histochemical studies in stomatal apparatus of phaseolus mungo linn. i. localization of enzymes and structural the present investigations, the localization of several enzymes (acid phosphatase, peroxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, phosphorylase, alkaline phosphatase, atp-ase) and other substances in the guard and subsidiary cells as well as trichomes of the leaves of phaseolus mungo, was carried out. attempts were also made to follow the sequence of developmental stages starting with meristemoids and culminating in differentiated structures. the basic information thus obtained is used in interpreting t ...1975127500
histochemical studies in stomatal apparatus of phaseolus mungo linn. iv. mechanism of stomatal action.the histochemical studies were carried out in the open and closed stomata of phaseolus mungo leaves. several enzymes like, acid phospatase peroxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, phosphorylase, alkaline phosphatase, atp-ase etc. were localized in the guard and subsidiary cells of epidermal peel. on the basis of cytochemical localization, enzyme activity was precisely interpreted. in the light of fluctuations in the localization, activities of different enzymes, an attempt is made to provide the func ...1975127501
nature of the dietary carbohydrate and metabolism of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in rats.the polysaccharide from blackgram (phaseolus mungo) has been previously reported to cause lower cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride levels in rats fed either low-or high-fat diets containing cholesterol. the effect of this polysaccharide fraction as compared to that of glucose and sucrose on the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans and glycoprotein has been studied. the pattern of change in the levels of different glycosaminoglycans varied in the different tissues. sucrose fed animals gave l ...1976176334
3-dehydroquinate synthase in germinating phaseolus mungo seedlings.dehydroquinate synthase, an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (dahp) to 3-dehydroquinate, was detected in cell-free extracts of etiolated phaseolus mungo seedlings. the reaction product, 3-dehydroquinate, formed from [1-14c]dahp was identified by paper-radiochromatography. the enzyme required nad+ and co2+ for activity.1976185202
dietary fiber and cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.the effect of administering blackgram (phaseolus mungo) fiber (isolated as neutral detergent residue) at the 30% dietary level has been studied with regard to lipid concentration in the tissues and that of biliary and fecal bile acids and sterols. rats were fed a high fat-cholesterol diet and compared with those fed a cellulose diet. the results indicate that blackgram fiber significantly lowers cholesterol in both serum and aorta [11]. there was an increased concentration of biliary sterols and ...1979223600
isoflavones and hypercholesterolemia in rats.isoflavones isolated from three commonly used pulses such as bengalgram (cicer arietinum), greengram (phaseolus aureus) and blackgram (phaseolus mungo) and p-coumaric acid were supplemented to hypercholesterolemia-inducing diet of rats. among isoflavones, biochanin a and formononetin showed hypolipidemic activity but diadzein did not; p-coumaric acid also produced a significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels.1979459719
purification and properties of heat-resistant exotoxin produced by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid in culture.a partially purified preparation of a water-soluble, heat-resistant, nonspecific exotoxin produced by a strain of macrophomina phaseolina, isolated from phaseolus mungo l. could reduce cu++ ions and produced a red colour with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine reagent. it caused inhibition of seed germination, wilting of cult seedlings, stunted growth of young seedlings and loss of permeability of the cell membrane. seedlings of p. mungo, grown in presence of the toxin showed a slight increase in the c ...1979488287
histochemical studies in stomatal apparatus of phaseolus mungo linn, lathyrus sativus linn and opuntia elatior mill.with histochemical methods the distribution of some enzymes and metabolic substances in the epidermal peelings of phaseolus mungo, lathyrus sativus, and opuntia elatior under light and dark conditions is examined. dehydrogenases oxidases, transferases and hydrolases were studied. fluctuations in the activity of hydrolases, especially, acid phosphatase, lipase, glucose-6-phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, dehydrogenases and transferases were observed during light and dark conditions. the role ...1977598772
purification of two forms of the associated 3-dehydroquinate hydro-lyase and shikimate:nadp+ oxidoreductase in phaseolus mungo seedlings.two associated enzymes, 3-dehydroquinate hydro-lyase (ec and shikimate:nadp+ oxidoreductase (ec, have been purified from phaseolus mungo seedlings. these enzymes were purified 6900- and 9700-fold, respectively, but they were not separable. moreover, two activity bands of the shikimate:nadp+ oxidoreductase were detected after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the two peaks also have 3-dehydroquinate hydro-lyase activity. the two forms of the associated enzymes showed only ...1978620036
the effect of soaking, germination and cooking on the protein quality of mash beans (phaseolus mungo) 1978661232
trans-cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of phaseolus mungo. a new assay method. 1978697018
adsorption of bile salts from aqueous solution by plant fibre and cholestyramine.1. adsorption of bile salts by dietary fibre is believed to promote their excretion and hence to reduce the serum cholesterol level in man and experimental animals. 2. we have tested a number of plant fibre fractions and other related materials for their ability to adsorb bile salts from aqueous solution. the "insoluble" plant fractions were from "dry grain" (a residue from brewing), apple, wheat bran, lucerne (medicago sativa), soya beans, mung beans (phaseolus mungo), chick peas (cicer arieti ...1978698168
