing 11 populations. nine decamer primers generated a total of 83 polymorphic bands with 8-12 bands per primer and a mean of 9 bands across the 93 individuals. the amount of genetic variation among the populations (h = 0.37) ...200011075520
the effects of tannins on nutrient utilisation in the white pekin duck.1. two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of tannins on nutrient utilisation in the white pekin duck. 2. experiment 1 was a rapid nutrient balance assay to determine the nitrogen (n) retention and metabolisable energy (me) of maize, low-tannin sorghum (p-954063) (sorghum bicolor (l). moench) and high-tannin sorghum (is-4225) cultivars for ducks. the assay lasted 120 h, with an initial 24 h food-deprivation period, a 48 h excreta collection period for endogenous losses and a 48 h ...200011201445
non-cellulosic mixed linkage beta-d-glucan in sorghum, sorghum bicolor (l.) moench--localization and biological activity studies.fluorescence of calcofluor and congo red was observed in stained sections of sorghum grain (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench), especially in the sub-aleurone cells indicating the presence of mixed linkage beta-d-glucan. relatively less fluorescence intensity was observed in the single layered (approximately 20 microns thick) aleurone. alkali extracted beta-d-glucan (fraction 2) of sorghum showed 30% activation of rat peritoneal macrophages (in vitro) at 100 micrograms ml-1 concentration in 10 min. th ...200011218832
plant sterol 14 alpha-demethylase affinity for azole fungicides.azole fungicides were thought to have much greater affinity for the fungal cytochrome p450 enzyme, sterol 14 alpha-demthylase (cyp51) than the plant orthologue. using purified cyp51 from the plant sorghum bicolor l moenech, a direct comparison of the sensitivity to the fungicides triadimenol and tebuconazole has been carried out. s. bicolor cyp51 was purified to homogenity as determined by sds--page and specific heme content. addition of the azole fungicides triadimenol and tebuconazole induced ...200111396979
chemical restrictions of roots in ultisol subsoils lessened by long-term management.exchangeable al in subsoils of ultisols in the southeastern usa can restrict rooting depth. downward movement of basic cations (ca, mg, and k), applied as lime and fertilizer, may diminish that restriction over time. materials from the argillic horizon were collected from three paired sites, having managed (long-term cropping) and nonmanaged topsoils (typic paleudults and hapludults). one managed site was cropped continuously for 15 yr while the others were cultivated for more than 30 yr. co ...199011538085
grasshopper crop and midgut extract effects on plants: an example of reward feedback.acid extracts and a resultant fraction from solid-phase extraction (spe) of romalea guttata crop and midgut tissues induce sorghum (sorghum bicolor var. rio) coleoptile growth in 24-h incubations an average of 49% above untreated controls. when combined with plant auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (iaa), the spe fraction shows a synergistic reaction, yielding increases in coleoptile growth that average 295% above untreated controls and 8% above iaa standards. the interaction lowered the point of maxim ...199511607548
rediscovery of claviceps sorghi (ascomycotina: clavicipitaceae) in india.during last twenty years, endemic claviceps sorghi was largely replaced in india by an introduced species claviceps africana. recently, c. sorghi was found and isolated from sorghum bicolor (gulbarga, karnataka). macroconidia were smaller than in the type description, 7.6-14.5 (avg. 11.4) x 3.8-6.1 (avg. 4.8) microm; microconidia were rounded to oval, 2.5-3 microm in diameter. when plated, only the macroconidia underwent secondary conidiation. sporulation was maintained only in cultures grown on ...200212000133
geographic and altitudinal allozyme variation in sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench) landraces from ethiopia and eritrea.the amount and distribution of genetic variation was investigated in 48 sorghum landrace accessions, representing 13 regions of origin and three adaptation zones (lowland, intermediate and highland elevation) in ethiopia and eritrea. assaying 11 enzymes systems, 23 putative loci were scored for a total of 27 alleles. nineteen loci were monomorphic and fixed for the same allele, while the remaining 4 loci, each with 2 alleles, were polymorphic across the 48 accessions. the results show significan ...200112035610
aerobic stability and in vitro fiber digestibility of microbially inoculated corn and sorghum silages.silage deteriorates readily when exposed to air, resulting in dm losses. inoculation of silage with lactic acid bacteria may aid fermentation, but effects on aerobic stability are unclear. two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of commercial bacterial inoculants on aerobic stability and in vitro fiber digestibility of silage. corn (zea mays l.; exp. 1) or sorghum (sorghum bicolor [l.] moench; exp. 2) forage (30% dm) was inoculated (1.1 x 10(5) colony forming units/g of fresh fora ...19938382675
comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.analysis of fifty sorghum [sorghum bicolor (l.) moench] varieties used in burkina faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (pox), and polyphenol oxidase (ppo). most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). pox specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of ppo. for pox, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. no clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composi ...200212059160
effects of stocking rate and crude protein intake during gestation on ground cover, soil-nitrate concentration, and sow and litter performance in an outdoor swine production system.pregnant gilts (n = 126) were assigned randomly to 12 0.4-ha old world-spar bluestem (bothriochloa ischaemum) pastures in an outdoor swine (sus scrofa) production system to examine effects of stocking rates (17.5 or 35 gilts/ha; 7 or 14 gilts per pasture) and dietary n on percentage of ground cover, soil nitrate (no3-) concentration, and reproductive performance. treatments were arranged factorially with two stocking rates and two diets equivalent in dietary lysine but different in cp (control = ...200212078724
simulated effects of crop rotations and residue management on wind erosion in wuchuan, west-central inner mongolia, china.for decades, wind erosion has triggered dust and sand storms, buffeting beijing and areas of northwestern china to the point of being hazardous to human health while rapidly eroding crop and livestock productivity. the epic (environmental policy integrated climate) field-scale simulation model was used to assess long-term effects of improved crop rotations and crop residue management practices on wind erosion in wuchuan county in inner mongolia. simulation results indicate that preserving crop s ...200212175042
quantum yields and rate constants of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching (experiment and model).sunflower (helianthus annuus l.), cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.), sorghum (sorghum bicolor moench.), amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.), and cytochrome b6f complex-deficient transgenic tobacco leaves were used to test the response of plants exposed to differnt light intensities and co2 concentrations before and after photoinhibition at 4000 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 and to thermoinhibition up to 45[deg]c. quantum yields of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitatio ...199712223845
estimation of bundle sheath cell conductance in c4 species and o2 insensitivity of photosynthesis.low conductance to co2 of bundle sheath cells is required in c4 photosynthesis to maintain high [co2] at the site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). elevated [co2] allows high co2 assimilation rates by this enzyme and prevents rubisco oxygenase activity and o2 inhibition of carboxylation. bundle sheath conductance to co2 was estimated by chemically inhibiting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and calculating the slope of the linear response of leaf co2 uptake to [co2]. t ...199312232010
tylenchida associated with different crops in sennar state (sudan).a study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (tylenchida) found in sennar state (sudan). sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (mangifera indica; citrus limon; citrus aurantifolia; citrus paradisi; citrus sinensis, phoenix dactylifera, musa sapentium; cassia italica, cap ...200112425088
nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for forage systems receiving dairy effluent.florida dairies need year-round forage systems that prevent loss of n to ground water from waste effluent sprayfields. our purpose was to quantify forage n removal and monitor nitrate n (no3(-)-n) concentrations in soil water below the rooting zone for two forage systems during four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). soil in the sprayfield is an excessively drained kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated typic quartzipsamment). over four cycles, average loading rates of effluent n were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1 ...200212469848
edible oil crops and their integration with the major cereals in north shewa and south welo, central highlands of ethiopia: an ethnobotanical perspective.a total of 1050 sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and tef (eragrostis tef) fields distributed in six study sites within north shewa and south welo (central highlands of ethiopia) were systematically surveyed to examine the status of integration of edible oil crops into the cereal-based farming system. farmers' criteria for, and perception on, integration between edible oil crops and the major cereals at field level as well as integration between the cereal grains and the oilseeds in food making at home ...200212564630
