the limit dextrinases from ungerminated oats (avena sativa l.) and ungerminated rice (oryza sativa l.).the limit dextrinases from ungerminated oats and rice have been purified, and their substrate specificity compared with a bacterial isoamylase preparation. both cereal enzymes could hydrolyse (1 yields6)-alpha-d-glucosidic linkages in oligosaccharide alpha-dextrins, pullulan, amylopectin, and the beta-limit dextrins of amylopectin and glycogen. however, under comparable conditions, they were unable to attack glycogens.19751170015
h+-atpase from plasma membranes of saccharomyces cerevisiae and avena sativa roots: purification and reconstitution. 19882906717
extraction and purification of a substance with luteinizing hormone releasing activity from the leaves of avena sativa.attempts were made to purify the lh-releasing substance extracted from the leaves of avena sativa by means of two-step chromatographic procedures using a weakly acidic ion-exchange resin (cg-50,type ii) and deae-sephadex a-25 (coarse) with successful results. for preliminary fractionation of such starting materials as dried leaves, fresh leaves, and acetone-extracted powder(crude extracts), 5% acetate-buffered active carbon proved to be more effective than starch zone electrophoresis. from its b ...1976781913
the pharmacology of avena sativa.the pharmacology of avena sativa has been investigated in laboratory animals following a report that tincture of avena sativa reduced the craying for cigarettes in man. the tincture, evaporated to dryness, craving for cigarettes in man. the tincture, evaporated to dryness, re-constituted in an equal volume of water and administered by stomach tube or intraperitoneal injection, antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in two separate test (hot-plate and tail flick). compared with animal ...1975237083
purification and characterization of an alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from streptomyces lividans 66 and dna sequence of the gene (abfa).the gene encoding an alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase (abfa) was homologously cloned in streptomyces lividans and its dna sequence was determined. the enzyme was purified from the cytoplasm of the hyperproducing clone s. lividans iaf116. its m(r) was estimated by gel filtration and found to be approx. 380,000. since sds/page indicated a native protein of m(r) 69,000, it can be concluded that the native protein consists of several subunits of that size. the pi value was 4.6. the kinetic constants dete ...19948092996
rotation of cells in an alternating electric field: the occurrence of a resonance frequency.cells suspended in a low-conducting medium were exposed to an alternating electric field whose frequency was altered between 1 khz and 2 mhz. a resonance frequency was observed at which all suspended cells rotated about an axis normal to the field lines (when the electric field strength was larger than a threshold value of about 400 v/cm). this resonance frequency varied from species to species of cells (mesophyll protoplasts of avena sativa = 20-40 khz, human erythrocytes and ghost cells = 80-1 ...19817010816
glycerate kinase from leaves of c3 plants.d-glycerate-3-kinase (ec in six c3 species, including dicots (pisum sativum, spinacea oleracea, antirrhinum majus) and monocots (secale cereale, hordeum vulgare, avena sativa), ranged in activity from 44 to 353 mumol x mg chl-1 x h-1. studies with protoplast extracts of these species indicate that the enzyme is localized in the chloroplasts. glycerate kinase was partially purified from secale (rye, 288-fold) and pisum (pea, 252-fold) chloroplasts by deae-cellulose chromatography, sucro ...19836307152
colorimetric determination of aconitic acid in avena sativa (oat). 19705530564
probing the catalytic subunit of the tonoplast h+-atpase from oat roots. binding of 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3,-diazole to the 72-kilodalton polypeptide.the purified tonoplast h+-atpase from oat roots (avena sativa l. var. lang) consists of at least three different polypeptides with masses 72, 60, and 16 kda. we have used covalent modifiers (inhibitors) and polyclonal antibodies to identify the catalytic subunit of the h+-pumping atpase. the inactivation of atpase activity by 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (nbd-cl, an adenine analog) was protected by mgatp or mgadp, and showed kinetic properties consistent with active site-directed inhi ...19872884218
hemin inhibits ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in both a higher plant and eukaryotes, a major route for atp-dependent protein breakdown proceeds through covalent intermediates of target proteins destined for degradation and the highly conserved, 76 amino acid protein ubiquitin. in rabbit reticulocytes, it has been shown that hemin effectively inhibits this pathway by blocking the catabolism of ubiquitin-protein conjugates [ki = 25 microm (haas, a. l., & rose, i. a. (1981) proc. natl. acad. sci. u.s.a. 78, 6845-6848)]. here, we demonstrate that hemin is also an effe ...19882839230
unusual hepatic parenchymal crystalloid material and biliary microliths in goats.investigation into an outbreak of suspected photosensitivity in boer goats grazing green oats (avena sativa) led to the finding of microscopical parenchymal crystaloid material and biliary microliths in the livers of 3 ewes that were killed for necropsy. neither tribulus terrestris nor panicum spp. occurred on the farm. further investigation resulted in the isolation, from leaf spots on the oat leaves, of the fungus drechslera campanulata, cultures of which have been shown to be highly toxic to ...19892634769
molecular cloning and sequencing of cdnas encoding the proteolipid subunit of the vacuolar h(+)-atpase from a higher understand the molecular structure of the vacuolar h(+)-translocating atpase from plants, cdnas encoding the n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding 16-kda proteolipid from oat (avena sativa l. var. lang) have been obtained. a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to a region of the bovine proteolipid cdna (mandel, m., moriyama, y., hulmes, j.d., pan, y.-c.e., nelson, h., and nelson, n. (1988) proc. natl. acad. sci. u.s.a. 85, 5521-5524) was used to screen an oat cdna library constructed in l ...19911831453
cloning and sequencing of protochlorophyllide reductase.putative protochlorophyllide reductase cdna clones (252 and 113) were isolated from an etiolated-oat (avena sativa) cdna library. these were used to indirectly characterize a further clone, p127, isolated from a lambda-phage gt11 cdna library. the latter (1.15 kb in length) was sequenced, and the derived amino acid sequence was shown to be remarkably similar to that derived from chemical analysis of a cnbr-cleavage fragment of the purified reductase, p127 codes for more than 95% of the reductase ...19901689568
identification of the three major coeliac immunoreactive proteins and one alpha-amylase inhibitor from oat endosperm.six chloroform/methanol-soluble proteins from oat endosperm (avena sativa) have been isolated and characterized by a purification procedure based on extraction with volatile solvents, followed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. three of these proteins, with an assessed molecular weight of 25,000, 27,000 and 32,000 da, respectively, have been identified by immunoblotting using coeliac sera, as the major coeliac serum iga-binding components of oat endosperm. the n-terminal a ...19921526282
