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cellulysin from the plant parasitic fungus trichoderma viride elicits volatile biosynthesis in higher plants via the octadecanoid signalling cascade.cellulysin, a crude cellulase from the plant parasitic fungus trichoderma viride, induces the biosynthesis of volatiles in higher plants (nicotiana plumbaginifolia, phaseolus lunatus, and zea mays) when applied to cut petioles by the transpiration stream. the pattern of the emitted volatiles largely resembles that from a herbivore damage or treatment of the plants with jasmonic acid (ja) indicating that cellulysin acts via activation of the octadecanoid signalling pathway. the treatment with cel ...19979369200
comparative effects of four legume species on plasma lipids and faecal steroid excretion in hypercholesterolaemic pigs.the effect of four species of legume seeds on plasma cholesterol levels and faecal steroid excretion was studied in pigs. thirty-six growing boars were randomly allocated in groups of six to six diets which they ate continuously for 42 d. the diets fed were: 1, a semi-purified (sp; control group 1) diet; 2, sp + 10 g cholesterol/kg (control group 2); 3, 4, 5, 6, sp + cooked legumes (70:30, w/w; respectively baked beans (phaseolus vulgaris), peas (pisum sativum), lentils (lens culinaris medik.), ...19938489997
toxicity of raw limabeans (phaseolus lunatus l.) and limabean fractions for growing chicks.1. in a 4-week feeding trial, raw limabeans phaseolus lunatus and extracted limabean fractions were tested as dietary ingredients in broiler starter diets. during the study, parameters such as body weight, lengths of intestinal sections as well as weights and histopathology of some organs (liver, kidney, heart, adrenals, spleen, brain, pancreas and small intestine) were investigated. 2. with the exception of broiler chicks fed on the diet containing soaked/boiled limabeans, growth was severely h ...19938358638
a comparison of the interactions of the mitogenic and nonmitogenic lima bean lectins with human lymphocytes.binding and mitogenic characteristics of the 2 phaseolus lunatus (lima bean) lectins have been examined with human peripheral blood lymphocytes. chemical cross-linking of the nonmitogenic lima bean lectin produced a species that stimulated human lymphocytes as well as or better than the mitogenic lima bean lectin, which is a t lymphocyte mitogen with requirement for monocyte participation. the maximal stimulation and the dose response to the cross-linked lima bean lectin did not significantly di ...19817276573
involvement of jasmonate- and salicylate-related signaling pathways for the production of specific herbivore-induced volatiles in plants.we compared volatiles from lima bean leaves (phaseolus lunatus) infested by either beet armyworm (spodoptera exigua), common armyworm [mythimna (pseudaletia) separata], or two-spotted spider mite (tetranychus urticae). we also analyzed volatiles from the leaves treated with jasmonic acid (ja) and/or methyl salicylate (mesa). the volatiles induced by aqueous ja treatment were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those induced by s. exigua or m. separata damage. furthermore, both s. exigua ...200010845451
[biochemical and nutritional value of seeds of the lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) in comparison with those of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris)].composition in nutrients and antinutritional factors, digestibility and growth in rats fed diets prepared with raw and cooked beans of ph. vulgaris, cultivar "tacarigua", and ph. lunatus cultivar "tapiramo", are compared. grains from both cultivars are similar in appearance, taste, nutritional value, and acceptability. protein and phosphorus contents were greater in ph. vulgaris than in ph. lunatus seeds. the chemical score and availability of lysine were better in ph. lunatus. diets prepared wi ...19853938937
neurotoxicity effects of some agglutinins extracted from two edible legumes--lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) and groundnut (arachis hypogea)--in growing albino rats. 19863751178
phytohemagglutinin of the lima bean (phaseolus lunatus). isolation, characterization, and interaction with type a blood-group substance. 19724628026
dietary exposure to aflatoxin in benin city, nigeria: a possible public health concern.a total of 100 samples of various foods comprising of 10 samples each of garri (manihot utilis pohl), beans (phaseolus lunatus), yam flour (dioscorea rotundata), cassava flour (manihot esculentum), melon (citrulus lunatus), onion (allium cepa), rice (oryza sativa), plantain (musa paradisiaca), red pepper (capsicum annuum l., solanaceae) and eggs were screened for the presence of aflatoxins. fifty percent of yam flour; 40% of cassava flour; 30% of garri; 20% of beans and melon and 10% of rice yie ...19911777386
involvement of sulfhydryl groups in the activity of anti-a hemagglutinins of phaseolus lunatus. 19705531625
polysaccharide from dry navy beans, phaseolus vulgaris: iits isolation and stimulation of clostridium perfringens.a microbiological assay is described for determining gas produced by clostridium perfringens (veilon and zuber) holland from materials believed to be flatulent. a rationale for its use is given and analyzed. the fractionation and the results of the assay for several components of lima beans, phaseolus lunatus l., and navy beans, p. vulgaris l., are given. in particular, a polysaccharide was isolated from dried p. vulgaris seeds. only about one-seventh as much could be isolated from green p. luna ...19704320862
effect of soaking, cooking and germination on the oligosaccharide content of selected nigerian legume seeds.the identity and quantity of and effect of processing on raffinose oligosaccharides in raw, mature seeds of lima beans (phaseolus lunatus), pigeon peas (cajanus cajan), african yam beans (sphenostylis sternocarpa) and jackbeans (canavalia ensiformis) were investigated. sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were identified by hplc in all the legume seeds. the total alpha-galactoside contents of the seeds in decreasing order were african yam beans 3.84 mg/100 mg; white lima beans 3.62 mg/10 ...200010898479
comparison of chemical and microbiological methods in the estimation of methionine in cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seeds.1. meals were prepared from the seeds of fifteen varieties of cowpea (vigna unguiculata), one of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) and one of yam bean (sphenostylis stenocarpa), and their methionine content was determined by six different methods. 2. total methionine content was determined by two chemical methods (ion-exchange chromatography and a colorimetric procedure) and by two microbiological methods. the 'available' methionine content was determined by microbiological assay with streptococcus ...1976821514
a versatile immunoadsorbent capable of binding lectins of various specificities and its use for the separation of cell populations.a procedure for cell fractionation using lectin-affinity chromatography is described. it consists of a single affinity adsorbent, hog gastric mucin blood group a+h substance covalently coupled to sephadex or sepharose, to which lectins of various specificities can bind. the complex formed, lectin in equilibrium hog a+h substance-sephadex, then serves as an affinity probe for isolating and fractionating cells. the lectins from ulex europaeus, lotus tetragonolobus, helix pomatia, dolichos biflorus ...1979573269