construction of a combined sorghum linkage map from two recombinant inbred populations using aflp, ssr, rflp, and rapd markers, and comparison with other sorghum maps.sorghum [ sorghum bicolor (l.) moench] is an important crop in the semi-arid tropics that also receives growing attention in genetic research. a comprehensive reference map of the sorghum genome would be an essential research tool. here, a combined sorghum linkage map from two recombinant inbred populations was constructed using aflp, ssr, rflp and rapd markers. the map was aligned with other published sorghum maps which are briefly reviewed. the two recombinant inbred populations (rips) analyze ...200212582514
rapd based dna markers linked to anthracnose disease resistance in sorghum bicolor ( l.) moench.anthracnose caused by colletotrichum graminicola is one of the major diseases of sorghum. the locus for disease resistance in sorghum [sorghum biocolor (l.) moench] accession g73 was found to segregate as a simple recessive trait in a cross to susceptible cultivar hc136. in order to identify molecular markers linked to the locus for disease resistance, random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was coupled with bulk segregant analysis. dna from the parental cultivars and the bulks were, sc ...200212622185
the use of legume trap crops for control of striga hermonthica (del.) benth. in sorghum (sorghum bicolor l. moench) in northern nigeria.two different field trials (one trial on sorghum intercropped with groundnut [arachis hypogaea l.], and another trial on sorghum intercropped with bambara groundnut [vigna subterranea l. verdc.]) were conducted during the 1995 and 1996 rainy seasons at the teaching and research farm of the department of crop science, faculty of agriculture, university of maiduguri, maiduguri (11 degrees 51' n; 13 degrees 15' e) to evaluate the effect of intercropping resistant and susceptible sorghum varieties w ...200212696409
initial crop growth in soil collected from a closed animal waste lagoon.in the 21st century, remediation of the soil beneath animal waste lagoons will become an important issue, as they are closed due to environmental regulations or to abandonment. the possibility of growing crops in the soil, which has high concentrations of ammonium-n, has not been studied. the objective of this experiment was to determine if crop species would germinate and grow in lagoon soil. soil was gathered from a lagoon that had received wastes from swine (sus scrofa) and beef (bos taurus) ...200312733569
structure and properties of an engineered transketolase from maize.the gene specifying plastid transketolase (tk) of maize (zea mays) was cloned from a cdna library by southern blotting using a heterologous probe from sorghum (sorghum bicolor). a recombinant fusion protein comprising thioredoxin of escherichia coli and mature tk of maize was expressed at a high level in e. coli and cleaved with thrombin, affording plastid tk. the protein in complex with thiamine pyrophoshate was crystallized, and its structure was solved by molecular replacement. the enzyme is ...200312913150
antioxidant constituents from the stem of sorghum bicolor.the etoac soluble fraction from the stem of sorghum bicolor showed a strong free radical scavenging activity. five major compounds were isolated from this fraction. they were identified by spectral data as methyl ferulate (1), methyl p-hydroxycinnamate (2), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), tricin (4), and quercetin 3,4'-dimethyl ether (5). among these compounds, 1 exhibited a strong, free radical scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) with an ic50 value of 0.7 microm. we further s ...200312934645
the in vitro substrate regiospecificity of recombinant ugt85b1, the cyanohydrin glucosyltransferase from sorghum bicolor.the in vitro substrate specificity of udp-glucose:p-hydroxymandelonitrile-o-glucosyltransferase from sorghum bicolor (ugt85b1) was examined using a range of potential acceptor molecules, including cyanohydrins, terpenoids, phenolics, hexanol derivatives and plant hormones. qualitative enzyme activity assays employing 20 different putative substrates were performed and 15 proved to be glucosylated using recombinant ugt85b1 isolated from escherichia coli. k(m) and k(cat) values were determined for ...200312946413
synthesis of new aliphatic and aromatic phytotoxic derivatives of 2alpha,4alpha-dimethyl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-3-one.several new compounds with potential herbicidal activity were synthesized from 2alpha,4alpha-dimethyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxy-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one (4). seven aromatic alcohols were prepared by reaction of (4) with aryllithium reagents, where the aryl groups were 4-ethoxyphenyl (5, 70% yield), 4-ethylphenyl (6, 82% yield), 4-butylphenyl (7, 78% yield), 4-tert-butylphenyl (8, 81% yield), 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (9, 75% yield), 2-ethylphenyl (10, 12% yield) and para-(4-bromophenoxy)phenyl ...200312974357
