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influence of treflan, lindane, and ceresan on different parameters of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield in cicer arietinum. 197556828
the effect of bengal gram on acid mucopolysaccharide distribution in egg-yolk induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. 1975129434
hypolipidemic principles of cicer arietinum: biochanin-a and formononetin.two isoflavones, biochanin-a and formononetin isolated from gram cicer arietinum, have been shown to possess hypolipidemic properties for triton wr-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in male albino rats, when administered as a crude extract or as individual compounds.1976177835
[metabolism of nicotinic acid in plant cell suspension cultures, iii: formation and metabolism of trigonelline (author's transl)].cell suspension cultures of phaseolus aureus, glycinemax., cicer arietinum and chenopodium rubrum convert nicotinic acid and nicotinamide into n-methyl nicotinic acid (trigonelline). application of [carboxyl-14c]- and [n-methyl-14c]nicotinic acid to cell cultures demonstrated that 1) the nicotinic acid moiety of trigonelline is funnelled into the pyridine nucleotide cycle, 2) trigonelline is demethylated partly oxidatively, but predominantly non-oxidatively, transferring the methyl carbon atom t ...1976185134
[aflatoxins produced by aspergillus flavus in soya and other legumes].there is no doubt that our programme of applied nutrition must include soya on account of the high nutritive value of the legume. this underlines research undertaken here regarding the risks of contamination by a. flavus and the subsequent formation of aflatoxins on and in soya beans. we have studied on parallel lines soya beans and other legumes important in the local dietary habits. these legumes are either obtained locally or imported. on every specimen of legume we have tried to confirm, or ...1977418721
effect of bengal gram supplementation on glycosaminoglycan fractions in egg-yolk induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. 1978700829
the effect of bengal gram on acid mucopolysaccharide content of aorta in experimental atherosclerosis. 19761017863
nutritive studies on some raw and prepared leguminous seeds commonly used in the arab republic of syria.1. the proximate analysis of raw syrian lentils (lens esculentus), variety red chick pea (cicer arietinum) variety balady, has been made. the protein content of the two raw seeds were 23 and 22 g% for lentils and chick peas, respectively. ethereal extract, fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus and iron content of the two raw seeds have been also assayed. 2. the levels of most of the amino acids were also estimated in the raw and cooked seeds. it was found that tryptophan- and sulphur-containing amino ...19761020373
lipid protein inter-relationship in aortic tissue of experimentally induced atherosclerosis in rabbits and its alteration by bengal gram. 19751218871
sensory evaluation of and acceptability trials on biscuits prepared from raw and malted wheat (triticum aestivum)-bengal gram (cicer arietinum) mixes with or without a green leafy vegetable.biscuits were prepared by varying the amounts of the basic ingredients to arrive at the most acceptable recipe. the final recipe contained 40 g of mix, 40 g of jaggery and 20 g of ghee. sensory evaluation of biscuits containing 5 or 10% colocasia leaf powder by composite scoring test and hedonic scale showed that the former type of biscuit was preferred over the latter. the acceptability trial conducted on 42, 3 to 6 year old children showed that biscuits from either malted mix with or without 7 ...19921438072
glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.the glycaemic index (gi) and the triacylglycerol response were measured in thirty non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients given 50 g portions of five different conventional indian meals containing semolina (triticum aestivum) cooked by two different methods, or combinations of semolina and pulse (black gram dhal (phaseolus mungo), green gram dhal (phaseolus aureus) or bengal gram dhal (cicer arietum)). there were no significant differences among meals in mean gi except for meals based o ...19921445824
agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of chickpea, cicer arietinum l.in leaf and stem explants of chickpea, wild type strains of agrobacteria were able to induce tumors. these tumors were capable of phytohormone independent growth. a supervirulent strain a281 was found to be most effective. thus, using an agrobacterium r1601, which carries genes conferring supervirulent phenotype along with a plant selectable marker gene (npt ii), transformed calli of chickpea were selected in the presence of 100 micrograms/ml level of kanamycin. molecular analyses of genomic dna ...19911769719
enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in fast-growing rhizobium grown on hexoses or succinate.enzymatic evidence supports that succinate mediates repression of hexose-catabolising enzymes in fast-growing rhizobium sp. (cicer arietinum). enzymes of the embden-myerhof-parnas, entner-doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways were found present in hexose-grown cells but not in succinate-grown cells. these however could be induced by the presence of hexoses.19892777319
