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[on the virtue and therapeutic properties of "yerba-mate" (ilex paraguayensis or paraguariensis st. hilaire 1838)]. 19761009755
[presence of theobromine in leaves of ilex perado (author's transl)]. 19751208688
the inhibitory action of chlorogenic acid on the intestinal iron absorption in rats.the polyphenols are part of the composition of many foods, it is known the inhibitory effect of tea and coffee through the tannins on iron intestinal absorption; the "yerba mate" (ilex paraguarensis) is a beverage widely used in south america, that has a high content of a polyphenol named chlorogenic acid. the present work shows the effect of this substance in nonhem iron absorption. an intestinal loop, was made in rats, to form a closed cavity in a small section of intestine tieing it from the ...19921343584
ritualistic use of the holly ilex guayusa by amazonian jívaro indians.in amazonian peru and ecuador leaf decoctions of the rainforest holly ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. after daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male achuar indians, better known as jívaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable cns and other effects. emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds.19911682531
comparison between antifungal and antibacterial activities of several strains of epicoccum purpurascens from the mediterranean area.the antimicrobial activities of seven epicoccum purpurascens strains isolated either from evergreen oak leaves (quercus ilex) collected over a period of one year, or from the atmosphere were compared in vitro. two strains sporulated and conspicuously inhibited the growth of staphylococcus aureus and trichophyton mentagrophytes. thin-layer chromatographic studies showed the existence of some compounds, such as flavipin, which were common to all the strains. epicorazine b was present in the extrac ...19911784310
[mineral elements in mate herb (ilex paraguariensis st. h.)].the importance of the research works on mate rests on the fact that this is greatly consumed in many south american countries. our interest in this subject has increased because, in europe, it use as an infusion seems to be increasing. the na, k, ca, mg, cu, fe, mn and zn contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. prior to this, samples were incinerated and dissolved in an acid mixture (hcl/hno3). results apparently show a high content of mineral elements, especially ...19911824521
black tobacco, maté, and bladder cancer. a case-control study from uruguay.a case-control study of bladder cancer involving interviews with 111 incident cases and 222 controls was carried out in montevideo, uruguay. the analysis was conducted separately for each sex. point estimates of relative risk associated with smoking variables, ingestion of infusions of the herb ilex paraguariensis (maté), and selected dietary items were obtained by stratified and logistic regression analysis. among men, smokers of black tobacco showed a relative risk (rr) 2.7 higher than blond t ...19911985746
patterns of maté drinking in a brazilian city.maté drinking, a hot infusion of ilex paraguayensis commonly drunk in parts of south america, has been associated with increased risks of upper digestive cancers. in a population-based survey, we have studied the patterns of maté drinking in a sample of 1400 adults living in a southern brazilian city. approximately one third of the population drank maté less than once a month or not at all; another third drank maté at least once a month, but less than once a day; while the remaining third drank ...19902224846
[ilexonin a may be a slow calcium channel blocker].ilexonin a is an effective compound isolated from ilex pubescens hook. et arn. it has been used in the clinic to treat cardiovascular diseases such as cerebral embolism and myocardial infarction. experimental studies have shown that it inhibited thrombosis, platelet adhesion, and platelet aggregation and 5-ht release induced by collagen, adp or a23187 in vitro and in vivo. the inhibitory effect of platelet aggregation induced by a23187 was reduced by adding cacl2 (1mm) to the medium. it suggests ...19892611956
glycaemic effects of traditional european plant treatments for diabetes. studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. the plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (arctium lappa), cashew (anacardium occidentale), dandelion (taraxacum officinal ...19892743711
honeydew of aphids as a source of sugar for phlebotomus ariasi.wild-caught phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, starved until their sugar meals had been digested, were caged for 24 h with plants or plants infested with aphids and then tested for fructose, a constituent of plant sap. no evidence was found that the flies took sap directly from nine types of plants present in their habitat. about two-thirds of flies caged with oak (quercus ilex l.) infested with an aphid [lachnus roboris (l.)] and about a fifth kept with leaves of the french bean (phaseolus vulgaris l. ...19872979545
honeydew sugars in wild-caught phlebotomus ariasi detected by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and gas chromatography (gc).phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir sandflies were caught in light traps hung in oak trees and in a house in the cévennes focus of leishmaniasis in the south of france. the flies were cryopreserved either immediately on removal from the traps, or after starvation for 6-7 days, or after 6-7 days starvation followed by exposure to oak infested with the aphid genera lachnus or thelaxes. after transportation to the laboratory, the sandflies were thawed and aqueous extracts of the crushed flies were analysed ...19872979559
codon and amino-acid specificities of a transfer rna are both converted by a single post-transcriptional modification.an escherichia coli isoleucine transfer rna specific for the codon aua (trna(2ile) or trna(minorile] has a novel modified nucleoside, lysidine in the first position of the anticodon (position 34), which is essential for the specific recognition of the codon aua. we isolated the gene for trna(2ile) (ilex) and found that the anticodon is cat, which is characteristic of the methionine trna gene. replacement of l(34) of trna(2ile) molecule enzymatically with unmodified c(34) resulted in a marked red ...19883054566
[antifertility effects of ilex cornura lindl]. 19883197213