effects of feeding ground or steam-flaked broom sorghum and ground barley on performance of dairy cows in midlactation.ten holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 5 x 5 replicated latin square design with 21-d periods to determine the effects of feeding ground or steam-flaked broom sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and ground barley (hordeum vulgare l.) on lactation performance and nutrient digestibility. diets were fed as total mixed ration and consisted of 46% forage and 54% concentrate (dm basis). treatment diets included ground barley, ground barley plus ground broom sorghum, ground broom sorghum, ground barley ...200414765818
molecular evolution of the phytochrome gene family in sorghum: changing rates of synonymous and replacement evolution.the photoreceptor phytochromes, encoded by a small gene family, are responsible for controlling the expression of a number of light-responsive genes and photomorphogenic events, including agronomically important phenotypes such as flowering time and shade-avoidance behavior. the understanding and control of flowering time are particularly important goals in sorghum cultivar development for diverse environments, and naturally occurring variation in the phytochrome genes might prove useful in bree ...200414963106
reducing atrazine losses: water quality implications of alternative runoff control practices.water quality is being affected by herbicides, some allegedly harmful to human health. under scrutiny is atrazine (1-chloro-3-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-2,4,6-triazine), a commonly used herbicide in corn (zea mays l.) and sorghum [sorghum bicolor (l.) moench] production. concentrations of soluble and adsorbed atrazine losses sometimes exceed the safe drinking water standard of 3 microg l(-1) established by the usepa. this study assesses the protective implications of runoff control structures a ...200414964353
turfgrass, crop, and weed hosts of blissus occiduus (hemiptera: lygaeidae).blissus occiduus barber is an important pest of buffalograss, buchloë dactyloides (nuttall) engelmann, turf. no-choice studies documented the susceptibility of selected turfgrasses, crops, and weeds to b. occiduus feeding. highly to moderately susceptible grasses included buffalograss; yellow setaria glauca (l.) and green foxtail setaria viridis (l.); kentucky bluegrass, poa pratensis l.; perennial ryegrass, lolium perenne l.; brome, bromus spp. leyss.; zoysiagrass, zoysia japonica steudel; berm ...200414998128
influence of type and amount of straw cover on weed emergence.this research was undertaken during 2003-2004 growing season to evaluate the effects of type [forage sorghum "hybrid cober exp" (sorghum bicolor x sorghum sudanense), forage millet (pennisetum americanum "var. bn2"), finger millet (eleusine coracana), and st lucia grass (brachiaria brizantha)] and amount of straw cover (5.5 and 3.0 t ha(-1)) upon the emergence of bidens pilosa, chamaesyce spp., amaranthus spp., and commelina benghalensis, under field conditions of the brazilian cerrado, in the r ...200515656176
faster rubisco is the key to superior nitrogen-use efficiency in nadp-malic enzyme relative to nad-malic enzyme c4 grasses.in 27 c4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (n) supplies, n-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf n) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf n) level was greater in nadp-malic enzyme (me) than nad-me species. this was due to lower n content in nadp-me than nad-me leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two c4 subtypes. relative to nad-me, nadp-me leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate ...200515665246
tritrophic interaction of parasitoid lysiphlebus testaceipes (hymenoptera: aphidiidae), greenbug, schizaphis graminum (homoptera: aphididae), and greenbug-resistant sorghum hybrids.interactions of the parasitoid lysiphlebus testaceipes (cresson) and the greenbug, schizaphis graminum (rondani), on greenbug-resistant 'cargill 607e' (antibiosis), 'cargill 797' (primarily tolerance), and -susceptible 'golden harvest 510b' sorghum, sorghum bicolor (l.) moench, were tested using three levels of biotype i greenbug infestation. the parasitoid infestation rate was 0.5 female and 1.0 male l. testaceipes per plant. for all three greenbug infestation levels, the parasitoid brought the ...200515765684
a stilbene synthase gene (sbsts1) is involved in host and nonhost defense responses in sorghum.a chalcone synthase (chs)-like gene, sbchs8, with high expressed sequence tag abundance in a pathogen-induced cdna library, was identified previously in sorghum (sorghum bicolor). genomic southern analysis revealed that sbchs8 represents a single-copy gene. sbchs8 expression was induced in sorghum mesocotyls following inoculation with cochliobolus heterotrophus and colletotrichum sublineolum, corresponding to nonhost and host defense responses, respectively. however, the induction was delayed by ...200515821144
