nitrogen fixation associated with 'park' kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.).associative nitrogen fixation in kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.) turfs inoculated with five nitrogen-fixing bacterial isolates was evaluated using the acetylene reduction assay and nitrogen accumulation as indicators of fixation. 'park' and 'nugget' kentucky bluegrass turfs were grown in controlled environment chambers and inoculated with klebsiella pneumoniae (w-2, w-6, and w-14), erwinia herbicola (w-8), and enterobacter cloacae (w-11). 'park' inoculated with k. pneumoniae (w-6) had sign ...1979394819
[relationship between the skin test and the specific ige (radio-allergo-sorbens test) in the diagnosis of inhalative allergies].immediate-type reactions such as asthma, pollinosis and several forms of urticaria can be regarded as type i reactions according to coombs and gell. primary these diseases are caused by the immune globulin e. as skin testing is accompanied by numerous failors, there is a real possibility in increasing the diagnostic relevance by measurement of the specific ige in serum (radio-allergo-sorbens-test = rast; phadebas-rast -- pharmacia uppsala). there are often found divergent results and therefore t ...1977842065
[plant antigens with immunological properties. ii. further studies of the chemical characteristics and immunological properties of a grass pollen extract].this second study carried out on an extract of two grass pollens (poa pratensis and phleum pratense) demonstrated the presence of n-acetilglucosamine and sialic acid in the extract (rfex). moreover the extract has confirmed its characteristics biologic activity i.e. the inhibition of the phenomenon of immune hemolysis with a different technique too, even having the antibodies of the treated animals the complement fixing activity. no appreciable changes of the immunoelectrophoresis pattern in the ...1976973743
numerical taxonomy of some yellow-pigmented bacteria isolated from plants.phenetic data on over 60 heterotrophic, gram-negative, yellow chromogenic bacteria from plant material were collected and analysed using numerical taxonomic methods. marker strains representing 42 taxa were included in the analyses. at similarity levels of 80% or above, eight distinct clusters were obtained, the first four of which included yellow chromogens. custer i contained isolates from green healthy leaves of agrostis tenuis, festuca rubra, holcus lanata, lolium perenne and poa pratensis, ...19761011010
rast, skin and nasal tests and the history in grass pollen allergy.a comparison of the rast (phadebas), skin prick test, nasal test and a history of hay fever was made in 141 subjects, eighty-seven being prick test positive, with three concentrations of extracts of sweet vernal (anthoxanthum odoratum), cocksfoot (dactylis glomerata), meadow fescue (festuca elatior), rye (lolium perenne), timothy (phleum pratense), meadow (poa pratensis). in adequate concentration any of the species extracts would have sufficed for skin tests, with cocksfoot pollen the most pote ...19751053442
metabolism of siduron in kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.). 19751133302
diagnostic value of total ige and antigen specific ige using rast in pollenosis.41 patients with clinically demonstrated pollinosis are studied. the following test were performed on all of them: a) intradermal skin tests using grass pollen extracts (pangramin iii) and with extracts of dactylis glomerate, lollium perenne and poa pratensis. b) totol serum ige determination. c) antigen specific ige (rast) determination against the pollens mentioned in b). d) passive hemagglutination against the pollen dactylis glomerate. basing on the results obtained, we have arrived to the f ...19751180203
il-4 and ifn (alpha and gamma) exert opposite regulatory effects on the development of cytolytic potential by th1 or th2 human t cell clones.the cytolytic potential of a total number of 118 cd4+ human t cell clones specific for purified protein derivative (ppd) from mycobacterium tuberculosis, tetanus toxoid, lolium perenne group i allergen (lol p i), poa pratensis group ix allergen (poa p ix), or toxocara canis excretory/secretory antigen(s) (tes) was assessed by both a lectin (pha)-dependent and a mhc-restricted lytic assay and compared with their profile of cytokine secretion. the majority of clones with th1 or th0 cytokine profil ...19921401925
purification and characterization of an allergen from celery immunochemically related to an allergen present in several other plant species. identification as a profilin.the purification of a 15 kd allergen from celery was obtained by a four step procedure. evidence for at least two isoallergenic forms was obtained after analysis by two-dimensional-electrophoresis. a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against this purified allergen allowed us to confirm our precedent results on the occurrence of allergenically and molecular mass-related components in celery and birch and mugwort pollens. in addition such components were also present in numerous other species like ...19921525697
forage systems for beef production from conception to slaughter: i. cow-calf production.six year-round, all-forage, three-paddock systems for beef cow-calf production were used to produce five calf crops during a 6-yr period. forages grazed by cows during spring, summer, and early fall consisted of one paddock of 1) tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.)-ladino clover (trifolium repens l.) or 2) kentucky blue-grass (poa pratensis l.)-white clover (trifolium repens l.). each of these forage mixtures was combined in a factorial arrangement with two paddocks of either 1) fescue-red ...19921548221
group v allergens in grass pollens: iv. similarities in amino acid compositions and nh2-terminal sequences of the group v allergens from lolium perenne, poa pratensis and dactylis glomerata.monoclonal antibodies (ppv4) raised against phleum pratense group v allergen were used for immuno-affinity chromatography of cross-reacting group v allergens from related grass species. fractions enriched in group v allergen were obtained from lolium perenne, poa pratense and dactylis glomerata extracts. the major components in these fractions were found in the mwr range 25-28 kd. ige binding to these components was shown using a pool of grass allergic sera, by sds-page immunoblotting. these fra ...19921611548
induction of ige antibodies in mice with recombinant grass pollen this study, recombinant poa pratensis (poa p) ix allergens were examined for their in vivo allergenicity and antigenicity. immunization of mice with a fusion protein (fp) comprising beta-galactosidase and recombinant kbg8.3 (rkbg8.3) allergen induced high titres of both igg and ige antibodies. by contrast, immunization with rkbg60.2, which represents the n-terminal fragment of rkbg8.3, induced only igg antibodies. the ige antibody titre specific to kentucky bluegrass (kbg) was significantly h ...19921628894