purification and characterization of the surface active proteins of black gram (phaseolus mungo).the surface active globulin from black gram has been resolved into two components with high foam-forming activity. they were found to be homogeneous by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugal examinations and had high molecular weights around 100,000 daltons. they were rich in acidic as well basic amino acids but low in sulphur amino acids. heat treatment, proteolysis and treatment with certain inorganic salts such as copper, and mercurous mercury, group specific reagents p-chloromercury benzoate a ...1978711375
isolation and characterization of arabinogalactan from black gram (phaseolus mungo). 1978730953
histochemical studies in stomatal apparatus of phaseolus mungo linn. ii. localization of phosphorylase.using histochemical techniques the presence of phosphorylase in the guard cells and subsidiary cells of phaseolus mungo leaf has been demonstrated. the intensity of reaction is intense in the material collected at night while during the day collected leaves, both chloroplastic and cytoplasmic starch was absent. the functional significance of chloroplastic starch in the subsidiary cells in relation to the stomatal mechanism is discussed.1975811040
effect of germination on the glycoprotein of mash (phaseolus mungo) seeds.the soluble carbohydrates and insolube proteins of phaseolus mungo seeds decreased considerably up to 96 h of germination, whereas the soluble proteins remained nearly constant. the carbohydrates content of glycoprotein also remained constant. this suggests that a negligible change took place in the glycoprotein during the initial period of mash seed germination.1977844532
studies on seed coat toxicity to rhizobia of urid (phaseolus mungo), mung (phaseolus aureus), and soybean (glycine max). 1976947116
hypolipidaemic action of the polysaccharide from phaseolus mungo (blackgram): effect on lipid metabolism. 1976955657
dietary fibre and cholesterol metabolism: effect of fibre rich polysaccharide from blackgram (phaseolus mungo) on cholesterol metabolism in rats fed normal and atherogenic diet.the effect of the fibre rich polysaccharide from black gram was studied on the concentration of cholesterol in the tissues, bile salts in the liver and faecal excretion of sterols and bile salts in rats fed normal and high fat cholesterol diet as compared to glucose and sucrose. the binding of bile salts "in vitro" by the polysaccharide was also studied. the rats fed polysaccharide showed the lowest level of cholesterol in the serum, liver and aorta both in normal and high fat -- cholesterol die ...1976990375
digestibility of proteins and starch (in vitro) of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.the effects of different domestic processing and cooking methods on starch digestibility (in vitro) and protein digestibility (in vitro) of four strains of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) were investigated. an increase of 35 to 48% and 22 to 25% was observed in starch digestibility and protein digestibility, respectively, when the seed of amphidiploids were soaked for 18 h. cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds) and germination improved significantly the starch digestibility and prot ...19921374184
glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.the glycaemic index (gi) and the triacylglycerol response were measured in thirty non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients given 50 g portions of five different conventional indian meals containing semolina (triticum aestivum) cooked by two different methods, or combinations of semolina and pulse (black gram dhal (phaseolus mungo), green gram dhal (phaseolus aureus) or bengal gram dhal (cicer arietum)). there were no significant differences among meals in mean gi except for meals based o ...19921445824
organochlorine pesticide residues in different indian cereals, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, milk, butter, deshi ghee, and edible oils.a total of 244 samples of cereals (wheat flour, rice, and maize), pulses (arhar, moong, gram, lentil, and black gram), spices (turmeric, chili, coriander, and black pepper), vegetables (potato, onion, spinach, cabbage, brinjal, and tomato), fruits (mango, guava, apple, and grape), milk, butter, deshi ghee, and edible oils (vegetable, mustard, groundnut, and sesame) collected from different cities of northern province (utter pradesh) were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography for the presence of ...19901698760
a monomeric protein with hemagglutinating activity from seeds of vigna mungo (phaseolus mungo).black gram (vigna mungo) seeds are shown to contain a lectin with certain unusual features. the lectin agglutinates only trypsinized red cells, and its sugar specificity is complex as none of the common sugars, oligosaccharides or complex polysaccharides exhibit any affinity for the lectin. the purified lectin has a molecular weight of 58 kda and is a monomer. unlike other plant lectins, antibodies to the p. mungo lectin do not exhibit any immunological cross reactivity. the clot forming ability ...19911812079
temporal variation in protein content and yield of vigna mungo (l.) hepper leaves.temporal variation in total protein and soluble protein contents and protein yield of vigna mungo leaves at intervals of every three hours during day and night was studied. the study was done with the view to ascertain the hour of harvesting the leaves for maximum yield of leaf protein concentrate. observations reveal that the total protein and soluble protein contents in the leaves are minimum during 3.00 to 6.00 hrs, which steadily rise with time to reach the maximum values during 12.00 to 15. ...19902247432
effect of feeding black gram (phaseolus mungo) on serum lipids of normal & diabetic guineapigs.when normal and alloxan-induced diabetic guineapigs were given whole seed diet of phaseolus mungo (black gram) for 4 wk, the blood glucose, serum total lipids, triglycerides and esterified fraction of cholesterol were significantly lowered, while serum phospholipid was unaltered. total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio also decreased in normal as well as diabetic animals indicating the antiatherogenic nature of p. mungo.19902272678
