reverse transcription of turnip yellow mosaic virus rna primed with calf-thymus dna hydrolysate: characterization of the purified cdna product.complementary dna was transcribed from turnip yellow mosaic virus rna, using the method of taylor et al. (1). the purified cdna thus obtained sedimented between 2 and 4 s and was a mostly uniform transcript of template rna. it hybridized with a sharp transition to homologous tymv-rna (crt 1/2 = 2.7 x 10(-2)), but showed a low level of hybridization (less than 5%) to the rnas of two other tymoviruses, namely andean potato latent virus and eggplant mosaic virus.197882938
a cloned avirulence gene from pseudomonas solanacearum determines incompatibility on nicotiana tabacum at the host species level.a locus in pseudomonas solanacearum aw1 responsible for the hypersensitive response (hr) on tobacco was cloned by complementation in the tobacco-pathogenic strain p. solanacearum nc252. the nc252 hr+ transconjugants lost pathogenicity on tobacco, indicating that the cloned locus could restrict the host range of nc252. restriction enzyme mapping, transposon mutagenesis, and subcloning showed that, at most, 2.0 kilobases of the cloned dna was required for nc252 transconjugants to elicit hr on toba ...19902203731
nucleotide sequence of the ononis yellow mosaic tymovirus genome.the nucleotide sequence of the genome of ononis yellow mosaic tymovirus (oymv) has been determined. the genome is single-stranded rna, 6211 nucleotides long, and has three main open reading frames (orfs), two of them overlapping. the largest orf (nucleotides 179-5509) encodes a polyprotein of 1776 amino acid residues that has sequence similarities with polymerases of other viruses with rna genomes. the smaller overlapping orf (nucleotides 172-1965) encodes a protein of 597 amino acids of unknown ...19892800337
exploratory numerical taxonomy based on biochemical and biophysical characters of the tymoviruses.three different exploratory analytical techniques, principal components analysis, reciprocal averaging and cluster analysis, were used to examine taxonomic relationships among the tymoviruses. the three techniques gave similar but not identical interpretations of the interrelationships within this group. exploratory numerical analyses were useful in assessing relatedness, and they suggest that andean potato latent virus is misclassified as a strain of eggplant mosaic virus.19873667185
[effect of solanum melongena on experimental atheromatosis. v. electron microscopic observations on cholesterol-induced atheromatosis in rabbits in mean- and long-term tests (author's transl)]. 19744140788
the classification of tymoviruses by cdna-rna hybridization and other measures of relatedness.the relationships of twelve tymoviruses have been assessed by cdna-rna hybridization. in addition, the percentage molar nucleotide composition of the genome of the pd strain of kennedya yellow mosaic virus and the percentage molar amino acid composition of the coat proteins of cacao yellow mosaic, kennedya yellow mosaic and turnip yellow mosaic (cardamine strain) viruses were estimated. these as well as published serological comparisons and genome and coat protein composition determinations were ...19873662825
influence of an eggplant (solanum melongena) preparation on cholesterol metabolism in rats).to investigate the mechanism behind the hypocholesteremic properties of solanum melongena diets containing 1% sol. mel. leaf or fruit powder, alfalfa, or clofibrate were fed to rats. sol. mel. did n ot lower the serum plus liver cholesterol pool of rats, whereas alfalfa and clofibrate did. however, all substances tested decreased the absorption of a single dietary dose of [4-14c] cholesterol. it appears that sol. mel. exerts its reported hypocholesteremic effect in rabbits through an inhibition ...19751233281
[effect of solanum melongena on experimental atheromatosis. iv. histological studies on cholesterol-induced atheromatosis in rabbits in mean- and long-term tests (author's transl)].in earlier studies [see literature (2, 20, 21, 22)] observations concerning the effect of solanum melongena (sol. mel.) (violet egg plants) on experimentally induced artheromatosis in rabbits were reported. this study aims to investigate histologically the effect of sol. mel. on experimental atheromatosis in mean-term (2--4 weeks) and long-term (8--12 weeks) tests.19751233280
the thermal stability and decapsidation mechanism of tymoviruses: a differential calorimetric study.the thermal stability of virions present in purified suspensions of three tymoviruses, turnip yellow mosaic virus (tymv), belladonna mottle virus (belmv) and eggplant mosaic virus (emv) was investigated by microcalorimetry. virions are less stable than natural empty shells at 4.5 < or = ph < or = 8.5. polyvalent cations present in tymv stabilize the virions at ph < or = 5.0 only. virions decapsidate in three steps: i) the release of the viral rna, probably through a hole in the capsid; ii) the d ...19938286439
cyclopamine and related steroidal alkaloid teratogens: their occurrence, structural relationship, and biologic effects.a spontaneous congenital deformity is produced in lambs whose dams consume veratrum californicum on the 14th day of gestation. the deformity is generally expressed as cyclopia, cebocephaly, anophthalmia, or microphthalmia. this teratogenic effect is produced by certain steroidal alkaloid teratogens from the plant - most notably the compound cyclopamine. cyclopamine is a c-nor-d-homo steroid with fused furanopiperidine rings e and f at right angles to the plane of the steroid because of spiro att ...1978723484
evidence for the existence of a coat protein messenger rna associated with the top component of each of three tymoviruses.on centrifugation in a cscl density gradient the three tymoviruses, eggplant mosaic, wild cucumber mosaic, and okra mosaic, separate into a major bottom component and several less dense minor components. the rna of the top component is composed of about 90% trna and 10% of an approximately 250 000 dalton messenger rna. the latter induced the synthesis of coat protein when translated in wheat-germ and rabbit-reticulocyte cell-free systems.1978673836
translation of eggplant mosaic virus rna in wheat germ extracts and reticulocyte lysates. 1978570320
[effect of solanum melongena on experimental atheromatosis. vi. enzyme histochemical, physiopathological and chemical studies on cholesterol-induced atheromatosis in rabbits. conclusions (author's transl)].question: the mode of action of solanum melongena (sol. mel.) in its inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques in cholesterol-induced atheromatosis in rabbits is still unexplained. in this paper the author reports his enzyme histochemical, physiopathological and chemical observations drawing conclusions for future experiments. materials and methods: animals and experimental conditions were the same as described in the recent studies (see literature no. 2, 15, 16, 17, 18). 1. e ...1975183972