differential signalling and plant-volatile biosynthesis.at least two different signalling pathways have been identified that result in clearly distinguishable volatile profiles in response to pathogens and herbivores in the lima bean phaseolus lunatus. alamethicin, a voltage-gated ion-channel-forming peptide from trichoderma viride, is a potent inducer of volatile biosynthesis in the lima bean. unlike elicitation with cellulysin or herbivore damage, which act through the jasmonic acid pathway and result in a complex pattern of volatile compounds, the ...200011171239
cell surface carbohydrate of leishmania mexicana amazonensis: differences between infective and non-infective forms.the cell surface carbohydrates of leishmania mexicana amazonensis (amastigotes and promastigotes, both infective and non-infective forms) were comparatively analyzed by agglutination assay employing 28 highly purified lectins, and by binding assay using 125i-labeled lectins. among the d-galnac binding lectins, bandeiraea simplicifolia-i, dolichos biflorus, phaseolus vulgaris and glycine max were highly specific for the amastigotes, while that from maclura aurantiaca selectively agglutinated prom ...19863709546
native and asialo-tamm-horsfall glycoproteins as important ligands for the detection of galnac beta 1-->and gal beta 1-->4glcnac active lectins.the binding properties of human tamm-horsfall sd(a+) urinary glycoprotein(thgp) and asialo-thgp with various applied lectins was investigated by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. both glycoproteins completely precipitated abrus precatorius agglutinin(apa). they also reacted well with wistaria floribunda (wfa), glycine max (soybean, sba), and ricinus communis agglutinins and precipitated over 78% of the lectin nitrogen added, but reacted poorly or weakly with all alpha-ano ...19957726822
comparative study of blood group-recognizing lectins toward abo blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides.binding specificities of abo blood group-recognizing lectins toward blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides were studied by lectin-blotting analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and lectin-conjugated agarose column chromatography. human serum albumin conjugated with a- and b-trisaccharides was clearly recognized by helix pomatia (hpa), phaseolus lunatus, dolichos biflorus agglutinins, and griffonia simplicifolia i agglutinin b(4), respectiv ...200111342253
acquired thermotolerance and expression of the hsp100/clpb genes of lima bean.acquired thermotolerance (at) is the ability of cells to survive a normally lethal temperature treatment as a consequence of pretreatment at an elevated but sublethal temperature. in yeast and cyanobacteria, the expression of the hsp100/clpb protein is required for the at response. to determine whether the hsp100/clpb protein is associated with this response in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus), we have cloned an hsp100/clpb homolog and assessed expression of the two gene copies under heat stress co ...200010889261
comparative effects on blood lipids and faecal steroids of five legume species incorporated into a semi-purified, hypercholesterolaemic rat diet.the cholesterolaemic effects in rats of a diet (vs) containing bambara groundnuts (vigna subterranea), a popular legume eaten in nigeria, were compared with diets pv, ps, lc and pl, containing baked beans (phaseolus vulgaris), marrowfat peas (pisum sativum), lentils (lens culinaris medik.) and butter beans (phaseolus lunatus) respectively. sixty sprague-dawley rats were fed on hypercholesterolaemic semi-purified diets supplemented with 10 g cholesterol and 5 g cholic acid/kg and formulated to pr ...19968672408
habitat structure and population persistence in an experimental community.understanding spatial population dynamics is fundamental for many questions in ecology and conservation. many theoretical mechanisms have been proposed whereby spatial structure can promote population persistence, in particular for exploiter-victim systems (host-parasite/pathogen, predator-prey) whose interactions are inherently oscillatory and therefore prone to extinction of local populations. experiments have confirmed that spatial structure can extend persistence, but it has rarely been poss ...200111484053
examination of lectins, polysaccharopeptide, polysaccharide, alkaloid, coumarin and trypsin inhibitors for inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and glycohydrolases.a variety of lectins were tested in vitro for inhibitory action against the activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) reverse transcriptase and the n-glycohydrolases (alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase). lectins from phaseolus vulgaris, momordica charantia, ricinus communis and its constituent chains, and agaricus bisporus were able to inhibit hiv-1 reverse transcriptase. p. vulgaris lectin and a. bisporus lectin were the most potent. the aforementioned le ...200111582548
interaction of lectins with neisseria gonorrhoeae.fifty-four strains of neisseria gonorrhoeae were examined for their ability to be agglutinated by various lectins. wheat germ agglutinin, ricin, soybean lectin, and peanut agglutinin agglutinated all strains tested. dolichos biflorus, sophora japonica, maclura pomifera, ulex europaeus, lens culinaris, canavalia ensiformis, phaseolus lunatus, and bandeiraea simplicifolia bs i and bs ii lectins either failed to agglutinate or agglutinated some strains but not others. agglutination of gonococci by ...19806155190
effect of plant lectins on ustilago maydis in vitro.ustilago maydis is an edible parasitic basidiomycete, which specifically infects corn (zea mays) and teocintle (z. diploperennis). to characterise the interaction between the basidiomycete and its host organism, we tested the effect of plant lectins with well-known sugar specificity on the growth and germination of u. maydis spores. lectins specific for n-acetyl-d-galactosamine, such as those from dolichos biflorus and phaseolus lunatus, and the wheatgerm agglutinin specific for n-acetyl-d-gluco ...200011215524
dietary interactions of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) trypsin inhibitor, haemagglutinin and cyanide. part 2. effect on pancreatic and intestinal alpha-amylase (ec 3.21.1.1) in growing albino rats.a total of 108 growing albino rats was used to evaluate the dietary interactions of the major lima bean antinutritional factors trypsin inhibitor (ti), haemagglutinin (hgg) and cyanide (cn) with respect to their effects on pancreatic and intestinal alpha-amylase activities. the results indicate that when fed at the same level of activity as found in the raw lima bean (rlb) these factors had no significant (p greater than 0.05) influence on pancreatic alpha-amylase activity whether acting individ ...19892788818
a survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the uk.eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the uk were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. from these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (phaseolus vulgaris), runner (phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell type ...19836615758
the interactive effects of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin and cyanide on some hepatic dehydrogenases, ornithine carbamoyltransferase and intestinal disaccharidases in weanling rats.the interactive effects of lima bean trypsin inhibitor (ti), hemagglutinin (hgg) and cyanide (cn) when fed at the same degree of activity as found in the raw lima bean (rlb) were assessed in weanling rats using hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase (gldh), isocitrate dehydrogenase (icdh), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (oct) and intestinal disaccharidases activities as the response criteria. whereas rlb significantly (p less than 0.05) increased hepatic gldh and decreased icdh activities respectively, ...19883245117
