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characterization of particulate d-apiosyl-and d-xylosyltransferase from lemna minor. 197720844
the occurrence of apiose in lemna (duckweed) and other angiosperms.1. the branched-chain pentose apiose reacts with the benzidine-trichloroacetic acid reagent on paper chromatograms to give a yellow spot with.an intense white fluorescence in ultraviolet light; on chromatograms developed with butanol-acetic acid-water this spot lies between fucose and rhamnose. 2. examination of paper chromatograms of hydrolysates of whole plant material has shown the presence of a substance with these properties in a wide variety of species. 3. among the plants examined two mem ...196514340070
gastroprotective effect of lemnan, a pectic polysaccharide from lemna minor l. 200312940141
photosynthetic responses of lemna minor exposed to xenobiotics, copper, and their combinations.the effects on the photosynthetic process of copper and pesticides, used in vineyards, and their combinations, were investigated by measuring different chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in lemna minor. cu and flumioxazin had a severe impact on duckweed since a decrease in their photosynthetic capacity was detected after 24h of exposure to 200 and 1 microg.l(-1), respectively. however, fungicides used to control botrytis cinerea (procymidone, pyrimethanil, and fludioxonil) seem to have no marke ...200212485590
endophenazines a-d, new phenazine antibiotics from the arthropod associated endosymbiont streptomyces anulatus. i. taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.four new members of the phenazine family, endophenazines a-d, and the already known phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (tubermycin b) were detected in the culture broth of various endosymbiotic streptomyces anulatus strains by chemical screening in a combination of tlc-staining reagents and hplc-diode array analysis. the endosymbiotic strains were isolated from four different arthropod hosts at various sites. the new phenazine compounds showed antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria and ...200212458768
bioaccumulation of 65zn2+ ions by some hydrophytic plants.this paper deals with a study on the retention of radioactive ions 65zn2+ from diluted waste solutions by the hydrophytic plants lemna minor, elodea canadensis, pistia stratiotes and riccia fluitans. the bioaccumulation degree decreases in the following order: riccia fluitans approximately pistia stratiotes > or = lemna minor > elodea canadensis the possibility to improve the bioaccumulation degree varying the temperature and the solution ph, in the absence of other cations, has been studied. th ...200212219990
a chlorophyll a fluorescence-based lemna minor bioassay to monitor microbial degradation of nanomolar to micromolar concentrations of linuron.a plant-microbial bioassay, based on the aquatic macrophyte lemna minor l. (duckweed), was used to monitor biodegradation of nano- and micromolar concentrations of the phenylurea herbicide linuron. after 7 days of exposure to linuron, log-logistic-based dose-response analysis revealed significant growth inhibition on the total frond area of l. minor when linuron concentrations > or = 80 nm were added to the bioassay. a plant-protective effect was obtained for all concentrations > 80 nm by inocul ...200212071978
new triterpenoidal alkaloids from buxus sempervirens.phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the roots of buxus sempervirens of turkish origin have resulted in the isolation of two new triterpenoidal alkaloids, (+)-16a, 31-diacetylbuxadine (1), (-)-nb-demethylcyclomikuranine (2) along with three known natural products, (-)-cyclomikuranine (3), (-)-cyclobuxophylline-k (4) and (+)-buxaquamarine (5) isolated for the first time from this species of genus buxus. the structures of these new natural products were established on the basis of ext ...200211926538
lanthanide concentrations in freshwater plants and molluscs, related to those in surface water, pore water and sediment. a case study in the netherlands.industrial emissions of lanthanides to aquatic ecosystems increase, but knowledge of the environmental fate of these metals is limited. here we focus attention upon the distribution of lanthanides in freshwater ecosystems, describing lanthanide partitioning between sediment, water and biota. since lanthanides are often used as oxidation-state analogues for actinides, their distribution can reflect long-term behaviour of the radioactive transuranics. concentrations of all 14 naturally occurring l ...200211887873
effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton.the authors investigated the effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton. among the 7 species of aquatic macrophytes the most pronounced effect on bacterioplankton is exerted by potamogeton crispus, causing a decrease in its quantity to 53.28%. polygonum amphibium stimulates the growth of bacteria to 121.96%. under the influence of macrophytes the spherical to cylindrical ratio changes from 1:1.31 (lemna minor) to 1:2.07 (potamogeton crispus).200011712444
ecotoxicogenomics: the challenge of integrating genomics into aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicology.rapid progress in the field of genomics (the study of how an individual's entire genetic make-up, the genome, translates into biological functions) is beginning to provide tools that may assist our understanding of how chemicals can impact on human and ecosystem health. in many ways, if scientific and regulatory efforts in the 20th century have sought to establish which chemicals cause damage to ecosystems, then the challenge in ecotoxicology for the 21st century is to understand the mechanisms ...200415003699
plant adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase is a novel iron-sulfur protein.adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (apr) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to sulfite and amp, which represents the key step of sulfate assimilation in higher plants. recombinant aprs from both lemna minor and arabidopsis thaliana were overexpressed in escherichia coli and isolated as yellow-brown proteins. uv-visible spectra of these recombinant proteins indicated the presence of iron-sulfur centers, whereas flavin was absent. this result was confirmed by qu ...200111553635
ecotoxicological experiences on lemna minor test system.are plants generally less sensitive to toxicity than aquatic animals as indicated by some authors (1)? the use of phytotoxicity (higher plant) tests as a part of ecotoxicology is relatively underdeveloped. the objective of this study was to compare the results of the oecd lemna growth inhibition test with other mainly used test systems. three toxicants were tested applying the alga growth inhibition test (seleneastrum capricornutum), the daphnia immobilization test (daphnia magna) and the microt ...200010943492