bioavailability of copper to rats from various foodstuffs and in the presence of different carbohydrates.copper bioavailability was studied in rats using an extrinsic cu label. copper absorption from sunflower seeds (46%), peanuts (41%), cooked shrimp (50%), and cooked beef (40%) was as good or better than copper sulfate (46%). copper from plant foods (sunflower seeds, garbanzo beans, peanuts) was absorbed equally as well as copper from animal foods (beef, shrimp, chicken liver), 39 +/- 7% vs 43 +/- 7%, p greater than 0.05. there was no significant difference in percentage cu absorption between int ...19883340618
studies on the etiology and pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases. ii. clinical and electrophysiologic features of pyramidal dysfunction in macaques fed lathyrus sativus and idpn.a primate model of lathyrism has been produced in well-nourished male cynomolgus monkeys chronically fed a fortified diet composed of lathyrus sativus (chickling or grass pea) and given daily per os an alcoholic extract of this legume. animals given a diet of non-neurotoxic cicer arietinum (chick pea) cross-matched with the nutritional properties of the experimental diet served as controls. another group of animals received the same diet and oral doses of beta, beta'-iminodipropionitrile (idpn), ...19883347349
the effect of bengal gram feeding on the haemostatic status of rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. 19873273584
distribution of vitamin a in various organs of rats in relation to the quality and the quantity of dietary proteins.the influence of the quality and the quantity of dietary proteins on the distribution of a single massive dose of vitamin a in various organs of growing wistar strain rats has been studied by using casein and bengal gram diets at 20% and 10% protein levels. the distribution of [3h]-retinyl acetate in various tissues was also investigated in these dietary conditions. the results show that the hepatic storage of dietary as well as a single massive dose (20,000 i.u.) of vitamin a was profoundly dec ...19873111110
in vitro secretion and uptake of radioactive vitamin a in rats fed different dietary proteins.generally, protein energy malnutrition is accompanied with vitamin a deficiency. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the importance of the quality and the quantity of dietary proteins on the in vitro secretion and uptake of vitamin a in growing rats. the results show that the in vitro release of radioactive vitamin a was greater in rats fed bengal gram diets as compared to those fed casein diets. however, this relationship between the two groups of rats was reversed for the in vitro upt ...19873103524
chemical composition and nutritional value of mexican varieties of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).chemical composition and protein quality of the main chickpea varieties cultivated in mexico were determined. the raw and cooked chickpeas analyzed were: surutato, surutato 77, sonora, sonora 80, porquero, macarena, breve duro and a mixture of broken seeds used mainly for animal feeding. the chemical composition of the raw chickpea studied was very similar; the average values of the nutrients were: ash 3.1 +/- 0.2, fat 5.0 +/- 1.0, protein 19.5 +/- 1.2 and fiber 3.7 +/- 2.1. cooking diminished o ...19872852802
protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (cicer arietinum) and blackgram (vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. protein digestibility was higher when ...19892762243
pterocarpan phytoalexin biosynthesis in elicitor-challenged chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) cell cultures. purification, characterization and cdna cloning of nadph:isoflavone oxidoreductase.nadph:isoflavone oxidoreductase (ifr) is the first soluble enzyme of the pterocarpan-specific part of phytoalexin biosynthesis in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.). the enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by a five-step procedure from chickpea cell cultures treated with yeast extract as elicitor. analysis by gel filtration and sds/page showed that the enzyme consists of a single polypeptide with a molecular mass of 36 kda. km values for the substrates 2'-hydroxyformononetin, 2'-hydroxypseudo ...19911915347
biochemistry and technology of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) seeds.chickpea is an important source of proteins, carbohydrates, b-group vitamins, and certain minerals, particularly to the populations of developing nations. india contributes over 75% of the chickpea production in the world where it is mostly consumed as dhal, whole seeds, and several types of traditional, fermented, deep fried, sweetened, and puffed products. in this review, the world production and distribution, genetic background, biochemical and nutritional quality, and developments in storage ...19863549160