lunatusin, a trypsin-stable antimicrobial peptide from lima beans (phaseolus lunatus l.).an anti-fungal peptide designated as lunatusin, with a molecular mass around 7kda, was purified from the seeds of chinese lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.). the peptide was isolated using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on superdex 75. lunatusin exerted an anti-fungal activity toward fungal species such as fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola and botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on, bacillus megaterium, bacill ...200516269344
immunochemical studies on the combining site of the blood group a-specific lima bean lectin.the combining site of the lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) lectin (lbl) was studied by quantitative precipitin and precipitin-inhibition assays. the lectin precipitated best with hog gastric mucosa and human ovarian cyst blood group a1 substances and moderately with a2 substances. b substances precipitated very poorly and h, lea, leb, and precursor i substances did not react. blood group a1 and a2 substances reacted to varying extents and these differences are attributable to heterogeneity resultin ...19863768892
compositional evaluation of some cowpea varieties and some under-utilized edible legumes in nigeria.the nutritive potentials of some cowpea varieties such as ife brown, ife bimpe, it84e-124, k59 and tvx716 and some under-utilized edible legumes grown in nigeria such as pigeon pea (cajanus cajan), lima bean (phaseolus lunatus), lablab bean (dolichos lablab), mucuna bean (mucuna sp.) and sphenostilis sternocarpa have been evaluated with respect to their proximate chemical composition, mineral content and some endogenous toxic constituents. the cowpea varieties contained on the average 22.5 g cru ...19892561305
subgroups of the cowpea miscellany: symbiotic specificity within bradyrhizobium spp. for vigna unguiculata, phaseolus lunatus, arachis hypogaea, and macroptilium atropurpureum.rhizobia classified as bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. to delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (vigna unguiculata), siratro (macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (arachis hypogaea). ...199116348492
relationship between ureide n and n(2) fixation, aboveground n accumulation, acetylene reduction, and nodule mass in greenhouse and field studies with glycine max l. (merr).the relationship between ureide n and n(2) fixation was evaluated in greenhouse-grown soybean (glycine max l. merr.) and lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) and in field studies with soybean. in the greenhouse, plant n accumulation from n(2) fixation in soybean and lima bean correlated with ureide n. in soybean, n(2) fixation, ureide n, acetylene reduction, and nodule mass were correlated when n(2) fixation was inhibited by applying kno(3) solutions to the plants. the ureide-n concentrations of dif ...198516664027
studies on lectins. xxxvi. properties of some lectins prepared by affinity chromatography on o-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels.a number of lectins has been purified by affinity chromatography on o-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels. the lectins isolated (and the particular sugar ligands used in the affinity carriers) are as follows: anguilla anguilla, serum (alpha-l-fucosyl-), vicia cracca, seeds; phaseolus lunatus, seeds; glycine soja, seeds; dolichos biflorus, seeds; maclura pomifera, seeds; sarothamnus scoparius, seeds; helix pomatia, ablumin glands; clitocybe nebularis, fruiting bodies (all n-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosaminyl ...1978563738
gabaculine inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis and nodulation in phaseolus lunatus l.gabaculine (3-amino-2,3-dihydrobenzoic acid) was an inhibitor of in vivo chlorophyll biosynthesis in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l. cv henderson). when applied to roots of 9-day-old plants, 10 micromolar gabaculine was sufficient to terminate biosynthesis of new chlorophyll. the trifoliolate leaves which emerged after gabaculine treatment were yellow. gabaculine-treated plants had slightly lower dry weights; yet, overall plant size showed very little change. chlorophyll fluorescence induction k ...198716665603
gibberellins and the legume-rhizobium symbiosis : i. endogenous gibberellins of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) stems and nodules.the content of gibberellin-like substances in nodules formed by bradyrhizobium species strain 127e14 on roots of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) has been previously found to be relatively high. the objectives of the present study were to purify and identify the endogenous gibberellins from the stems and nodules of lima bean. by sequential silica gel partition column chromatography, c(18) reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the ...199216668617
misfolding and aggregation of vacuolar glycoproteins in plant cells.phaseolin and lectin-related polypeptides, the abundant oligomeric glycoproteins of bean seeds, are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and then transported to the storage vacuole via the golgi apparatus. glycosylation and folding are among the major modifications these proteins undergo in the er. although a recurrent role of n-glycosylation is on protein folding, in previous studies on common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) seeds we demonstrated that the oligosaccharide side-chains are not ...200011135116
altered cytokinin metabolism affects cytokinin, auxin, and abscisic acid contents in leaves and chloroplasts, and chloroplast ultrastructure in transgenic tobacco.cytokinins (cks) are involved in the regulation of plant development including plastid differentiation and function. partial location of ck biosynthetic pathways in plastids suggests the importance of cks for chloroplast development. the impact of genetically modified ck metabolism on endogenous ck, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid contents in leaves and isolated intact chloroplasts of nicotiana tabacum was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and two-dimensional high-per ...200717175552
ion channel-forming alamethicin is a potent elicitor of volatile biosynthesis and tendril coiling. cross talk between jasmonate and salicylate signaling in lima bean.alamethicin (ala), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus). unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as we ...200111154344
nitrate reductase activity, distribution, and response to nitrate in two contrasting phaseolus species inoculated with rhizobium spp.the nitrate reductase activity distribution and response of two nodulated species of phaseolus (phaseolus vulgaris-common bean, and phaseolus lunatus-lima bean) to different exogenous nitrate levels were studied during the vegetative period. these phaseolus species showed to be very contrasting in respect to the pattern of nitrate reductase (nr) activity distribution thought the plant. the highest level of nr activity in p. vulgaris was clearly shown to occur in leaves in contrast with the lowes ...200111378171