efficient genetic transformation of sorghum using a visual screening marker.to transform grain sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench) with a visual reporter gene (gfp) and a target gene (tlp), three genotypes (two inbreds, tx 430 and c401, and a commercial hybrid, pioneer 8505) were used. we obtained a total of 1011 fertile transgenic plants from 61 independent callus lines, which were produced from 2463 zygotic immature embryos via agrobacterium-mediated transformation. the reporter gene, gfp, encoding green fluorescent protein (gfp), was used as a visual screening mark ...200515838555
large-scale identification of expressed sequence tags involved in rice and rice blast fungus interaction.to better understand the molecular basis of the defense response against the rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea), a large-scale expressed sequence tag (est) sequencing approach was used to identify genes involved in the early infection stages in rice (oryza sativa). six cdna libraries were constructed using infected leaf tissues harvested from 6 conditions: resistant, partially resistant, and susceptible reactions at both 6 and 24 h after inoculation. two additional libraries were constructed ...200515888683
crop-to-weed introgression has impacted allelic composition of johnsongrass populations with and without recent exposure to cultivated sorghum.sorghum halepense l. (johnsongrass) is one of the world's most noxious weeds, and a paradigm for the potential dangers of crop-weed hybridization. introduced into the southeastern united states about 200 years ago, s. halepense is a close relative of cultivated sorghum (sorghum bicolor). both artificial crossing and experimental field studies have demonstrated the potential for s. halepensex s. bicolor hybrid formation, but no prior study has addressed the long-term persistence of sorghum genes ...200515910333
the chemical composition and membrane stability activity of some herbs used in local therapy for anemia.the chemical composition and the membrane stabilizing activity of the decoctions of the dry hibiscus sabdariffa linn. (malvaceae) calyx (sobo in a nigerian language), theobroma cacao linn. (n.o. sterculiaceae) root (cocoa) and the dry stalk of white and red cultivars of sorghum bicolor (l.) moench (poaceae) were determined. these herbs are often used locally for the management of anemia. ash content was from 3.5 to 7.2%, tannin 7-46 mg/kg catechin equivalent, ascorbic acid content 250-625 mg/kg ...200516039811
sorghum expressed sequence tags identify signature genes for drought, pathogenesis, and skotomorphogenesis from a milestone set of 16,801 unique transcripts.improved knowledge of the sorghum transcriptome will enhance basic understanding of how plants respond to stresses and serve as a source of genes of value to agriculture. toward this goal, sorghum bicolor l. moench cdna libraries were prepared from light- and dark-grown seedlings, drought-stressed plants, colletotrichum-infected seedlings and plants, ovaries, embryos, and immature panicles. other libraries were prepared with meristems from sorghum propinquum (kunth) hitchc. that had been photope ...200516169961
the strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic striga and orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway.the seeds of parasitic plants of the genera striga and orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both orobanche and striga spp. in most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquit ...200516183851
model study on the effect of 15 phenolic olive mill wastewater constituents on seed germination and vibrio fischeri metabolism.olive mill wastewaters (omw) can be a severe problem when disposed of as untreated because of their high organic load, elevated concentration of polyphenols, and moderately low biodegradability. in the present study, the acute toxicity of 15 compounds with low molecular weight (<350 da), catechol, four benzoic acids, three phenylacetic acids, three phenylethanols, and four cinnamic acids, already isolated from the reverse osmosis in the fractionation of omw, was assessed on the marine bacterium ...200516218695
microbial changes in sweet sorghum (sorghum bicolor) juices.juice freshly expressed from sorghum bicolor for making sweet sorghum syrup contained 10 microorganisms per ml. the dominant bacterium was leuconostoc mesenteroides, followed by gram-negative rods. lactobacilli, yeasts, and nonfecal coliform bacteria each comprised about 1% of the microbial population. spoilage of juice, manifested by a sour odor, discoloration, and foaming, occurred between 5 and 12 h at ambient temperatures. spoilage was correlated with a drop in ph from 4.9 to 4.5 l. mesenter ...198116345838