identification of streptomyces coelicolor proteins that are differentially expressed in the presence of plant material.streptomyces coelicolor and lemna minor were used as a model to study the modulation of bacterial gene expression during plant-streptomycete interactions. s. coelicolor was grown in minimal medium with and without l. minor fronds. bacterial proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and a comparison of the two culture conditions resulted in identification of 31 proteins that were induced or repressed by the presence of plant material. one-half of these proteins were identifi ...200312676660
effects of procymidone, fludioxonil and pyrimethanil on two non-target aquatic plants.procymidone, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil are widely used to control the pathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea in champagne's vineyards. these fungicides may end up in surface waters and present potential risks for aquatic vascular plants and algae. therefore, their toxicity was evaluated on lemna minor and scenedesmus acutus in six-day or 48-h tests, respectively. based on growth and chlorophyll (chl) content of l. minor and s. acutus cultures, the results showed that the alga was the most sensit ...200111459152
effects of erythromycin, tetracycline and ibuprofen on the growth of synechocystis sp. and lemna minor.pharmaceutically active substances have recently been recognised as an emerging environmental problem. human and veterinarian therapeutic agents can contaminate aquatic ecosystems via sewage discharges (human and animal excretion), improper disposal or industrial waste. very little is known on the effects of pharmaceutical pollutants on aquatic photosynthetic organisms. in this study the effects of erythromycin, tetracycline and ibuprofen on the growth of the cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. pcc ...200415084414
assessment of toxic interactions of heavy metals in binary mixtures: a statistical approachtoxicity of zinc, copper, cobalt, and chromium ions and their binary interactions were studied at varying test levels by using a battery of two tests, microtox and duckweed with vibrio fisheri and lemna minor as test organisms, respectively. the type of toxic interaction at each test combination was assessed by a statistical approach based on testing the null hypothesis of "additive toxicity" at 95% confidence level. the interactions were called "antagonistic," "additive," or "synergistic" in ac ...199910227854
toxicity of tributyltin to lemna minor l. and azolla filiculoides lamk. 19989470996
toxigenic strains of fusarium moniliforme and fusarium proliferatum isolated from dairy cattle feed produce fumonisins, moniliformin and a new c21h38n2o6 metabolite phytotoxic to lemna minor l.corn samples suspected of causing refusal-to-eat syndrome in dairy cattle were examined mycologically. fusarium moniliforme (14 isolates) and f. proliferatum (12 isolates) were the predominant fungi present. these isolates were tested for mycotoxin production on rice at 25 degrees c. each strain of f. moniliforme produced fumonisin b1 (fb1: 378-15,600 ppm) and fumonisin b2 (fb2: 2-1050 ppm). each strain of f. proliferatum produced moniliformin (45-16,000 ppm), fb1 (27-6140 ppm), and fb2 (5-1550 ...200010868338
survival of toxigenic vibrio cholerae o1 with a common duckweed, lemna minor, in artificial aquatic ecosystems.cholera epidemics occur twice a year in bangladesh. during epidemics, vibrio cholerae o1 are isolated from patients, as well as from the surface water, but the bacteria disappear during inter-epidemic periods. their reservoirs or sites of survival and multiplication during inter-epidemic period are still unknown. the present survival study in the laboratory explored the role of an aquatic plant, lemna minor (duckweed), as a possible reservoir. l. minor was added to sea-salt solution at ph 8.5, c ...19902260179
adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase are identical enzymes.adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (aps) sulfotransferase and aps reductase have been described as key enzymes of assimilatory sulfate reduction of plants catalyzing the reduction of aps to bound and free sulfite, respectively. aps sulfotransferase was purified to homogeneity from lemna minor and compared with aps reductase previously obtained by functional complementation of a mutant strain of escherichia coli with an arabidopsis thaliana cdna library. aps sulfotransferase was a homodimer with a monom ...200010625629
heavy metal levels and esterase variations between metal-exposed and unexposed duckweed lemna minor: field and laboratory studies.environmental homogeneity is being continuously disturbed and affected by artificially introduced loads of chemical toxicants that also include heavy metals. the tiljala wetlands of the eastern fringe of calcutta, west bengal (india) are a virtual sink for the deposition of urban and industrial wastes that get admixed with the aquatic environment. we have selected lemna minor (duckweed), as a representative of the biota surviving therein for the present study. concentrations of lead, cadmium, ch ...200415120200
organophosphorus acid anhydrolase in slime mold, duckweed and mung bean: a continuing search for a physiological role and a natural substrate.recently, and for the first time, a diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (dfp)-hydrolyzing enzyme, i.e. an organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (opaa), has been reported in a plant-source. based on this and other suggestive evidence, the ability of three plant sources and a protist to hydrolyze dfp and 1,2,2-trimethylpropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman) were tested, and the effects of mn2+ and ethylenediamine tetraacetate (edta) on this activity. the plants are duckweed (lemna minor), giant duckweed ...199910421476
[evaluation of biological toxicity of livestock fecal deordoring microbial agents].eight commercial livestock microbial agents were selected for the evaluation of biological toxicity. the general physical, chemical and microbial analyses of these microbial agents were performed and the acute toxicity of mice, aquatic living organisms and the germinated inhibition of vegetable seeds by these microbial agents were also estimated for the evaluation of biological toxicity. the results have shown that all livestock microbial agents have no pathogenic salmonella and staphylococcus a ...19921342642
protein synthesis in sterile chloroplasts from lemna minor l. 19694935421
toxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics to aquatic organisms.toxicity tests were performed with seven fluoroquinolone antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, clinafloxacin, enrofloxacin, and flumequine, on five aquatic organisms. overall toxicity values ranged from 7.9 to 23,000 microg/l. the cyanobacterium microcystis aeruginosa was the most sensitive organism (5-d growth and reproduction, effective concentrations [ec50s] ranging from 7.9 to 1,960 microg/l and a median of 49 microg/l), followed by duckweed (lemna minor, 7-d rep ...200515720004