black tobacco, wine and mate in oropharyngeal cancer. a case-control study from uruguay.a case-control study of oral and pharyngeal cancer involving interviews with 108 cases and 286 controls was carried out in the university hospital of montevideo, uruguay. the study was restricted to males and cases afflicted with lip, salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancer were excluded. point estimates of rr associated with smoking variables, alcohol variables, nutritional items and ingestion of hot infusions of the herb ilex paraguariensis ('mate') were obtained by logistic regression analys ...19883231843
protein precipitation assay for quantitation of tannins: determination of protein in tannin-protein complex.a protein precipitation method for the determination of tannins has been developed. the protein in the tannin-protein complexes was measured using the ninhydrin assay of amino acids released by alkaline hydrolysis of the complex. standard protein and the complex were hydrolyzed with 13.5 n naoh at 120 degrees c for 20 min and the amino acids released were measured with ninhydrin. tannins did not interfere in the determination of protein by ninhydrin assay. the bovine serum albumin (bsa) precipit ...19873434784
natural constituents of ilex species.a literature survey on chemical constituents of ilex species is given. general and medicinal uses of the plant are also described.19873657245
the vascular effects of ilex pubescens. 19863763713
esophageal cancer in uruguay: a case-control study.esophageal cancer has constituted a major public health problem in uruguay, with age-adjusted death rates of 14.5 x 10(5) for males and of 3.8 x 10(5) for females. a case-control study was undertaken to ascertain the possible association of the local custom of drinking infusions of ilex paraguariensis ("maté") with cancer of the esophagus, after controlling for well-known risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco consumption. two hundred twenty-six patients with esophageal cancer and 469 control ...19853865007
[the use of ilex chinensis sims in the treatment of burns]. 19734200044
[a study on the chemical constituents of the leaves of the ilex pubescens hook et arn var glaber chang. iii. elucidation of the structure of glaberide i. a new lignan compound (author's transl)]. 19806266200
[a new triterpene glucoside of ilex hainanensis merr]. 19846536181
[isolation and identification of a hemostatic constituent from chinese drug-jiu bi ying, the bark of ilex rotund a thunb (author's transl)]. 19807457149
anticholinergic poisoning associated with herbal tea.an outbreak of cholinergic poisoning occurred in new york city during a 3-day period. seven individuals from three families of south american origin were affected. signs and symptoms of illness included dry skin, hyperthermia, tachycardia, dilated pupils, agitation, and hallucinations. onset of illness in all cases was temporally associated with consumption of a tea that was labeled "paraguay tea" and was purchased from a grocery store specializing in south american foods. paraguay tea, made fro ...19957487247
assessment of sensitization to holm oak (quercus ilex) pollen in the mérida area (spain).sensitization to quercus ilex (holm oak) was studied in 760 patients with clinically suspected sensitization to aeroallergens. prick tests with commercial extracts of q. ilex proved positive in 27 patients; none were monosensitive. nasal and conjunctival provocation tests and specific ige (rast) performed with q. ilex extracts in these patients were negative in all but one patient, who exhibited specific ige titer (by rast) of 7 pru/ml (class 3). we conclude that q. ilex pollen, though obtained ...19957573837
[effect of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone on phospholipid components of platelet membrane in aged rats].3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (dhap) is one of the constituents of ilex pubescence hook. et arn. var. glaber chang. the effects of dhap on the composition of blood platelet membrane in aged rats was examined. no change of total lipid and cholesterol contents was observed in aged rats. while a slight but significant decrease of phospholipid in platelet membrane was found, which lead to diminution of the ratio of phospholipid to cholesterol. the contents of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcho ...19957660804
low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited by extracts of ilex paraguariensis.some dietary polyphenolic substances have been shown to inhibit oxidation of ldl. "mate" is a polyphenol-containing beverage, brewed from the dried and minced leaves of ilex paraguariensis. in the present work we studied the effect of water and alcohol extracts of ilex paraguariensis on the initiation and propagation of ldl copper or h2o2-induced autoxidation. our data show that substances in water extracts of ilex paraguariensis are capable of inhibiting the initiation and the propagation of ld ...19957735139
amazonian ethnobotany and the search for new drugs.tropical rain forests offer enormous prospects for the discovery of new drugs for use in western medicine. the amazon supports 80,000 species of higher plants and a diverse indian population. focusing attention on those plants used as medicines by indigenous peoples is the most efficient way of identifying the plants that contain bioactive compounds. there is an urgent need for more ethnobotanists and ethnopharmacologists to be trained to document as much information as possible before it and th ...19947736849
triterpenoid saponins from dianthus chinensis.two novel triterpenoid saponins, dianchinenoside c [23-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl 3 beta, 16 alpha-dihydroxyolean-12-ene 23 alpha, 28 beta-dioic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside] and dianchinenoside d [3 beta, 16 alpha-dihydroxyolean-12-ene 23 alpha, 28 beta-dioic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl [1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside] were isolated from the aerial parts of dianthus chinensis. their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. we also report the revision of a p ...19947764590
triterpenoid saponins from ilex paraguariensis.the leaves of ilex paraguariensis have yielded three new saponins named matesaponins 2, 3, and 4 [1-3], which have been characterized by chemical and nmr methods as ursolic acid 3-o-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->2)]]-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl]-(28-->1)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester, ursolic acid 3-o-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl]-(28-- >1)- [beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]ester, and ursolic acid 3-o-[beta-d-glucopyranosy ...19957775986