nucleotide sequence of the gene for the vigna mungo sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (sh-ep). 19902336365
nucleotide sequence of cdna for alpha-amylase from cotyledons of germinating vigna mungo seeds. 19902377468
[metabolism of [2-14c]thymine and [2-14c]thymidine in germinating black gram (phaseolus mungo) seeds].the metabolism of [2-14c]thymine and [2-14c]thymidine in the cotyledons and embryonic axes of black gram (phaseolus mungo) seedlings was investigated. both [2-14c]thymine and [2-14c]thymidine degraded extensively into [14c]co2. the rate of release of [14c]co2 from [2-14c]thymine was much greater than that from [2-14c]thymidine. radioactivity from both precursors was also observed beta-ureidoisobutyric acid. this indicated that thymine was degraded by the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradati ...19852410955
detection and characterization of p-coumaric acid hydroxylase in mung bean, vigna mungo, seedlings.a new p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) hydroxylase was detected in mung bean seedlings treated with tentoxin, a fungal toxin, in which polyphenol oxidase that hydroxylates a wide variety of monophenols in vitro was completely eliminated. the enzyme required molecular oxygen and showed a ph optimum of 5.0. the enzyme acted only on p-coumaric acid (km, 3.0 x 10(-5) m), while its specificity for the electron donor was rather broad. the km value for nadph (1.5 x 10(-4) m) was much lower than ...19892498300
effects of neutral detergent fiber from blackgram (phaseolus mungo) in rats and rabbits.the hypocholesterolemic action of neutral detergent fiber (ndf) from blackgram (phaseolus mungo) in rats may be due to hemicellulose, since removal of hemicellulose resulted in the loss of cholesterol-lowering action. blackgram ndf showed different binding affinities for different bile acids, with maximum binding observed with chenodeoxycholic acid, and minimum binding with deoxycholic acid. fecal excretion of inorganic cations (mn++, mg++, cu++, fe , zn++, na+ and k+) was greater in rats fed bl ...19892552059
properties of a cyclic 3'5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase from vigna mungo.cyclic amp phosphodiesterase (pde) partially purified from roots of vigna mungo exhibited optimum activity at ph 5.5 to 6.0 and maximum enzyme activity at 50 degrees c. levels of pde activity in roots remained relatively constant from the first to the eleventh day after germination; on the twelfth day there was a 400% increase in pde activity. the enzyme was stable for at least 48 hours at 28 degrees c, retaining 92% of its original activity. plant growth hormones including gibberellic acid, ind ...19892559728
antinutrients in amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean): varietal differences and effect of domestic processing and cooking.phytic acid, saponin and polyphenol contents in grains of various varieties of black gram (vigna mungo) mung bean (vigna radiata l.) amphidiploids ranged from 697 to 750, 2746 to 2972 and 702 to 783 mg/100 g, respectively. domestic processing and cooking methods including soaking, ordinary and pressure cooking of soaked and unsoaked seeds, and sprouting significantly lowered phytic acid, saponin and polyphenol contents of the amphidiploid seeds. soaking for 18 h removed 31 to 37% of the phytic a ...19892608635
fat and fatty acid contents of cereals and pulses and their relevance to indian diets.invisible fat and fatty acid content of cereals and pulses were analysed by newer and more accurate methods. in all cereals (except ragi) and in all pulses (except black gram) linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) was the major fatty acid. on an average pulses contained more alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) than cereals. from data on dietary intakes of the rural population in india, the average per caput consumption of total invisible fat, 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 from cereals, pulses and milk was calculated. fr ...19892661219
availability of zinc from germinated, fermented and autoclaved black-gram (phaseolus mungo) in rats.the availability of zinc in the autoclaved black-gram diet was better as compared to germinated, fermented and raw black-gram diets and this may be due to more destruction of phytate.19892755467
protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (cicer arietinum) and blackgram (vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. protein digestibility was higher when ...19892762243
nucleotide sequence of cdna for sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (sh-ep) from cotyledons of germinating vigna mungo seeds. 19892780300
gamma-rays and ems induced pentaphyllous mutant in black gram (vigna mungo).pentaphyllous mutants in black gram were isolated in m2 generation of a segregating family, irradiated at 20 kr. the genetic nature of mutants was tested by hybridizing with controls, and chi-square tests applied to the f2 population, proved it to be a monogenic recessive. the pentaphyllous mutant had a greater number of pods and leaves per plant and larger and more root nodules. it also showed improved nutritional value with increased seed protein percentage and no increase in tia (trypsin inhi ...19883200796
characterization of seed storage proteins of urdbean (vigna mungo).dehulled and defatted flour of urdbean (vigna mungo), var t-9, contained 25% protein with maximum contribution by globulins (63%). albumins and glutelins contributed 12% and 21% respectively, whereas prolamins were present only in traces (1%). globulins were further fractionated into legumin and vicilin type proteins which were present in the ratio of 4:1. all the protein fractions were heterogenous in nature as revealed by high performance liquid chromatography. sds-polyacrylamide gel electroph ...19883200802
proximate composition and antinutritional factors in rice bean (vigna umbellata).thirteen promising strains of rice bean (vigna umbellata) were analysed for their proximate compositions and antinutritional factors. protein content in these varieties ranged from 17.50 to 23.10 per cent, ash from 3.06 to 4.48 per cent, ether extract from 2.4 to 3.9 per cent and crude fibre from 1.70 to 4.25 per cent. trypsin inhibitor activity ranged from 112.63 to 163.98 units/g and polyphenols ranged from 0.58 to 1.19 per cent. phytohemagglutinating activity was present in all the strains, e ...19883231596