nucleotide sequence analysis of three cdnas coding for poa p ix isoallergens of kentucky bluegrass pollen.grass pollen allergens are one of the major causes of type i allergic reactions (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic bronchial asthma, and hayfever) in temperate climates afflicting 15-20% of a genetically predisposed population. workers have found considerable physico- and immunochemical heterogeneity within the grass pollen allergens which has made them difficult to purify for both therapeutic uses and further biochemical study. we recently reported the construction of a cdna library in lam ...19911702432
allergenic and antigenic cross-reactivities of group ix grass pollen allergens.the allergenic and antigenic cross-reactivities between a major recombinant poa pratensis (poa p) ix allergen, rkbg8.3, and its corresponding proteins of different grass pollens were examined. immunoblotting of the proteins of thirteen different grass pollens using anti-rkbg8.3 antibodies indicated that poa p ix-like proteins are present in ten other grass pollens, albeit in variable amounts and polymorphic forms. these proteins ranged in size from 20 to 88 kda in different grass pollens. the pe ...19911721609
characterization of the major allergen of cynodon dactylon (bermuda grass) pollen, cyn d allergen from cynodon dactylon (bermuda grass) pollen, cyn d i, has been purified by a combination of concanavalin a-sepharose affinity chromatography, and carboxymethyl-sepharose chromatography. the allergen constitutes the major allergenic component of the pollen extract as observed by immunoelectrophoretic techniques, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, an ige-inhibition experiment, and skin testing. in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, cyn d ...19911955635
immunologic characterization of a recombinant kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) allergenic peptide.a recombinant peptide of kentucky bluegrass (kbg) pollen was synthesized as a fusion protein (fp) in escherichia coli by recombinant dna procedures and was compared with its natural counterparts with respect to its allergenic properties. the fp was demonstrated to bind to the ige antibodies (abs) of greater than or equal to 95% of 55 individual sera examined. a positive correlation (r = 0.90) was observed between the levels of ige abs corresponding to the fp and the grass-pollen extract(s). with ...19912045614
two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analyses of kentucky bluegrass and rye grass pollen allergens. detection with a murine monoclonal anti-poa p i antibody and amino terminal amino acid sequence of poa p i allergen.allergenic extracts of kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) and rye grass (lolium perenne) pollen were shown by 2-dimensional (2-d) gel electrophoresis to consist of several hundred protein components. the pollen extracts of the two related grasses had unique 2-d gel patterns. two major grass pollen allergens, poa p i and lol p i, and their isoforms (i.e. isoallergens) were detected and localized on 2-d gels by immunoblotting with anti-poa p i antibody mab 60. poa p i isoallergens were less acidic ...19902101126
isolation and characterization of a cdna clone encoding an ige-binding protein from kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) pollen.we reported previously on the isolation and characterization of several allergens from kentucky bluegrass (kbg) (poa pratensis l.) pollen with the aid of the corresponding murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs). in the present study, (1) an analysis of various tissues of this grass revealed that the allergenic components recognized by these mabs were confined to the pollen; (2) intact translatable mrna was isolated from the kbg pollen, and (3) a cdna library was constructed with this mrna in the la ...19902210872
growth and reproductive performance of ewe lambs fed corn or soybean meal while grazing a 2-yr study a total of 120 suffolk and suffolk-cross ewe lambs, approximately 3 mo of age, were assigned within weight strata to one of three treatments: 1) control, pasture only (c), 2) .09 kg soybean meal/(hd.d) (sbm) plus pasture or 3) .45 kg whole shelled corn/(hd.) plus pasture to compare growth and reproductive performance and to determine lamb selectivity of forage quality and type. each year, supplements were offered from june through the 3rd wk in november. ewe lambs were managed as ...19902303397
[skin reactivity to grass pollen and the mite dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in the prick-test using 2 types of allergen preparations].the reliability of prick testing with allergen preparations produced in yugoslavia was assessed by comparison to the internationally accepted ones (pharmacia diagnostica) of 100,000 bu activity. the following allergens were used: the mite dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in 107 subjects, and grass pollens: dactylis glomerata, poa pratensis, phleum pratense and secale cereale in 39 subjects. the clinical significance of the response was assessed in relation to the skin reaction to the negative cont ...19892638564
apparent digestibility of nitrogen in rumen and whole tract of friesian cattle fed direct-cut and wilted grass silages.spring grass consisting of lolium perene l. (81%), poa pratensis l. (9%), and annual weeds (5%) was stored as direct-cut or as wilted silage and used in feeding trials to determine the effects of wilting on n utilization. six mature friesian cattle, fitted with rumen and simple duodenal cannulae, were fed the silages for ad libitum intake in a crossover design consisting of two 49-d periods. wilting increased intake of organic matter and decreased ruminal apparent digestibility or organic matter ...19892794170
creep grazing and early weaning effects on cow and calf hundred fifty simmental-hereford cows and calves were used in a 3-yr study to evaluate three creep grazing treatments and an early weaning treatment on cow and calf performance during midsummer (july to september). calves were approximately 150 d of age and averaged 178.6 kg when treatments were initiated. tifleaf pearl millet (pennisetum americanum l. leeke) was used as the forage for two of the creep treatments, representing two cow stocking intensities of .466 (tlm1) and .239 (tlm2) ha of ...19883397337
a comparison between pyridinic and non-pyridinic extraction of allergenic materials.the effect of addition of pyridine in the extracting solvent of allergenic materials was studied in the following substances. dermatophagoides farinae, chenopodium album, parietaria judaica, phleum pratense, poa pratensis, and secale cereale. pyridinated extracts differed significantly in protein content, isoelectric focusing profile, and allergenic activity from the non-pyridinated extracts. on the other hand, no difference was detected between both extraction systems when their adsorption capa ...19863946840
cross-reactions among grass pollen allergens.we studied cross-reactions of pollen extracts from the grasses phleum pratense, lolium perenne, poa pratensis and festuca pratensis. we used immunoelectrophoretic techniques (tandem-cie, absorption in situ) and rast inhibition, which allowed us to detect the high antigenic and allergenic relationships of the single grass pollens. phleum pratense, however, revealed antigenic and allergenic differences as compared to the other 3 grasses.19846084953