assessment of the toxicity of triasulfuron and its photoproducts using aquatic organisms.the toxicological effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide triasulfuron and its photoproducts were assessed on four aquatic organisms. toxicity varied with tested organism and with triasulfuron irradiation time. triasulfuron and its photoproducts had no significant effects on the crustacean (cladocera) daphnia magna (causing 50% effective concentration [ec50] [48 h] = 49 +/- 1 mg/l) and the marine bacteria vibrio fischeri (ec50 [30 min] > 100 mg/l). in contrast, primary producers (the duckweed lemn ...200415648757
comparison of different physiological parameter responses in lemna minor and scenedesmus obliquus exposed to herbicide flumioxazin.the sensitivity of different physiological parameters in scenedesmus obliquus and lemna minor exposed to herbicide (flumioxazin) was investigated to indicate the most convenient and sensitive parameter. to assess toxicity of flumioxazin, we used a panel of biomarkers: pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and antioxidative enzyme activities. algae and duckweed were exposed to 48-h ic50 for growth rate. in l. minor, the sensitivity of the parameters was as follows: qn > oxygen emm ...200415234090
evaluation of heat shock protein 70 as a biomarker of environmental stress in fucus serratus and lemna minor.heat shock proteins (hsps) are known to be induced in response to short-term stress. the present study aimed to evaluate the potential of hsp70 as a biomarker of stress produced by increased temperature, osmotic pressure, and exposure to cadmium and sodium chloride in marine macroalgae and fresh water plant species. an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-elisa) was developed with a working range of 0.025-10 microg ml(-1) using a monoclonal antibody raised against purified ...200415370872
assessment of contaminated sediments with an indoor freshwater/sediment microcosm assay.this study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a 2-l, indoor microcosm assay to evaluate five contaminated sediments (a, b, c, d, and e). toxic potential was deduced in the light of general contamination of sediments, pollutant partitioning in microcosms, and biological responses of species (pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, lemna minor, daphnia magna, hyalella azteca, chironomus riparius): e > a > b > c > d. sediments mainly were contaminated by metals (lead and zinc). organic pollu ...200516193752
comparison of different biological methods for the assessment of ecotoxicological risks.to test the effects of heavy metals in river water, we compared the sensitivity of seven different biological test methods, using bacteria (vibrio fischeri), human fl cells, protozoans (paramecium spp.), nematodes (rhabditis oxycerca), aquatic plants (lemna minor), and fishes (leuciscus idus melanotus). as test substance we used a representative mixture of 3.0 microg/l as, 2.5 microg/l pb, 0.8 microg/l cd, 1.7 microg/l cr, 3.9 microg/l cu, 6.7 microg/l ni, 0.4 microg/l hg, and 23.0 microg/l zn, ...200616459144
chemical and ecotoxicological assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon--contaminated sediments of the niger delta, southern nigeria.the extent of environmental contamination and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) compounds to sediments of the niger delta, nigeria were assessed using combined chemical analysis and toxicity bioassay techniques. concentrations of two- to six-ring pahs of molecular mass 128-278 and toxicity to vibrio fischeri and lemna minor are considered in this investigation. levels of the sum of the 16 usepa priority pollutant pahs varied from 20.7 to 72.1 ng/g dry weight. sediment pah levels ...200515752497
effect of lemnan, pectin from lemna minor l., and its fragments on inflammatory reaction.an effect of apiogalacturonanic pectin of duckweed lemna minor l. (lemnan lm) was studied on the inflammatory response to ovalbumin injected intradermally into the footpad of control and ovalbumin-fed mice. lemnan lm (1-2 mg per mouse) was found to enhance by as much as 50-60% the footpad swelling in control mice. oral administration of ovalbumin was shown to result in sensitization that increased inflammation. ovalbumin admixed with lemnan was found to increase by two-fold footpad edema in comp ...200616619370
influence of triphenyllead chloride on biological and model membranes.the physiological and hemolytic toxicities of triphenyllead chloride (tphl) as well as its modifying influence on model lipid membranes were studied. the experiments allowed the determination of tphl concentrations causing 50% inhibition of growth of spirodela oligorrhiza, lemna minor and salvinia natans (ec50), 100% hemolysis of pig erythrocytes (c100) and destabilization of planar lipid membranes (cc). also, fluidity of erythrocyte ghosts was measured by fluorescence technique and osmotic sens ...200011098828
is prochloraz a potent synergist across aquatic species? a study on bacteria, daphnia, algae and higher plants.fungicides inhibiting the biosynthesis of ergostrol, such as the triazoles and imidazoles, have been shown to enhance the effect of insecticides on birds, mammals and invertebrates in the terrestrial environment. the synergy is proposed to be due to an effect on p450 monooxygenase enzymes active in pesticide metabolism in these organisms. fungicides often enter the aquatic environment jointly with other pesticides. it is therefore possible that they could act as synergists also in the aquatic en ...200616672166
phytoremediation of effluents from aluminum smelters: a study of al retention in mesocosms containing aquatic plants.four mesocosms were exposed to circumneutral and aluminum (al)-rich wastewater during two successive summers (2000, 2001). the goals of the study were to measure the bioaccumulation of dissolved al by the aquatic plants typha latifolia, lemna minor, nuphar variegatum and potamogeton epihydrus, and to evaluate their importance in the retention of al by the mesocosms. in 2000, inlet concentrations of total monomeric al were reduced by 56% and 29% at the arvida and laterrière mesocosms, respectivel ...200515950256
simultaneous heavy metal removal mechanism by dead macrophytes.the use of dead, dried aquatic plants, for water removal of metals derived from industrial activities as a simple biosorbent material has been increasing in the last years. the mechanism of simultaneous metal removal (cd2+, ni2+, cu2+, zn2+ and pb2+) by 3 macrophytes biomass (spirodela intermedia, lemna minor and pistia stratiotes) was investigated. l. minor biomass presented the highest mean removal percentage and p. stratiotes the lowest for all metals tested. pb2+ and cd2+ were more efficient ...200615990152
toxicity of industrial wastewater to the aquatic plant lemna minor l.toxicity evaluation of industrial wastewater has been done by using bioassay system of an aquatic plant lemna minor at different time intervals. growth inhibition was measured as reduction in fresh and dry weight in industrial wastewater and sewage water, exposed l. minor plants. results of fresh and dry weight indicate significant decrease in industrial wastewater and sewage wastewater during the different seasons of the year. at 72 and 96 hr of industrial wastewater exposure, decrease in chlor ...200617436529