regulation of tabtoxin production by the lema gene in pseudomonas syringae.pseudomonas syringae pv. coronafaciens, a pathogen of oats, was mutagenized with tn5 to generate mutants defective in tabtoxin production. from a screen of 3,400 kanamycin-resistant transconjugants, seven independent mutants that do not produce tabtoxin (tox-) were isolated. although the tn5 insertions within these seven mutants were linked, they were not located in the previously described tabtoxin biosynthetic region of p. syringae. instead, all of the insertions were within the p. syringae pv ...19921314808
evidence that the alpha a gene of barley stripe mosaic virus encodes determinants of pathogenicity to oat (avena sativa).complementary dna clones from which infectious rna can be transcribed were used to map the genetic determinants for oat (avena sativa l.) pathogenicity of barley stripe mosaic virus (bsmv). pseudorecombinant analysis of bsmv strains nd18 (nonpathogenic to oat) and cv42 (pathogenic to oat) indicated that the ability to systemically infect oat mapped to rna alpha. a homologous recombinant of nd18 (18 alpha tktkin), possessing nucleotides 2218 to 2454 from cv42 rna alpha, induced symptoms on oat si ...19948178475
effects of early experience on voluntary intake of low-quality roughage by sheep.this study determined 1) how experience early in life with cured weeping lovegrass (eragrostis curvula) (low-quality roughage) or fresh oats (avena sativa) (high-quality roughage) affected consumption of low- or high-quality roughage by lambs later in life and 2) whether this early dietary experience affected passage of undigested residues through the digestive tract and digestion of low-quality roughage. from 1 to 5 mo of age, experienced lambs (el) were grazing cured weeping lovegrass, whereas ...19948056663
expression of phytochrome apoprotein from avena sativa in escherichia coli and formation of photoactive chromoproteins by assembly with phycocyanobilin.phytochrome dnas from oat (avena sativa l.) encoding the full-length 124-kda polypeptide, a 118-kda fragment lacking the first 65 amino acids, and two n-terminal fragments of 65 kda and 45 kda were subcloned and expressed in escherichia coli. reducing the temperature to 25 degrees c during cell growth and the coexpression of chaperones improved the folding into a functional conformation for most of the polypeptides, and in one case the yield of polypeptides was also enhanced. a maximum yield of ...19948033910
two tcp-1-related but highly divergent gene families exist in oat encoding proteins of assumed chaperone function.tcp-1-related sequences have been isolated from a cdna library of etiolated 6-day-old oat (avena sativa) seedlings. this attempt was made to obtain cdnas of a recently published 60 kda plant chaperone that re-folds denatured phytochrome and which was biochemically characterised as a tcp-1-related protein [(1993) nature 363, 644-647]. the translation of the putative coding sequence from one full-length cdna clone displays no specific homologies to amino acid sequences known from peptide sequencin ...19937903257
arginine decarboxylase transgene expression and analysis of environmental stress tolerance in transgenic rice.arginine decarboxylase (adc) cdna from oat (avena sativa l.) was introduced into rice (oryza sativa l.) genome by an agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. expression of the adc transgene under the control of an aba-inducible promoter led to stress-induced upregulation of adc activity and polyamine accumulation in transgenic rice plants. second-generation (rl) transgenic rice plants showed an increase in biomass under salinity-stress conditions, as compared to the non-transformed control ...200111297783
pollen allergen homologues in barley and other crop species.pollen from 10 agricultural plant species was surveyed for the presence of proteins crossreactive with group i, group iv and group ix allergens. barley (hordeum vulgare), maize (zea mays), rye (secale cerale), triticale (xtriticosecale cereale), oats (avena sativa), canola (brassica napus) and sunflower (helianthus annus) pollens contained numerous allergen cognate proteins. northern blot analysis of barley pollen rna revealed the presence of group i and group ix allergen transcripts. the barley ...19957537171
chaperonin-mediated reconstitution of the phytochrome photoreceptor.the native phytochrome photoreceptor was purified to homogeneity from etiolated seedlings of oat (avena sativa l.) and used for renaturation experiments. light scattering measurements showed that the groel molecular chaperone interacts with non-native phytochrome to suppress aggregation of the refolding polypeptide, following its dilution from a chaotrope. the binary complex formed between non-native phytochrome and groel was stable and could be isolated by size exclusion chromatography. dischar ...19938095267
rotation of cells and ion exchange beads in the mhz-frequency range.whereas human red blood cells and protoplasts of leaves of avena sativa show rotation only at discrete frequencies in the khz-range of a linear alternating electric field, rotation of these cells is observed at practically every frequency in the mhz range (15 to 200 mhz). the cell rotation in the mhz-range can be explained in terms of field induced polarisation and orientation of permanent dipoles within the membrane and the cell. this interpretation is supported by the finding that chelex beads ...19836880341
inducible overexpression of oat arginine decarboxylase in transgenic tobacco test the possible interaction of polyamines in plant growth responses, transgenic tobacco plants containing the avena sativa l. (oat) arginine decarboxylase (adc) gene under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter were generated. inducible overexpression of oat adc in transgenic tobacco led to an accumulation of adc mrna, increased adc activity and changes in polyamine levels. transgenic lines, induced during vegetative stage, displayed different degrees of an altered phenotype, the ...19979107036
cross protection and mutual exclusion by three strains of barley yellow dwarf virus in avena sativa l. 19655833319
purification and characterization of recombinant affinity peptide-tagged oat phytochrome a.full-length avena sativa (oat) phytochrome a (asphya) was expressed in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified to apparent homogeneity. expression of an asphya cdna that encoded the full-length photoreceptor with a 15 amino acid 'strep-tag' peptide at its c-terminus produced a single polypeptide with a molecular mass of 124 kda. this strep-tagged polypeptide (asphya-st) bound tightly to streptavidin agarose and was selectively eluted using diaminobiotin, with a chromatographic efficiency ...19979114754
an experimental mycotoxicosis in sheep and goats caused by drechslera campanulata, a fungal pathogen of green oats.field outbreaks of a syndrome of unknown aetiology associated with the grazing of green oats (avena sativa) in the south-western cape province were characterized by diarrhoea, photosensitivity and death in goats and by diarrhoea and a reduction in milk production in cows. a phytopathogenic fungus, drechslera campanulata, was isolated from conspicuous reddish-brown leaf spots on oat plants collected from both outbreaks. pure cultures on autoclaved maize of d. campanulata isolates from oat leaves ...19854047622