type 3 fimbriae of klebsiella sp.: molecular characterization and role in bacterial adhesion to plant roots.type 3 fimbriae of klebsiella were purified and characterized. the fimbriae were 4 to 5 nm in diameter and 0.5 to 2 microns long. in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the fimbrillin had an apparent molecular weight of 23,500, and it differed from enterobacterial type 1 fimbrillins in its amino acid composition. hydrophobic amino acids comprised 33.6% of all amino acids in the fimbrillin, which lacked cystine, phenylalanine, and arginine. serologically, the type 3 fimbria ...19836135689
[identification of allergens in 5 grasses using crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (crie)].using crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis ( crie ) aqueous extracts from pollen of phleum pratense , lolium perenne, poa pratensis , festuca pratensis and alopecurus pratensis were investigated for allergen composition. we detected between 24 and 32 antigens. employing sera from 11 patients with well established hay fever, ige binding could be demonstrated in 15 out of 28 antigens in phleum pratense , 13 out of 32 in lolium perenne, 14 out of 26 in poa pratensis , 12 out of 24 festuca pratensis a ...19846233859
performance of dairy cows in midlactation fed high quality grass pasture and concentrate at three percents of energy requirements.thirty multiparous cows rotationally grazed high quality grass pastures (predominantly dactylis glomerata and poa pratensis) for 140 days. stage of lactation was 54 to 192 days at beginning of trial. cows were offered concentrates to supply 33, 66, or 100% of requirements for net energy for lactation above maintenance; daily intakes by the three groups averaged 3.5, 7.7, and 11.5 kg. refusal of concentrate tended to increase with supplementation. average milk production was 19.2, 20.4, and 21.5 ...19836841749
nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by klebsiella pneumoniae in association with 'park' kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.).turks of 'park' kentucky bluegrass reestablished in the greenhouse and inoculated with klebsiella pneumoniae (w6) showed significantly increased nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) compared with control turfs. mean ethylene production rates per pot were 368 nmol h-1 for k. pneumoniae treated turfs, 55 nmol h-1 for heat-killed k. pneumoniae treated turfs, and 44 nmol h-1 for untreated turfs. calculated lag periods before activity was observed were generally very short (less than 1 h). when 'p ...19817011516
[plant antigens with immunological properties. iii. separation of a biologically active fraction in a grass pollen extract].in present paper a partial biochemical study concerning two grass pollens (poa pratensis and phleum pratense) is carried out. on sephadex g-75 three fractions were detected by an extract from the grass pollens. only the third fraction shows a biological activity and biochemical findings are in agreement with the presence of four polipeptidic subfractions of different molecular weights ranged between 10,000 and 14,500. specific additionals trials (ultracentrifugation, disc-electrophoresis, thyn-l ...19807247505
purification and some properties of the main polymorphic form of acid phosphatase from poa pratensis seeds.the main polymorphic form of acid phosphatase was isolated from poa pratensis seeds by chromatography on deae- and cm-cellulose and gel filtration on bio-gel p-100. the enzyme migrated as a single band in disc electrophoresis at ph 4.5 and 8.4. the purified enzyme is a glycoprotein of molecular weight about 33 000. carbohydrate content accounts for 40% of the total weight. the optimum ph is at 5.2 and the apparent km for p-nitrophenylphosphate, 0.55 mm. fluoride ions are non-competitive and zinc ...19807269976
molecular basis of cross-reactivity among allergen-specific human t cells: t-cell receptor v alpha gene usage and epitope structure.cross-reactivities between the major grass pollen allergens, at the level of t-cell recognition was examined employing several lolium perenne i (lol p i)-specific human t-cell clones. nine of these lol p i-specific t-cell clones exhibited cross-recognition of the recombinant poa pratensis ix (poa p ix) allergen, rkbg7.2, indicating that these two major antigens of a grass pollen share t-cell epitopes. furthermore, proliferative responses of two other t-cell clones demonstrated that individual al ...19947510663
oviposition and development of face flies in dung from cattle on herbage and supplemented herbage diets.dung was collected from angus cattle (bos taurus l.) fed (ad libitum) hays of endophyte-free (ef) and endophyte (acremonium coenophialum morgan-jones and gams) infected (ei) tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.), smooth bromegrass (bromus inermis leyss.), red clover (trifolium pratense l.), alfalfa (medicago sativa l.), and alfalfa-smooth bromegrass (1:1 w/w) and green-chopped kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.). samples of dung were subsequently collected from the same animals offered the ...19947886909
analysis of human t cell clones reactive with group v grass pollen allergens.twenty-seven t cell clones (tcc) reactive with group v allergens of phleum pratense (phlp v) were established from the peripheral blood of 3 patients allergic to grass pollen. twenty-four tcc showed the helper cell phenotype cd3+, cd4+, cd8-; the remaining clones were cd3+cd4-cd8+. t cell recognition of phlp v was exclusively hla-dr restricted. many of the phlp v reactive tcc (19 of 27; 70%) were stimulated additionally by other group v allergens isolated from lolium perenne, poa pratensis, and ...19947981611
a two-site monoclonal antibody elisa for the quantification of group v allergens in grass extracts.a two-site solid-phase enzymimmunoassay was used for the quantification of group v allergen in grass pollen extracts in mass units. the assay is based on the monoclonal antibodies (moabs), 1d11 and 3b2 which recognize different epitopes on the standard phl p v. the moab-elisa is very sensitive (15-100 ng/ml phl p v) and highly specific for group v allergens. six pollen extracts of different grasses demonstrated parallel binding curves. the group v content ranged between 73 and 673 micrograms/ml ...19947982125
influence of grazing cattle and sheep together and separately on animal performance and forage quality.cattle and sheep grazed together and separately from april to october during 3 yr. initial forage composition was 29% kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.), 11% white clover (trifolium repens l.), and 60% weeds. there were six angus cow-calf pairs or six ewes (1/2 dorset x 1/4 finn x 1/4 rambouillet) with 11 lambs per each of three pasture replications for single animal species. six cow-calf pairs plus six ewes and 11 lambs grazed in each of three replications of the mixed animal species treatme ...19948014135
pollen grains bind to lung alveolar type ii cells (a549) via lung surfactant protein a (sp-a).lung surfactant protein a (sp-a) is the most abundant surfactant-associated protein present in the lung. a receptor for sp-a has been shown to be present on a549 alveolar type ii cells and on other cell types, including alveolar macrophage. the sp-a receptor on a549 cells has been identified as the collection receptor, or c1q receptor, which binds several structurally-related ligands. sp-a contains c-type lectin domains, but the role of carbohydrate binding by sp-a in physiological and pathologi ...19938374060