effect of extrusion processing on the nutritional quality of protein in rice-legume blends.the effect of extrusion processing using wenger x-5 extruder on the quality of products of rice-legume (75:25) blends was investigated. the products were palatable and had a good texture. the nutritional quality of protein in the extrudates was significantly improved. the protein efficiency ratio values of rice-soybean, rice-bengal gram and rice-black gram products were: 2.25, 2.30 and 2.28 as compared to 2.10, 1.89 and 1.98 for the respective raw blends. extrusion processing reduced the phytate ...19883362195
hepatic and serum arginase and ornithine transcarbamylase activities of rats maintained on diets of different protein quality.groups of rats were fed diets containing 15% protein from arhar dal (cajanus cajan), bengal gram dal (cicer arietinum), urad dal (phaseolus mungo) and also isolated proteins from casein, egg, soya bean, gluten and gelatin for a period of 10 days. rats maintained on the casein diet had the highest liver arginase activity and those having egg the lowest. all the leguminous proteins gave similar levels of arginase activity, the values falling between the casein and egg groups. serum arginase level ...19873426155
legume agglutinins that bind to rhizobium meliloti.a protein found in seeds and roots of alfalfa (medicago sativa) was implicated in the specificity of the infection process, based on its binding to the symbiont rhizobium meliloti. we found an agglutinin with similar properties in seeds and roots of sweet clover (melilotis alba). the sweet clover differed from alfalfa in nodulation by a mutant strain of r. meliloti, but the agglutinins were indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, rhizobium agglutination, a ...19853988714
histochemical studies in stomatal apparatus of phaseolus mungo linn. 3. localization of ascorbic acid and peroxidase and their functional significance. 19744136200
effect of fenugreek (trigonella foenum-graecum linn.) supplementation on the biological value of rice & black gram (phaseolus mungo) diet. 19644243507
hypolipidaemic action of the polysaccharide from phaseolus mungo (blackgram). effect on glycosaminoglycans, lipids and lipoprotein lipase activity in normal rats. 19744273183
hypolipidaemic activity of phaseolus mungo (blackgram) in rats fed a high-fat--high-cholesterol diet. isolation of a protein and polysaccharide fraction. 19724666125
hypolipidaemic activity of the protein and polysaccharide fraction from phaseolus mungo (blackgram) in rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet. 19734751224
field trials with some fungicides and antibiotic aureofungin in control of angular black spot of black gram and green gram. 19695370702
mung chuni (phaseolus mungo) as a substitute for yellow maize. i. effect on growth. 19695389381
acid phosphomonoesterase from phaseolus mungo. purification and characterization. 19705486578
effect of the dietary black gram trypsin inhibitory fraction on the pancreatic activity of male albino mice.the effect of raw black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitory fraction on the pancreatic function of male albino mice has been evaluated. animals were fed autoclaved black gram (group i), raw black gram (group ii) and autoclaved black gram incorporated with black gram trypsin inhibitory fraction (group iii). pancreatic total protease, trypsin and amylase activities were elevated significantly in group ii and iii animals. analyses of intestinal contents showed a constant level of total protease ...19846206531
effect of dietary fiber on intestinal bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity in chicks fed a cholesterol-containing diet.the effect of dietary fiber isolated from blackgram (phaseolus mungo) was studied on the metabolic activity of microflora in the large intestine and cecum in chicks fed a cholesterol diet. the results indicate that inclusion of cholesterol in the diet increased the bacterial as well as tissue (large intestine, small intestine, and cecum) beta-glucuronidase activity when compared to a cholesterol-free diet. dietary fiber isolated from blackgram when given at 30% level to chicks fed a cholesterol ...19806254631
effect of blackgram fiber (phaseolus mungo) on hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-coa reductase activity, cholesterogenesis and cholesterol degradation in rats.rats maintained on cholesterol-free diet and fed neutral detergent fiber (ndf) from blackgram showed lower concentrations of cholesterol in the serum, liver and aorta, when compared to those fed isocaloric, fiber-free diet. incorporation of labeled precursors, [1,2(-14)c]acetate and [u-14c]glucose, into cholesterol of liver was higher in these rats. the activity of hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme a (hmg-coa) reductase was also increased. concentration of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic a ...19836304266
influence of black gram (vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.the effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), group ii raw black gram and group iii the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in groups ii and iii. increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in groups ii and iii. the resu ...19846473902
biochemistry of black gram (phaseolus mungo l.): a review. 19827037311
studies on black gram (vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitor. 19817321531
[the preventive and therapeutic effects of phaseolus mungo on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits (author's transl)]. 19817338182
possible dietary protective factors in relation to the distribution of duodenal ulcer in india and india there are regions of high incidence and regions of low incidence of duodenal ulcer. rats prefed for two weeks on diets from low incidence areas developed significantly fewer rumenal ulcers after pyloric ligation than rats fed on diets from high incidence areas. the protective action was found in various individual items of food taken from the diets of low incidence areas. unrefined wheat and rice, certain pulses (black gram, green gram, horse gram), some millets (sava, kutki, ragi), soy ...19807461465