enhanced mineral uptake by zea mays and sorghum bicolor roots inoculated with azospirillum brasilense.inoculation of corn (zea mays) seeds with azospirillum brasilense strain cd or sp 7 significantly enhanced (30 to 50% over controls) the uptake of no(3), k, and h(2)po(4) into 3- to 4-day- and 2-week-old root segments. no gross changes in root morphology were observed; altered cell arrangement in the outer four or five layers of the cortex was seen in photomicrographs of cross sections of inoculated corn roots. the surface activity involved in ion uptake probably increased, as shown by the darke ...198316346311
enumeration and localization of n(2)-fixing bacteria associated with roots of spartina alterniflora loisel.numbers and possible locations of n(2)-fixing bacteria were investigated in roots of spartina alterniflora loisel, which support nitrogenase activity in the undisturbed native habitat. n(2)-fixing bacteria were recovered in cultures both from s. alterniflora roots and from the surrounding sediment, and they formed a greater proportion of the bacteria recovered from root homogenates than from salt-marsh sediment. n(2)-fixing bacteria were recovered in high numbers from the rhizoplane of s. altern ...198316346321
responses of sorghum and pennisetum species to the n(2)-fixing bacterium azospirillum brasilense.three field inoculation experiments, two in florida and one in new mexico, were conducted with azospirillum brasilense cd. each of the florida experiments evaluated two crop species. one species in each of the florida experiments responded to inoculation with a significant dry matter yield increases of 11 to 24% and nitrogen yield increases of 9 to 39%. no inoculation response was noted in the new mexico experiment. the responding species were sorghum bicolor (l.) moench (sorghum) and the inters ...198416346571
isolation and characterization of a 30 kd antifungal protein from seeds of sorghum bicolor.an antifungal protein of about 30,000 da was isolated from seeds of sorghum bicolor l. using chromatographic techniques, including gel filtration, ion exchange, and high-performance liquid chromatography in a reverse-phase column. this protein (termed 30 kd protein) showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 36 microg/ml for candida parapsilosis and c. tropicalis, and 18 microg/ml for c. albicans. the 30 kd protein inhibited adherence to the cover glass and formation of a germinative tube of c ...200616364603
the effects of propionibacterium acidipropionici and lactobacillus plantarum, applied at ensiling, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.the aim of this work was to study the effects of applying a strain of propionibacterium acidipropionici, with or without lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of low dry matter (dm) corn (zea mays l.) and sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.) silages. corn at the dent stage and sorghum at the flowering stage were harvested. treatments comprised control (no additives), p. acidipropionici, l. plantarum and a combination of p. acidipropionici and l. plantarum. fr ...200616402248
challenges of detecting directional selection after a bottleneck: lessons from sorghum bicolor.multilocus surveys of sequence variation can be used to identify targets of directional selection, which are expected to have reduced levels of variation. following a population bottleneck, the signal of directional selection may be hard to detect because many loci may have low variation by chance and the frequency spectrum of variation may be perturbed in ways that resemble the effects of selection. cultivated sorghum bicolor contains a subset of the genetic diversity found in its wild ancestor ...200616547110
stomatal behavior and water status of maize, sorghum, and tobacco under field conditions: i. at high soil water potential.diurnal changes in the vertical profiles of irradiance incident upon the adaxial leaf surface (i), stomatal resistance (r(s)), leaf water potential (psi), osmotic potential (pi), and turgor potential (p) were followed concurrently in crops of maize (zea mays l. var. pa 602a), sorghum (sorghum bicolor [l.] moench var. rs610), and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. var. havanna seed 211) on several days in 1968 to 1970 when soil water potentials were high. in all three crops the r(s), measured with a v ...197316658292
stomatal behavior and water status of maize, sorghum, and tobacco under field conditions: ii. at low soil water potential.diurnal changes in the vertical profiles of irradiance incident upon the adaxial leaf surface (i), leaf resistance (r(1)), leaf water potential (psi), osmotic potential (pi), and turgor potential (p) were followed concurrently in crops of maize (zea mays l. cv. pa602a), sorghum (sorghum bicolor [l.] moench cv. rs 610), and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. cv. havanna seed 211) on several days in 1968 to 1970 when soil water potentials were low. the r(1), measured with a ventilated diffusion poromet ...197416658706