activity of desulfitobacterium sp. strain viet1 demonstrates bioavailability of 2,4-dichlorophenol previously sequestered by the aquatic plant lemna minor.aquatic plants take up and sequester organic contaminants such as chlorophenols through incorporation in cell wall materials and storage in vacuoles. the ultimate fate of plant-sequestered chlorophenols, however, remains unclear. this research investigated 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp) sequestration by the aquatic plant lemna minor and evaluated contaminant release and bioavailability after plant death and cellular disruption. 14c-labeled 2,4-dcp was used to establish that contaminant removed fro ...200616468399
concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of govind ballabh pant sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent.five heavy metals cu, cd, mn, pb and hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in asia's largest anthropogenic lake govind ballabh pant gbp sagar. concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. plants collected from the lake were eichhornia crassipes, azolla pinnata, lemna minor, spirodela polyrrhiza, potamogeton pectinatus, marsilea quadrifolia, pistia strati ...200817674134
exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed lemna minor l.widespread use of radiofrequency radiation emitting devices increased the exposure to electromagnetic fields (emfs) from 300 mhz to 300 ghz. various biological effects of exposure to these fields have been documented so far, but very little work has been carried out on plants. the aim of the present work was to investigate the physiological responses of the plant lemna minor after exposure to radiofrequency emfs, and in particular, to clarify the possible role of oxidative stress in the observed ...200717825879
a long-term copper exposure on freshwater ecosystem using lotic mesocosms: primary producer community responses.copper is commonly used as an algicide and plant herbicide in the aquatic environment. despite of its frequent application in rivers, ponds and lakes, few studies have been performed at the ecosystem level on primary producers' communities. a long-term lotic mesocosms study was carried on, in 20m long channels, under environmentally realistic concentrations of copper (0, 5, 25 and 75 microgl(-1)) delivered continuously for 18 months. results showed significant effects at the 25 and 75 microgl(-1 ...200717239970
ecotoxicological evaluation of cork-boiling wastewaters.toxicity tests with vibrio fischeri, daphnia magna, and lemna minor were used to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of cork-boiling wastewaters and correlation analysis was performed with physicochemical parameters. acute toxicity values (ec(50)) ranged from 2.3% to 24.2% in the microtox test and from 4.4% to 29.5% in the daphnia test. according to these values, 78% of the samples were classified as acutely toxic to the most sensitive species (v. fischeri). significant correlation was obtained ...200716620978
mineralization of surfactants by microbiota of aquatic plants.the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (las) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (lae) by the microbiota associated with duckweed (lemna minor) and the roots of cattail (typha latifolia) was investigated. plants were obtained from a pristine pond and a pond receiving wastewater from a rural laundromat. cattail roots and duckweed plants were incubated in vessels containing sterile water amended with [c]las, [c]lae, or c-labeled mixed amino acids (maa). evolution of co(2) was determined ove ...198916347999
[effects of different concentration copper on pigment content and antioxidase system of spirodela polyrrhiza and lemna minor].the study with water culture showed that when treated with 0.056 mg cu x l(-1), the chlorophyll a, b and (a + b) contents in spirodela polyrrhiza and lemna minor were increased by 11%, 46% and 22%, and 8%, 15% and 11%, while under 0.15 to approximately 5.6 mg cu x l(-1) the contents were decreased by 63%, 62% and 63%, and 46%, 45% and 45%, respectively, compared with no copper added. the malondialdehyde (mda) content in s. polyrrhiza was 2.75 times higher than that in l. minor averagely. the sup ...200616724751
characterisation of the oral adjuvant effect of lemnan, a pectic polysaccharide of lemna minor l.lemnan lm, apiogalacturonanic pectin of duckweed lemna minor l. was tested for adjuvant properties following oral administration with protein antigen. male swiss mice were orally immunized thrice with weekly intervals with free ova or ova with lemnan (lm). lemnan lm was shown to increase delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) and serum anti ova igg responses. lm was established to increase levels of both serum igg1 and igg2a subclasses, intestinal iga and failed to elevate levels of serum ige. lemn ...200616725237
effects of four agricultural pesticides on daphnia pulex, lemna minor, and potamogeton pectinatus. 19854074929
sensitivity of ecotoxicological tests in analysis of superfund sites.during the analysis of environmental risk posed by hazardous waste disposal sites, ecological impact on whole ecosystems should be assessed. it requires a complex testing scheme where surrogate species represent key elements of the ecosystem. however, different organisms are exposed to a differing degree, also, their sensitivity to the same contaminant may vary. a possible way to determine which test reflects most the actual toxic conditions, correlation can be calculated between the measured ec ...200616841472
ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study.the ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil originating from a brownfield site was evaluated during a 17-month biodegradation pilot test. the initial concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (tphs) in the soil was 6380 microg/g dry weight. an amount of 200 kg soil was inoculated with 1.5 l of the bacterial preparation gem-100 containing pseudomonas sp. and acinetobacter sp. strains (5.3 x 10(10) cfu.ml(-1)) adapted to diesel fuel. the concentration of tphs in the soil decreased by 65.5 ...200717106791
adjuvant effect of lemnan, pectic polysaccharide of callus culture of lemna minor l. at oral administration.a pectic polysaccharide, lemnan lmc, was extracted from the callus of duckweed lemna minor l. and was tested for adjuvant properties at oral administration with protein antigen. mice were orally immunized thrice with weekly interval with free hen's egg lysozyme or lysozyme with lmc. lemnan lmc was shown to increase delayed type hypersensitivity and serum antilysozyme igg responses. lmc was established to increase levels of both serum igg1 and igg2a subclasses. the concentration of malondialdehyd ...200616684673