purification of a processing enzyme (vmpe-1) that is involved in post-translational processing of a plant cysteine endopeptidase (sh-ep).a cysteine endopeptidase, designated sh-ep, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of vigna mungo and acts to degrade the seed storage protein in protein storage vacuoles. sh-ep is synthesized on membrane-bound ribosomes as an inactive 45-kda precursor, which is cotranslationally processed to a 43-kda intermediate through cleavage of the signal sequence; the 43-kda intermediate of sh-ep is further processed to the 33-kda mature enzyme via 39-kda and 36-kda intermediates [mitsuhashi, w. & m ...19957635141
variability in phytic acid content and protein digestibility of grain legumes.several genotypes, number given within parenthesis, of chickpea, pigeonpea, urd bean, mung bean and soybean, differing in seed characteristics were analyzed for phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility (ivpd), protein, total phosphorus, and seed size. phytic acid contents and ivpd values differed significantly among and within these species. phytic acid content (mg/g) was the highest in soybean (36.4) followed by urd bean (13.7), pigeonpea (12.7), mung bean (12.0) and chickpea (9.6). on an av ...19957792265
in vitro digestibility of proteins in black gram (phaseolus mungo) and green gram (phaseolus radiatus) papads.'papads', a traditional food of india, were prepared with decorticated black gram and green gram flours and toasted, microwaved or deep fat fried. toasting was done by holding the papads over direct flame for 1-2 min. sharp carousal microwave oven was used for microwaving at high temperature for 30-40 s. deep fat frying was done by immersing the product in preheated refined groundnut oil for 5-10 s. in vitro digestibility of proteins in prepared papads was investigated by pepsin and pepsin + pan ...19957898577
identification and molecular cloning of four cysteine proteinase genes from the pathogenic protozoon trichomonas vaginalis.the parasitic protozoon trichomonas vaginalis produces multiple forms of cysteine proteinase (cp). the molecular basis for this has now been examined by cloning dna fragments encoding cps. using generic degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on two well-conserved regions within the central region of all eukaryotic cps, several polymerase chain reaction fragments were isolated from t. vaginalis genomic dna and shown to encode different cps. one fragment with a well-represented sequence was used ...19948000542
structure and expression of alpha-amylase gene from vigna mungo.a single copy of the alpha-amylase gene, composed of three introns and four exons, was found in vigna mungo. examination of levels of alpha-amylase and its mrna in detached cotyledons indicated that attachment of the embryonic axis is not required for expression of the gene in cotyledons of germinating seeds.19948075901
posttranslational processing of a carboxy-terminal propeptide containing a kdel sequence of plant vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (sh-ep)a plant cysteine endopeptidase, designated sh-ep, is a major protease occurring in cotyledons of vigna mungo seedlings, and acts to degrade seed globulin stored in protein bodies. here we show that the 43 kda intermediate of sh-ep formed in the endoplasmic reticulum is transported to protein bodies and processed to the 33 kda mature form during transport or thereafter, and that the cooh-terminal propeptide of 10 amino acid residues containing a kdel sequence, which is known as a retention signal ...19948076688
nucleotide sequence of the alpha-amylase gene from vigna mungo. 19938290640
pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase and biosynthetic capacity during differentiation of hypocotyls of vigna seedlings.the relationship between the activity of pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (pfp) and the capacity for biosynthesis of macromolecules was examined in segments from different parts of hypocotyls of etiolated seedlings of vigna mungo and v. radiata. the relative ratio of the maximum activity of pfp to that of atp-dependent phosphofructokinase (pfk) (pfp/pfk ratio) was high in young tissues and decreased with differentiation and ageing of the tissues. the highest level of fruct ...19938381302
elaboration of amylase activity and changes in paste viscosity of some common indian legumes during germination.the effect of germination upto 120 hours on malting loss, amylase activity and viscosity of nine common indian legumes was investigated. the amylase activity increased on progressive germination in all legumes, the increase being particularly high for green gram, horse gram, moth bean and black gram. malted samples had lower cooked paste viscosity than native ones. samples with high amylase activity exhibited proportionately lower viscosity. maximum reduction in viscosity was observed in green g ...19958577652
promoter regions of cysteine endopeptidase genes from legumes confer germination-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seeds.cysteine endopeptidases, sh-ep from vigna mungo and ep-c1 from phaseolus vulgaris, act to degrade seed storage protein during seed germination. using transgenic tobacco plants, expression of sh-ep and promoter activity of the ep-c1 gene were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants. the promoters of the two genes in tobacco seeds showed germination-specific activation, although post-translational processing of sh-ep and regulatory regions of promoter of the gene for ep-c1 were found to differ betwe ...19968616255
successive amino-terminal proteolysis of the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by vacuolar enzymes from french bean leaves.mainly using the protein immunoblot technique, we observed the decrease in amounts of the large subunit (lsu) and the small subunit (ssu) of ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) in detached primary leaves of french bean plants during senescence under the light or in darkness, but detected no significant degradation products of these subunits. treatment of the detached leaves with 0.6% (mass/vol.) dimethyl sulfoxide, 0.05% (mass/vol.) tween 80 considerably promoted the senesce ...19968681940