molecular cloning of genes that specify virulence in pseudomonas solanacearum.the suicide plasmid psup2021 was used to introduce tn5 into the pseudomonas solanacearum wild-type strain k60. we isolated eight avirulent mutants after screening 6,000 kanamycin-resistant transconjugants by inoculating eggplant (solanum melongena l. cv. black beauty) and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. cv. bottom special) seedlings. the tn5-containing ecori fragments from the eight mutants were unique, suggesting that numerous genes specify virulence in this species. these ecori fragments were cl ...19882828316
immunogold localization of beta-1,3-glucanases in two plants infected by vascular wilt antiserum raised against a purified tobacco beta-1,3-glucanase (pr-n) was used to study the subcellular localization of enzyme in fungus-infected plant tissues by means of post-embedding immunogold labeling. in susceptible tomato plants, the enzyme accumulation was found to occur as a result of successful tissue colonization, whereas it appeared to be an early event associated with limited spread of the fungus in resistant tissues. although marked differences between susceptible and resistant ...19892535539
natural pesticides and bioactive components in this review, some common food plants and their toxic or otherwise bioactive components and mycotoxin contaminants have been considered. crucifers contain naturally occurring components that are goitrogenic, resulting from the combined action of allyl isothiocyanate, goitrin, and thiocyanate. although crucifers may provide some protection from cancer when taken prior to a carcinogen, when taken after a carcinogen they act as promoters of carcinogenesis. the acid-condensed mixture of indole-3-c ...19902404325
comparisons of the genomic sequences of erysimum latent virus and other tymoviruses: a search for the molecular basis of their host specificities.the nucleotide sequence of the genome of erysimum latent tymovirus (elv) has been determined. it closely resembles those of the other four sequenced tymoviral genomes in its gene organization and composition, but is the smallest (6034 nucleotides) and most distinct of them. furthermore the 78 non-coding nucleotides at the 3' terminus of the elv genome are unable to form a complete trna-like structure like that reported for other tymoviruses. comparisons of the five tymovirus genomes and their en ...19921607861
nature and specificity of the rna-protein interaction in the case of the tymoviruses.dissociation-reassociation experiments performed with turnip yellow mosaic virus in the presence of various rnas and polynucleotides were used to investigate the degree of specificity and the contribution of the associated rna moiety to the stability of tymv. the results emphasize the importance of strategic cytosine residues spread along the rna chain. some insight into the contribution of the protein could be gained from comparison of tymv and eggplant mosaic virus (emv), a virus similar to ty ...197613423
new satellite rnas, but no di rnas, are found in natural populations of tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus.a collection of 57 field isolates of the tombusvirus tomato bushy stunt virus was obtained from eggplant and tomato during 1994-1997 and was examined for the presence of defective interfering (di) rna species by northern blot hybridization and rt-pcr. no di rna species were detected associated with any of the field tbsv isolates. however, serial passaging of two field isolates in nicotiana clevelandii at high multiplicity of infection resulted in the rapid generation of di-like rna species, indi ...19979434719
developmental toxicology of solamargine and solasonine glycoalkaloids in frog part of an effort to improve the safety of plant foods, a need exists to define the relative toxicities of structurally different glycoalkaloids and metabolites which may be present in solanum plant species such as potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants. the objectives of this study were to determine the relative toxicities and the modes of action of the eggplant (solanum melongena) glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine in xenopus laevis frog embryos, using membrane potential and embryo growth ...19989662413
comparative bio-antimutagenicity of common vegetables and traditional vegetables in kyoto.traditional vegetables in kyoto are a unique group of vegetables that have been cultivated in limited areas near kyoto city. we compared the traditional vegetables in kyoto with common vegetables for the bio-antimutagenicity of their extracts against uv-induced mutation of e. coli b/r wp2. among the traditional vegetables in kyoto, kamo eggplant (solanaceae) and katsura oriental pickling melon (cucurbitaceae) showed higher bio-antimutagenicity and yield in the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acet ...19989692200
infectious eggplant mosaic tymovirus and ononis yellow mosaic tymovirus from cloned cdna.eggplant mosaic virus (emv) and ononis yellow mosaic virus (oymv) are two tymoviruses that have ssrna genomes of about 6.2 kb and 6.3 kb, and which infect solanaceous and leguminous hosts, respectively. full-length cdna clones of these viruses were constructed with a t7 promoter adjacent to the 5' terminus of the dna copy of the viral genome, and with unique restriction endonuclease sites at the 3' terminus. this allowed rna to be transcribed from the dna encoding the genome. the transcript rna ...19938328917
protein composition of the virions of five plant rhabdoviruses.five plant rhabdoviruses fall into two groups based on the patterns produced by their dissociated virion proteins when separated electrophoretically. lettuce necrotic yellows virus (lnvy) and sonchus virus (sv) virions contained only one m protein and ns protein. sowthistle yellow vein virus (syvv), sonchus yellow net virus (synv) and eggplant mottled dwarf virus (emdv) virions contained two m proteins and no detectable ns protein. the m and g proteins of lnyv and sv were easily released from th ...19817327907
estimation of xyloglucan in vegetables by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.we prepared the antibody specific against plant xyloglucan and applied it to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in order to estimate xyloglucan contents in several vegetables. in this experiment, xyloglucan was detected in the 24% aqueous potassium hydroxide-soluble fractions of tomato, cabbage, lettuce, and eggplant. the xyloglucan contents of these vegetables were estimated to be 1.4 mg, 54 micrograms, 14 micrograms, and 4 micrograms per one hundred grams of their edible portions, respectively, ...19938006716
the control of polyphenol oxidase activity in fruits and vegetables. a study of the interactions between the chemical compounds used and heat treatment.objective of this research was to find alternative methods for the control of polyphenol oxidase (ppo) activity in fruits and vegetables with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the use of so2 for this purpose. interactions between the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, edta, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment (70 degrees c for 2 min) in the control of ppo activity were studied in avocado (var. fortuna), banana (var. nanica), apple (var. ana, fuji, gala & golden), pear (var. d'agua), pe ...19957659702