biochemical responses of two typical duckweeds exposed to dibutyl phthalate.effect of dibutyl phthalate (dbp) on physiologic and biochemical characteristics of two species of duckweed (spirodela polyrhiza and lemna minor) from tai lake in china was investigated. the results indicated that different degree of poisoning symptoms appeared on duckweeds after 7 days' exposure to different concentrations of dbp. with the increase of dbp concentration, content of chlorophyll and soluble protein decreased sharply, and activity of anti-oxidant enzyme systems including catalase ( ...200616835115
comparison of a test battery for assessing the toxicity of a bleached-kraft pulp mill effluent before and after secondary treatment implementation.pulp and paper mill effluents may cause harmful effects to the aquatic environment due to the combined influence of physical factors, toxic compounds, and nutrient enrichment. in the present study, the effectiveness of secondary treatment in reducing the toxicity of an elemental chlorine-free bleached-kraft pulp mill effluent was evaluated. to characterize the toxicity of the effluent, before and after the implementation of secondary treatment, a battery of tests with organisms bearing different ...201019242815
acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, cypris subglobosa sowerby, 1840 and correlation to ec(50) values of other test models.the ostracod cypris subglobosa sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48h of 50% of immobilization (ec(50)) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (b), the least toxic. the ec(50) values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (daphnia magna), sludge worm (tubifex tubi ...200919683870
glycan optimization of a human monoclonal antibody in the aquatic plant lemna minor.n-glycosylation is critical to the function of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and distinguishes various systems used for their production. we expressed human mabs in the small aquatic plant lemna minor, which offers several advantages for manufacturing therapeutic proteins free of zoonotic pathogens. glycosylation of a mab against human cd30 was optimized by co-expressing the heavy and light chains of the mab with an rna interference construct targeting expression of the endogenous alpha-1,3-fucos ...200617128273
toxicity assessment of heavy metal mixtures by lemna minor l.the discharge of untreated electroplating wastewaters directly into the environment is a certain source of heavy metals in surface waters. even though heavy metal discharge is regulated by environmental laws many small-scale electroplating facilities do not apply adequate protective measures. electroplating wastewaters contain large amounts of various heavy metals (the composition depending on the facility) and the ph value often bellow 2. such pollution diminishes the biodiversity of aquatic ec ...200717610935
a review of independent action compared to concentration addition as reference models for mixtures of compounds with different molecular target sites.from a theoretical point of view, it has often been argued that the model of independent action (ia) is the most correct reference model to use for predicting the joint effect of mixtures of chemicals with different molecular target sites. the theory of ia, however, relies on a number of assumptions that are rarely fulfilled in practice. it has even been argued that, theoretically, the concentration addition (ca) model could be just as correct. in the present study, we tested the accuracy of bot ...200818271647
an assessment of the potential toxicity of runoff from an urban roadscape during rain events.the potential negative impact of urban storm water on aquatic freshwater ecosystems has been demonstrated in various studies with different types of biological methods. there are a number of factors that influence the amount and bioavailability of contaminants in storm water even if it is derived from an area with a fairly homogenous land use such as a roadscape where a variation in toxicity during rain events might be expected. there are only a few previous investigations on the toxicity of hig ...200818504838
antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity studies on indigofera gerardiana.the antibacterial, antifungal, acute cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity and insecticidal profile of the crude extract and various fractions of indigofera gerardiana have been studied. six bacterial and fungal strains were used, of which samonella typhi and microsporum canis were the most susceptible strains with mics 0.37 mg/ml and 0.09 mg/ml, respectively. the crude extract and the fractions showed low insecticidal activity against sitophilus oryzae, rhyzopertha dominica and callosbruchus analis but n ...200918825532
Toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin to photoautotrophic aquatic organisms.The present study investigated the growth inhibition effect of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin on four photoautotrophic aquatic species: the freshwater microalga Desmodesmus subspicatus, the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae, the monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, and the dicotyledonous macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum. Both antibiotics, which act by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, demonstrated high toxicity to A. flos-aquae and L. minor and moderate to ...201121919043
industrial dye degradation and detoxification by basidiomycetes belonging to different eco-physiological groups.twenty-five basidiomycetes belonging to 17 species and ascribable to different eco-physiological groups were screened for their ability to decolorize 9 commercially important industrial dyes comprising a variety of anthraquinonic, azoic and phtalocyanin chromophores. the influence of the culture medium, particularly its c:n ratio, on decolourisation capacity was considered on solid substrate. three strains of bjerkandera adusta performed the highest decolourisation yields being able to degrade a ...201020042288
bioassays for the evaluation of landfill leachate toxicity.this article reviews the application of bioassays for assessing the toxicity hazard posed by landfill leachate discharged to an aquatic environment. landfill leachate is a complex mixture of chemicals; thus it is difficult to assess the risk posed to aquatic wildlife using standard chemical identification techniques, such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (gc-ms). from this review it is clear that toxicity testing, using species that represent the different trophic levels, is a superior wa ...200919117211
aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soi ...201121435676
performance of duckweed (lemna minor l.) on different types of wastewater treatment.duckweed (lemna minor l.) has a wide application in turkey having suitable climatic conditions. in this study, the growth of duckweed was assessed in laboratory scale experiments. they were fed with municipal and industrial wastewater at constant temprature. cod, total nitrogen (tn), total phosphorus (tp) and ortho-phosphate (op) removal efficiencies of the reactors were monitored by sampling influent and effluent of the system. removal efficiency in this study reflects optimal results: 73-84% c ...200717915771