quality attributes of three new improved lines of nigerian lima beans (phaseolus lunatus l. walp.).three promising new improved lines of lima beans (tpl 1b, tpl 7a and tpl 175a) were evaluated for physicochemical properties and cooking quality. the beans varied in seed dimensions and weights with tpl 1b and tpl 7a having smaller seed volume than tpl 175a. seed coat percentages, leached solids and swelling capacities were within a range of 10.2-19.6% (w/w), 0.44-0.92 g/100 g and 94.0-121.0 g/100 g dry bean, respectively. cooking times varied between 62 and 81 min without soaking and were reduc ...200111678438
topolins and hydroxylated thidiazuron derivatives are substrates of cytokinin o-glucosyltransferase with position specificity related to receptor recognition.glucosides of trans-zeatin occur widely in plant tissues, formed either by o-glucosylation of the hydroxylated side chain or n-glucosylation of the purine ring structure. o-glucosylation is stereo-specific: the o-glucosyltransferase encoded by the phaseolus lunatus zog1 gene has high affinity for trans-zeatin as the substrate, whereas the enzyme encoded by the maize (zea mays) ciszog1 gene prefers cis-zeatin. here we show that hydroxylated derivatives of benzyladenine (topolins) are also substra ...200515728338
histological alterations in the internal organs of growing chicks from feeding raw jackbean or limabean seeds.the effect of raw jackbean (canavalia ensiformis) or limabean (phaseolus lunatus) seeds at 0, 250 or 500 g/kg in broiler chick diets for 28 d on performance and cytopathological changes in internal organs was evaluated. relative pancreas weight increased significantly (p < 0.05) and the lungs had severe atelectasis, thickening of the alveolar septa and bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. slight hemorrhages were in the intestinal walls of growing chicks fed 250 g/kg or 500 g/kg of jackbean and li ...200312583688
recognition of leguminous hosts by a promiscuous rhizobium strain.the lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) and the pole bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) are nodulated by rhizobia of two different cross-inoculation groups. rhizobium sp. 127e15, a cowpea-type rhizobium, can induce effective nodules on the lima bean and partially effective nodules on the pole bean. rhizobium phaseoli 127k14 can induce effective nodules on the pole bean but does not reciprocally nodulate the lima bean. root hairs of the lima bean when inoculated with rhizobium sp. 127e15 showed tip curlin ...198216345975
[variation in fruit and seed size from 38 wild populations of phaseolus lunatus (fabaceae) from central valley, costa rica].we studied the morfological diversity in fruits and seeds in 38 wild populations of phaseolus lunatus var. lunatus (lima beans) in the central valley of costa rica. in order to do so, measured the length and width of the fruits and the length, width and thickness of seeds. we also calculated the ratio between these traits and determined the weight of 100 seeds. in general, we found significant variation between populations for all variables. when we grouped the 38 populations into eight geograph ...200315162777
inoculation response of legumes in relation to the number and effectiveness of indigenous rhizobium populations.the response of legumes to inoculation with rhizobia can be affected by many factors. little work has been undertaken to examine how indigenous populations or rhizobia affect this response. we conducted a series of inoculation trials in four hawaiian soils with six legume species (glycine max, vigna unguiculata, phaseolus lunatus, leucaena leucocephala, arachis hypogaea, and phaseolus vulgaris) and characterized the native rhizobial populations for each species in terms of the number and effecti ...198616347046
the impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (phaseolus lunatus) in the central valley of costa rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources.plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (phaseolus lunatus) in the central valley of costa rica. we compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using m ...200819419025
altered glycosylation leads to tr polyagglutination.polyagglutination refers to red blood cells (rbcs) that are agglutinated by a high proportion of abo-matched adult sera but not by cord sera. polyagglutinable rbcs have been associated with microbial infection, myeloproliferative disorders, and myelodysplasia. lectins aid in the identification of polyagglutination.200415504164
phytoalexins and their role in the resistance of plants to nematodes.phytoalexins are antibiotic compounds synthesized in an infected plant in response to infection. nematodes are capable of eliciting phytoalexins in resistant plants. resistant lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) infected by pratylenchus penetrans produces the phytoalexin coumestrol; soybean (glycine max) infected by meloidogyne incognita produces glyceollin; cotton (gossypium hirsuturn) infected by m. incognita produces terpenoid aldehydes.198219295667
increase in internode length of phaseolus lunatus l. caused by inoculation with a nitrate reductase-deficient strain of rhizobium sp.dramatic differences in the height of lima beans (phaseolus lunatus l.) treated with two different rhizobium strains were studied. lima beans were grown in perlite in the greenhouse or in a minus-n culture solution in the growth chamber. the plants were inoculated with either rhizobium sp. (lima bean) strain 127e15, which contains the constitutive nitrate reductase activity, or strain 127e14, which lacks that activity. for up to 3 weeks, no growth differences were observed in the plants inoculat ...198116661605
differences in endogenous levels of gibberellin-like substances in nodules of phaseolus lunatus l. plants inoculated with two rhizobium strains.lima bean plants (phaseolus lunatus l.) inoculated with rhizobium sp. strain 127e14, which lacks constitutive nitrate reductase activity, were significantly taller after 4 weeks of age than plants inoculated with strain 127e15, which contains constitutive nitrate reductase activity. plants inoculated with either strain responded to application of 5 micrograms gibberellic acid per plant with rapid internode elongation; plants inoculated with strain 127e15 became less responsive to gibberellic aci ...198116661869
molecular diversity of native bradyrhizobia isolated from lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) in peru.the diversity of a collection of 21 bradyrhizobial isolates from lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) was assayed by molecular methods. moderately high to high genetic diversity was revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (mlee) analysis of seven enzyme loci and genomic fingerprints with eric and box primers. two groups with differences in growth rate were found among the isolates and their differentiation as two divergent bradyrhizobial lineages was supported by pcr-rflp of the rpob gene and ...200616564961
susceptibility of oriental fruit moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.to determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, grapholita molesta (busck) (lepidoptera: tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. mortality was assessed after 96 h. two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from rutgers university and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern illinois (calhoun county) field population-were tested. we used pro ...201021061985