a major cysteine proteinase, epb, in germinating barley seeds: structure of two intronless genes and regulation of expression.the barley cysteine proteinase b (epb) is the main protease responsible for the degradation of endosperm storage proteins providing nitrogenous nutrients to support the growth of young seedlings. the expression of this enzyme is induced in the germinating seeds by the phytohormone, gibberellin, and suppressed by another phytohormone, abscisic acid. in situ hybridization experiments indicate that epb is expressed in the scutellar epithelium within 24 h of seed germination, but the aleurone tissue ...19968756590
enhanced photosynthesis in cytozyme-treated blackgram, phaseolus mungo l.foliar application of cytozyme to 30-day-old black-gram plants resulted 48% increase of dry matter accumulation. the increase in fresh and dry weights of total plants was largely due to enhanced co2 assimilation rates which were associated with increased rubp carboxylase activities. the photochemical characteristics in the isolated chloroplasts exhibited an increase of 32, 28 and 40%, measured as the photoreduction of dcpip, fecn and nadp, respectively. cytozyme treatment also resulted an increa ...19968979511
phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.the objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed indian pulses and soybean. germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. autoclaving and roasting we ...19968983057
a cysteine endopeptidase isolated from castor bean endosperm microbodies processes the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor protein.a plant cysteine endopeptidase with a molecular mass of 35 kd was purified from microbodies of germinating castor bean (ricinus communis) endosperm by virtue of its capacity to specifically process the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor protein to the mature subunit in vitro. processing of the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor occurs sequentially in three steps, the first intermediate resulting from cleavage after arginine-13 within the presequence and the second from cleavage a ...19979085576
functional properties of thermally treated legume flours.functional properties of four thermally treated decorticated legume flours namely, bengal gram (cicer arietinum), black gram (phaseolus f1p4o roxb.), green gram (phaseolus aureus roxb.) and lentils (lens esculenta) were studied. samples with moisture levels of 3.2, 3.3, 1.3 and 5.0% for all four were subjected to dry heat treatment in a covered vessel in pressure cooker. (untreated flours served as controls. thermal treatment lowered nitrogen solubility profiles of all flours and increased water ...19979205596
theophylline metabolism in higher plants.metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline was investigated in leaf segments from camellia sinensis (tea), camellia irrawadiensis, ilex paraguariensis (maté) and avena sativa, root segments of vigna mungo seedlings and cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus. there was extensive uptake and metabolism of [8-(14)c]theophylline by leaves of tea and camellia irrawadiensis and, to a lesser extent, maté. these purine alkaloid-containing species converted [8-(14)c]theophylline into 3-methylxanthine, x ...19979305805
proteinase a, a storage-globulin-degrading endopeptidase of vetch (vicia sativa l.) seeds, is not involved in early steps of storage-protein mobilization.proteinase a is a papain-like cysteine endopeptidase of vetch (vicia sativa l.) which was assumed to initiate storage-globulin breakdown just after the onset of seed germination. this enzyme was purified from cotyledons of vetch seedlings. on gelatin-containg sds gels, active proteinase a migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 21 kda, whereas after heat denaturation its molecular size on sds/page was 29 kda. although proteinase a is capable of hydrolyzing storage globulins in vitro it could ...19979346282
low-fat papadams from black gram-tapioca blends.papadams, made from black gram (phaseolus mungo) and largely manufactured on cottage scale are popular in the indian dietary. escalating prices of black gram coupled with abundant availability of tapioca flour at almost 1/8th the price of black gram prompted the study of papadam characteristics using blends of black gram and tapioca flour. tapioca flour up to 25% substitution did not alter the sensory attributes. however, the expansibility of the product decreased on addition of tapioca flour; a ...19979349443
analysis of the expression of two thiolprotease genes from daylily (hemerocallis spp.) during flower senescence.a cdna clone encoding a daylily (hemerocallis spp.) thiolprotease (sen11), whose expression is strongly upregulated in flower tepal senescence, has been isolated. the amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, showed highest similarity to plant thiolproteases of vigna mungo, phaseolus vulgaris and hemerocallis (sen102), and contains a putative er retention signal that has been described in vigna mungo. sen102 and sen11 transcripts were not detectable in flower buds at the opening ...19989484451
a cysteine endopeptidase with a c-terminal kdel motif isolated from castor bean endosperm is a marker enzyme for the ricinosome, a putative lytic compartment.a papain-type cysteine endopeptidase with a molecular mass of 35 kda for the mature enzyme, was purified from germinating castor bean (ricinus communis l.) endosperm by virtue of its capacity to process the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor protein to the mature subunit in vitro (c. gietl et al., 1997, plant physiol 113: 863-871). the cdna clones from endosperm of germinating seedlings and from developing seeds were isolated and sequence analysis revealed that a very similar or identica ...19989763713
isolation and characterization of a cdna clone of udp-galactose: flavonoid 3-o-galactosyltransferase (uf3gat) expressed in vigna mungo seedlings.four cdna clones were isolated from vigna mungo seedlings by the screening with cdna encoding udp-glucose:flavonoid 3-o-glucosyltransferase (uf3gt) of antirrhinum majus as a probe; the product of the gene corresponding to one cdna was more highly expressed in the first simple leaves than in stems. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed 1,691 bp (including 326 bp non-reading) containing an open reading frame of 455 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequence showed 42% and 23% identity with those ...19989891414