t-cell epitopes of phl p 1, major pollen allergen of timothy grass (phleum pratense): evidence for crossreacting and non-crossreacting t-cell epitopes within grass group i allergens.the use of peptides representing t-cell epitopes of allergens is a modern concept for improvement of specific immunotherapy. a prerequisite for this approach is the identification of t-cell epitopes of atopic allergens.19958543758
effects of interferon-alpha on cytokine profile, t cell receptor repertoire and peptide reactivity of human allergen-specific t cells.a large panel of t cell clones (tcc) specific for the recombinant form of poa pratensis allergen (rkbg7.2 or poa p9) were established from the peripheral blood of grass pollen-sensitive donor in the absence or presence of recombinant interferon-alpha (ifn-alpha) in bulk culture and their pattern of cytokine secretion, peptide reactivity and tcr v beta repertoire was examined. the majority of allergen-specific tcc derived in absence of ifn-alpha produced high amounts of interleukin-4 (il-4) and i ...19968605940
lack of maternal influence of lamb consumption of locoweed (oxytropis sericea).locoweeds (oxytropis and astragalus spp.) are toxic plants found on many rangelands. preferences for locoweed are learned; livestock often initially reject the plant, but learn to eat locoweed after continued exposure. maternal influences are important in shaping diet selection in young animals. we studied the influence of ewe consumption of locoweed on lamb selection of the plant. twenty-four ewes were divided into three treatment groups (n = 8): 1) ewes conditioned to eat locoweed (oxytropis s ...19968690669
forage systems for beef production from conception to slaughter: iii. finishing systems.fall-weaned angus calves grazed or were fed different forages during winter followed by 1) n-fertilized tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.) grazed alone, 2) bluegrass (poa pratensis l.)-white clover (trifolium repens l.) sequence grazed with tall fescue-red clover (trifolium pratense l.), or 3) bluegrass-white clover sequence grazed with alfalfa (medicago sativa l.)-orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.). heifers were supplemented with grain at 1% of bw from april until slaughter in july. on ...19968707721
cloning and expression pattern of hor v 9, the group 9 pollen isoallergen from this study we report the cloning, sequence, and characterization of hor v 9 allergen cdnas from barley (hordeum vulgare) pollen. structural homologues of kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) group 9 pollen allergens were identified in a cdna library of barley pollen expressed mrnas. the hor v 9 cdna clone (hvp9742) contained an open reading frame encoding 313 amino acids which included a putative 27-residue signal peptide and one asparagine sequon for glycosylation. the mrna corresponding to cl ...19968982067
[tryptase determination in nasal washings in patients with allergic rhinitis].triptase is an enzymatic protein found in the mastocytes. although the biological role of this substance is not fully understood, significant amounts of it are found in the nasal secretions of allergic subject both when naturally exposed to the allergen and when subject to specific nasal provocation tests. the present study uses a radioimmunological method (pharmacia, uppsala, sweden) to assay the amount of triptase in two groups: one composed of 10 subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis and ...19979412151
dissection of the grass allergen-specific immune response in patients with allergies and control subjects: t-cell proliferation in patients does not correlate with specific serum ige and skin reactivity.pollinosis, caused by grasses of the poaceae family, is a problem worldwide. the relative importance of grass groups 1 and 5 major allergens is well established. however, not much is known about the recognition of these allergens by t cells and whether this t-cell reactivity correlates with skin reactivity and serum ige levels.19989500758
ige antibodies to recombinant pollen allergens (phl p 1, phl p 2, phl p 5, and bet v 2) account for a high percentage of grass pollen-specific ige.pollen from different grass species are some of the most potent elicitors of type i allergy worldwide. the characterization of antigenic structures and ige epitopes common to different grass species is relevant to define reagents for diagnosis and specific therapy of grass pollen allergy.19989500760
injury to murine airway epithelial cells by pollen enzymes.pollens are important triggers for asthma but the mechanism of sensitisation to their proteins remains poorly understood. the intrinsic protease activity of some allergens may contribute to sensitisation by disrupting the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. pollens release a variety of enzymes, including proteases, upon hydration. the hypothesis that such enzymes might be able to damage airway epithelial cells was therefore tested.19989708228
detection and quantification of group 4 allergens in grass pollen extracts using monoclonal antibodies.grass pollen extracts are complex mixtures consisting of different major allergenic and non-allergenic components. phl p 4 is an important allergen, because more than 75% of grass pollen allergic patients produce specific ige antibodies against group 4 allergens.19989720813
how far can we simplify in vitro diagnostics for grass pollen allergy?: a study with 17 whole pollen extracts and purified natural and recombinant major allergens.current diagnostics for grass pollen allergy are composed of mixtures of pollen of different grass species. their complex composition hampers accurate standardization.19989723659
differential recognition of recombinant phl p 5 isoallergens by phl p 5-specific t present, recombinant allergens are considered for the diagnosis and treatment of atopic allergies. to evaluate the theoretical impact of isoallergen variation on the selection of isoallergens for specific allergy vaccination, we characterized the t-cell response of allergic patients to the phleum pratense major allergen, phl p 5, and five of its recombinant isoallergens.199910224358
[antigen specific immunoglobulin e to grass and weed pollens in the plasma of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis].the study involved 22 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis between 13 and 53 years of age. the level of antigen specific ige (as ige) to 5 grass and 3 weed pollens was determined with the use of cap feia (pharmacia, uppsala, sweden). the control group consisted of 20 persons. all above as ige were significantly higher in the patients with seasonal allergic rhinithis than in the control group. the most commonly present hypersensitivities were to meadow fescue (festuca elatior), meadow grass ( ...199910337158