maté, coffee, and tea consumption and risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in southern brazil.consumption of maté, a tea-like infusion of the herb ilex paraguariensis, is common in south america. drinkers have high risks of upper aerodigestive tract cancers, but it is conceivable that this high risk may be attributable to confounding by smoking alcohol, and other exposures. to test this hypothesis, we analyzed the data from a case-control study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted in southern brazil. we matched noncancer controls (n = 756) to cases (n = 378) on the basis of age ...19947841239
effects of ilexonin a on camp metabolism in platelets.ilexonin a (ile a) is an effective compound isolated from ilex pubescens hook et arn which has been found to inhibit platelet aggregation and ca2+ influx in platelets. the present experiments were designed to observe the effects of ile a on platelet metabolism. verapamil (ver) was used as control. the results indicated that thrombin significantly reduced the level of platelet camp, while ile a and ver obviously antagonized this effect. the inhibition of the activity of platelet phosphodiesterase ...19938032067
antitumor agents, 145. cytotoxic asprellic acids a and c and asprellic acid b. new p-coumaroyl triterpenes, from ilex asprella.three new p-coumaroyl triterpenes, asprellic acids a [1], b [2], and c [3], were isolated from the etoh extract of dried leaves of ilex asprella. the structures for 1-3 have been established as 3,27-di-o-trans-p-coumaroyl [1], 3-o-trans-p-coumaroyl-27-o-cis-p-coumaroyl- [2], and 3-o-cis-p-coumaroyl-27-o-trans-p-coumaroyl- [3] 3 beta,27-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively, by spectral and chemical examinations. asprellic acid a [1] exhibited potent cytotoxicity against the rpmi-7951 ce ...19938133297
[studies on constituents of ilex chinensis sims].several compounds characterised as protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, syringin, rotundic acid and pedunculoside were isolated from the leaves of ilex chinensis, a chinese crude drug. a novel compound cyclohexanone pedunculosyl-3,23-o-acetal was identified and proposed as a pedunculoside derivative produced in the extracting procedure.19938216789
effects of a minor isoleucyl trna on heterologous protein translation in escherichia coli.in escherichia coli, the isoleucine codon aua occurs at a frequency of about 0.4% and is the fifth rarest codon in e. coli mrna. since there is a correlation between the frequency of codon usage and the level of its cognate trna, translational problems might be expected when the mrna contains high levels of aua codons. when a hemagglutinin from the influenza virus, a 304-amino-acid protein with 12 (3.9%) aua codons and 1 tandem codon, and a mupirocin-resistant isoleucyl trna synthetase, a 1,024- ...19958522513
matesaponin 5, a highly polar saponin from ilex paraguariensis.the structure of matesaponin 5, a novel saponin isolated from the leaves of the ilex paraguariensis, was established as ursolic acid-3-0-{beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->3)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)]-alpha-l- arabino pyranosyl}-(28->1)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ->6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl] ester.19968688185
antioxidant effects of ilex paraguariensis: induction of decreased oxidability of human ldl in vivo.we have recently demonstrated that ilex paraguariensis extracts inhibit ldl oxidation in vitro exhibiting a potency comparable to that of ascorbic acid (gugliucci, a. and stahl, a.j.c. 1995; biochem mol biol int 35, 47-56). in the present work we extend our observations to the in vivo situation. we first examined the oxidability of ldl in whole plasma from healthy fasted human subjects before and after intake of ilex paraguariensis. intake of water extracts of ilex paraguariensis inhibit copper- ...19968702392
mate drinking and risk of lung cancer in males: a case-control study from uruguay.during the period from january 1988 to december 1994, a case-control study that included 497 cases of lung cancer and 497 controls was carried out at the instituto de oncologia, montevideo, uruguay, to evaluate the relationship between the drinking of mate (a local tea prepared with infusions of the herb ilex paraguariensis) and the risk of lung cancer in men. mate drinking has been associated with risk of most upper-aerodigestive tract cancers. after adjusting for major covariates, including pa ...19968827355
plant exposures: a state profile of the most common species.plant exposures are the fourth most common cause of poisoning and 86% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. the large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. these efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. aapcc tess data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant species and state to e ...19968829350
trace metal biomonitoring in the soil and the leaves of quercus ilex in the urban area of naples.the concentrations of pb, cu, fe, and mn were analyzed in surface deposit and tissue of quercus ilex leaves from several sites of the urban area of naples, exposed to different degrees of air pollution. these included some major roads with heavy traffic loads, squares, and three urban parks. the soil from the trunk base area of q. ilex trees in the same sites was also analyzed for total and available metal contents. pb, cu, and fe contents in the surface deposit and leaf tissue were significantl ...19968834387
triterpenes and triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of ilex kudincha.two new triterpenes, alpha- and beta-kudinlactone, and six new triterpenoid glycosides, kudinosides d-g, i and j, were isolated from the leaves of ilex kudincha. their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical means.19968835459
triterpenoid glycosides from ilex kudincha.three new saponins, named kudinosides a, b and c, were isolated from the leaves of ilex kudincha. on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation their structures were elucidated as 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->2)]-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-beta-kudinlactone, 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l- arabinopyranosyl-beta-kudinlactone and 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-l - ...19968862036
triterpene saponins from maté, ilex paraguariensis. 19968910695