exogenous polyamines elicit herbivore-induced volatiles in lima bean leaves: involvement of calcium, h2o2 and jasmonic acid.we investigated the role of polyamines (pas) in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) leaves on the production of herbivorous mite (tetranychus urticae)-induced plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. to do this, we focused on the effects of the exogenous pas [cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine (spm)] on the production of volatiles, h(2)o(2) and jasmonic acid (ja) and the levels of defensive genes, cytosolic calcium and reactive oxygen species (ros). amon ...200919884250
identification of n-acetylgalactosamine in carbohydrates of xenopus laevis testis.identification of glycans in amphibian testis has shown the existence of n-acetylgalactosamine (galnac)-containing carbohydrates. labeling of the sperm acrosome with galnac-binding lectins has allowed the identification of galnac-containing glycans in this organelle. futhermore, this specific labeling of the acrosome has allowed the study of acrosomal biogenesis by lectin histochemistry. however, the testis of xenopus laevis has never been analyzed by lectin histochemistry to locate galnac-conta ...201021235011
gibberellins and the legume-rhizobium symbiosis : iii. quantification of gibberellins from stems and nodules of lima bean and cowpea.lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) plants inoculated with bradyrhizobium sp. strain 127e14 displayed a period of marked internode elongation that was not observed in plants inoculated with other compatible bradyrhizobia, including strain 127e15. when strain 127e14 nodulated an alternate host, cowpea (vigna unguiculata l. walp), a similar, although less dramatic growth response induced by the bacteria was observed. it has been speculated that the elongative growth promotion brought about by inocula ...199216653229
proximal composition and in vitro digestibility of starch in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) varieties.beans are rich and inexpensive sources of proteins and carbohydrates around the world, but particularly in developing countries. however, many legume varieties are still underutilized. in this study, physical characteristics of the seeds of three phaseolus lunatus cultivars were characterized. also, the chemical composition and starch digestibility in the cooked beans were assessed.200720836163
constraints of simultaneous resistance to a fungal pathogen and an insect herbivore in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.).the existence of tradeoffs among plant defenses is commonly accepted, however, actual evidence for these tradeoffs is scarce. in this study, i analyzed effects of different direct defenses of wild lima bean plants (phaseolus lunatus) that were simultaneously exposed to a fungal pathogen (colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and an insect herbivore, the mexican bean beetle (epilachna varivestis). although plants were derived from spatially widely separated populations, i observed a common tradeoff betw ...201121221741
rare or remarkable microfungi from oaxaca (south mexico)--part ii.microfungi were collected in southern mexico in the vicinity of puerto escondido, oaxaca in 2007. in 2006, samples were gathered from acacia myrmecophytes [(remarkable microfungi from oaxaca of acacia species) part i]. in the present investigation [part ii], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families anacardiaceae, caricaceae, fabaceae, moraceae, and nyctaginacae. the microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophy ...200819226752
differential induction of plant volatile biosynthesis in the lima bean by early and late intermediates of the octadecanoid-signaling pathway.plants are able to respond to herbivore damage with de novo biosynthesis of an herbivore-characteristic blend of volatiles. the signal transduction initiating volatile biosynthesis may involve the activation of the octadecanoid pathway, as exemplified by the transient increase of endogenous jasmonic acid (ja) in leaves of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) after treatment with the macromolecular elicitor cellulysin. within this pathway lima bean possesses at least two different biologically active si ...199910482670
short signalling distances make plant communication a soliloquy.plants respond to attack by herbivores or pathogens with the release of volatile organic compounds. neighbouring plants can receive these volatiles and consecutively induce their own defence arsenal. this 'plant communication', however, appears counterintuitive when it benefits independent and genetically unrelated receivers, which may compete with the emitter. as a solution to this problem, a role for volatile compounds in within-plant signalling has been predicted. we used wild-type lima bean ...201020554558
ozone degrades common herbivore-induced plant volatiles: does this affect herbivore prey location by predators and parasitoids?inducible terpenes and lipoxygenase pathway products, e.g., green-leaf volatiles (glvs), are emitted by plants in response to herbivory. they are used by carnivorous arthropods to locate prey. these compounds are highly reactive with atmospheric pollutants. we hypothesized that elevated ozone (o(3)) may affect chemical communication between plants and natural enemies of herbivores by degrading signal compounds. in this study, we have used two tritrophic systems (brassica oleracea-plutella xylost ...200717333375
high level transgenic expression of soybean (glycine max) gmerf and gmubi gene promoters isolated by a novel promoter analysis pipeline.although numerous factors can influence gene expression, promoters are perhaps the most important component of the regulatory control process. promoter regions are often defined as a region upstream of the transcriptional start. they contain regulatory elements that interact with regulatory proteins to modulate gene expression. most genes possess their own unique promoter and large numbers of promoters are therefore available for study. unfortunately, relatively few promoters have been isolated ...201021050446
strains of bcmv and bcmnv characterized from lima bean plants affected by deforming mosaic disease in peru.viruses of the species bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (bcmnv) were simultaneously detected by the different size of pcr amplicons in lima bean plants (phaseolus lunatus) displaying deforming mosaic symptoms in peru. phylogenetic analysis of partial deduced cp amino acid sequences indicated that the peruvian bcmv isolates belong to new strains. one isolate differed from the other peruvian isolates, and also from the ten previously described bcmv strains reco ...200717564759
conversion of isoflavone glucosides to aglycones by partially purified β-glucosidases from microbial and vegetable sources.isoflavone aglycones have been shown to be more rapidly and efficiently absorbed into intestines than isoflavone glucosides. helpfully, β-glucosidases can be used to convert isoflavone glucosides to aglycones. in this study, β-glucosidases from microbial (aspergillus niger) and vegetable lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) sources were characterized, purified, and then employed to convert isoflavone glycosides to aglycones. the microbial crude extract showed maximum activity at 60 °c and ph 5.0. it wa ...201526018343