structural analysis of n-glycans from allergenic grass, ragweed and tree pollens: core alpha1,3-linked fucose and xylose present in all pollens examined.the n-glycans from soluble extracts of ten pollens were examined. the pyridylaminated oligosaccharides derived from these sources were subject to gel filtration and reverse-phase hplc, in conjunction with exoglycosidase digests, and in some cases matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation mass spectrometry. in comparison to known structures, it was possible to determine the major structures of the n-glycans derived from kentucky blue grass (poa pratensis), rye (secale cerale), ryegrass (lolium ...199810386890
persistent impacts of trace metals from mining on floodplain grass communities along soda butte creek, yellowstone national park./ in yellowstone national park, tailings and associated trace metals from past mining have been deposited along 28 km of soda butte creek by large flood events. this study documents grass species diversity, density, and biomass; trace metal concentrations in soils; and soil ph, salinity, and clay content in four selected floodplain meadows contaminated by these tailings. trace metal levels frequently exceed acceptable concentrations for agricultural soils at sampling points within the meadows. p ...200010629312
substrate preference profiles of proteases released by allergenic pollens.pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis. we have recently reported that proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. disruption of epithelial integrity by proteases released following deposition of pollens on mucosal surfaces could promote sensitization and induce inflammation.200010718856
forage systems for production of stocker steers in the upper south.the southern states produce large numbers of beef calves that are generally weaned and sold in autumn. keeping calves in this region beyond weaning to graze high-quality forages through a stocker cattle phase could improve profitability. autumn-weaned angus crossbred steers were allocated by breeding and weight to four forage systems that began in mid-november and continued through mid-october as follows: system 1, tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.) and kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l ...200010907841
overseeding endophytic perennial ryegrass into stands of kentucky bluegrass to manage bluegrass billbug (coleoptera: curculionidae).studies were conducted to determine the utility of overseeding endophyte enhanced varieties of perennial ryegrass, lolium perenne l., into existing stands of kentucky bluegrass, poa pratensis l., to manage bluegrass billbug, sphenophorus parvulus gyllenhal, larval populations and their damage. two commercial varieties of endophyte enhanced perennial ryegrass (repell ii and triple play) were overseeded at two different rates in the field. s. parvulus larval populations, their damage, and turfgras ...200011142296
ecotoxicological evaluation of three deicers (nacl, nafo, cma)-effect on terrestrial organisms.the use of chemical deicers such as sodium chloride (nacl) has increased significantly during the past three decades. deicers induce metal corrosion and alter the physicochemical properties of soils and water. environmental damage caused by the use of nacl has prompted government agencies to find alternative deicers. this article presents a comparative ecotoxicological study of three deicers on soil organisms. sodium formiate (nafo) and calcium-magnesium acetate (cma) are the most interesting co ...200111161687
involvement of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the adaptation of two cool-season grasses to localized drought natural environments, drought often occurs in surface soil while water is available for plant uptake deeper in the soil profile. the objective of the study was to examine the involvement of antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation in the responses of two cool-season grasses to surface soil drying. kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l) and tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.) were grown in split tubes, consisting of two sections (each 10 cm in diameter and 20 cm long). grasses were su ...200111275219
effects of calcium on antioxidant activities and water relations associated with heat tolerance in two cool-season grasses.calcium (ca2+) may be involved in plant tolerance to heat stress by regulating antioxidant metabolism or/and water relations. this study was designed to examine whether external ca2+ treatment would improve heat tolerance in two c(3), cool-season grass species, tall fescue (festuca arundinacea l.) and kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of ca2+ effects on grass tolerance to heat stress. grasses were treated with cacl(2) (10 mm) or h(2)o by foliar ...200111283179
tannins in puccinellia arctica: possible deterrents to herbivory by canada geese.urban populations of canada geese, branta canadensis, pose a nuisance problem throughout most of the eastern united states and in other parts of the united states and canada. puccinellia arctica is a species of arctic grass that is unpalatable to canada geese on the north slope of alaska and may prove to be an effective long-term and nonlethal means of controlling the growing populations of urban canada geese. a comparative study of the secondary metabolites of both p. arctica and puccinellia la ...200111446296
seasonal leaching and biodegradation of dicamba in turfgrass.the leaching of surface-applied herbicides, such as dicamba (2methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid), to ground water is an environmental concern. seasonal changes in soil temperature and water content, affecting infiltration and biodegradation, may control leaching. the objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the leaching of dicamba applied to turfgrass, (ii) measure the degradation rate of dicamba in soil and thatch in the laboratory under simulated field conditions, and (iii) test the abi ...200111476515
phylogenetic relationships, strain diversity and biogeography of tritimoviruses.north american and eurasian isolates of wheat streak mosaic virus (wsmv; genus tritimovirus) and oat necrotic mottle virus (onmv; genus rymovirus) were examined. nine wsmv isolates differentially infected oat, barley, inbred maize line sdp2 and sorghum line ks56. the wsmv isolates clustered into groups based on phylogenetic analyses of the capsid protein (cp) cistron and flanking regions. wsmv isolates from the united states (us) and turkey were closely related, suggesting recent movement betwee ...200211907340
phytoremediation of subarctic soil contaminated with diesel fuel.the effects of several plant species, native to northern latitudes, and different soil amendments, on diesel fuel removal from soil were studied. plant treatments included scots pine (pinus sylvestris), poplar (populus deltoides x wettsteinii), a grass mixture (red fescue, fesuca rubra; smooth meadowgrass, poa pratensis and perennial ryegrass, lolium perenne) and a legume mixture (white clover, trifolium repens and pea, pisum sativum). soil amendments included npk fertiliser, a compost extract a ...200212118697
exposure to dogs and cats in the first year of life and risk of allergic sensitization at 6 to 7 years of age.childhood asthma is strongly associated with allergic sensitization. studies have suggested that animal exposure during infancy reduces subsequent allergic sensitization.200212190366