agrobacterium-mediated infectivity of cloned digitaria streak virus dna.a monomeric clone of double-stranded dna synthesized in vitro dna of the geminivirus digitaria streak (dsv) was subcloned as a tandem dimeric unit into a binary vector of agrobacterium tumefaciens, creating a plasmid pds2. inoculation of digitaria sanguinalis with a. tumefaciens carrying pds2 resulted in viral infection. the symptoms, virus particles, and dna forms obtained were indistinguishable from those of a natural dsv infection of d. sanguinalis. inoculations have also induced infections i ...19883341112
purification and initial characterization of ubiquitin from the higher plant, avena sativa.ubiquitin is a highly conserved, 76-amino acid polypeptide recently demonstrated to be involved in atp-dependent protein degradation in mammalian cells. from immunoblot analyses with anti-human-ubiquitin antibodies we have detected the presence of free ubiquitin in green leaves, etiolated shoots, and dry seeds of the higher plant, oats (avena sativa l.). we also find that crude oat extracts contain protease(s) that rapidly degrade both oat and human ubiquitin (t1/2 approximately 10 min at 27 deg ...19852995356
heterologous encapsidation in mixed infections among four isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus.we used immunohybridization and elisa to investigate heterologous encapsidation (transcapsidation and phenotypic mixing) between paired isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (bydv) in doubly infected oat plants, avena sativa l. cv. clintland 64. virons in samples extracted from plants doubly infected with two viruses were trapped with an antibody specific to one virus, and the nucleic acids of the trapped virions were identified with a cdna probe specific to the other. heterologous encapsidation ...19911895059
characterization of regions within the n-terminal 6-kilodalton domain of phytochrome a that modulate its biological activity.phytochrome a (phya) is a red/far-red (fr) light photoreceptor responsible for initiating numerous light-mediated plant growth and developmental responses, especially in fr light-enriched environments. we previously showed that the first 70 amino acids of the polypeptide contain at least two regions with potentially opposite functions (e.t. jordan, j.r. cherry, j.m. walker, r.d. vierstra [1996] plant j 9: 243-257). one region is required for activity and correct apoprotein/chromophore interactio ...19979342873
isolation and expression of a host response gene family encoding thaumatin-like proteins in incompatible oat-stem rust fungus interactions.four cdna clones (corresponding to tlp-1, -2, -3, and -4 genes) encoding thaumatin-like (tl), pathogenesis-related proteins were isolated from oat (avena sativa) infected by an incompatible isolate pga-1h of the oat stem rust fungus (puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae). all four cdna clones contained an open reading frame predicted to encode a 169-amino acid polypeptide with a signal peptide of 21 amino acids at the n-terminus, suggesting that these proteins are transported through a secretory path ...19968755626
"chitin-specific" peroxidases in plants.the activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (avena sativa), rice (oryza sativa), horseradish (armoracia rusticana), garden radish (raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (a ...200312693984
[a comparative ecological-genetic assessment of the mutagenic background in 2 agricultural districts of the transcarpathian province].the estimation of the total mutagenic overloading and chromosome variability in population of two transcarpathian regions in ukraine differing in the intensity of pesticides use has been studied. the statistically significant differences in mutagenicity of soil (on the growing seed allium cepa), mutability of agricultural crops (vicia sativa, avena sativa) and chromosome aberrations level in peripheral lymphocytes in juveniles have been determined.19938316952
in situ localization of faba bean and oat legumin-type proteins in transgenic tobacco seeds by a highly sensitive immunological tissue print technique.we have used a highly sensitive immunological tissue print technique to study cell- and tissue-specific expression of heterologous genes in transgenic plants. primary polyclonal antibodies, raised against legumin of faba bean (vicia faba l.) and 12s globulin of oat (avena sativa l.) were used to localize these proteins in transgenic tobacco seeds in a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase assay in combination with biotinylated secondary antibodies producing a higher sensitivity (by several amplifica ...19938400128
reconstitution of a bacterial/plant polyamine biosynthesis pathway in saccharomyces cerevisiae.polyamine synthesis in most organisms is initiated by the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine via ornithine decarboxylase (odc). plants, some bacteria and some fungi and protozoa generate putrescine from arginine, via arginine decarboxylase (adc) and agmatine ureohydrolase (auh) or agmatine iminohydrolase. a polyamine-requiring strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae with a mutation in the gene encoding odc was transformed with plasmids bearing genes encoding escherichia coli adc and auh. ...199910075412
central effects of ac-1 and and tfg-1 are both herb extracts from avena sativa and trigonella foenum graecum respectively. in folk medicine, trigonella foenum graecum is used as appetiser and general tonic as well as for pellagra treatment and for treatment of pulmonary disorders. avena sativa is another commonly used appetiser and tonic. in our study we examined the influence of ac-1 and tfg-1 on some of the major functions of the central nervous system. we divided the test animals in three groups and after administe ...199810206008
protein evaluation of four oat (avena sativa l.) cultivars adapted for cultivation in the south of brazil.four oat cultivars adapted for soil and climate conditions in the southern region of brazil were evaluated for protein nutritive value. evaluations were done both in vitro and in vivo. in vitro evaluation was done by essential amino acid profile, available lysine, amino acid scoring, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid-scoring (pdcaas). nitrogen balance indices and per were determined in vivo with rats. in all four cultivars (ufp-15, ufp-16, ctc-03, ufrgs-14), lysine was the most limi ...199910540981
joint effects of elevated levels of ultraviolet-b radiation, carbon dioxide and ozone on plants.there is growing interest regarding the joint effects of elevated levels of surface ultraviolet b (uv-b) radiation, carbon dioxide (co2) and ozone (o3) on plants. our current knowledge of this subject is too limited to draw any specific conclusions, although one might state that such effects are likely to be highly species dependent and may be more than additive, additive or less than additive. there are a number of uncertainties associated with the experimental protocols used and the conclusion ...200314743861