an ilex trna gene is located close to the shiga toxin ii operon in enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157 and non-o157 strains.a cosmid library of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157:h7 strain edl 933 was constructed and clones carrying the stx2 gene were identified by colony blot hybridization with a stx2b specific probe. nucleotide sequencing upstream of the stx2a gene revealed high sequence identities of 89.5% to the ilex trna gene found in e. coli. the ilex gene was located 260 bp from the translational start codon of stx2a. pcr analysis with primers specific for this analyzed region showed that in 11 stx ...19979103976
plant exposures ... a national profile of the most common plant genera.plant exposures are the 4th most common cause of poisoning and 85% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. the large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. these efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. american association of poison control centers (aapcc) data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically ...19979251180
theophylline metabolism in higher plants.metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline was investigated in leaf segments from camellia sinensis (tea), camellia irrawadiensis, ilex paraguariensis (maté) and avena sativa, root segments of vigna mungo seedlings and cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus. there was extensive uptake and metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline by leaves of tea and camellia irrawadiensis and, to a lesser extent, maté. these purine alkaloid-containing species converted [8-(14)c]theophylline into 3-methylxanthine, x ...19979305805
visualization of the cytoskeleton within the secondary vascular system of hardwood species.a single fixation technique has been devised to demonstrate localization of alpha-tubulin (for microtubules) and f-actin (for microfilaments) within the secondary vascular system of hardwood trees by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using butyl-methylmethacrylate-embedded material. application of this technique to problems of cytomorphogenesis during secondary growth and its versatility are demonstrated with the hardwood species aesculus hippocastanum l., salix viminalis l., s. burjatica n ...19979316269
minerals content of paraguayan yerba mate (ilex paraguariensis, s.h.).minerals content (fe, ca, mn, mg, na, k, zn and cu) of the leaves of paraguayan yerba mate (ilex paraguariensis, s.h.) as well as of commercial products has been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. considerable amounts of iron and calcium and remarkably high content of magnesium and potassium have been found both in the leaves and in the commercial products. highly significant difference between the fe content of the leaves and that of the commercial products has been found. also, ...19979429648
assessing trace metals in leaves of quercus ilex l. by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. 19979442471
endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing activity of aqueous extracts of ilex paraguariensis on mesenteric arterial bed of rats.the effects of aqueous extracts of ilex paraguariensis leaves (aeip) were studied. mesenteric arterial bed (mab), precontracted by methoxamine with or without intact endothelium, was mounted on a tissue bath and exposed to plant extracts (bolus). the bolus injections of aeip (300-1050 microg) significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maximal contractile response induced by methoxamine (30 microm) in mab. the endothelium-dependent relaxations were reversed by n(g)-nitro-l- ...19989582003
anaphylactic reaction to ingestion of quercus ilex acorn nut.a patient experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating acorn nuts, fruit of the holm oak (quercus ilex), one of the most abundant trees in spain. several urticaria episodes upon ingestion of peanuts were also referred.19989677139
ilex aquifolium: protection against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation.the ethanolic extract of ilex aquifolium l. (aquifoliaceae) concentration-dependently inhibited leukotriene b4 biosynthesis in isolated bovine pmnl with an ic50 value of about 60 micrograms/ml, whereas the effect on epidermal 12(s)-hete biosynthesis was much less pronounced. the extract also inhibited the non-enzymatic, peroxyl radical-stimulated lipid peroxidation in model membranes and was further a scavenger of the iron-dependent generation of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide as deter ...19989741300
meat intake, 'mate' drinking and renal cell cancer in uruguay: a case-control study.in the period january 1988-december 1995, a case-control study of diet and renal cell carcinoma (rcc) risk involving 121 cases and 243 hospitalized controls was carried out in montevideo, uruguay. after adjusting for major covariates, red meat intake was associated with a 3.4 increase in risk for the highest category of intake, with a significant dose-response pattern. also, barbecued meat, protein and heterocyclic amine intakes were associated with significant increases in risk of rcc. the cons ...19989820187
triterpenoid saponins from ilex latifolia.three new triterpenoid saponins, latifolosides f, g, h were isolated from the leaves of ilex latifolia. their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. latifoloside f was determined to be 3-o-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl(1-3)-]- alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl ilexgenin b 28-o-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside. latifoloside g was 3-o-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl(1-3)-]- alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl pomoli ...19989887534
effects of quercus ilex l. and punica granatum l. polyphenols against ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats. 19999987803
effects of aqueous extracts from quercus ilex l. root bark, punica granatum l. fruit peel and artemisia herba-alba asso leaves on ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.the gastroprotective effect of tannic acid and the aqueous extract of quercus ilex l. root bark, punica granatum l. fruit peel and artemisia herba-alba asso leaves was investigated in the rat against ethanol-induced damage. tannic acid, q. ilex and p. granatum extracts gave 100% precipitation of ovine haemoglobin in vitro, whereas a. herba-alba extract was devoid of any protein-binding property. oral administration of these plant extracts or tannic acid induced a significant decrease in gastric ...199910189949