contrasting genetic structure between two begomoviruses infecting the same leguminous hosts.begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, ssdna plant viruses and are among the most damaging pathogens causing epidemics in economically important crops worldwide. wild/non-cultivated plants play a crucial epidemiological role, acting as begomovirus reservoirs and as 'mixing vessels' where recombination can occur. previous work suggests a higher degree of genetic variability in begomovirus populations from non-cultivated hosts compared with cultivated hosts. to assess this supposed host effect on ...201425028472
lunatin, a novel lectin with antifungal and antiproliferative bioactivities from phaseolus lunatus billb.a novel lectin with a molecular mass of 24.3kda, designated lunatin, was isolated from edible seeds of phaseolus lunatus billb. the purification scheme consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. the lectin is a glycoprotein, as determined by staining with periodic acid-schiff (pas), and its n-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be daviyrgpgdlhtgs. lunatin exhibited hemagglutinating activity towa ...201627164500
x-ray microanalytical studies of mineral elements in the tripartite symbiosis between lima bean, n2-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi.the symbiosis between legumes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi, and n2-fixing bacteria (nfb) provides mutual nutritional gains. however, assessing the nutritional status of the microorganisms is a difficult task. a methodology that could assess this status, in situ, could assist managing these organisms in agriculture. this study used x-ray microanalyses to quantify and locate mineral elements in structures formed in a tripartite symbiosis. lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l. walp) was cultivated ...201727838542
direct defense or ecological costs: responses of herbivorous beetles to volatiles released by wild lima bean (phaseolus lunatus).in response to feeding damage, lima bean releases herbivore-induced plant volatiles (hipv), which are generally assumed to attract carnivorous arthropods as an indirect defense. while many studies have focused on such tritrophic interactions, few have investigated effects of hipv on herbivores. i used natural herbivores of wild lima bean and studied their responses to jasmonic acid-induced plants in an olfactometer and in feeding trials. both cerotoma ruficornis and gynandrobrotica guerreroensis ...200415303330
airborne induction and priming of plant defenses against a bacterial pathogen.herbivore-induced plant volatiles affect the systemic response of plants to local damage and hence represent potential plant hormones. these signals can also lead to "plant-plant communication," a defense induction in yet undamaged plants growing close to damaged neighbors. we observed this phenomenon in the context of disease resistance. lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) plants in a natural population became more resistant against a bacterial pathogen, pseudomonas syringae pv syringae, when located ...200919812184
isolation of two highly active soybean (glycine max (l.) merr.) promoters and their characterization using a new automated image collection and analysis system.a novel automated image collection and analysis system was used to compare two new soybean (glycine max (l.) merr.) promoters with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s (camv35s) promoter, which was used as an expression standard. for expression comparisons, various permutations of a soybean polyubiquitin (gmubi) promoter, a soybean heat shock protein 90-like (gmhsp90l) promoter and the camv35s promoter were placed upstream of a green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene. dna constructs were introduced via ...200717503049
seedborne pathogenic fungi in common bean (phaseolus vulgaris cv. inta rojo) in nicaragua.common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. in nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'inta rojo'. beans grown in the four main production areas in nicaragua (boaco, carazo, estelí, matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. a ...201627997595
volatile dose and exposure time impact perception in neighboring plants.volatiles emitted from stressed plants can induce resistance in healthy neighbors. it remains unknown, however, how plants perceive volatiles and convert them into internal signals. we exposed lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) to different concentrations of either of two volatiles, nonanal and methyl salicylate (mesa), over 6 or 24 h. plant resistance to the bacterial pathogen, pseudomonas syringae, was increased significantly after exposure to a headspace with two concentrations of nonanal for 6 ...201222327276
tri-trophic level impact of host plant linamarin and lotaustralin on tetranychus urticae and its predator phytoseiulus persimilis.the impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of lima beans, phaseolus lunatus l., on the second and third trophic levels was studied in the two-spotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae (koch), and its predator phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot. the content of linamarin was higher in terminal trifoliate leaves (435.5 ppm) than in primary leaves (142.1 ppm) of henderson bush lima beans. however, linamarin concentrations were reversed at the second trophic level showing highe ...201020953678
the effect of germination on the phytase activity, phytate and total phosphorus contents of some nigerian-grown grain legumes.grain legumes are under-exploited as possible sources of phytase for the poultry industry. the current study was conducted to assess the effect of germination on phytase activities, phytate and total phosphorus content in samples of nigerian-grown grain legumes. the legumes screened were african yambean (ayb, sphenostylis stenocarpa), lima bean (phaseolus lunatus), pigeon pea (cajanus cajan), cowpea (vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (arachis hypogea).201120859988
whiteflies interfere with indirect plant defense against spider mites in lima bean.plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. however, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to different feeding guilds. here, we report the interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites (tetranychus urticae) in lima bean (p ...200919965373
polyamines and jasmonic acid induce plasma membrane potential variations in lima bean.exogenous polyamines [cadaverine (cad), putrescine (put), spermidine (spd) and spermine (spm)] elicit the production of volatiles in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus). among the tested pas, spm induces the production of some volatile terpenoids that are known to be induced by the spider mite tetranychus urticae. spm treatment elicits the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (ja), a phytohormone known to regulate the production of the volatile terpenoids. the treatment with ja together with spm resulted in ...201020200489
influence of the size of indigenous rhizobial populations on establishment and symbiotic performance of introduced rhizobia on field-grown legumes.indigenous rhizobia in soil present a competition barrier to the establishment of inoculant strains, possibly leading to inoculation failure. in this study, we used the natural diversity of rhizobial species and numbers in our fields to define, in quantitative terms, the relationship between indigenous rhizobial populations and inoculation response. eight standardized inoculation trials were conducted at five well-characterized field sites on the island of maui, hawaii. soil rhizobial population ...199116348393