leaf respiration in light and darkness (a comparison of slow- and fast-growing poa species).we investigated whether leaf dark respiration (nonphotorespiratory mitochondrial co2 release) is inhibited by light in several poa species, and whether differences in light inhibition between the species are related to differences in the rate of leaf net photosynthesis. four lowland (poa annua l., poa compressa l., poa pratensis l., and poa trivialis l.), one subalpine (poa alpina l.), and two alpine (poa costiniana vick. and poa fawcettiae vick.) poa species differing in whole plant relative gr ...199712223656
partitioning of electrons between the cytochrome and alternative pathways in intact test the hypothesis that the cytochrome pathway is not invariably saturated when the alternative pathway is engaged, we titrated root respiration of several species with kcn (an inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway), both in the absence and presence of an inhibitor of the alternative pathway (salicylhydroxamic acid, sham). the slopes of the resultant kcn [rho] plots ([rho]cyt) were then used to determine whether the cytochrome pathway was saturated in each species. the species used were festuc ...199512228536
[variation in seed yield components among varieties of poa pratensis].seed yield and its characteristics of 28 varieties of poa pratensis in field plots at lanzhou, china were evaluated in 2001. the results showed that the seed yields among the varieties were significantly different (p < 0.01) by lsd test. the highest yield was 643.4-650.2 obtained from varieties of balin and monoply, the lowest was 90.1 obtained from elysee, and the other varieties were in the middle groups with the yields varied from 114.7 to 435.1 correlation an ...200212418253
linkage mapping in apomictic and sexual kentucky bluegrass ( poa pratensis l.) genotypes using a two way pseudo-testcross strategy based on aflp and sampl markers.the high versatility of the mode of reproduction and the retention of a pollen recognition system are the factors responsible for the extreme complexity of the genome in poa pratensis l. two genetic maps, one of an apomictic and one of a sexual genotype, were constructed using a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy and multiplex pcr-based molecular markers (aflp and sampl). due to the high ploidy level and the uncertainty of chromosome pairing-behavior at meiosis, only parent-specific single-dose m ...200212582697
[allergy tests in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis].the aim of this study is to show positive allergy test od tree pollen, grass pollen and weed pollen in children with season allergic rhinitis. in the study is comprised 335 children, which are tested in pulmoallergologic out-patient department of paediatric clinic in sarajevo in last three years from march 1999 to march 2002 year. in testing was used prick-test with bencard firm allergen. criterion for positive reaction was urtica, which appear 20 minutes after testing, with diameter equal or bi ...200212762239
short-term exposure to elevated atmospheric co2 benefits the growth of a facultative annual root hemiparasite, rhinanthus minor (l.), more than that of its host, poa pratensis (l.).the effects of elevated co2 (650 ppm) on interactions between a chlorophyllous parasitic angiosperm, rhinanthus minor (l.) and a host, poa pratensis (l.) were investigated. r. minor benefited from elevated co2, with both photosynthesis and biomass increasing, and transpiration and tissue n concentration remaining unaffected. however, this did not alleviate the negative effect of the parasite on the host; r. minor reduced host photosynthesis, transpiration, leaf area and biomass, irrespective of ...200312837814
the influence of diet on faecal dna amplification and sex identification in brown bears (ursus arctos).to evaluate the influence of diet on faecal dna amplification, 11 captive brown bears (ursus arctos) were placed on six restricted diets: grass (trifolium spp., haplopappus hirtus and poa pratensis), alfalfa (lupinus spp.), carrots (daucus spp.), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), blueberries (vaccinium spp.) and salmon (salmo spp.). dna was extracted from 50 faecal samples of each restricted diet, and amplification of brown bear dna was attempted for a mitochondrial dna (mtdna) locus a ...200312859644
ability of cold-tolerant plants to grow in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.phytoremediation of hydrocarbons in soil involves plants and their associated microorganisms. differences in environmental conditions and restrictions on species importation mean that each country may need to identify indigenous plants to use for phytoremedation. screening plants for hydrocarbon tolerance before screening for degradation ability may prove more economical than screening directly for degradation. thirty-nine cold-tolerant plants native, or exotic and naturalized, in western canada ...200312929494
soil community composition and the regulation of grazed temperate grassland.the effect of the community composition of soil microbes on ecosystem processes has received relatively little attention. here we examined the variation in soil microbial composition in a yellowstone national park grassland and the effect of that variation on the growth, in a greenhouse, of the dominant grass in the community. plants and their rhizospheric soil were collected from paired, poa pratensis-dominated grassland plots located inside and outside a 40-year-old exclosure. p. pratensis abo ...200314513350
long-term effects of clipping and nitrogen management in turfgrass on soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics: the century model simulation.experiments to document the long-term effects of clipping management on n requirements, soil organic carbon (soc), and soil organic nitrogen (son) are difficult and costly and therefore few. the century ecosystem model offers an opportunity to study long-term effects of turfgrass clipping management on biomass production, n requirements, soc and son, and n leaching through computer simulation. in this study, the model was verified by comparing century-predicted kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis ...200314535310
the infection process of colletotrichum graminicola and relative aggressiveness on four turfgrass species.detached 3-week-old leaves of agrostis palustris, lolium perenne, poa annua, and poa pratensis were inoculated with conidial suspensions of two isolates of colletotrichum graminicola obtained from a. palustris. inoculated leaves were incubated at 23 degrees c under high relative humidity (>95%). the infection process was investigated by light microscopy from 2 to 168 h after inoculation (ai). spore germination was observed within 2 h ai, appressoria within 6 h ai, and penetration pores within 8 ...200314569284
mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates.pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation.200314577842