distribution of nitrate-assimilating enzymes between mesophyll protoplasts and bundle sheath cells in leaves of three groups of c(4) plants.intercellular distribution of enzymes involved in amino nitrogen synthesis was studied in leaves of species representing three c(4) groups, i.e. sorghum bicolor, zea mays, digitaria sanguinalis (nadp malic enzyme type); panicum miliaceum (nad malic enzyme type); and panicum maximum (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase type). nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase were predominantly localized in mesophyll cells of all the species, except in p. maximum whe ...197616659590
studies on the specificity and site of action of alpha-cyclopropyl-alpha-[p-methoxyphenyl]-5-pyrimidine methyl alcohol (ancymidol), a plant growth regulator.alpha-cyclopropyl-alpha-[p-methoxyphenyl]-5-pyrimidine methyl alcohol (ancymidol) is an inhibitor of ent-kaur-16-ene oxidation in microsomal preparations from the liquid endosperm of immature marah macrocarpus seeds. the k(i) for this inhibitor is about 2 x 10(-9)m. ancymidol also blocks ent-kaur-16-en-19-ol and ent-kaur-16-en-19-al oxidation by the same preparations with a similar efficiency, but does not significantly inhibit ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid oxidation. ancymidol appears to be specif ...197816660561
dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubpcase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating hco(3) (-) and mg(2+) concentrations. this occurred in glycine max, lycopersicon esculentum, nicotiana tabacum, panicum bisulcatum, and p. hylaeicum (c(3)); p. maximum (c(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); p. milioides (c(3)/c(4)); and bromelia pinguin and ananas como ...198416663937
simultaneous measurements of steady state chlorophyll a fluorescence and co(2) assimilation in leaves: the relationship between fluorescence and photosynthesis in c(3) and c(4) plants.rates of co(2) assimilation and steady state chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured simultaneously at different intercellular partial pressures of co(2) in attached cotton (gossypium hirsutum l. cv deltapine 16) leaves at 25 degrees c. electron transport activity for co(2) assimilation plus photorespiration was calculated for these experiments. under light saturating (1750 microeinsteins per square meter per second) and light limiting (700 microeinsteins per square meter per second) conditions ...198616664735
identification of endogenous gibberellins from sorghum.gibberellins (ga) a(1), a(19), and a(20) were identified in shoot cylinders containing the apical meristems from sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.). extracts were purified by sequential sio(2) partition chromatography and reversed-phase c(18) high performance liquid chromatography and biologically active (dwarf rice cv tan-ginbozu microdrop assay) fractions were subjected to gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. based on the use of [(3)h]ga and [(2)h](d(2))ga internal standards, amounts of ga(1) ...198616665017
involvement of na in active uptake of pyruvate in mesophyll chloroplasts of some c(4) plants : na/pyruvate cotransport.an artificial na(+) gradient across the envelope (na(+) jump) enhanced pyruvate uptake in the dark into mesophyll chloroplasts of a c(4) plant, panicum miliaceum (nad-malic enzyme type) (j ohnishi, r kanai [1987] febs lett 219:347). in the present study, (22)na(+) and pyruvate uptake were examined in mesophyll chloroplasts of several species of c(4) plants. enhancement of pyruvate uptake by a na(+) jump in the dark was also seen in mesophyll chloroplasts of urochloa panicoides and panicum maximu ...199016667876
genetic regulation of development in sorghum bicolor: v. the ma(3) allele results in gibberellin enrichment.sorghum bicolor genotypes, near isogenic with different alleles at the third maturity locus, were compared for development, for responsiveness to ga(3) and a ga synthesis inhibitor, and occurrence and concentrations of endogenous gas, iaa, and aba. at 14 days the genotype 58m (ma(3) (r)ma(3) (r)) exhibited 2.5-fold greater culm height, 1.75-fold greater total height, and 1.38-fold greater dry weight than 90m (ma(3)ma(3)) or 100m (ma(3)ma(3)). all three genotypes exhibited similar shoot elongatio ...199116667937
implication of gibberellins in head smut (sporisorium reilianum) of sorghum bicolor.the head smut fungus, sporisorium reilianum ([kuhn] landon and fullerton), was shown to reduce plant height in infected sorghum bicolor ([l.] moench) plants. the major reductions occurred in the internodes nearest the panicle and were more severe in naturally infected than in inoculated plants. less affected plants developed reproductively sterile panicles, and eventually smutted panicles developed phyllodied growths which progressed into leafy shoots. extracts of smutted, sterile, and healthy ( ...199116668219
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