antimicrobial triterpenes from ilex integra and the mechanism of antifungal action.antimicrobial triterpenes were isolated from the fruits of ilex integra. their structures were elucidated by spectral data and identified as rotundic acid (1), ulsolic acid (2) and peduncloside (3). triterpene 1 showed significantly broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. the antifungal activity of 1 was reversed by fatty acids. cellular constituents leaked from candida albicans cells incubated with triterpene 1. these results suggest that the antimicrobial ac ...199910190191
sugar feeding by culicoides mississippiensis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) on the yaupon holly, ilex vomitoria.adult culicoides mississippiensis hoffman were collected from 5 flowering yaupon holly plants at sunrise, late morning, early afternoon, and sunset from 5 flowering yaupon holly plants during the entire flowering season (16 march-15 april 1995). individual insects were tested for fructose by using the cold anthrone test. prevalence of fructose in c. mississippiensis was 55.6% (427 of 768), with positivity for gravid females greater than for males. fructose positive rates decreased in gravid fema ...199910337095
activity-guided isolation of triterpenoid acyl coa cholesteryl acyl transferase (acat) inhibitors from ilex kudincha.activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the leaves of ilex kudincha led to the isolation of seven acyl coa cholesteryl acyl transferase (acat) inhibitory triterpenes. four of them were identified by spectroscopic methods as ulmoidol (4), 23-hydroxyursolic acid (5), 27-trans-p-coumaroyloxyursolic acid (6), and 27-cis-p-coumaroyloxyursolic acid (7), and three were new compounds named ilekudinols a-c (1-3). the structures of these new triterpenoids were elucidated as 2alpha, 3beta-di ...199910425145
triterpenoid saponins from ilex kudincha.ten new triterpene saponins, ilekudinosides a-j (2, 6-8, 10, 13-17), together with seven known triterpene saponins, ilexoside xlviii (1); cynarasaponin c (5); latifolosides a (9), c (3), g (12), and h (4); and kudinoside g (11), were isolated from an aqueous extract of the leaves of ilex kudincha. they possessed oleanane- and ursane-type triterpenoids as the aglycons. the structures were elucidated by 1d and 2d nmr experiments, including roe difference, hohaha difference, 1h-1h cosy, and 1h-13c ...199910479318
extraction of purine alkaloids from maté (ilex paraguariensis) using supercritical co(2).experimental data for the supercritical co(2) extraction of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) from ground herbal maté tea (ilex paraguaryensis) using a high-pressure apparatus are presented. caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine were identified in the extracted fractions using hplc. results indicated a much higher co(2) selectivity for caffeine in comparison with those for theophylline and theobromine. solubilities of pure compounds in carbon dioxide were also determin ...199910552725
thermogenic effects of commercially available plant preparations aimed at treating human obesity.different commercially available plant preparations have been claimed to have anti-obesity action. we investigated the acute effects of oral administration of 12 of these preparations in non-obese women and men. no significant increase in energy expenditure (ee) has been noted after treatment with any of these preparations. no change in respiratory quotient (rq) was shown, except after treatment with maté (ilex paraguariensis) extract, where a drop in rq was observed, indicating a rise in the pr ...199910589441
should home ipecac-induced emesis be routinely recommended in the management of toxic berry ingestions?poison center (pc) management of toxic berry ingestions may include recommendations to administer syrup of ipecac (si) regardless of the number of berries ingested. we investigated whether the routine use of si in the home management of asymptomatic single or few (< 6) berry ingestions may be unnecessary. a prospective, randomized clinical trial compared si + home observation (ho) to ho alone for management of pediatric toxic berry ingestions. subjects were children 9 mo to 5 y who ingested a sm ...199910592952
mutagenic and genotoxic effects of mate (ilex paraguariensis) in prokaryotic organisms.1. the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of mate (ilex paraguariensis) aqueous solutions were analyzed in bacterial cells. 2. mate solutions showed mutagenic activity in the ames test (ta97, ta98, ta100 and ta102 strains) at concentrations of 20 to 50 mg/plate (mutagenic factors of 3.5 to 5.6) and genotoxic activity in the inductest (wp2s (lambda) strain), with a maximal phage induction at concentrations of 10 to 20 mg/plate. above these concentrations the mate solutions were cytotoxic. 3. additio ...19947874019
a multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: it is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: anadenanthera, erythroxylum, nicotiana, virola; it is well established that the plant ...19853887041
seasonal patterns of terpene content and emission from seven mediterranean woody species in field conditions.the seasonal pattern of terpene content and emission by seven mediterranean woody species was studied under field conditions. emission rates were normalized at 30 degrees c and 1000 µmol.m.s pfd (photosynthetic photon flux density). bupleurum fruticosum, pinus halepensis, and cistus albidus stored large amounts of terpenes (0.01-1.77% [dry matter]) with maximum values in autumn and minimum values in spring. they emitted large amounts of terpenes (2-40 µg.g dm.h), but with no clear seasonal trend ...200010636836
biochemical and molecular characterization of a laccase from marasmius quercophilus.the basidiomycete marasmius quercophilus is commonly found during autumn on the decaying litter of the evergreen oak (quercus ilex l.), a plant characteristic of mediterranean forest. this white-rot fungus colonizes the leaf surface with rhizomorphs, causing a total bleaching of the leaf. in synthetic liquid media, this white-rot fungus has strong laccase activity. from a three-step chromatographic procedure, we purified a major isoform to homogeneity. the gene encodes a monomeric glycoprotein o ...200010698753
antioxidant effects of an aqueous extract of ilex paraguariensis.in this work we investigate the antioxidant properties of an aqueous extract prepared from an infusion of ilex paraguariensis (aquifoliaceae) using free radical-generating systems. the extract inhibited the enzymatic and nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent fashion, with ic(50) values of 18 microg/ml and 28 microg/ml, respectively. the extract also inhibited the h(2)o(2)-induced peroxidation of red blood cell membranes with an ic(50) of 100 microg/ ...200010708556