energy utilization of supplemented cereal diets in human volunteers.energy utilization was studied in human volunteers using different diets containing wheat flour supplemented by groundnut (arachis hypogaea), "masur" (lens culinaris), mung (phaseolus aureus) and gram (cicer arietinum) flour. digestible and metabolizable energies were determined for all the experimental diets. an improved energy digestibility was observed when wheat flour was supplemented with groundnut flour, and groundnut flour plus gram flour, i.e. 93.35 and 89.48%, respectively. percent dige ...19863632213
fate and interconversion of endosulfan i, ii and sulfate on gram crop (cicer arietinum linn.) in subtropical environment. 19911813085
serum lipid and lipoprotein fractions in bengal gram and biochanin a induced alterations in atherosclerosis.serum lipids and lipoproteins were studied in rabbits fed on egg yolk supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. bengal gram and synthetically pure isoflavone biochanin a have been used as lipodiatic agents in this study. rabbits were divided into four groups: group a were fed on egg yolk supplement alone to form the positive control group, group b were fed with 40 gms of overnight soaked bengal gram (cicer arietinum), group c were fed with 50 mgs of biochanin a fortnightly, group d was n ...19911800305
role of bengal gram (cicer arietinum) seed coat as an antiatherogenic agent in rabbits.bengal gram seed coat appeared to be a potent hypocholesterolemic/hypolipidemic agent in rabbits. when fed to hypercholesterolemic rabbits, it lowered hepatic cholesterol/lipid much more than in the control group. aortic lipid levels were rather marginally increased but the increase was less in bengal gram seed coat fed rabbits. though seed coat of bengal gram failed to prevent the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, but certainly it slowed down the process of its dev ...19911668207
studies on serum and tissue lipid fractions in bengal gram induced retardation of experimental atherosclerosis.serum and tissue lipid levels were studied in rabbits in whom egg yolk was used to induce atherosclerosis and bengal gram was supplemented in the diet as a lipodiatic agent. monthly serological and tissue studies were done to assess the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids and it was found that egg yolk feeding leads to statistically significant increases in all these fractions in the serum, liver, adrenals, heart and aorta. bengal gram supplementation of the diet led to ...19911668206
effect of different levels of pulse protein (cicer arietinum) on liver enzymes. 19704314660
influence of some trace elements on the growth of rhizobium from peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) and gram (cicer arietinum l.). 19724679121
oligonucleotide fingerprinting of plant and fungal genomes: a comparison of radioactive, colorigenic and chemiluminescent detection methods.digoxigenated oligonucleotide probes complementary to simple repetitive dna sequences were introduced into nonradioactive fingerprint analysis of plant and fungal dna. the fragment patterns, obtained by blot hybridization of taqi-restricted dna from chickpea (cicer arietinum) and its fungal pathogen ascochyta rabiei with digoxigenated probes and either a colorigenic or a chemiluminescent detection method, were compared to those obtained with 32p-labeled probes. in combination with alkaline phosp ...19921592040
effects of bengal gram on cholesterol induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. 19725017797
lipodiatic activity of bengal gram. 19715138953
hypocholesterolaemic effect of bengal gram: a long-term study in man. 19685636741
a comparative study of hypocholesterolemic activity of lipid extract of bengal gram with safflower oil, mustard oil and ground-nut oil in albino rats. 19685711604
reproduction in rats fed dilipidized bengal gram (cicer arietinum l). 19695771173
effect of bengal gram, kabuli gram, green gram and bajra on serum and tissue lipids in rabbits fed on hypercholesterolaemic diet. 19655853538
bengal gram proteins--their effect on serum lipids in albino rats. 19665914881
[nutritional quality of a protein concentrate of chick-peas (cicer arietinum) obtained by ultrafiltration].the nutritive quality of a protein concentrate from chickpea (cicer arietinum) obtained by ultrafiltration was evaluated. three biological assays and the apparent protein digestibility (apd) were utilized. in addition, the effect of the supplementation with methionine to protein concentrate was observed. the protein efficiency ratio (per), net protein ratio (npr) and nitrogen utilization (nu) were 1.86, 3.11 and 3.11 respectively, compared with the values of casein anrc of 2.50 4.02 y 4.01. only ...19921342179
effect of cereal-legume chapati diets on absorption and retention of calcium.wheat chapati, wheat + bengal gram (80:20 and 70:30) chapatis and casein diets, at 10 percent protein level, were fed to rats for 12 weeks to study the effect on calcium utilization. the supplementation of bengal gram to wheat diets significantly improved the calcium absorption. the urinary calcium excretion in wheat + bengal gram chapati diets was significantly less than that of wheat chapati diet fed group. the in vivo 45ca absorption (cpm/100 microliters serum) was also less in wheat chapati ...19921315433