molecular cloning and characterization of vigna mungo processing enzyme 1 (vmpe-1), an asparaginyl endopeptidase possibly involved in post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (sh-ep).asparaginyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase that has strict substrate specificity toward the carboxy side of asparagine residues. vigna mungo processing enzyme 1, termed vmpe-1, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of v. mungo, and is possibly involved in the post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase, designated sh-ep, which degrades seed storage protein. vmpe-1 also showed a substrate specificity to asparagine residues, and its enzymatic activity was i ...199910080709
metal binding properties of ferritin in vigna mungo (l.) hepper (black gram): possible role in heavy metal detoxification. 199910094736
posttranslational removal of the carboxyl-terminal kdel of the cysteine protease sh-ep occurs prior to maturation of the is a cysteine protease from germinating mung bean (vigna mungo) that possesses a carboxyl-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (er) retention sequence, kdel. in order to examine the function of the er retention sequence, we expressed a full-length cdna of sh-ep and a minus-kdel control in insect sf-9 cells using the baculovirus system. our observations on the synthesis, processing, and trafficking of sh-ep in sf-9 cells suggest that the kdel er-retention sequence is posttranslationally removed e ...199910196232
the impact of household preparations on the residues of pesticides in selected agricultural food commodities available in india.gas chromatographic multiresidue methods for simultaneous determination of organophosphorus, organochlorine, and organonitrogen pesticides were used to study the exposure of the indian population to pesticide contamination at their actual dietary intakes. selected agricultural commodities--5 kinds of vegetables (tomato, potato, okra, cabbage, and green beans), 6 kinds of cereals and pulses (rice, maize, wheat, red gram, black gram, and green gram), and 6 kinds of fruits (mango, orange, guava, ba ...199910367391
analysis of saponins from black bean by electrospray ionization and fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry.saponins from black bean (vigna mungo l. hepper) were analyzed using positive and negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (fab-ms) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. methanol was used to extract the saponins from defatted black bean, which was partially purified by extraction with n-butanol, and the extract was dialyzed with 3000 m(r) cut-off tubing. the dialyzate was analyzed using mass spectrometry. according to fab-ms/ms, mixtures from black bean contain soyasaponin i a ...199910423561
asparaginyl endopeptidase (vmpe-1) and autocatalytic processing synergistically activate the vacuolar cysteine proteinase (sh-ep).a vacuolar cysteine proteinase, designated sh-ep, is synthesized in cotyledons of germinated vigna mungo seeds and is responsible for degradation of the seed proteins accumulated in protein bodies (protein storage vacuoles). sh-ep belongs to the papain proteinase family and has a large n-terminal prosegment consisting of 104 amino acid residues and a c-terminal prosegment of 10 amino acid residues. it has been suggested that an asparaginyl endopeptidase, v. mungo processing enzyme 1 (vmpe-1), is ...199910447692
knowledge of consumers regarding the nature and extent of adulteration of indian foods.the present study was carried out on 60 women consumers selected from three different localities of hisar city in india to study their knowledge regarding adulteration and detecting adulterants in commonly used food items. the post exposure correct responses of the respondents increased remarkably as 100.0 percent of the respondents gave correct responses regarding statements on adulteration of spices and condiments, the most common adulterated food item and to when and whom they could approach ...199910561864
mass transport of proform of a kdel-tailed cysteine proteinase (sh-ep) to protein storage vacuoles by endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicle is involved in protein mobilization in germinating seeds.a vacuolar cysteine proteinase, designated sh-ep, is expressed in the cotyledon of germinated vigna mungo seeds and is responsible for the degradation of storage proteins. sh-ep is a characteristic vacuolar proteinase possessing a cooh-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (er) retention sequence, kdel. in this work, immunocytochemical analysis of the cotyledon cells of germinated v. mungo seeds was performed using seven kinds of antibodies to identify the intracellular transport pathway of sh-ep from ...200010662772
plant beneficial effect of two strains of proteus vulgaris isolated from tea plantations.two strains of proteus isolated from tea plantation soil were tested for their ability to colonise the roots of gram (cicer arietinum), bean (phaseolus radiatus) and mung (phaseolus mungo) using a gnotobiotic system. seeds bacterized with the two strains grew faster and showed significant increase in root and shoot enlargement of the plants tested. the bioactive fractions obtained from the culture filtrates and separated through hplc showed that the plant growth promoting fractions were not alwa ...199910687288
avirulent mutants of macrophomina phaseolina and aspergillus fumigatus initiate infection in phaseolus mungo in the presence of phaseolinone; levamisole gives evaluate the role of phaseolinone, a phytotoxin produced by macrophomina phaseolina, in disease initiation, three nontoxigenic avirulent mutants of the fungus were generated by uv-mutagenesis. two of them were able to initiate infection in germinating phaseolus mungo seeds only in the presence of phaseolinone. the minimum dose of phaseoli-none required for infection in 30% seedlings was 2 5 mg/ml. a human pathogen, aspergillus fumigatus was also able to infect germinating seeds of p. mungo in ...200010824201