paleoenvironmental history of the popayán area since 27 000 yr bp at timbio, southern colombia.a pollen record from timbio, located at an elevation of 1750m on the high plain of popayán (2 degrees 24'n, 76 degrees 36'w) is presented. this forms the basis for reconstructing the vegetation and climate history for the periods from 27000 to 9200 radiocarbon years before the present (14cyr bp) and 2100 14cyr bp to sub-recent. the 5m sediment core has time control based on seven ams radiocarbon dates. four pollen assemblage zones (tim-1 to tim-4) are recognized. during the period of 27200 to 26 ...200010708790
triterpenoid glycosides and a triterpene from ilex brevicuspis.two saponins and a sapogenin were isolated from the leaves of ilex brevicuspis. their structures were established by means of spectroscopic methods as brevicuspisaponin 1 (3-o-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-20(s)-19 alpha,24-dihydroxyursolic acid), brevicuspisaponin 2 (3-o-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-20(s)-19 alpha,23,24-trihydroxyursolic acid) and 23-methylester of 20(s)-3 beta,19 alpha,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-23,28-dioic acid.200010820800
intersectional gene flow between insular endemics of ilex (aquifoliaceae) on the bonin islands and the ryukyu islands.hybridization and introgression play important roles in plant evolution, and their occurrence on the oceanic islands provides good examples of plant speciation and diversification. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps) and trnl (uaa) 3'exon-trnf (gaa) intergenic spacer (igs) sequences of chloroplast dna (cpdna), and the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (its) of nuclear ribosomal dna were examined to investigate the occurrence of gene transfer in ilex: species on the bonin isl ...200010860910
monoterpene synthase activities in leaves of picea abies (l.) karst. and quercus ilex l.in addition to direct ecological functions in the interaction of plants with the environment, the emission of monoterpenes, especially from the foliage of evergreen trees, is of great importance for the production of ozone and photochemical oxidants in the troposphere. in the present work, we established a reproducible non-radioactive standard enzyme assay and characterized monoterpene synthase activities in needles of norway spruce (picea abies (l.) karst.) and in leaves of holm oak (quercus il ...200010870179
genetic variation in natural populations of maté (ilex paraguariensis a. st.-hil., aquifoliaceae) using rapd markers.this study characterized the genetic diversity of four populations of ilex paraguariensis, a plant species native to south america, using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers. a total of 341 different rapd bands were generated by the 15 primers analysed. high genetic variability was detected within each population, with an average diversity of 0.163. the within-population variation was large, probably as a result of the life history characteristics of i. paraguariensis. the average di ...200010886380
plant regeneration of ilex paraguariensis (aquifoliaceae) by in vitro culture of nodal segments.in vitro regeneration of complete plants from nodal single bud segments of "yerba mate" (ilex paraguariensis st. hil.) was studied under defined nutritional and environmental conditions. nodal segments harvested from actively growing shoots of conventionally raised plants were cultured on nutrient medium with the mineral salts and vitamins of murashige and skoog medium at 1/4 strength, supplemented with various concentrations of sucrose and 6-benzyladenine (bap). shoot regeneration from explants ...200010893800
simple and efficient method for heterologous expression of clostridial proteins.many clostridial proteins are poorly produced in escherichia coli. it has been suggested that this phenomena is due to the fact that several types of codons common in clostridial coding sequences are rarely used in e. coli and the quantities of the corresponding trnas in e. coli are not sufficient to ensure efficient translation of the corresponding clostridial sequences. to address this issue, we amplified three e. coli genes, ilex, argu, and leuw, in e. coli; these genes encode trnas that are ...200010919765
effect of polyethylene glycol on in vitro degradability of nitrogen and microbial protein synthesis from tannin-rich browse and herbaceous legumes.determination of microbial degradability of n is important in formulating a sound supplementation strategy for efficient utilisation of basal as well as supplementary diet components. in vitro degradability of n (ivdn) from tannin-containing browses (acacia cyanophylla, acacia albida, acioa barteri and quercus ilex) and two herbaceous legumes (desmodium intortum and desmodium uncinatum) was determined using the in vitro gas-production method coupled with nh3-n measurement in the presence and abs ...200010961163
[high temperature "matè" infusion drinking in a population at risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus]."matè", a popular hot infusion of a herb (ilex paraguayensis) drunk in large volumes, is a known risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and there is a suspicion that high temperature of boiled water used for the infusion may contribute for carcinogenesis.200010962624
cell-based screen for antimitotic agents and identification of analogues of rhizoxin, eleutherobin, and paclitaxel in natural extracts.we describe a cell-based assay for antimitotic compounds that is suitable for drug discovery and for quantitative determination of antimitotic activity. in the assay, cells arrested in mitosis as a result of exposure to antimitotic agents in pure form or in crude natural extracts are detected by elisa using the monoclonal antibody tg-3. the assay was used to screen >24,000 extracts of marine microorganisms and invertebrates and terrestrial plants and to guide the purification of active compounds ...200011016628
determination of inorganic cations by capillary ion electrophoresis in ilex paraguariensis (st. h.), a plant used to prepare tea in south america.a practical and economical capillary ion electrophoresis method with indirect uv detection at 214 nm was developed for determination of inorganic cations in plants of ilex paraguariensis(st. h.) and their infusion known as mate tea, a very popular beverage in south america. a microwave digestion procedure was used to prepare the herbal plants, but the infusion was only diluted. the background electrolyte contained 6mm imidazole and 10mm alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid, ph 4.0. the running voltage w ...200011048858
ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root associates of a mediterranean ectomycorrhizal plant (quercus ilex).mycorrhiza samples of neighbouring quercus ilex and erica arborea plants collected in a postcutting habitat were processed to see whether plants differing in mycorrhizal status harbour the same root endophytes. three experiments were performed in parallel: (i) isolation, identification and molecular characterization of fungi from surface-sterilized roots of both plant species; (ii) re-inoculation of fungal isolates on axenic e. arborea and q. ilex seedlings; (iii) direct inoculation of field-col ...200011050558
nontoxic, mutagenic, and clastogenic activities of mate-chimarrão (ilex paraguariensis).aqueous extracts of ilex paraguarariensis (mate-chimarrão), a species that belongs to the aquifoliaceae family, were analyzed for the presence of genotoxic, mutagenic, and clastogenic activities through bacterial trials based on the induction of the sos functions, as well as in human lymphocytes in vitro and in mammalian cells in vivo. the extracts of mate-chimarrão were genotoxic, as assessed by lysogenic induction in escherichia coli, and they also induced mutagenesis in salmonella typhimurium ...200011213015
thermodynamic analysis of diffusion of non-electrolytes across plant cuticles in the presence and absence of the plasticiser tributyl phosphate.solute mobility in cuticular membranes (cms) of 14 plant species (citrus aurantiumn l., citrus grandis l., hedera helix l., ilex aquifolium l., ilex paraguariensis st.-hil., malus domestica borkh. cv. golden delicious, populus alba l., prunus laurocerasus l., pyrus communis l. cv. bartlett, conference and gellerts butterbirne, pyrus pyrifolia (burm. f.) nakai, schefflera actinophylla (endl.) harms and strophanthus gratus baill.) was measured over the temperature range 25-55 degrees c. the five o ...200011219574
inotropic and chronotropic actions of ilex latifolia inhibition of adenosine-5 '-triphosphatases as a possible mechanism.ilex latifolia is widely used as an ingredient to prepare traditional beverage drinks in southern china. in fact, various ilex species have been used in chinese folk medicine to treat coronary heart diseases. the mode of action is believed to be mediated by their coronary vasodilative effects. in this study, the water extract of the leaves of ilex latifolia (ik-tp) was shown to increase the contractility and decrease the frequency of contraction in an isolated rat heart perfusion system. ik-tp w ...200111233993
vertical distribution of fine root density, length density, area index and mean diameter in a quercus ilex forest.we used minirhizotrons to determine the vertical distribution of fine roots in a holm oak (quercus ilex l.) forest in a typical mediterranean area over a 3-year period (june 1994-march 1997). we measured fine root density (number of roots per unit area), fine root length density (length of roots per unit area), fine root area index (area of roots per unit area) and fine root mean diameter. variables were pooled for each 10-cm depth interval to a depth of 60 cm. fine roots tended to decrease with ...200111359714
allozyme characterisation of four mediterranean evergreen oak species.polymorphism at 11 enzyme loci was used to compare the four evergreen oak species of the mediterranean basin and to establish their taxonomical relationships. as a comparison, two evergreen oak species from tibet, located in the primary distribution area of evergreen oaks, were analysed at the same loci. cladistic analyses led to the separation of a cluster of four species, namely the three mediterranean q. ilex, q. coccifera and q. alnifolia and the tibetan q. aquifolioides. the other tibetan s ...200111412953
seasonal patterns of non-terpenoid c6-c10 voc emission from seven mediterranean woody species.the seasonal pattern of non-terpenoid c6-c10 voc emission by seven mediterranean woody species (bupleurum fruticosum, cistus albidus, pinus halepensis, arbutus unedo, erica arborea, quercus coccifera, and q. ilex) was studied under field conditions. branch chamber samples were sorbed on carbotrap and analyzed by thermal desorption in combination with gc-ms. these non-terpenoid c6-c10 voc emissions were large, almost of similar magnitude to those of terpenes. overall, maximum values were recorded ...200111592412
weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a south american herbal preparation in overweight patients.obesity and overweight may soon affect more than half of the population in some regions of the world and are associated with diabetes, hypertension and other diseases that cause morbidity, mortality and high health-care expenditure. no one approach, whether dietetic management, medication, or commercial weight loss programme, can alone solve the problem--all potential treatments need to be investigated and exploited. among the herbal preparations known to non-western cultures are materials which ...200111424516
phenolic compounds in seven south american ilex species.ilex paraguariensis (common name: 'mate' or 'yerba mate') is used for the preparation of the most popular tea-like beverage of south america. choleretic, hypocholesteremic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and bitter taste properties of mate are attributed to the phenolic constituents of the leaves. i. paraguariensis has seven local congeneric substitutes or adulterants: i. brevicuspis; i. theezans; i. microdonta; i. dumosa var. dumosa; i. taubertiana; i. pseudobuxus; i. integerrima; and i. argenti ...200111677016
isolation and functional analysis of a cdna encoding a myrcene synthase from holm oak (quercus ilex l.).an 859-bp cdna segment of a terpene synthase gene was amplified by pcr from the evergreen sclerophyllous holm oak (quercus ilex l.) using heterologous primers for conserved regions of terpene synthase genes (tps) in dicotyledonous plants. based on the sequence of this segment, homologous primers were designed for amplification by race-pcr of a cdna segment carrying the monoterpene synthase gene myrs. the gene encodes a protein of 597 amino acids including an n-terminal putative plastid transit p ...200111683887