co-existing grass species have distinctive arbuscular mycorrhizal communities.arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi are biotrophic symbionts colonizing the majority of land plants, and are of major importance in plant nutrient supply. their diversity is suggested to be an important determinant of plant community structure, but the influence of host-plant and environmental factors on am fungal community in plant roots is poorly documented. using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-rflp) strategy, the diversity of am fungi was assessed in 89 roots of three ...200314629388
comparison of tall fescue (cyperales: gramineae) to other cool-season turfgrasses for tolerance to european chafer (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).three cultivars of tall fescue, festuca arundinacea schreb., were compared with three cultivars each of fine fescue (festuca spp.), kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.), and perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.) to evaluate tolerance to root-feeding by european chafer grubs, rhizotrogus majalis (razoumowsky). potted turfgrasses were infested with initial densities equivalent to 33 or 66 grubs per 0.1 m2 on 19 august 2000. more grubs were added in late september and october, bringing the total ...200314977131
turfgrass, crop, and weed hosts of blissus occiduus (hemiptera: lygaeidae).blissus occiduus barber is an important pest of buffalograss, buchloë dactyloides (nuttall) engelmann, turf. no-choice studies documented the susceptibility of selected turfgrasses, crops, and weeds to b. occiduus feeding. highly to moderately susceptible grasses included buffalograss; yellow setaria glauca (l.) and green foxtail setaria viridis (l.); kentucky bluegrass, poa pratensis l.; perennial ryegrass, lolium perenne l.; brome, bromus spp. leyss.; zoysiagrass, zoysia japonica steudel; berm ...200414998128
[identification of the apomixis in poa pratensis l. using sds-electrophoresis of endosperm reserve proteins].to determine the characteristics of variability of seed reproduction in the kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis), individual seed variability with respect to the composition of endospermal reserve proteins was studied. comparative analysis of caryopses obtained by self-fertilization and free fertilization of plants i1 (no. 2-4) and i2 (no. 2-4-7) of the wild-type specimen murmanskii-95 was performed using sds-page. using a cytoembryological express method, we demonstrated that facultative stimulat ...200415049068
fertilizer source effect on ground and surface water quality in drainage from turfgrass.nutrients in surface and ground water can affect human and aquatic organisms that rely on water for consumption and habitat. a mass-balance field study was conducted over two years (july 2000-may 2001) to determine the effect of nutrient source on turfgrass runoff and leachate. treatments were arranged in an incomplete randomized block design on a slope of 7 to 9% of arkport sandy loam (coarseloamy, mixed, active, mesic lamellic hapludalf) and seeded with kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.) an ...200415074817
vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes.field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the ammeberg zinc mine in central sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. after 2 years, festuca rubra and po ...198915092483
automatic milking and grazing--effects of distance to pasture and level of supplements on milk yield and cow an automatic milking system, 45 cows were divided into groups that grazed on a mixed grass sward (poa pratensis and festuca pratensis) at different distances from the barn: near pasture (np) at 50 m between the barn and the pasture and distant pasture (dp) at 260 m between the barn and the pasture. for both of these treatments, 3 kg of dry matter (dm) from supplementary grass silage were offered in the barn. the third treatment group grazed together under the dp treatment but was offered an a ...200415453482
field evaluation of cdc gravid trap attractants to primary west nile virus vectors, culex mosquitoes in new york state.a field study was conducted to evaluate two cdc gravid trap attractants available for the west nile virus surveillance program in new york state (nys). according to potential attractiveness, a common lawn sod in nys, kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) infusion and a rabbit chow infusion were compared for attractiveness to primary west nile virus vectors, culex mosquitoes. attractiveness of each infusion was measured by the number of adult mosquitoes caught in cdc gravid traps and the number of e ...200415532922
the inheritance of apomixis in poa pratensis confirms a five locus model with differences in gene expressivity and penetrance.the genetic control of apomixis was studied in numerous segregating progenies originated from intercrossing and selfing of obligate sexual and facultative apomictic parents in poa pratensis by means of the flow cytometric seed screen. the data support a novel model with five major genes required to control asexual seed formation: the apospory initiator (ait) gene, the apospory preventer (apv) gene, a megaspore development (mdv) gene, the parthenogenesis initiator (pit) gene, and the parthenogene ...200415608334
[ecological strategies of soil microbial communities under plants of meadow ecosystems].dominant growth strategies of soil microbial communities of mown and unmown meadows were assessed with respect to the constants of saturation and maximal specific growth rate of microorganisms. the microbial community of mown-meadow soil was characterized by a greater biomass and activity due to prevalence of microorganisms with the r strategy, compared to the microbial community of unmown-meadow soil. in contrast to nonrhizosphere soil, rhizosphere soil was dominated by rapidly growing microorg ...200415615453
genome relationships in polyploid poa pratensis and other poa species inferred from phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast dna sequences.the genus poa comprises approximately 500 species that occur throughout the world, including the widely grown kentucky bluegrass (p. pratensis l.). hybridization and polyploidization have played a prominent role in the evolution of this complex genus, but limited information is available regarding genome relationships in poa. thus, we amplified, cloned, and compared the dna sequences of 2 nuclear genes (cdo504 and thioredoxin-like protein) and 2 chloroplast genome loci (ndhf and trnt-trnf) from ...200515729399
biosolids compost amendment for reducing soil lead hazards: a pilot study of orgro amendment and grass seeding in urban situ inactivation of soil pb is an alternative to soil removal and replacement that has been demonstrated in recent years at industrial sites with hazardous soil pb concentrations. most children exposed to elevated soil pb, however, reside in urban areas, and no government programs exist to remediate such soils unless an industrial source caused the contamination. modern regulated biosolids composts have low pb concentrations and low bioaccessible pb fractions and can improve grass growth on ...200515752494
isolation of candidate genes for apomixis in poa pratensis l.the essential feature of apomixis is that an embryo is formed autonomously by parthenogenesis from an unreduced egg of an embryo sac generated through apomeiosis. the genetic constitution of the offspring is, therefore, usually identical to the maternal parent, a trait of great interest to plant breeders. if apomixis were well understood and harnessed, it could be exploited to indefinitely propagate superior hybrids or specific genotypes bearing complex gene sets. a fundamental contribution to t ...200415821987