persistence of the effects of early experience on consumption of low-quality roughage by sheep.the aim of this study was to determine the effects of experience early in life with cured weeping lovegrass (eragrostis curvula) (low-quality roughage) or fresh oats (avena sativa) (high-quality roughage) on voluntary intake and nitrogen retention when sheep ate a low-quality roughage 9 mo after initial exposure. from 1 to 5 mo of age, experienced wethers (ew) grazed cured weeping lovegrass, whereas inexperienced wethers (iw) grazed fresh oats (initial exposure). then both ew and iw were fed sor ...19968726727
feasibility of using lignin isolated from forages by solubilization in acetyl bromide as a standard for lignin analyses.lignin concentration can be measured in plants by the acetyl bromide-soluble lignin spectrophotometric method; however, as with any spectrophotometric method, a reliable standard is needed. in the present experiments, lignin was extracted from each of the forages under study with the acetyl bromide reagent. the lignin isolated with acetyl bromide (liab) was then used as the reference standard in the acetyl bromide-soluble lignin (absl) analysis, which was compared with the acid detergent lignin ...200011132828
supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: reproduction, condition loss, plasma metabolites, and experiment was conducted over a 2-yr period to investigate the influence of grain crude protein (cp) and rumen undegradable protein (rup) concentration on reproduction and energy status of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) and oats (avena sativa). holstein cows (n = 122) were blocked by calving group [partum (0 d postpartum) vs. postpartum (41 +/- 19 d postpartum at study initiation)] and assigned to grain supplements containing high cp [22.8% of dry matter (dm)], modera ...200111352167
cloning and characterisation of chlorophyll synthase from avena sativa.the chlorophyll synthase gene from oat (avena sativa) was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. the deduced amino acid sequence consists of 378 amino acids including a presequence of 46 amino acids. deletion mutants show that a core protein comprising amino acid residues 88 to 377 is enzymatically active. the sequence of the mature protein shows 85% identity with the chlorophyll synthase of arabidopsis thaliana and 62% identity with the chlorophyll synthase of synechocystis pcc 6803. the gen ...200111501754
effect of maturity on degradation kinetics of sod-seeded cereal grain forage grown in northern arkansas.wheat (triticum aestivum l.), oat (avena sativa l.), and rye (secale cereale l.) were overseeded into a dormant bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon (l.) pers.) sod and harvested at 3-wk intervals throughout march, april, may, and early june. plant growth stage was documented for each forage on each harvest date, and harvested forages were evaluated for forage quality characteristics. degradation kinetics of dm and ndf for these forages were evaluated by the in situ method. fractional degradation rate ...200011104269
theophylline metabolism in higher plants.metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline was investigated in leaf segments from camellia sinensis (tea), camellia irrawadiensis, ilex paraguariensis (maté) and avena sativa, root segments of vigna mungo seedlings and cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus. there was extensive uptake and metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline by leaves of tea and camellia irrawadiensis and, to a lesser extent, maté. these purine alkaloid-containing species converted [8-(14)c]theophylline into 3-methylxanthine, x ...19979305805
ruminal digestion by dairy cows grazing winter oats pasture supplemented with different levels and sources of protein.six holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in two simultaneous 3 x 3 latin squares to study the effects of protein supplements on ruminal fermentation and in situ crude protein degradability. cows rotationally grazed a winter oats (avena sativa l.) pasture and were supplemented with one of three concentrate supplements: 1) low protein sunflower meal (l-sm); 2) high protein sunflower meal (h-sm); or 3) high protein feather meal (h-fm). concentrates (6.5 kg/d) were offered in equal p ...200111699458
a novel protein elicitor (panie) from pythium aphanidermatum induces multiple defense responses in carrot, arabidopsis, and tobacco.a novel protein elicitor (panie(234)) from pythium aphanidermatum (edson) fitzp. was purified, microsequenced, and the corresponding cdna was cloned. the deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative eukaryotic secretion signal with a proteinase cleavage site. the heterologously expressed elicitor protein without the secretion signal of 21 amino acids (panie(213)) triggered programmed cell death and de novo formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cultured cells of carrot (daucus carota). program ...200111706166
genetic and physical mapping of lrk10-like receptor kinase sequences in hexaploid oat (avena sativa l.).oat receptor-like kinase gene sequences, homologous to the lrk10 gene from wheat (triticum aestivum l.), were mapped in oat (avena sativa l.). pcr primers designed from the wheat lrk10 were used to produce alrk10 from oat. two dna sequences, alrk1a1 and alrk4a5, were produced from primers designed from coding and noncoding regions of alrk10. their use as rflp probes indicated that the kinase genes mapped to four loci on different hexaploid oat 'kanota' x 'ogle' linkage groups (4_12, 5, 6, and 13 ...200211908651
chemistry and biology of phototropism-regulating substances in higher plants.most people are familiar with the sight of a young seedling bending towards a window or the brightest source of light to which it is exposed. this directional growth response is known as phototropism, which is caused by a lateral growth-promoting auxin in the bending organ (cholodny-went theory, cited in high school textbook). recently, however, bruinsma et al., weiler et al., and hasegawa et al. independently found that the shaded half did not contain more auxin than the illuminated one. instea ...200111933243
identification and characterization of a novel arabinoxylanase from wheat endogenous wheat (triticum aestivum) flour endoxylanase was purified to homogeneity from a crude wheat flour extract by ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography. the 30-kd protein had an isoelectric point of 9.3 or higher. a sequence of 19 amino acids at the nh2 terminus showed 84.2% identity with an internal sequence of 15-kd grain-softness protein, friabilin. high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation analysis of the hydrolysis products indica ...19979414565
pre-loading of chlorophyll synthase with tetraprenyl diphosphate is an obligatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis.the reaction of recombinant chlorophyll synthase from avena sativa, expressed in escherichia coli, was investigated. to verify the identity of the recombinant and native enzymes, reaction rates were determined for both enzyme preparations with several chlorophyllide analogs. the rates of esterification of these modified substrates ranged from 0 to 100% of the rate with the natural substrate, and were nearly identical for both enzyme preparations. the lineweaver-burk plot for variation of both ch ...200212530542