phytoremediation of heavy metals in a tropical impoundment of industrial region.aquatic pollution poses a serious challenge to the scientific community worldwide, since lakes or reservoirs find multifarious use and most often their water is used for drinking, bathing, irrigation, and aquaculture. nine metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004 to 2005. pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with ...201019430918
comparative toxicity of the phytotoxins (8r,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorin and (5s,8r,13s,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorol on aquatic organisms.the acute toxicities of the fungal phytotoxins (8r,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorin and (5s,8r,13s,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorol on vibrio fischeri, oscillatoria perornata, pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, lemna minor and artemia fransiscana were evaluated. (8r,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorin was more toxic than (5s,8r,13s,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorol to v. fischeri, o. perornata, l. minor and a. fransiscana. the highest acute toxicity of (8r,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorin was exhibited on v. fischeri (5 min median effective concentration ...200717898918
phytotoxic effects of cyanobacteria extract on lemna minor and myriophyllum spicatum phyto-tolerance and superoxide dismutase activity.the research on the effects of microcystins on aquatic plants has increased. some aquatic plants have some tolerance to microcystins but the mechanism of the tolerance is still unknown. in this experiment, we used microcystins of different concentrations to study the toxic effect in lemna minor and myriophyllum spicatum. experiments were carried out with a range of microcysitns levels (equivalent to 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 4.3 mg/l). the growth of l. minor (as fresh weight) and chlorophyll a conte ...200918623078
bioassays for evaluating the water-extractable genotoxic and toxic potential of soils polluted by metal smelters.physicochemical analyses of polluted soils are limited in their ability to determine all hazardous compounds, their bioavailability, and their combined effects on living organisms. bioassays, on the other hand, can evaluate environmental quality more accurately. this study assesses the genotoxic potential of water extracts from soil polluted with metals (pb, cd, and zn) by the former lead smelter in zerjav, slovenia using comet assay with tetrahymena thermophila and human hepatoma cells (hepg2). ...200918973278
expression and characterization of acidothermus cellulolyticus e1 endoglucanase in transgenic duckweed lemna minor 8627.endoglucanase e1 from acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter in transgenic duckweed, lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. the recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native e1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. the duckweed-expressed ...200717127051
ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper.although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. in this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, lemna minor (lm(ec1)) and spirodela polyrrhiza (sp), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of l. minor (lm(ec2)) from a non-contaminated pond. from the lowest ...200919027182
heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, india.concentrations of heavy metals (cu, cr, fe, pb, zn, hg, ni, and cd) and macronutrients (mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, govind ballabh (g.b.) pant sagar, in singrauli industrial region, india. the discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the g.b. pant sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. the concentrations of heavy metals ...200918998227
biological screening of euphorbia helioscopia l.the present research is preliminary biological screening of euphorbia helioscopia l. (euphorbiaceae). dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the plant were investigated for their antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and phytotoxic activities. dichloromethane extract exhibited significant activity against fusarium solani with 90% inhibition, where as the same extract also showed non-significant activity against salmonella typhi and bacillus subtilis. methanolic extract has ...200919339230
effects of cement flue dust from a cement factory on stress parameters and diversity of aquatic plants.cement kiln dusts, made of a complex mixture of elements, include high levels of heavy metals such as fluoride, magnesium, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, copper, beryllium and some toxic compounds. because of the toxic element compositions and radioactive isotope properties of cement kiln dusts, not only terrestrial but also aquatic ecosystems are subjected to greater stress. in the present paper, we investigated the effects of pollution caused by askale-erzurum cement factory (cf) on the stress p ...201020430819
common duckweed (lemna minor) is a versatile high-throughput infection model for the burkholderia cepacia complex and other pathogenic bacteria.members of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc) have emerged in recent decades as problematic pulmonary pathogens of cystic fibrosis (cf) patients, with severe infections progressing to acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. this study presents evidence that lemna minor (common duckweed) is useful as a plant model for the bcc infectious process, and has potential as a model system for bacterial pathogenesis in general. to investigate the relationship between bcc virulence in duckweed and gall ...201324223216
anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibitory activities of a crude extract and a pterocarpan isolated from the aerial parts of vitex agnus-castus.a new compound, 6a,11a-dihydro-6h-[1] benzofuro [3,2-c][1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]chromen-9-ol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of vitex agnus-castus. the structure of this compound was identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques ((13)c nmr, (1)h nmr, hmbc, hmqc, noesy and cosy). the compound showed low urease- (32.0%) and chymotrypsin- (31.4%) inhibitory activity, and moderate (41.3%) anti-inflammatory activity. the crude extract and various fractions obtained from the aerial parts ...201021058321
efficient colonization of plant roots by the plant growth promoting bacterium bacillus amyloliquefaciens fzb42, engineered to express green fluorescent protein.a single copy of the gfp gene linked with the p(spac) promoter and flanked by the terminal fzb42 amye sequences was stably integrated into the chromosome of plant growth promoting bacterium bacillus amyloliquefaciens fzb42 via homologous recombination. a spontaneous mutant, fb01mut, emitting bright fluorescence was detected among the transformants and found suitable for colonization experiments performed with zea mays, arabidopsis thaliana and lemna minor. real-time rt-pcr revealed that fb01mut ...201121237217