[effect of solanum melongena on experimental atheromatosis. iii. histological studies in surface preparations of the aortic intima of rabbits fed cholesterol in short-term test]. 19744611780
the position of the reactive site peptide bond in eggplant trypsin inhibitor molecule.the purified trypsin inhibitor from eggplant (solanum melongena, l.) has an arg-x bond in the reactive site which is selectively cleaved by limited hydrolysis with a catalytic amount of bovine trypsin. so-called trypsin-modified inhibitor was separated from the native one by qae-sephadex a-25 chromatography. after the cleavage of disulfide bonds of isolated modified inhibitor by means of reduction and s-carboxymethylation, two fragments (f-i and f-ii) were obtained by gel filtration on sephadex ...19807400862
dissipation of endosulfan residues from unprocessed and processed brinjal (solanum melongena l.) the summer season of 1980, brinjal crop (solanum melongena l.) raised under field conditions in the hissar region, india, was studied for endosulfan residues, with particular reference to the influence of washing and boiling/cooking of the fruits on the persistence of endosulfan. endosulfan was applied three times at intervals of 15 days each. for analysis, fruits were sampled from the first and third spraying at 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 days. they were analysed colorimetrically for residues. r ...19846732736
studies on the amino acid acceptor activities of the eggplant mosaic viral rna and its satellite rna. 19744605165
the effects of calystegines isolated from edible fruits and vegetables on mammalian liver glycosidases.the polyhydroxylated nortropane alkaloids called calystegines occur in many plants of the convolvulaceae, solanaceae, and moraceae families. certain of these alkaloids exhibit potent inhibitory activities against glycosidases and the recently demonstrated occurrence of calystegines in the leaves, skins, and sprouts of potatoes (solanum tuberosum), and in the leaves of the eggplant (s. melongena), has raised concerns regarding the safety of these vegetables in the human diet. we have surveyed the ...19979455909
purification and characterization from tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) leaves of six small, wound-inducible, proteinase isoinhibitors of the potato inhibitor ii family.six small molecular mass, wound-inducible trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor proteins from tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) leaves were isolated to homogeneity. the isoinhibitors, cumulatively called tobacco trypsin inhibitor (tti), have molecular masses of approximately 5500 to 5800 d, calculated from gel filtration analysis and amino acid content. the amino acid sequence of the entire 53 residues of one isoinhibitor, tti-1, and the sequence of 36 amino acid residues from the n terminus of a second ...19938108514
elimination of eggplant mottled crinkle virus using virazole in explant cultures of solanum melongena l.virazole (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide; 100 and 150 mg/l) incorporated into brinjal explant culture medium induced in complete elimination of eggplant mottled crinkle virus - indian isolate (emcv-1) from infected explant cultures of s. melongena l. and production of virus free plant progeny. acridine orange and ethidium bromide (150 ml/l) were also potent antiviral agents to some extent.19911889835
use of digoxigenin-labelled probes for detection and host-range studies of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus.we studied the host range of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (tylcv) in some agronomically important tomato species. transmission tests with the natural vector bemisia tabaci from tomato to sweet pepper, eggplant, cucumber, melon, zucchini and spinach showed that these species did not develop symptoms and did not support viral replication. these species therefore do not constitutive a reservoir of the virus and can be cultivated as alternatives to tomato in the most affected areas. for host-range ...19911796214
in vitro effect of vegetable and fruit juices on the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline.the antimutagenic potencies of the juices of 28 fruits and 34 vegetables commonly consumed in germany were investigated with respect to the mutagenic activities induced by 2-amino-3-methyl[4,5-f]-quinoline (iq), and in part by 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (meiq) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (meiqx) in salmonella typhimurium ta98 and ta100. with iq, weak to strong antimutagenic activities were found in 68% of the fruits and 73% of the vegetables that were tested ...19948206443
comparison of the strategies of expression of five tymovirus rnas by in vitro translation nucleotide sequencing of the rna genome of various tymoviruses has demonstrated that the overall genome organization of these viruses is identical. furthermore, the strategies of expression of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (tymv) genome have been established by in vitro translation studies; these include the synthesis of a subgenomic rna, the utilization of overlapping open reading frames (orfs) and maturation of a polyprotein. in the experiments described here, the strategies of expressi ...19921538200
antiviral effects of dihydroxypropyladenine [rs)-dhpa) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (bvdu) on plant viruses.two established antiviral agents, dihydroxypropyladenine (rs)-dhpa and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (bvdu) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on 4 plant viruses: tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus x (pvx), eggplant mosaic virus (emv) and a potyvirus isolated from solanum palinacanthum (poty-sp). using the leaf disc incubation test, bvdu proved virtually inactive while (rs)-dhpa efficiently inhibited emv and poty-sp when applied at concentrations as low as 5 mg/l. tmv was less susceptible to t ...19873446016
eggplant (solanum melongena) infusion has a modest and transitory effect on hypercholesterolemic subjects.eggplant (solanum melongena) is consumed extensively in brazil. it has been believed that infusion of a powdered preparation of the fruit may reduce serum cholesterol. however, there are few documented reports on its effects on cholesterol metabolism and its possible hypocholesterolemic effect has not been proved by well-controlled studies. the aim of the present study was to observe the effects of s. melongena on the serum cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 hypercholesterolemic human volunteer ...200010973133