udp-glucose:sterol glucosyltransferase: cloning and functional expression in escherichia coli.steryl glucosides are characteristic lipids of plant membranes. the biosynthesis of these lipids is catalyzed by the membrane-bound udp-glucose:sterol glucosyltransferase (ec the purified enzyme (warnecke and heinz, plant physiol 105 (1994): 1067-1073) has been used for the cloning of a corresponding cdna from oat (avena sativa l.). amino acid sequences derived from the amino terminus of the purified protein and from peptides of a trypsin digestion were used to construct oligonucleot ...19979349281
ige antibodies to recombinant pollen allergens (phl p 1, phl p 2, phl p 5, and bet v 2) account for a high percentage of grass pollen-specific ige.pollen from different grass species are some of the most potent elicitors of type i allergy worldwide. the characterization of antigenic structures and ige epitopes common to different grass species is relevant to define reagents for diagnosis and specific therapy of grass pollen allergy.19989500760
herbicide safener-binding protein of maize. purification, cloning, and expression of an encoding cdna.dichloroacetamide safeners protect maize (zea mays l.) against injury from chloroacetanilide and thiocarbamate herbicides. etiolated maize seedlings have a high-affinity cytosolic-binding site for the safener [3h](r,s)-3-dichloroacetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-1, 3-oxazol-idine ([3h]saf), and this safener-binding activity (safba) is competitively inhibited by the herbicides. the safener-binding protein (safbp), purified to homogeneity, has a relative molecular weight of 39,000, as shown by sodium dodecyl ...19989501141
the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus promoter is active in both monocots and dicots.regions of the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus genome were tested for promoter activity. the genomic region spanning nucleotides 5999-7420 was shown to possess promoter activity as exemplified by its ability to drive the expression of the coding region of the uida gene of escherichia coli, in both avena sativa and arabidopsis thaliana. in a. sativa, the promoter was active in all organs examined and, with the exception of the anthers where the expression was localized, this activity was constit ...19989747843
gibberellin-photoaffinity labelling of two polypeptides in plant plasma membranes.two polypeptides of m(r) 68 kda and 18 kda were gibberellin (ga)-photoaffinity labelled in vitro in plasma membrane preparations from oat (avena sativa l.) aleurone and from leaves and stems of wild-type and ga-sensitivity mutants of different species. labelling of these polypeptides could be competed by biologically active, but not by inactive, gas, indicating the likely biological significance of these interactions. on 2-dimensional gels the radiolabelled polypeptides were each resolved as one ...19989750344
milk fatty acid composition of cows fed a total mixed ration or pasture plus concentrates replacing corn with fat.thirty-one holstein cows (six ruminally cannulated) were used to evaluate milk fatty acids (fa) composition and conjugated linoleic acid (cla) content on three dietary treatments: 1) total mixed rations (tmr), 2) pasture (avena sativa l.) plus 6.7 kg dm/d of corn-based concentrate (pcorn), and 3) pasture plus pcorn with 0.8 kg dm/d of ca salts of unsaturated fa replacing 1.9 kg dm/d of corn (pfat). no differences were found in total (22.4 kg/d) or pasture (18.5 kg/d) dry matter intake, ruminal p ...200314594244
willet m. hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.willet m. hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the american genetic association (aga). we commemorate the aga's centennial. we mined university archives, u.s. department of agriculture (usda) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. willet hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. he developed useful plant breeding method ...200314691309
polyamine binding to proteins in oat and petunia protoplasts.previous work (a apelbaum et al. [1988] plant physiol 88: 996-998) has demonstrated binding of labeled spermidine (spd) to a developmentally regulated 18 kilodalton protein in tobacco tissue cultures derived from thin surface layer explants. to assess the general importance of such spd-protein complexes, we attempted bulk isolation from protoplasts of petunia and oat (avena sativa). in petunia, as in tobacco, fed radioactive spd is bound to protein, but in oat, spd is first converted to 1,3,-d ...198911537462
a molecular linkage map with associated qtls from a hulless x covered spring oat spring-type oat ( avena sativa l.), quantitative trait loci (qtls) detected in adapted populations may have the greatest potential for improving germplasm via marker-assisted selection. an f(6) recombinant inbred (ri) population was developed from a cross between two canadian spring oat varieties: 'terra', a hulless line, and 'marion', an elite covered-seeded line. a molecular linkage map was generated using 430 aflp, rflp, rapd, scar, and phenotypic markers scored on 101 ri lines. this map w ...200414767596
nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species do not elicit hypersensitive cell death but induce apoptosis in the adjacent cells during the defense response of oat.nitric oxide (no) acts as a signaling molecule in many cellular responses in plants and animals. oat plants (avena sativa l.) evoke the hypersensitive response (hr), which shares morphological and biochemical features with mammalian apoptosis, such as dna laddering and heterochromatin condensation, in response to the avirulent crown rust fungus (puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae). we examined the role of no and reactive oxygen species (ros) in the initiation of hypersensitive cell death, which is ...200415000391
enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid in oats (avena sativa l.) by microbial isomerization.a method for microbial isomerization of oat linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid (cla) was developed. the method includes hydrolysis of oat lipids in aqueous flour slurries by the endogenous oat lipase. then, the flour slurry containing free linoleic acid is utilized as a substrate for the isomerization reaction carried out by resting cells of propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. the isomerization reaction progressed most effectively when, after the lipid hydrolysis period, the ...200415030240
specific detection of fusarium langsethiae and related species by dgge and arms-pcr of a beta-tubulin (tub1) gene fragment.fusarium langsethiae was recently described as a new toxigenic fusarium species, which morphologically resembles fusarium poae, but exhibits a mycotoxin pattern related to fusarium sporotrichioides. to develop tools for early and specific detection of f. langsethiae and distinguishing it from related species of section sporotrichiella and discolor (f. poae, f. sporotrichioides, fusarium kyushuense, fusarium robustum, fusarium sambucinum and fusarium tumidum) sequence variations in their beta-tub ...200415337597