synthesis and biological activities of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and its esters.4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-cl-iaa) and its esters were synthesized from 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene as the starting material. the biological activities of 4-ci-iaa and its esters were determined by four bioassays. except for the tert-butyl ester, 4-cl-iaa and its esters had stronger elongation activity toward avena coleoptiles than had indole-3-acetic acid. the biological activities of the methyl, ethyl and allyl esters were as strong as the activity of the free acid. all the esters, except for ...200010830497
mungin, a novel cyclophilin-like antifungal protein from the mung bean.a protein designated mungin, isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds, possessed activity against the fungi rhizoctonia solani, coprinus comatus, mycosphaerella arachidicola, botrytis cinerea, and fusarium oxysporum. the 18-kda protein also possessed a novel n-terminal sequence with similarity to cyclophilins. it exerts an inhibitory action against alpha- and beta-glucosidases suppresses [(3)h]thymidine in corporation by mouse splenocytes.200010891380
effect of cooking and supplementation with different kinds of meats on the nutritional value of mash (vigna mungo).the study was conducted to determine the nutritional value of mash (vigna mungo) in raw and cooked forms and as effected by supplementation with different kind of meat, i.e. poultry, mutton and beef at 10, 15 and 20% levels. nutritional assessment of all mash-containing diets (without or with supplementation) was made by chemical analysis as well as through rat assay. mash contained 23.83% protein. cooking resulted in minor changes in nutrients. mash had 1.79% lysine which was reduced by 35% on ...200010945112
mini-papad containing cheese powder--a novelty snack food.the present work reports on attempts to develop mini-papads containing cheese powder to create a novel taste, with potential for urban and export markets. cheese powder was added to black gram flour at 0-50% levels and papads were prepared in the conventional manner by rolling the dough and drying. these papads were deep-fat fried at 180 degrees c. upto 20% addition of cheese powder gave no perceptible change in taste or flavour of the mini-papads. at 30% addition brown colouration was observed ...200010945113
identification of a membrane-associated cysteine protease with possible dual roles in the endoplasmic reticulum and protein storage is a vacuolar cysteine proteinase from germinated seeds of vigna mungo. the enzyme has a c-terminal propeptide of 1 kda that contains an endoplasmic reticulum (er) retention signal, kdel. the kdel-tail has been suggested to function to store sh-ep as a transient zymogen in the lumen of the er, and the c-terminal propeptide was thought to be removed within the er or immediately after exit from the er. in the present study, a protease that may be involved in the post-translational processing ...200111022031
influence of legume blends on fried papad quality.legumes and their blends are widely used for the production of papads. papads with low fat content would be a boon to populations looking for low-calorie foods with retention of organoleptic profile. judicious blending of legumes such as black gram, green gram, bengal gram, red gram and cowpea revealed that low-fat fried papads could be prepared from a blend of 40:36:24 blend of bengal gram:black gram:green gram flours. the blend had 15.6% lower fat content as compared to the control prepared fr ...200011103303
effect of dietary fiber on the activity of intestinal and fecal beta-glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.the effects of fiber isolated from black gram (phaseolus mungo) and coconut (cocos nucifera) kernel on the metabolic activity of intestinal and fecal beta glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis were studied. the results indicated that the inclusion of fiber from black gram and coconut kernel generally supported lower specific activities and less fecal output of beta-glucuronidase than did the fiber free diet. this study suggests that the fibers isolated ...200111213165
a tgacgt motif in the 5'-upstream region of alpha-amylase gene from vigna mungo is a cis-element for expression in cotyledons of germinated seeds.alpha-amylase is expressed at high levels in cotyledons of germinated seeds of vigna mungo. the mrna for alpha-amylase appeared in cotyledons of the seeds at 1 d after imbibition started (dai). two tgacgt motifs at -445 and at -125 in the promoter region of the gene interacted with nuclear proteins from cotyledons of dry seeds and the activities were detected until 3 dai. a transient assay with particle bombardment showed that the downstream region from -135 in the promoter was required for high ...200111427683
tannin contents and protein digestibility of black grams (vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking.the objective of this research was to ascertain the effects of soaking black grams (cultivar aari-5732) in different salt solutions at different temperatures and different time periods, and different methods of cooking on the tannin content and protein digestibility. tannin content of black grams was reduced to various extents by soaking at 30 degrees and 100 degrees c for different time periods. however, soaking at 100 degrees c increased the rate of extraction and reduced the extraction time o ...200111442226
plant growth promotion and fungicidal activity in a siderophore-producing strain of proteus sp.a proteus strain inhibited mycelial growth of fusarium oxysporum in vitro. seed bacterization showed significant plant growth promotion and fusarium-wilt suppression activity of phaseolus mungo in a gnotobiotic system. the culture filtrate of this strain exhibited three prominent bands in uv-vis spectra between 300 and 400 nm. the growth promotion assay of the extracted compound against different indicator organisms indicated the production of a compound related to a 2-oxoacid-type siderophore. ...200011501420
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