comparison of early development of three grasses: lolium perenne, agrostis stolonifera and poa improve the management of grass communities, early plant development was compared in three species with contrasting growth forms, a caespitose (lolium perenne), a rhizomatous (poa pratensis) and a caespitose-stoloniferous species (agrostis stolonifera).200515932884
serk and apostart. candidate genes for apomixis in poa pratensis.seed production generally requires the mating of opposite sex gametes. apomixis, an asexual mode of reproduction, avoids both meiotic reduction and egg fertilization. the essential feature of apomixis is that an embryo is formed autonomously by parthenogenesis from an unreduced egg of an embryo sac generated through apomeiosis. if apomixis were well understood and harnessed, it could be exploited to indefinitely propagate superior hybrids or specific genotypes bearing complex gene sets. a more p ...200516024690
effects of commercial diazinon and imidacloprid on microbial urease activity in soil and sod.diazinon [o,o-diethyl o-2-isopropyl-6-methyl(pyrimidine-4-yl) phosphorothioate] and imidacloprid [1-(1-[6-chloro-3-pyridinyl]methyl)-n-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine] are applied to lawns for insect control simultaneously with nitrogenous fertilizers such as urea, but their potential effect on urease activity and nitrogen availability in turfgrass management has not been evaluated. urease activity in enzyme assays, washed cell assays, and soil slurries was examined as a function of insecticide concen ...200516091610
surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy of bacteria and pollen.a technique for distinguishing biological material based on surface-enhanced raman scattering (sers) is reported in this work. of particular interest is biological material that can be airborne. silver colloidal particles with diameters in the range 10 to 20 nm and with a characteristic ultraviolet-visible (uv-vis) absorption band at 400 nm were used to obtain sers spectra of escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and salmonella typhimurium bacteria and a number of tree and grass pollens (cup ...200516105210
[genetic polymorphism of bluegrass cultivars detected by rapds].kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.) is a hardy, persistent forage and turf grass adapted to a wide range of soils and climates. its ever-increasing adoption in highly cared-for sports fields has attracted the attention of many seed companies. however in the past, the breeding of elite varieties was often hampered by the extreme complexity of the genome. the polymorphism is important for broading the genetic basis and may be exploited for application of heterosis. the genetic relationship of 16 ...200516120587
sequence homology: a poor predictive value for profilins cross-reactivity.profilins are highly cross-reactive allergens which bind ige antibodies of almost 20% of plant-allergic patients. this study is aimed at investigating cross-reactivity of melon profilin with other plant profilins and the role of the linear and conformational epitopes in human ige cross-reactivity.200516153305
growth and nutritive quality of poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition.interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (o3) stress. a phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate o3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (anthoxanthum odoratum, achillea millefolium, rumex acetosa and veronica chamaedrys). mesocosms were exposed during april/may 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air+25 ppb o3 (control) or non-filtered air ...200616290915
physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition.the effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. achillea millefolium and veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (cf) air plus 25 nl l(-1) o3 (control) and non-filtered (nf) air plus 50 nl l(-1) o3. significant o3 effects were detected in dif ...200616321463
generation of large numbers of transgenic kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.) plants following biolistic gene transfer.a very efficient transformation system, using biolistic bombardment, has been developed for the production of transgenic plants of kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.). embryogenic calli, initiated from immature embryos, were transformed either with pact1ihpt-4 containing the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene or with pdm803 containing the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene and the beta-glucuronidase (uida) gene. in total 119 independent transgenic plants were recovered from 15 ...200616328388
effect of elevated tropospheric ozone on the structure of bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of herbaceous plants native to germany.current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. this study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. herbaceous plants, native to germany, with tolerance (anthoxanthum odoratum, achillea millefolium, poa pratensis, rumex acetosa, and veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (m ...200516332747
type 1 fimbria-mediated adhesion of enteric bacteria to grass roots.type 1 fimbriae of klebsiella pneumoniae and enterobacter agglomerans mediated bacterial adhesion to the roots of bluegrass, poa pratensis. purified, radiolabeled fimbriae bound to grass roots in vitro; binding was inhibited by alpha-methyl-d-mannoside or fab fragments to the fimbriae. anti-type 1 fimbriae fab fragments and alpha-methyl-d-mannoside also inhibited adhesion of type 1-fimbriated bacteria to p. pratensis roots. it is proposed that associative nitrogen fixation by klebsiella and ente ...198516346792
associative nitrogen fixation by klebsiella spp.: adhesion sites and inoculation effects on grass roots.adhesion sites on grass roots for klebsiella strains carrying type 3 or type 1 fimbriae or both were determined. adhesion of the strains to the roots of poa pratensis and festuca rubra was highly localized; the bacteria adhered strongly to root hairs and with a markedly lower efficiency to the surface of the zone of elongation and to the root cap mucilage. no adhesion to the epidermal cells between root hairs was observed. the adhesion sites were identical for the type 3- and 1-fimbriated bacter ...198616347205
fall fertilization timing effects on nitrate leaching and turfgrass color and growth.fall season fertilization is a widely recommended practice for turfgrass. fertilizer applied in the fall, however, may be subject to substantial leaching losses. a field study was conducted in connecticut to determine the timing effects of fall fertilization on nitrate n (no3-n) leaching, turf color, shoot density, and root mass of a 90% kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.), 10% creeping red fescue (festuca rubra l.) lawn. treatments consisted of the date of fall fertilization: 15 september, 15 ...200616391287
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