complex evaluation of ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine used in aquaculture.ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of widely used veterinary antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine was studied with six model organisms (vibrio fischeri, pseudomonas putida, pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, lemna minor, daphnia magna, escherichia coli). overall median effective concentration (ec50) values ranged from 0.22 mg/l to 86 mg/l. pseudomonas putida was the most sensitive organism (ec50 values for 16-h growth inhibition were 0.22 and 0.82 mg/l for oxytetracycline and flumequine, respec ...201121312248
biomedicine in the environment: cyclotides constitute potent natural toxins in plants and soil bacteria.bioactive compounds produced by plants are easily transferred to soil and water and may cause adverse ecosystem effects. cyclotides are gene-encoded, circular, cystine-rich mini-proteins produced in violaceae and rubiaceae in high amounts. based on their biological activity and stability, cyclotides have promising pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. we report the toxicity of the cyclotides: kalata b1, kalata b2, and cycloviolacin o2 extracted from plants to green algae (pseudokirchneri ...201121337607
acute and chronic toxicity of betanal®expert and its active ingredients on nontarget aquatic organisms from different trophic levels.as a way to improve the efficacy to target organisms, new pesticide generation is based on technologically advanced coformulations of two or more active ingredients. one example is betanal®expert, a postemergence herbicide composed of an advanced micro droplet coformulation of phenmedipham, desmedipham, and ethofumesate. although its composed formulation brings an increase in the pesticide performance, it can also enhance its toxicity to nontarget species. therefore, the present study intends to ...201121374783
Phytotoxicity testing of lysimeter leachates from aided phytostabilized Cu-contaminated soils using duckweed (Lemna minor L.).Aided phytostabilization of a Cu-contaminated soil was conducted at a wood preservation site located in southwest France using outdoor lysimeters to study leaching from the root zone and leachate ecotoxicity. The effects of Cu-tolerant plants (Agrostis gigantea L. and Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. Beaupré) and four amendments were investigated with seven treatments: untreated soil without plants (UNT) and with plants (PHYTO), and planted soils amended with compost (OM, 5% per air-dried soi ...201122000292
stress responses of duckweed (lemna minor l.) and water velvet (azolla filiculoides lam.) to anionic surfactant sodium-dodecyl-sulphate (sds).surfactants are used for several purposes and recently they have attracted the attention for their ability to modify the behavior of other preexistent or co-disposed contaminants, although their use or discharge in wastewaters can represent a real or potential risk for the environment. lemna minor l. and azolla filiculoides lam. are floating aquatic macrophytes, very effective in accumulating several pollutants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (sds). in this work we evaluated the effects of sds ...201122277247
genetic transformation of indian isolate of lemna minor mediated by agrobacterium tumefaciens and recovery of transgenic plants.transgenic plants of an indian isolate of lemna minor have been developed for the first time using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hard nodular cell masses 'nodular calli' developed on the bap - pretreated daughter frond explants in b5 medium containing sucrose (1.0 %) with 2,4-d (5.0 μm) and 2-ip (50.0 μm) or 2,4-d (50.0 μm) and tdz (5.0 μm) under light conditions. these calli were co-cultured with a. tumefaciens strain eha105 harboring a binary vector that contained genes for β-glucuronidase wit ...201123573002
phytotoxic, antifungal activities and acute toxicity studies of the crude extract and compounds from diospyros canaliculata.in vitro biological activities including phytotoxic, antifungal activities as well as acute toxicity of the methanol extract, fractions and/or isolated compounds from the stem bark of diospyros canaliculata were investigated. well agar diffusion and macrodilution assays were used for investigating the antifungal activity. a phytotoxicity assay was performed against lemna minor while an acute toxicity assay was performed in mice via oral administration. as a result, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl- ...201121462073
removal of chlorpyrifos by water lettuce (pistia stratiotes l.) and duckweed (lemna minor l.).the potential of water lettuce (pistia stratiotes l.) and duckweed (lemna minor l.) to remove chlorpyrifos in water was investigated under laboratory greenhouse conditions. at initial chlorpyrifos concentrations of 0.0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/l, the relative growth rates (rgr) of l. minor and p. stratiotes were not significantly different. in contrast, in the presence of 1 mg/l chlorpyrifos the rgr was significantly inhibited, giving an observed fresh weight based rgr(fw) for p. stratiotes and l. minor ...201121598800
duckweed (lemna minor) as a model plant system for the study of human microbial pathogenesis.plant infection models provide certain advantages over animal models in the study of pathogenesis. however, current plant models face some limitations, e.g., plant and pathogen cannot co-culture in a contained environment. development of such a plant model is needed to better illustrate host-pathogen interactions.201021049039
ecotoxicity evaluation of selected sulfonamides.sulfonamides (sas) are a group of antibiotic drugs widely used in veterinary medicine. the contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has raised concern in recent years. however, knowledge of their (eco)toxicity is still very basic and is restricted to just a few of these substances. even though their toxicological analysis has been thoroughly performed and ecotoxicological data are available in the literature, a systematic analysis of their ecotoxicological potential has yet to b ...201121752420
can we predict community-wide effects of herbicides from toxicity tests on macrophyte species?macrophyte communities play an essential role in the way freshwater ecosystems function. it is thus of great concern to understand how environmental factors, especially anthropogenic ones, influence their composition and diversity. the aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of a herbicide mixture (50% atrazine, 35% isoproturon, 15% alachlor) on single macrophyte species can be used to predict its impact at a community level. in a first experiment we tested the sensitivity of six sp ...201020926143