nmr and lc-msn characterisation of two minor saponins from ilex paraguariensis.two minor saponins obtained from the methanolic extract of the leaves of ilex paraguariensis have been characterised by 13c-nmr, 1h-nmr, api-ms and chemical hydrolysis as oleanolic acid-3-o-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)-(28-->1)- beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (guaiacin b) and oleanolic acid-3-o-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->2))-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)-(28-->1)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (nudicaucin c). both are isomeric forms of the kno ...200111704961
latifolosides k and l, two new triterpenoid saponins from the bark of llex latifolia.two new triterpenoid saponins, latifoloside k (1), 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-]-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl 3beta-hydroxy-urs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester and latifoloside l (2), 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-]-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl 3beta,19alpha-dihydroxyursolic acid, were isolated from the bark of ilex latifolia thunb. also isolated were two known compounds, ile ...200111411534
the potential toxicity of ilex myrtifolia in beef cattle.spatial and temporal patterns of death loss in a beef cowherd indicated a possible relationship between the loss of 11 cows and the consumption of ilex myrtifolia (myrtle leaf holly). to investigate this relationship, plant material from ilex myrtifolia was harvested and 2 feeding trials were performed. the 1st trial involved intermittent feeding of plant material to 4-mo-o calves for 2 w, and the 2nd trial was continuous plant feeding to 2-mo-o calves for 35 d. no significant clinical pathology ...200111383663
within-tree variation in transpiration in isolated evergreen oak trees: evidence in support of the pipe model theory.within-tree variation in sap flow density (sfd) was measured in two isolated evergreen oak (quercus ilex l.) trees growing in an oak savannah (dehesa) in southwest spain. sap flow was estimated by the constant heating method. three sensors were installed in the trunk of each tree in three orientations: northeast (ne), northwest (nw) and south (s). sap flow density was monitored continuously from may 18 to september 27, 1993. daily values of sfd ranged between 500 and 4500 mm3 mm-2 day-1. there w ...200111282581
aculeoside i, a novel 18,19-seco-ursane saponin isolated from ilex aculeolata.a novel 18,19-seco-ursane saponin, aculeoside i (1), in addition to four known saponins were isolated from the leaves of ilex aculeolata nakai and identified by using spectroscopic and chemical methods. the structure of the new saponin was established as 3,19-dihydroxyl-16,21-epoxy-18,19-seco-13(18)-urs-ene-28-oic-acid-19-o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside.200211990431
water stress responses of seedlings of four mediterranean oak species.effects of water stress on phenology, growth, stomatal activity and water status were assessed from april to november 1996 in 2-year-old seedlings of quercus frainetto ten. (quercus conferta kit.), quercus pubescens willd., quercus macrolepis kotschy (quercus aegilops auct.) and quercus ilex l. growing in containers in northern greece. all four species developed more than 50% of their total leaf area before the beginning of june--an adaptation to arid climates. well-irrigated plants tended to de ...200011269958
internal remobilization of carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogen and phosphorus in the mediterranean evergreen oak quercus ilex.remobilization of internal resources is an important mechanism enabling plants to be partly independent of external nutrient availability. we assessed resource remobilization during the growing period in woody and foliar tissues of leafy branches of mature evergreen mediterranean oak (quercus ilex l.) at three field sites. we compared nonstructural carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogen and phosphorus pools in leaves and stems before bud burst (march) and at the end of the growing period (july). we als ...200111260819
latifolosides i and j, two new triterpenoid saponins from the bark of ilex latifolia.two new triterpenoid saponins, latifoloside i (1), 3-o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl 3beta,21alpha,28-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene 21-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside; latifoloside j (2), 3-o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-3beta,21alpha-dihydroxy-ursolic acid 21-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside, along with two known compounds, latifoloside c (3) and latifoloside e (4), were isolated from the bark of ilex latifolia thunb. structure assignments were established on the basis ...200111217117
caffeine and theobromine in epicuticular wax of ilex paraguariensis a. st.-hil.caffeine and theobromine were identified and quantified in leaf epicuticular waxes of ilex paraguariensis a. st.-hil. (aquifoliaceae). the total epicuticular leaf wax content was ca. 0.5% on average of dry leaf weight. epicuticular caffeine and theobromine contents varied from 0.16 to 127.6 microg/mg and from 0 to 9.5 microg/mg of wax, respectively. for some selected samples, the intracellular methylxanthine concentration was also determined. a positive correlation was found between inner and ep ...200011190409
influence of mate drinking, hot beverages and diet on esophageal cancer risk in south america.to estimate the effects of consuming hot beverages, including mate (an infusion of the herb ilex paraguayensis), tea, coffee and coffee with milk, and other food items on esophageal cancer risk, we analyzed data from 830 cases and 1,779 controls participating in a series of 5 hospital-based case-control studies of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus conducted in high-risk areas of south america. after adjusting for the strong effects of tobacco and alcohol consumption, both heavy mate drink ...200011058886
studies on the constituents of a brazilian folk infusion. isolation and structure elucidation of new triterpene saponins from ilex amara leaves.the isolation of three new triterpene saponins 3beta-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-2-o-acetylarabinopyranosylolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (2), 3beta-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-o-arabinopyranosylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (3), and 3beta-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-o-galactopyranosylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (4) together with five known saponins and one flavonoid glycoside from the aqueous infusion of ilex amara (vellozo) loes. leaves is reporte ...200211782191
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