oat (avena sativa l.) and amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets.cereals are an important part of diets for hypercholesterolemic patients. however, some of these patients are allergic to these natural products. the purpose of the current study was to compare oatmeal with equal in nutritional values two allergy-free amaranth meals to determine whether this pseudocereal can be a substitute for allergic to cereals individuals. the total phenols of the samples were determined with the folin-chocalteu reagent, anthocyanins, and flavonoids spectrophotometrically. t ...200415542354
quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to crown rust, puccinia coronata, in cultivated oat, avena sativa facilitate the detection of quantitative trait loci (qtls) for partial resistance to oat crown rust, puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae eriks., a genetic map was generated in a population of 158 f(6)-derived oat recombinant inbred lines from a cross of a partial resistance line mn841801-1 by a susceptible cultivar selection 'noble-2'. the map, developed using 230 marker loci, mostly restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, spanned 1,509 cm (hal ...200515918009
phenolic compounds in oat grains (avena sativa l.) grown in conventional and organic systems.the concentrations of avenanthramides (avas), hydroxycinnamic acids (hcas), a sucrose-linked truxinic acid (tase), and certain agronomic parameters were analyzed in organically and conventionally grown oats. three cultivars of oats (i.e. freja, sang, and matilda) were grown according to standards for both conventional and organic farming in sweden, from 1998 to 2000. two levels of nitrogen (n) and three replicates were included. overall, there were significant differences between years, cultivar ...200516092265
ecotoxicity of sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) to soil organisms.sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) is applied as a vertebrate pesticide in new zealand for control of introduced mammalian pests. despite its widespread use, little is known about the soil ecotoxicity of 1080. therefore, the hazard of 1080 to soil invertebrates, plants, and soil microorganisms was evaluated in a series of controlled laboratory tests. no earthworm (eisenia fetida) mortality was reported with 1080 exposures up to 865 mg/kg soil. the lowest-observable-effect concentration and the ...200516111002
avenanthramide, a polyphenol from oats, inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and enhances nitric oxide production.the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (smc) and impaired nitric oxide (no) production are both crucial pathophysiological processes in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. epidemiological data have indicated that diets rich in whole grain foods are associated with a reduced risk of developing atherosclerosis. avenanthramides are polyphenols found exclusively in oats (avena sativa l.). the present study was conducted to examine the effect of synthetically prepared avenan ...200616139284
the serine-rich n-terminal domain of oat phytochrome a helps regulate light responses and subnuclear localization of the photoreceptor.phytochrome (phy) a mediates two distinct photobiological responses in plants: the very-low-fluence response (vlfr), which can be saturated by short pulses of very-low-fluence light, and the high-irradiance response (hir), which requires prolonged irradiation with higher fluences of far-red light (fr). to investigate whether the vlfr and hir involve different domains within the phya molecule, transgenic tobacco (nicotiana tabacum cv xanthi) and arabidopsis seedlings expressing full-length (fl) a ...200212114567
repression of pseudomonas putida phenanthrene-degrading activity by plant root extracts and exudates.the phenanthrene-degrading activity (pda) of pseudomonas putida atcc 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (avena sativa), osage orange (maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (salix alba x matsudana), kou (cordia subcordata) and milo (thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (populus deltoides x nigra dn34). total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). characterization of root extracts identifi ...200415142245
evaluation of methods for sampling, recovery, and enumeration of bacteria applied to the phylloplane.determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. several experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery methods that are commonly used or that have potential applications. in these experiments, erwinia herbicola and enterobacter cloacae were applied in greenhouses to blue lake bush beans (phaseolus vulgaris) and cayuse oats ...199116348404
growth performance, carcass and pork quality of finisher pigs fed oat-based diets containing different levels of beta-glucans.a study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs (bw = 52 to 108 kg) fed oat-based (avena sativa l.) diets containing four levels of mixed-linkage (1 --> 3), (1 --> 4)-beta-d-glucans. one hundred sixty pigs-80 barrows and 80 gilts (average starting bw = 52.7 kg)--were allocated to one of five diets: a wheat-barley-based control diet and four experimental diets. the groats of marion, a covered oat, and ot789, a hulless oat, were used to formulate f ...200312643489
inhibitory effect of sejin-eum i/ii on nicotine- and cigarette extract-induced cytotoxicity in human lung fibroblast.nicotine is a major pharmacologically active component of cigarette smoke. excessive cigarette smoking is harmful to lung. sejin-eum (sje) i is composed of various oriental medicines, and sje ii is sje i plus seeds of avena sativa (gramineae) that reduces the craving for cigarette in man. in this study, we have examined whether an aqueous extract of sje i/ii inhibits nicotine- or cigarette extract (ce)-induced cytotoxicity in human embryonic lung fibroblast, mrc-9. assessment of cell viability u ...200312686436
independent activation of cold acclimation by low temperature and short photoperiod in hybrid aspen.temperate zone woody plants cold acclimate in response to both short daylength (sd) and low temperature (lt). we were able to show that these two environmental cues induce cold acclimation independently by comparing the wild type (wt) and the transgenic hybrid aspen (populus tremula x populus tremuloides michx.) line 22 overexpressing the oat (avena sativa) phytochrome a gene. line 22 was not able to detect the sd and, consequently, did not stop growing in sd conditions. this resulted in an impa ...200212177476
replacement value of undecorticated sunflower meal as a supplement for milk production by crossbred cows and buffaloes in the northern plains of india.the replacement value of undecorticated sunflower meal (sfm) in the diets of dairy animals was assessed on-station and on-farm. eighteen primiparous crossbred (bos taurus x bos indicus) cows (350.4 +/- 8.84 kg), randomly allocated to three groups, were used in the on-station study. the animals were fed on either a conventional concentrate supplement (control) or on an experimental concentrate, in which sfm replaced 25% (sfm-25) or 50% (sfm-50) of the cp in the control supplement. green oats (ave ...200312735704