an improved method for the purification of eggplant trypsin inhibitor.the trypsin inhibitor in eggplant, solanum melongena l., was isolated and purified by the improved method with the techniques of dialysis using acetylated cellulose tube and ion-exchange chromatography on deae-sephadex. the final preparation was found to be homogeneous by disc and sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. this inhibitor had the molecular weight of about 6,200, the pi value of 4.7, and furthermore characteristic amino acid composition lacking in tryptophan, histidine, valine and me ...1977874580
influence of sodium chloride concentration on the controlled lactic acid fermentation of "almagro" eggplants.the effect of a commercial lactobacillus starter and sodium chloride concentration on the fermentation of "almagro" eggplants (solanum melongena l. var. esculentum depressum) was studied. the results of fermentation using added starter and varying salt concentrations (4, 6, and 10% w/v) in brine were compared with the results of spontaneous fermentation taking place in brine with a salt concentration of 4%. fresh fruits, medium in size (34-44 g), were used in all cases; all fruits were blanched ...199910598110
antimutagenic activity of extracts from japanese eggplant.using the salmonella/microsome assay, the antimutagenic effects of specific components of the extracts from eggplant fruits were investigated. the eggplant fruit juice exhibited an antimutagenic activity against 3-amino-1-methyl-5h-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (trp-p-2) induced mutagenicity. in some of the fractions extracted with several organic solvents (acetone, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate; and methanol), the activity was recognized. no mutagenicity or toxicity for salmonella typhimurium ta98 in th ...19968950351
hypolipidemic effect of flavonoids from solanum melongena.flavonoids extracted from the fruits of solanum melongena (brinjal) orally administered at a dose of 1 mg/100 g bw/day showed significant hypolipidemic action in normal and cholesterol fed rats. hmg coa reductase activity was found to be enhanced, while activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were significantly reduced. activities of lipoprotein lipase and plasma lcat showed significant enhancement. a significant increase in the concentrations of hepatic and feca ...19979650725
an exo-poly-alpha-d-galacturonosidase, pehb, is required for wild-type virulence of ralstonia solanacearum.ralstonia solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt disease of many plant species, produces several extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes that are suspected virulence factors. these include a previously described endopolygalacturonase (pg), peha, and two exo-pgs. a gene encoding one of the exo-pgs, pehb, was cloned from r. solanacearum k60. the dna fragment specifying pehb contained a 2,103-bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 74.2 kda with a typical n-terminal signal sequen ...19979393701
effect of freezing on the spontaneous fermentation and sensory attributes of almagro eggplants.a study of the physico-chemical and microbiological processes taking place during the spontaneous fermentation of eggplant fruits that had been frozen after blanching revealed a delay in the onset of the active fermentation stage, which has been ascribed to the adverse effect of the freezing temperature employed on the lactic acid bacteria involved in fermentation. the species most affected by freezing were l. fermentum and l. brevis biotype 2. despite this finding, the pattern of fermentation w ...200212076033
[effect of eggplant on plasma lipid levels, lipidic peroxidation and reversion of endothelial dysfunction in experimental hypercholesterolemia].to study the effect of egg plant on endothelium-dependent relaxation, and plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and to assess influence of this plant on the malondialdehyde (mda) content of ldl particles and the arterial wall.19989659714
genetic engineering of parthenocarpic plants.transgenic tobacco and eggplants expressing the coding region of the iaam gene from pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, under the control of the regulatory sequences of the ovule-specific defh9 gene from antirrhinum majus, showed parthenocarpic fruit development. expression of the defh9-iaam chimeric transgene occurs during flower development in both tobacco and eggplant. seedless fruits were produced by emasculated flowers. when pollinated, the parthenocarpic plants produced fruits containing ...19979415894
oxidative degradation of bisphenol a by crude enzyme prepared from potato.when crude enzymes prepared from some vegetables and fruits were incubated with bisphenol a (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, bpa) at 37 degrees c, bpa was oxidized by crude enzymes from potato, eggplant, and lettuce. the crude enzyme prepared from potato (solanum tuberosum) had the strongest oxidative activity for bpa. its optimal temperature and ph were 40-45 degrees c and 8.0, respectively. more than 95% of bpa was oxidized after the incubation with potato enzyme for 60 min. bpa gave two oxid ...200212381152
inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene by vitamins, porphyrins and related compounds, and vegetable and fruit juices and solvent extracts.when 21 vitamins including related compounds haemin, chlorophyllin, chlorophyll, biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as juices from five fruits and 25 vegetables and solvent extracts from the residues of fruits and vegetables were tested for their antimutagenic potencies with respect to mutagenicity induced by 2-nitrofluorene (2-nf), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-nfa) and 1-nitropyrene(1-np) in salmonella typhimurium ta98 the following results were obtained. the tetracyclic nitroarenes 3-nfa and 1-np wer ...19979207899
transfer rna mimicry among tymoviral genomic rnas ranges from highly efficient to vestigial.three trna-associated properties of a representative set of tymoviral rnas have been quantitatively assessed using higher plant (wheat germ) proteins: aminoacylation, ef-1alpha*gtp binding, and 3'-adenylation of 3'-cc forms of the rnas by ctp, atp:trna nucleotidyltransferase. the rnas fall into three classes differing in the extent of trna mimicry. turnip yellow mosaic (tymv) and kennedya yellow mosaic virus rnas had activities in all three properties similar to those of a higher plant trnavaltr ...19989742235
ralstonia solanacearum pectin methylesterase is required for growth on methylated pectin but not for bacterial wilt virulenceralstonia (pseudomonas) solanacearum causes bacterial wilt, a serious disease of many crop plants. the pathogen produces several extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, including polygalacturonases (pgs) and pectin methylesterase (pme). pme removes methyl groups from pectin, thereby facilitating subsequent breakdown of this cell wall component by pgs, which are known bacterial wilt virulence factors. r. solanacearum pgs could not degrade 93% methylated pectin unless the substrate was fi ...19989835583
antioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant.delphinidine-3-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-glucoside (nasunin), an anthocyanin was isolated as purple colored crystals from eggplant peels, solanum melongena l. 'chouja'. using an electron spin resonance spectrometer and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-n-oxide (dmpo), spin trapping, hydroxyl (.oh) or superoxide anion radicals (02*-) generated by the fenton reaction or the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system were measured as dmpo-oh or dmpo-ooh spin adducts. l-ascorbic acid 2-[3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetra-m ...199810100509
bioactive phytochemicals with emphasis on dietary can modify the pathophysiological processes of various metabolic disorders and can be an effective preventive strategy for various disease processes most of which are known to involve oxidative damage. both nutrient and non-nutrient components of the diet have been recognized for their anti-oxidant and other potential benefits. plant foods contain phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, etc., which show biological activity. some common foods used in indian culinary practices were ...19989863273
the effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by giardia cysts and ascaris marrakech, raw sewage has been used for farming purposes for several decades for many types of crops. this study aimed to determine the contamination level of giardia cysts and ascaris eggs for crops designated for human consumption. collected crops in irrigated fields were turnip, marrow, squash, potatoes, pepper and eggplant. field trials were also carried out on four crops, coriander, carrots, mint and radish, using three water types for irrigation, i.e. raw waste water, treated waste wate ...199910477066
aiia, an enzyme that inactivates the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal and attenuates the virulence of erwinia carotovora.n-acylhomoserine lactones, known as autoinducers (ais), are widely conserved signal molecules present in quorum-sensing systems of many gram-negative bacteria. ais are involved in the regulation of diverse biological functions, including expression of pathogenic genes in the plant pathogens pseudomonas solanacearum, several erwinia species, and the human pathogen pseudomonas aeruginosa. a bacterial isolate, bacillus sp. 240b1, is capable of enzymatic inactivation of ais. the gene (aiia) for ai i ...200010716724
specific sequence modifications of a cry3b endotoxin gene result in high levels of expression and insect resistance.solanum melongena (eggplant) cv. picentia and the wild species solanum integrifolium were transformed with both a wild type (wt) and four mutagenized versions of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) gene bt43 belonging to the cry3 class. the bt gene was partly modified in its nucleotide sequence by replacing four target regions (w: +1 to +170; x: +592 to +1057; y: +1203 to +1376; z: +1376 to +1984) with synthetic fragments obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of crude oligonucleotides. the ...19979225859
development and evaluation of a model predicting the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 nctc 12900 in homemade eggplant salad at various temperatures, phs, and oregano essential oil concentrations.homemade eggplant salad, a traditional greek appetizer, was inoculated with escherichia coli o157:h7 nctc 12900 supplemented with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (0.0, 0.7, 1. 4, and 2.1% [vol/wt]) and stored at different temperatures (0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees c). the product's ph was adjusted to 4.0, 4.5, or 5. 0 with lemon juice. for each combination of the environmental factors, the bacterial counts were modeled, using the baranyi model, as a function of time to estimate the ...200010742255
expression of cysteine proteinase during developmental events associated with programmed cell death in we show that the expression of a cysteine proteinase coincides with several developmental events associated with programmed cell death (pcd) in solanum melongena (brinjal), i.e. during leaf senescence, fruit senescence, xylogenesis, nucellar cell degeneration and anther senescence. we have isolated a cdna encoding brinjal cysteine proteinase (smcp) that shares high (90-92%) amino acid identity to cysteine proteinases of tobacco (cyp-8) and tomato (lcyp-2) that have not been previously repor ...199910097390
antioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant peels.the free radical scavenging activities and inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation of a delphinidin derivative in eggplant were investigated. delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-glucoside (nasunin), an anthocyanin, was isolated as purple colored crystals from eggplant peels. using electron spin resonance spectrometry and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-n-oxide (dmpo), hydroxyl radicals (oh) or superoxide anion radicals (o(2)(-)) generated by the fenton reaction or the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase ...200010962130
inhibitory effect of delphinidin from solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma ht-1080 invasiveness in vitro.we investigated the inhibitory effect of eggplant (solanum melongena var. marunasu) extract on human fibrosarcoma ht-1080 cell invasion of reconstituted basement membrane [matrigel (mg)]. we found that the effective component of the plant extract was delphinidin, a flavonoid pigment contained in the peel. the extract and delphinidin did not affect tumor cell adhesion to mg or haptotactic migration to mg. ht-1080 secretes matrix metalloproteinase(mmp)-2 and mmp-9, which degrade extracellular matr ...19989581517
atheromatous changes in cholesterol-fed rabbits treated with eggplant extract. 195913652389
identification in eggplant of a variant of citrus exocortis viroid (cevd) with a 96 nucleotide duplication in the right terminal region of the rod-like secondary structure.analysis of eggplants, kept for years under greenhouse conditions after having been mechanically inoculated with nucleic acid preparations from field-grown eggplants containing two viroids, eggplant latent viroid (elvd) and citrus exocortis viroid (cevd), revealed the presence of an additional larger viroid rna. molecular characterization of this rna showed that it is a stable 467-nt variant of cevd with a 96-nt duplication of the right terminal region (cevd-d96) that preserves the rod-like seco ...200314602207
source of resistance against ralstonia solanacearum in fertile somatic hybrids of eggplant (solanum melongena l.) with solanum aethiopicum l.solanum aethiopicum is reported to carry resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by ralstonia solanacearum, which is one of the most important diseases of eggplant (solanum melongena). these two species can sexually be crossed but the fertility of their progeny is very low. in order to transfer the resistance and improve the fertility, somatic hybrids between s. melongena cv. dourga and two groups of s. aethiopicum were produced by electrical fusion of mesophyll protoplasts. thirty hybrid pl ...200111164602