do leaf cutting ants cut undetected? testing the effect of ant-induced plant defences on foraging decisions in atta colombica.leaf-cutting ants (lcas) are polyphagous, yet highly selective herbivores. the factors that govern their selection of food plants, however, remain poorly understood. we hypothesized that the induction of anti-herbivore defences by attacked food plants, which are toxic to either ants or their mutualistic fungus, should significantly affect the ants' foraging behaviour. to test this "induced defence hypothesis," we used lima bean (phaseolus lunatus), a plant that emits many volatile organic compou ...201121799831
spider mite-induced (3s)-(e)-nerolidol synthase activity in cucumber and lima bean. the first dedicated step in acyclic c11-homoterpene biosynthesis.many plant species respond to herbivory with de novo production of a mixture of volatiles that attracts carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. one of the major components in the blend of volatiles produced by many different plant species in response to herbivory by insects and spider mites is the homoterpene 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(e), 7-nonatriene. one study (j. donath, w. boland [1995] phytochemistry 39: 785-790) demonstrated that a number of plant species can convert the acyclic sesquiterpene alcoho ...199910482672
oligosaccharides in several philippine indigenous food legumes: determination, localization and removal.the oligosaccharide profile of raw mature seeds of seven different legumes indigenous to the philippines was measured in 70% ethanol extracts of the seeds by thin layer chromatography using hptlc plates and quantified by a densitometer. based on the results, the legumes could be ranked according to decreasing oligosaccharide content or flatulence potential as follows: sam-samping (clitoria ternatea) greater than hyacinth bean (dolichos lablab) greater than sabawel (mucuna pruriens) greater than ...19902345736
order of arrival shifts endophyte-pathogen interactions in bean from resistance induction to disease facilitation.endophytic fungi colonize plants without causing symptoms of disease and can enhance the resistance of their host to pathogens. we cultivated 53 fungal strains from wild lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) and investigated their effects on pathogens using in vitro assays and experiments in planta. most strains were annotated as rhizopus, fusarium, penicillium, cochliobolus, and artomyces spp. by the sequence of their 18s rrna gene. in vitro confrontation assays between endophytes and three pathogens ( ...201424801140
bacterial adherence in otitis media: determination of n-acetylgalactosamine (galnac) residues in the submucosal glands and surface epithelium of the normal and diseased eustachian tube.acute otitis media (aom) is the most common childhood infection caused by bacteria. the pathogenesis of aom implicates initial adherence of a pathogen to the nasopharyngeal epithelium, which is followed by bacterial colonization of the middle ear cavity through the eustachian tube. n-acetylgalactosamine (galnac) is an important constituent of mucins and galnac containing sugar residues seem to be essential for initial adherence of respiratory bacteria to the surface of epithelial cells.201121440051
12-hydroxyjasmonic acid glucoside is a coi1-jaz-independent activator of leaf-closing movement in samanea saman.jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring plant growth regulators with high structural diversity that mediate numerous developmental processes and stress responses. we have recently identified 12-o-β-d-glucopyranosyljasmonic acid as the bioactive metabolite, leaf-closing factor (lcf), which induced nyctinastic leaf closure of samanea saman. we demonstrate that leaf closure of isolated samanea pinnae is induced upon stereospecific recognition of (-)-lcf, but not by its enantiomer, (+)-ent-lcf, and th ...201121228101
functional properties of flours and protein isolates from phaseolus lunatus and canavalia ensiformis seeds.the functional properties of flours and protein isolates from the legumes phaseolus lunatus and canavalia ensiformis were evaluated to determine their potential practical applications. the respective protein isolates were obtained from the flours by using isoelectric precipitation, with a protein content of 71.13% for the p. lunatus isolate (ppi) and 73.75% for the c. ensiformis isolate (cpi). nitrogen solubility was good in both acid and alkaline phs for isolates and canavalia flour (cf), with ...200211804533
field and vegetable crops as hosts of larval western spotted cucumber beetle (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).the western spotted cucumber beetle, diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata mannerheim, is an important pest of melons (cucurmis melo l.) in northern california. recent observations indicate that adults are using alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) as a feeding host and larvae may be developing on the roots. greenhouse studies were conducted during the winters of 2009 and 2010 in which larval development was compared on the roots of six field and vegetable crops commonly grown in the southern sacra ...201122251641
the seed coat of phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [callosobruchus maculatus (f.) (coleoptera: bruchidae)].we have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris, l.) do not support development of the bruchid callosobruchus maculatus (f.), a pest of cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l.) walp] seeds. analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or hcn are important for the resistance. on the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7s storage globulin), detected in the testa by west ...200415048195
[incorporation of prime and tailing starches of canavalia ensiformis l. and phaseolus lunatus l. in cookies].incorporation into cookies of prime and tailing starches isolated from phaseolus lunatus and canavalia ensiformis seeds was carried out and compared with those elaborated with conventional corn starch (maizena), which were sensory evaluated and assessed for total dietary fiber (tdf), insoluble dietary fiber (idf) and soluble dietary fiber (sdf) contents. sensory evaluation was carried out using an incomplete block design by a non-trained panel of judges. the analysis of variance indicated a sign ...200314976785
symptomless endophytic fungi suppress endogenous levels of salicylic acid and interact with the jasmonate-dependent indirect defense traits of their host, lima bean (phaseolus lunatus).symptomless ‘type ii’ fungal endophytes colonize their plant host horizontally and exert diverse effects on its resistance phenotype. here, we used wild lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) plants that were experimentally colonized with one of three strains of natural endophytes (bartalinia pondoensis, fusarium sp., or cochliobolus lunatus) to investigate the effects of fungal colonization on the endogenous levels of salicylic acid (sa) and jasmonic acid (ja) and on two ja-dependent indirect defense tr ...201425015691
susceptibility of oriental fruit moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) to two pyrethroids and a proposed diagnostic dose of esfenvalerate for field detection of resistance.laboratory colonies of oriental fruit moth, grapholita molesta (busck) (lepidoptera: tortricidae), were reared on 'gala' apples (malus pumila mill.) and lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) diet. neonates were placed on wheat germ diet containing a range of concentrations of esfenvalerate or lambda-cyhalothrin; mortality was assessed after 96 h. for a long-term laboratory colony, lc50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.35 and 0.12 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared o ...201121735926