the development and evaluation of consensus chloroplast primer pairs that possess highly variable sequence regions in a diverse array of plant taxa.although universal or consensus chloroplast primers are available, they are limited by their number and genomic distribution. therefore, a set of consensus chloroplast primer pairs for simple sequence repeats (ccssrs) analysis was constructed from tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) chloroplast sequences. these were then tested for their general utility in the genetic analysis of a diverse array of plant taxa. in order to increase the number of ccssrs beyond that previously reported, the target seque ...200312827249
avenacin, an antimicrobial substance isolated from avena sativa. i. isolation and antimicrobial activity. 196414155108
genetic analysis of a novel alaska barley yellow dwarf virus in the family luteoviridae.a new plant virus belonging to the family luteoviridae and isolated from diseased oat (avena sativa l.) plants was discovered in alaska in 2003. even though plants with red/orange leaves were indicative of barley yellow dwarf disease, they were not reactive to specific antibodies corresponding to barley yellow dwarf virus (bydv)-mav, -pav, -sgv, and cereal yellow dwarf virus-rpv from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa). an alternative rt-pcr assay that incorporated shu-f/yan-r primers for ...200717013543
effect of oxygen on photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration in detached leaves. ii. corn and other monocotyledons.the effect of o(2) on the co(2) exchange of detached leaves of corn (zea mays), wheat (triticum vulgare), oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare), timothy (phleum pratense) and cat-tail (typha angustifolia) was measured with a clark oxygen electrode and infrared carbon dioxide analysers in both open and closed systems.corn leaves did not produce co(2) in the light at any o(2) concentration, as was shown by the zero co(2) compensation point and the absence of a co(2) burst in the first minu ...196616656272
in vitro phytochrome dark reversion process.thermal reversion of the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome to the red absorbing form in darkness has been investigated in crude and partially purified isolates from a number of etiolated and light grown higher plants. the influence of temperature, aging and urea on the rate of reversion was also determined.phytochrome isolated from all higher plants underwent reversion. the reversion proceeded in at least 2 distinct stages; a short rapid initial phase being followed a slow phase which contin ...196816656838
genetic structure in natural populations of barley/cereal yellow dwarf virus isolates from alaska.the genetic structure of natural populations of alaskan barley yellow dwarf virus (bydv)-pav, bydv-pas, and cereal yellow dwarf virus (cydv)-rpv from barley (hordeum vulgare l.) and oats (avena sativa l.) in alaska were analyzed between 2002 and 2004. pcr products spanning the viral coat protein gene of 187 isolates were cloned and sequenced. the majority (78%) were similar to bydv-pas, 19% were similar to cydv-rpv, and only about 3% resembled bydv-pav. the cydv-rpv isolates clustered in three g ...200717216137
photoconversion of riboflavin to lumichrome in plant flavins have been extracted from shoots of etiolated corn (zea mays l., var. burpee snowcross) and from yeast cells and separated from other substances by absorption on resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and talc columns and by thin layer chromatography. riboflavin was the only free flavin present. extracts of etiolated shoots of oats (avena sativa l., var. multiline e-69 and clinford) yielded riboflavin plus a second free flavin previously demonstrated in oats. the areas of the chromatograms ex ...197216658098
use of protein in extraction and stabilization of nitrate reductase.the in vitro instability of nitrate reductase (ec activity from leaves of several species of higher plants was investigated. decay of activity was exponential with time, suggesting that an enzyme-catalyzed reaction was involved. the rate of decay of nitrate reductase activity increased as leaf age increased in all species studied. activity was relatively stable in certain genotypes of zea mays l., but extremely unstable in others. in all genotypes of avena sativa l. and nicotiana tabacu ...197416658769
phytochrome characterization by rabbit antiserum against high molecular weight phytochrome.both small and large sizes of phytochrome purified from garry oat (avena sativa l. ev. garry) as well as large phytochrome purified from newton oat (a. sativa l. cv. newton), rye (secale cereale l. cv. balbo), barley (hordeum vulgare l. cv. harrison), and pea (pisum sativum l. cv. alaska) seedlings are characterized by a specific antiserum against large garry oat phytochrome. a spur is observed by double diffusion assay against large and small garry oat phytochrome indicating only partial identi ...197516659052
attempts to detect cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in higher plants by three assay methods.endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate in coleoptile first leaf segments of oat (avena sativa l.), potato (solanum tuberosum l.) tubers, tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) callus, and germinating seeds of lettuce (lactuca sativa l.) were measured with a modified gilman binding assay and a protein kinase activation assay. the incorporation of adenosine-8-(14)c into compounds with properties similar to those of cyclic amp was also measured in studies with germinating lettuce seeds. ...197616659419
long distance translocation of sucrose, serine, leucine, lysine, and carbon dioxide assimilates: ii. establish whether several amino acids were equally able to enter the phloem of oat (avena sativa l.) plants and be transported, several (14)c-labeled amino acids were applied individually to an abraded spot on a fully expanded source leaf. the base of an immature sink leaf was monitored with a gm tube for time and rate of arrival of radioactivity. transport of (14)c-sucrose and (14)co(2) assimilates was measured for a comparison. the applied l-serine, l-lysine, and l-leucine, as well as sucro ...197716659821
vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of sardinian wild boar (sus scrofa meridionalis).authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from november to january. mean ph of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. mean total capacity (tc) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. mean stuff ratio (cw/tc) between the content weight (cw) and stomachs tc was 0.45. food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (allium spp., arbutus unedo, arisarum vulgare, avena f ...200717516948
immunopurification and initial characterization of dicotyledonous phytochrome.antiserum was prepared against proteolytically undegraded phytochrome obtained from etiolated zucchini squash (cucurbita pepo l., cv. black beauty). the antiserum was prepared by injecting into a rabbit immunoprecipitates between zucchini phytochrome and specific antiserum against undegraded oat (avena sativa l., cv. garry) phytochrome. specific antiphytochrome immunoglobulins were purified from this crude serum by an affinity column consisting of conventionally purified undegraded pea phytochro ...198216662209