evidence for transovarial transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by its vector, the whitefly bemisia tabaci.the whitefly bemisia tabaci is the only vector of the tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (tylcv). the insect transmits the virus in a persistent-circulative manner. tylcv dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction and by southern blot hybridization in progeny (eggs, first and second instars, adults) of single viruliferous whiteflies that developed on eggplant or on cotton (two tylcv nonhost plants). furthermore, tylcv dna was present in the progeny of insects that had acquired the virus thro ...19989454703
prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal karnataka on the southwest coast of india.studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. as part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely 90sr and 137cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. the conc ...200011008934
cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in brazil.samples of herbal medicine used in brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of brazilian ginseng (pffafia glomerata), 17 of centella asiatic (hydrocotyle asiatica), 13 of guarana (paulli ...200415019183
inhibition of immunologic and nonimmunologic stimulation-mediated anaphylactic reactions by water extract of white eggplant (solanum melongena).we investigated the effect of water extract of solanum melongena(smwe) on immunologic and nonimmunologic stimulation-mediated anaphylactic reactions. nonimmunologic anaphylactic reaction was induced by compound 48/80 injection. oral administration of smwe (1 g kg(-1)) completely inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic reaction. immunologic anaphylactic reaction was generated by sensitizing the skin with anti-dinitrophenyl (dnp) ige followed 48 h later with an injection of antigen. oral adm ...200111352546
effect of alkaloids of solanum melongena on the central nervous system.crude alkaloidal fraction isolated from the leaves of solanum melongena was screened for its effects on the central nervous system. it exhibited significant analgesic effect and some cns depression but no anticonvulsant action. the analgesic effects were of non-narcotic type. ld50 was estimated to be higher than 1 g/kg i.p. in mice.19846482482
primary structure of belladonna mottle virus coat protein.the coat protein of belladonna mottle virus (a tymovirus) was cleaved by trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the peptides were separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a combination of gel permeation, reverse phase, and ion pair chromatography. the peptides were sequenced manually using the 4-n, n-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-isothiocyanate/phenyl isothiocyanate double-coupling method. the chymotryptic peptides were aligned by overlapping sequences of tryptic peptides and by homology wi ...19892467911
tobacco to tomatoes: a phylogenetic perspective on fruit diversity in the solanaceae.the solanaceae contains many species of agricultural importance. several of these are cultivated for their fruits, such as the tomato, the pepper and the aubergine. the family is very diverse in fruit type with capsules, drupes, pyrenes, berries, and several sorts of dehiscent non-capsular fruits occurring in the 90+ genera. in this paper, recent work on fruit type evolution in angiosperms is reviewed in relation to dispersal agents and habitat ecology. defining fruit types in the solanaceae in ...200212324525
antioxidant activity of flavonoids from solanum melongena.flavonoids isolated from solanum melongena (brinjal) showed potent antioxidant activity. concentrations of malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were lowered significantly. the activity of catalase was found to be significantly enhanced in the tissues of normal and cholesterol fed rats administered 1 mg flavonoid from brinjal/100 g bw/day. the concentration of glutathione also showed elevated values in the experimental animals. the elevated levels of glutathione and significantly ...199910441778
[morphology of the ganglion cervicale superius in human fetuses and an adult].morphology of the ganglion cervicale superius (gcs) was studied on 16 sides of 10 human fetuses and the 2 sides of an adult cadaver with a binocular stereomicroscope. the obtained results were as follows. gcs is fusiform on 8 sides, takes the form of an eggplant on 3 sides, and is weakly constricted on 7 sides. the gcs was symmetrical in 2 cases. the gcs lay slightly above the first cervical vertebra and extended downward to the superior half of the second cervical vertebra on 11 sides of fetuse ...19938279265
acid tolerance and gad mrna levels of escherichia coli o157:h7 grown in foods.we examined the acid tolerance and gad mrna levels of escherichia coli o157:h7 (three strains) and nonpathogenic e. coli (strains k12, w1485, and b) grown in foods. the e. coli cells (approximately 30,000 cells) were inoculated on the surface of 10 g of solid food samples (asparagus, broccoli, carrot, celery, cucumber, eggplant, ginger, green pepper, onion, potato, radish, tomato and beef) and in 10 ml of cow's milk, cultured statically at 10-25 degrees c for 1-14 days, and subjected to an acid ...200312593923
effect of eggplant (solanum melongena) extract on the in vitro labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.the use of eggplant has been suggested to treat different diseases. we studied the effect of eggplant extract on the labeling of red blood cells (rbc) and plasma proteins with technetium-99m (tc-99m) and on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (tc-99m) in rats. blood was incubated with an eggplant extract (final concentrations 3.12 to 250.00 mg/ml) for 60 min. then, stannous chloride (sncl2) (0.06 or 1.2 microg/ml) and tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. samples of rbc and plasma (p) ...200212619974
a large outbreak of botulism: the hazardous baked april 1994, the largest outbreak of botulism in the united states since 1978 occurred in el paso, texas. thirty persons were affected; 4 required mechanical ventilation. all ate food from a greek restaurant. the attack rate among persons who ate a potato-based dip was 86% (19/22) compared with 6% (11/176) among persons who did not eat the dip (relative risk [rr] = 13.8; 95% confidence interval [ci], 7.6-25.1). the attack rate among persons who ate an eggplant-based dip was 67% (6/9) compared ...19989652437
maelstrom, a drosophila spindle-class gene, encodes a protein that colocalizes with vasa and rde1/ago1 homolog, aubergine, in nuage.a hallmark of germline cells across the animal kingdom is the presence of perinuclear, electron-dense granules called nuage. in many species examined, vasa, a dead-box rna helicase, is found in these morphologically distinct particles. despite its evolutionary conservation, the function of nuage remains obscure. we have characterized a null allele of maelstrom (mael) and shown that maelstrom protein is localized to nuage in a vasa-dependent manner. by phenotypic characterization, we have defined ...200312538514
determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.a rapid and simple extraction method for the simultaneous analysis of five neonicotinoid insecticides has been developed. twelve different fruit and vegetable matrixes were extracted with methanol and cleaned up using a graphitized carbon solid phase extraction cartridge loading with a 20% methanol solution. the concentrated eluate after methanol elution was then analyzed for pesticide residues by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the apci positive mode. the five pesticides including ni ...200312696927
[cycling and balance of copper in farmland ecosystem of jianghan plain in hubei province].the cycling and balance of copper in 8 cropping systems, i.e., wheat-rice, rice-rice, rape-soybean, rape-peanut, wheat-sesame, wheat-cotton, pepper-cabbage and radish-eggplant in jianghan plain of hubei province were studied. the results showed that the main output of copper was crop harvesting, up to 85.9%-95.1% of total output, and the output of copper by field runoff and soil leaching was low. the main inputs of copper were organic fertilizer, rainfall, falldrop, and natural return. the input ...200312722442
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of eggplant (solanum melongena l.) using root efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic eggplant (solanum melongena l.) via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. root explants were transformed by co-cultivation with agrobacterium tumefaciens strain lba4404 harbouring a binary vector pbal2 carrying the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase intron (gus-int) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (nptii). transgenic calli were induced in media containing 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (td ...200312789429
estimating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency using incident light and photosynthesis of individual has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (phrue) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. to test this hypothesis, 'daily' photosynthesis of individual leaves of solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. instantaneous photosynthesis ...200312770844
genetic diversity (rapd-pcr) of lactobacilli isolated from "almagro" eggplant fermentations from two seasons.genetic diversity of 323 strains of lactobacilli isolated from an almagro eggplant manufacturing plant was analyzed by using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd). thirty-four distinct rapd patterns were obtained with 95% of isolates grouped into 18 main clusters. genetic diversity was higher in brines from season ii, lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus fermentum/cellobiosus being the species with the greatest number of genotypes. a single l. fermentum/cellobiosus genotype comprised isol ...200415336417
bioactive anthocyanins detected in human urine after ingestion of blackcurrant juice.anthocyanins are a group of very efficient bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in plant food. several fruits (blackcurrant, blackberry, red grape) and some vegetables (eggplant, onion, red radish) are rich sources of these natural pigments. extracts of some of them are used as food colorants as well as components of pharmaceutical preparations and functional foods. anthocyanins, through their ability to inhibit radical reactions, are considered to exert several protective effects in ...200111394716
aubergine encodes a drosophila polar granule component required for pole cell formation and related to drosophila oocytes, activation of oskar translation from a transcript localized to the posterior pole is an essential step in the organization of the pole plasm, specialized cytoplasm that contains germline and abdominal body patterning determinants. oskar is a component of polar granules, large particles associated with the pole plasm and the germline precursor pole cells of the embryo. aubergine mutants fail to translate oskar mrna efficiently and are thus defective in posterior body patter ...200111526087
genomic fingerprinting of virulent and avirulent strains of clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus.genomic fingerprints of c. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus were generated by chef gel electrophoresis of restriction digested high-molecular weight dna. low levels of intra-subspecific variation were detected by cluster analysis of the fingerprints. four haplotypes were identified by genomic fingerprinting with hindiii, and eight were identified with ecori. haplotypes generated with hindiii were less similar than those generated by ecori. haplotypes generated with hindiii formed groups that cor ...200211815855
optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes.genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. the defh9-iaam transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato) and varieties.200211818033
identification of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer, a natural antioxidant, in dietary vegetables.aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (simply named dimer) is a natural sulfur-containing tricyclic compound detected, until now, in human urine, bovine cerebellum, and human plasma. recently, the antioxidant properties of this compound have been demonstrated. in this investigation, the presence of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer was identified in garlic, spinach, tomato, asparagus, aubergine, onion, pepper, and courgette. identification of this compound in dietary ve ...200211902974
acute poisoning of friesian heifers by solanum macrocarpon l. ssp dasyphyllum.solanum macrocarpon (african eggplant) is a tropical plant widely cultivated as a delicious vegetable; the non-edible wild variety called solanum macrocarpon l. ssp dasyphyllum (the wild african eggplant) bears thorns or spikes on the stem and leaves. thirteen yearling heifers on a dairy farm in uganda suffered acute poisoning after eating berries of s. macrocarpon l. ssp dasyphyllum. there was sudden onset of anorexia, copious salivation, severe dysentery and passage of red urine. the animals a ...200312882498
evolutional study on acetylcholine expression.acetylcholine (ach) is a well-known neurotransmitter in the cholinergic nervous systems of vertebrates and insects; however, there is only indirect evidence for its presence in lower invertebrates, such as plants and fungi. we therefore investigated the expression of ach in invertebrates (sea squirt, sea urchin, trepang, squid, abalone, nereis, sea anemone, coral and sponge), plants (arabidopsis, eggplant, bamboo shoot, cedar, hinoki, pine, podcarp, fern, horsetail and moss), fungi (yeast and mu ...200312559395
the defh9-iaam auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry.the defh9-iaam gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. transgenic defh9-iaam eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. however, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased.200415113427