Removal of faecal bacteria from septage by treating it in a full-scale duckweed-covered pond system.Performance of a full-scale duckweed-covered treatment system in removing faecal bacteria is presented. The system consisted of three ponds in series and received septage from holding tanks. Inflow averaged between 36 m(3) d(-1) in the cold season and 60 m(3) d(-1) in the warm season, resulting in a total hydraulic retention time of 88 and 58 days, respectively. Duckweed (Lemna minor) colonized the ponds in the summer and continued to grow in the cold season. Due to the difficult harvesting proc ...201121872385
whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of bat compliance. part 2: metal surface treatment industry.toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available techniques of the integrated pollution prevention and control (ippc) directive. the ippc directive requires that for direct dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. within the study, the whole effluent assessment approach of ospar has been applied for determining persistent toxicity of indirectly discharged w ...201020127188
the chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. i. generating reliable effects data.the european union regulation on registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemical substances (reach) (ec, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (moo(4)(2-)). our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (noecs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (pnec) existed. this paper pre ...201020813395
screening of solanum surrattense for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic and haemagglutination.plants produce a variety of useful bioactive materials that have been used to cure different ailments of human beings. with the same idea in mind, the crude methanolic extract and various fractions of solanum surrattense were screened for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic and heamagglutination activities.201223427398
acute and chronic toxicity of benzotriazoles to aquatic organisms.purpose: resulting from their intensive use as corrosion inhibitors in aircraft deicing and anti-icing fluids (adaf) and for silver protection in dishwasher detergents benzotriazoles (bts) are widespread in european surface waters. the current study aimed on an ecotoxicological characterization of 1h-benzotriazole (1h-bt) and 5-methyl-1h-benzotriazole (5mbt). methods: acute and chronic oecd guideline tests were c ...201122203403
cylindrospermopsin inhibits growth and modulates protease activity in the aquatic plants lemna minor l. and wolffia arrhiza (l.) horkel.the toxic effects of cylindrospermopsin (cyanobacterial toxin) on animals have been examined extensively, but little research has focused on their effects on plants. in this study cylindrospermopsin (cyn) caused alterations of growth, soluble protein content and protease enzyme activity were studied on two aquatic plants lemna minor and wolffia arrhiza in short-term (5 days) experiments. for the treatments we used cyn containing crude extracts of aphanizomenon ovalisporum (bgsd-423) and purified ...201021565767
assessment of a full-scale duckweed pond system for septage treatment.environmental conditions and wastewater treatment performance in a full-scale duckweed pond system are presented. the treatment system consisted of three stabilization ponds in series and was fed with septage. vacuum trucks pumped the septage from residential holding tanks and discharged it to the system daily. the inflow rates averaged 36 m3 d(-1) in the cold season and 60 m3 d(-1) in the warm season. duckweed (lemna minor) colonized the ponds in the warm months and survived during the cold sea ...201121879554
high-throughput sequencing of three lemnoideae (duckweeds) chloroplast genomes from total dna.chloroplast genomes provide a wealth of information for evolutionary and population genetic studies. chloroplasts play a particularly important role in the adaption for aquatic plants because they float on water and their major surface is exposed continuously to sunlight. the subfamily of lemnoideae represents such a collection of aquatic species that because of photosynthesis represents one of the fastest growing plant species on earth.201121931804
evaluation of the hazardous impact of landfill leachates by toxicity and biodegradability tests.the aim of our research was to assess the ecotoxicity and biodegradability of leachates originating from two parts of a municipal landfill before and after biological treatment in the existing treatment plant. biotests represent important tools for adequate environmental characterization of landfill leachates and could be helpful in reliable assessment and monitoring of the treatment plant efficiency. for ecotoxicity testing of landfill leachate before and after biological treatment, different o ...201121970176
survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. in the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of lumbriculus va ...201728284153
efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes.dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. to prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the ...201526273256
expression of h5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (lemna minor) protects against h5n1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.a synthetic hemagglutinin (ha) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus a/chicken/indonesia/7/2003 (h5n1) (indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant lemna minor (rlemna-ha). in experiment 1, efficacy of rlemna-ha was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg ha and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (eid50) of homologous virus strain. both dosages of rlemna-ha conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. almost all the bird ...201526067184
antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities of ferula narthex boiss.crude methanolic extract of roots, aerial parts and its subsequent fractions of ferula narthex boiss were tested for antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities. crude methanolic extract of roots and its fractions showed significant antibacterial effect against p.aeruginosa (86.95%, 73.91, 69.59, 78.26 & 73.91%) represented by percent inhibition except ethyl acetate (etoac) fraction. the etoac fraction of roots and aerial parts showed significant activity against e. coli (80%), s. t ...201425362591
biological removal of azo and triphenylmethane dyes and toxicity of process by-products.increasing environmental pollution is connected with broad applications of dyes and imperfection of dyeing technology. decolourization of triphenylmethane brilliant green and disazo evans blue by bacterial and fungal strains and toxicity (phyto- and zootoxicity) of degradation by-products were investigated. influence of incubation method on dyes removal was evaluated (static, semi-static, shaken). dead biomass was used for sorption estimation. toxicity of treated dyes was measured to estimate po ...201122593606
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