isolation and characterization of oat globulin messenger rna.when polyadenylated rna, isolated from membrane-bound polysomes extracted from developing oat (avena sativa l.) seeds, was translated in vitro in the rabbit reticulocyte system, two polypeptides of about 58 and 60 kilodaltons were immunoprecipitated by anti-oat globulin antibody. no electrophoretic bands corresponding to the 40 and 20 kilodalton polypeptides of oat globulin were present. however, when in vivo labeled extracts were immunoprecipitated with anti-oat globulin antibody, three groups ...198316663046
cenl1 expression in the rib meristem affects stem elongation and the transition to dormancy in populus.we investigated the short day (sd)-induced transition to dormancy in wild-type hybrid poplar (populus tremula x p. tremuloides) and its absence in transgenic poplar overexpressing heterologous phytochrome a (phya). centroradialis-like1 (cenl1), a poplar ortholog of arabidopsis thaliana terminal flower1 (tfl1), was markedly downregulated in the wild-type apex coincident with sd-induced growth cessation. by contrast, poplar overexpressing a heterologous avena sativa phya construct (p35s:asphya), w ...200818192437
a seed storage protein with possible self-affinity through lectin-like binding.the primary storage protein of oat (avena sativa l.) seeds, globulin, was shown to have a specific carbohydrate-binding activity. the globulin was capable of hemagglutinating rabbit red blood cells and this hemagglutination was inhibited by the beta-glucan, laminarin, as well as by carbohydrate which had been cleaved from the native globulin. globulin with carbohydrate-binding activity was isolated from cell wall preparations and from defatted flour. the lectin activity apparently resides in the ...198416663480
characterization of oat calmodulin and radioimmunoassay of its subcellular distribution.a protein identifiable as calmodulin has been isolated from oat (avena sativa, var garry) tissues. this protein is relatively heat stable, binds to hydrophobic gels, and phenothiazines in a calcium-dependent fashion, and binds to antibody to rat testes calmodulin. based on its migration on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, ultraviolet absorption spectrum, and amino acid composition, oat calmodulin is essentially identical to calmodulin isolated from other higher plants. radioimmunoassa ...198416663631
effects of diet on population growth of psocids lepinotus reticulatus and liposcelis entomophila.we investigated the suitability of 11 diets as culture media for the psocids lepinotus reticulatus enderlein (psocoptera: trogiidae) and liposcelis entomophila (enderlein) (psocoptera: liposcelididae). the culture media comprised six diets made of plain cereals, namely, wheat (triticum aestivum l.), corn (zea mays l.), milo sorghum bicolor (l.), barley (hordeum vulgare l.), oats (avena sativa l.), and rice (oryza sativa l.), and five artificial diets. we found that, with the exception of corn, l ...200818459431
ice nucleation temperature of individual leaves in relation to population sizes of ice nucleation active bacteria and frost nucleation temperatures of individual leaves were determined by a tube nucleation test. with this assay, a direct quantitative relationship was obtained between the temperatures at which ice nucleation occurred on individual oat (avena sativa l.) leaves and the population sizes of ice nucleation active (ina) bacteria present on those leaves. in the absence of ina bacteria, nucleation of supercooled growth-chamber grown oat leaves did not occur until temperatures were below approximately -5 d ...198516664039
effects of tabtoxinine-beta-lactam on nitrogen metabolism in avena sativa l. roots.the effects of tabtoxinine-beta-lactam (t-beta-l) on nitrate uptake and glutamine synthetase (gs) and nitrate reductase (nr) activities in roots of avena sativa seedlings were determined. seven-day-old oat seedlings placed in a 10 mm kno(3) and 0.5 mm t-beta-l solution for 24 hours took up t-beta-l and lost approximately 90% of their root gs activity. [(3)h]-t-beta-l taken up by roots of seven-day-old oat seedlings was associated with gs immunoprecipitated from the extract of these roots. total ...198616665133
oats tolerant of pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci contain tabtoxinine-beta-lactam-insensitive leaf glutamine synthetases.pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, a commonly recognized leaf pathogen of tobacco, can infest the rhizosphere of many plants, including oats. normal oat plants do not survive this infestation as a consequence of the complete and irreversible inactivation of all of their glutamine synthetases by tabtoxinine-beta-lactam (tbetal), a toxin released by pv. tabaci. we have identified a population of oat (avena sativa l. var lodi) plants that are tolerant of pv. tabaci. the tolerant plants had no detecta ...198816666304
development of oat prothylakoids into thylakoids during greening does not change transmembrane galactolipid asymmetry but preserves the thylakoid bilayer.the lipase from rhizopus arrhizus and the lipolytic acyl hydrolase from potato tubers have been used to determine the transmembrane distribution of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (mgdg) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (dgdg) in prothylakoids and thylakoids from oat (avena sativa). both galactolipids were found to be asymmetrically distributed. the molar outside/inside distribution was 70 +/- 8/30 +/- 8 for mgdg and 10 +/- 4/90 +/- 4 for dgdg in the prothylakoid membrane. mature thylakoids presented ...198816666318
in vitro bile acid binding of flours from oat lines varying in percentage and molecular weight distribution of beta-glucan.two experimental high beta-glucan oat (avena sativa) lines (7.64 and 8.05%) and two traditional lines (4.77 and 5.26% beta-glucan) were used to evaluate the effect of beta-glucan quantity and molecular weight on bile acid (ba) binding. the oat flour samples were digested by an in vitro system that simulated human digestion. no significant differences among oat type were found in the overall beta-glucan, starch, and pentosan digestibilities. considering the standard, cholestyramine, as 100% bound ...200516248587
microbially safe utilization of non-inactivated oats (avena sativa l.) for production of conjugated linoleic acid.a microbially safe process for the enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (cla) in oats was developed. the process consists of hydrolysis of oat lipids by non-inactivated oat flour, followed by propionibacterium-catalyzed isomerization of the resulting free linoleic acid to cla. the first stage was performed at water activity (a(w)) 0.7, where hydrolysis of triacylglycerols progressed efficiently without growth of the indigenous microflora of flour. thereafter, the flour was incubated as a 5% (w ...200616448209
mapping and comparative analysis of qtl for crown rust resistance in an italian x perennial ryegrass population.abstract crown rust (puccinia coronata f. sp. lolli) is a serious fungal foliar disease of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.) and italian ryegrass (l. multiflorum lam.), which are important forage and turf species. a number of quantitative trait loci (qtl) for crown rust resistance previously were identified in perennial ryegrass under growth chamber or greenhouse conditions. in this study, we conducted a qtl mapping for crown rust resistance in a three-generation italian x perennial ryegras ...200718943608
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 1129