autoinducer-2-like activity on vegetable produce and its potential involvement in bacterial biofilm formation on tomatoes.quorum sensing employing autoinducer molecules is a strategy used by bacterial populations to coordinately modulate their response to environmental stresses and host defense mechanisms. the objectives of this study were to determine the levels of autoinducer-2 (ai-2)-like activity on selected vegetable produce and determine whether ai-2-like molecules can promote e. coli o157:h7 biofilm formation on tomatoes. twelve different fruit and vegetable produce samples were screened for ai-2-like activi ...200516156705
glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (ht29) and liver (hepg2) cancer part of an effort to improve plant-derived foods such as potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes, the antiproliferative activities against human colon (ht29) and liver (hepg2) cancer cells of a series of structurally related individual compounds were examined using a microculture tetrazolium (mtt) assay. the objective was to assess the roles of the carbohydrate side chain and aglycon part of solanum glycosides in influencing inhibitory activities of these compounds. evaluations were carried out wit ...200415137822
effect of aphid-infested plants on the host location and learning behaviour of the parasitoid aphelinus abdominalis.aphelinus abdominalis dalman (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) is a generalist parasitoid of cereal (e.g. sitobion avenae) and greenhouse aphids (e.g. macrosiphum euphorbiae). it differs from aphidius spp. (hymenoptera: braconidae) by its robust constitution, longevity and its habit to use aphids not only as hosts for its progeny but also as prey (host feeding). in addition, a. abdominalis does not evoke aphidius-characteristic defence responses by attacked aphids as this wasp approaches its hosts very ...200315149107
the aqueous extract of solanum melongena inhibits par2 agonist-induced inflammation.solanum melongena l. (solanaceae) has antioxidant, analgesic, hypolipidemic and antiallergic activity.200312559597
assessment of essential and toxic elements in some kinds of vegetables.vegetables provide the human body with the essential bioavailable trace elements, and a constant supply of these various elements is necessary and highly recommended for daily life. minor elements such as ca, fe, k, mg, and na as well as trace elements such as cd, co, cu, mn, ni, pb, and zn were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 12 different species of vegetables from saudi arabia (the al-taif district). these vegetables were cucumber, vegetable marrow, tomato, potato, g ...200312798758
determination of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram residues in vegetables and fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.determination of 3 neonicotinoid insecticides, nitenpyram, imidacloprid, and acetamiprid, was studied. vegetables and fruits were extracted with acetonitrile. the crude extract was passed through a weak anion-exchange cartridge (psa). the effluent was subjected to silica gel cartridge. imidacloprid and acetamiprid were eluted with 10 ml of 4:6 (v/v) acetone/hexane, followed by nitenpyram with acetone (20 ml). pesticides were determined by hplc with a c-18 column and diode-array detection system. ...200212137461
rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (solanum melongena l) and plant growth activity by bacillus antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain bacillus bs2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen rhizoctonia solani. seed bacterization with the strain bs2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants solanum melongena l, brassica oleracea var. capitata, b. oleraceae var. gongylodes and lycopersicon esculentum mill in terms of relative gro ...200315266911
two new bacterial pathogens of colorado potato beetle coleoptera: chrysomelidae).other than bacillus thuringiensis berliner, few bacteria are lethal to the colorado potato beetle (leptinotarsa decemlineata [say]), a major pest of potatoes and eggplant. expanded use of biologicals for the control of colorado potato beetle will improve resistance management, reduce pesticide use, and produce novel compounds for potential use in transgenic plants. using freeze-dried, rehydrated artificial diet in pellet form to screen bacteria lethal to other insects, we determined that strains ...200415279252
validation of a rice specific gene, sucrose phosphate synthase, used as the endogenous reference gene for qualitative and real-time quantitative pcr detection of transgenes.with the development of transgenic crops, many countries have issued regulations to label the genetically modified organisms (gmos) and their derived products. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods are thought to be reliable and useful techniques for qualitative and quantitative detection of gmos. these methods generally need to amplify the transgene and compare the amplified result with that of the corresponding reference gene to obtain reliable results. in this article, we reported the devel ...200415161200
antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in taiwan.fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. it has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. the antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. squash, wax gourd, tomato, ...200415545051
evaluation of various species demarcation criteria in attempts to classify ten new tombusvirus isolates.the usefulness of various suggested species demarcation criteria was compared in attempts to determine the taxonomic status of ten new tombusvirus isolates. five of them (lim 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6) were obtained from different sources of commercially grown statice (limonium sinuatum), two (gyp 1 and 2) from different sources of commercially grown gypsophila paniculata and three from water samples, i.e. from a small river (schunter) in northern germany, from a brook (near dossenheim) in southern germa ...200415593416
genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the defh9-iaam gene. the iaam gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the defh9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. a previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (gm) parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increa ...200211934354
occurrence and significance of cryptococcus neoformans in vegetables and fruits.cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from three of 437 (0.6%) samples of a wide variety of vegetables collected from a number of markets in delhi. the vegetables yielding c. neoformans were tomato, lycopersicon esculentum (1/70), 'vegetable sponge', luffa cylindrica (1/56) and brinjal, solanum melongena (1/55). only solitary samples of these three vegetables were found to be positive. in vitro studies at 25 degrees c revealed that a reference c. neoformans isolate readily colonized, as did candi ...200015597680
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