expression of lima bean terpene synthases in rice enhances recruitment of a beneficial enemy of a major rice pest.volatile terpenoids play a key role in plant defence against herbivory by attracting parasitic wasps. we identified seven terpene synthase genes from lima bean, phaseolus lunatus l. following treatment with either the elicitor alamethicin or spider mites, tetranychus cinnabarinus. four of which (pltps2, pltps3, pltps4 and pltps5) were upregulated, and their derived proteins are phylogenetically clustered in the tps-g subfamily, with pltps3 positioned at the base of this cluster. recombinant pltp ...201728370092
herbivore-induced volatiles: the emission of acyclic homoterpenes from leaves of phaseolus lunatus and zea mays can be triggered by a beta-glucosidase and jasmonic acid.the treatment of healthy, undamaged plants of the lima bean phaseolus lunatus with solutions of a beta-glucosidase from bitter almonds (at 5 u.ml-1) through the petiole results in an enhanced emission of volatiles to the environment. the compounds are identical with those emitted in response to infestation with the red spotted spider mite tetranychus urticae. dominant products are the two acyclic homoterpenes 4,8-dimethyl-1,3e,7- dimethylnonatriene (homoterpene i) and 4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3e,7e,11 ...19947925964
effect of phosphorus deficiency on growth angle of basal roots in phaseolus vulgaris.root architectural plasticity might be an important factor in the acquisition by plants of immobile nutrients such as phosphorus (p). in this study, we examined the effect of p availability on the orientation of basal roots with respect to gravity, and thereby on the growth angle of these roots of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.). in one set of studies the growth angle of basal roots of bean seedlings was measured over time. sixteen bean genotypes were examined; six showed a decrease in root ...199611541132
changes in differently processed soya bean (glycine max.) and lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) with particular reference to their chemical composition and their mineral and some inherent anti-nutritional constituents.the effects of 3 processing techniques: cooking, roasting and autoclaving on the proximate chemical composition, the mineral content and some inherent toxic factors of soya and lima beans were investigated. the processing techniques generally reduced the crude fibre levels and enhanced the extractable fat in the soya and lima beans. the coefficients of variability for crude fibre and ether extract due to the processing techniques of soya and lima beans were 20.9%, 16.0% and 22.3%, 38.1%, respect ...19892561304
encapsulation of phaseolus lunatus protein hydrolysate with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity.the objective of recent research has been to seek alternative therapeutic treatments; for this reason, the use of protein hydrolysates from diverse sources has been studied. a way to guarantee that these treatments reach the site of action is through protection with covers, such as microcapsules. therefore, proteins from the legume phaseolus lunatus were hydrolyzed and encapsulated with a blend of delonix regia carboxymethylated gum/sodium alginate (50 : 50 w/w). hydrolysis release conditions in ...201325937975
effects of feeding spodoptera littoralis on lima bean leaves. iii. membrane depolarization and involvement of hydrogen peroxide.in response to herbivore (spodoptera littoralis) attack, lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) leaves produced hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) in concentrations that were higher when compared to mechanically damaged (md) leaves. cellular and subcellular localization analyses revealed that h(2)o(2) was mainly localized in md and herbivore-wounded (hw) zones and spread throughout the veins and tissues. preferentially, h(2)o(2) was found in cell walls of spongy and mesophyll cells facing intercellular spaces, ...200616443697
genome sequencing reveals a new lineage associated with lablab bean and genetic exchange between xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans.common bacterial blight is a devastating seed-borne disease of common beans that also occurs on other legume species including lablab and lima beans. we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 26 strains of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and x. fuscans subsp. fuscans, the causative agents of this disease, collected over four decades and six continents. this revealed considerable genetic variation within both taxa, encompassing both single-nucleotide variants and differences in gene content, t ...201526500625
pathogenesis-related proteins in lima bean leaves infected with tobacco ringspot virus and their distribution within and around local lesions.tobacco ringspot virus (trsv) induces circular, darkbrown local lesions on primary leaves of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus cv nemagreen) with a concomitant production of three basic and three acidic pathogenesisrelated (pr) proteins. the three basic proteins are: a 21 kda protein related serologically to pinto bean pr-4d and tobacco pr-5 proteins; a 36 kda glucanase that is related to tobacco pr-2; and, a 31 kda chitinase related serologically to ethylene-induced bean chitinase. the three acidic ...199224201732
adenine binding sites of the lectin from lima beans (phaseolus lunatus).a single high-affinity binding site for adenine and related compounds was identified in the lima bean lectin (lbl) component iii tetramer. this site is identical with the high affinity site for 2,6-toludinyl-naphthalenesulfonate described previously (roberts, d. d., and goldstein, i. j. (1982) j. biol. chem. 257, 11274-11277). [14c]adenine was bound with high affinity (kd = 1.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(-5) m, t = 25 degrees c) and a high degree of specificity in that hypoxanthine and guanine were very poor ...19836643455
effects of feeding spodoptera littoralis on lima bean leaves. i. membrane potentials, intracellular calcium variations, oral secretions, and regurgitate components.membrane potentials (v(m)) and intracellular calcium variations were studied in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) leaves when the mediterranean climbing cutworm (spodoptera littoralis) was attacking the plants. in addition to the effect of the feeding insect the impact of several n-acyl glns (volicitin, n-palmitoyl-gln, n-linolenoyl-gln) from the larval oral secretion was studied. the results showed that the early events upon herbivore attack were: a) a strong v(m) depolarization at the bite zone an ...200415051862
effects of feeding spodoptera littoralis on lima bean leaves: iv. diurnal and nocturnal damage differentially initiate plant volatile emission.continuous mechanical damage initiates the rhythmic emission of volatiles in lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) leaves; the emission resembles that induced by herbivore damage. the effect of diurnal versus nocturnal damage on the initiation of plant defense responses was investigated using mecworm, a robotic device designed to reproduce tissue damage caused by herbivore attack. lima bean leaves that were damaged by mecworm during the photophase emitted maximal levels of beta-ocimene and (z)-3-hexenyl ...200818165324
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