[limiting amino acids of chickpeas (cicer arietinum) for chickens and pigs].three experiments, two with broilers and one with pig, were conducted to determine the limiting amino acids of chickpea (cicer arietinum). in the first 15% protein diets based on autoclaved chickpea were supplemented with methionine (0.20%), either alone or combined with threonine (0.025%) with no significant effect on growth or feed convertion of chicks; however, the addition of methionine tended to improve both parameters in relation to the unsupplemented diet. in the second experiment methion ...19751220614
the exploitation of natural genetic variability for tthe improvement of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.). 19761073217
a survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the uk.eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the uk were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. from these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (phaseolus vulgaris), runner (phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell type ...19836615758
effect of dietary cane sugar & bengal gram on blood lipids & insulin. 19826764211
limiting amino acids in bengal gram (cicer arietinum) as determined from blood amino acid levels and amino acid supplementation studies in the rat.the limiting amino acids of bengal gram (cicer arietinum) were determined from plasma amino acid score and ratio and growth response of weanling rats to supplements of amino acids. the results indicated that methionine, threonine and tryptophan are the most limiting amino acids. protein efficiency ratio of raw and cooked bengal gram fed at a dietary level of 10% protein increased from 2.7 to 3.7 and 2.4 to 3.4, respectively, on supplementing the diets with methionine, threonine and tryptophan. p ...19826816130
studies on the effect of bengal gram supplementation on aortic lipid synthesis and tissue lipid distribution in cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. 1977924473
adsorption of bile salts from aqueous solution by plant fibre and cholestyramine.1. adsorption of bile salts by dietary fibre is believed to promote their excretion and hence to reduce the serum cholesterol level in man and experimental animals. 2. we have tested a number of plant fibre fractions and other related materials for their ability to adsorb bile salts from aqueous solution. the "insoluble" plant fractions were from "dry grain" (a residue from brewing), apple, wheat bran, lucerne (medicago sativa), soya beans, mung beans (phaseolus mungo), chick peas (cicer arieti ...1978698168
a rat bioassay for measuring the comparative availability of carbohydrates and its application to legume foods, pure carbohydrates and polyols.an assay was developed to evaluate the bioavailability of dietary carbohydrate by slope-ratio analysis of weight gain and plasma ketones of rats fed a carbohydrate-free diet supplemented with glucose as a standard and selected food items, pure carbohydrates and polyols. the diet was based on 35% food grade oleic acid, 12% casein protein supplemented with methionine (0.3%) and arginine (0.2%), 7.5% soybean oil, 37% cellulose, minerals and vitamins. glucose, as the reference standard, or test mate ...1979574537
digestibility of raw and cooked starches from legume seeds using the laboratory rat.the in vivo digestibility and growth responses to diets containing raw and cooked legume starches were determined using male wistar rats. these starches were obtained from seven legumes including smooth- and wrinkled-seeded field peas, navy beans, kidney beans, garbanzo beans, mung beans and lentils. wheat and potato starch diets were fed for comparative purposes. with the exception of potato and the field pea starches, rats fed uncooked starch diets had higher weight gains than those fed cooked ...1979512695
isoflavones and hypercholesterolemia in rats.isoflavones isolated from three commonly used pulses such as bengalgram (cicer arietinum), greengram (phaseolus aureus) and blackgram (phaseolus mungo) and p-coumaric acid were supplemented to hypercholesterolemia-inducing diet of rats. among isoflavones, biochanin a and formononetin showed hypolipidemic activity but diadzein did not; p-coumaric acid also produced a significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels.1979459719
fiber, intestinal sterols, and colon cancer.it has been postulated that dietary fiber's protective effect against the development of colon cancer, diverticular disease, and atherosclerosis may be due to the adsorption and/or dilution of intestinal sterols such as bile acids and neural sterols and their bacterial metabolites by component(s) of fiber. dietary fiber is made up of four major components-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin. there is evidence that hemicellulose and pectin may induce an increase in fecal bile acid excret ...1978343568
effect of different levels of pulse protein (bengal gram) on some tissue enzymes, serum copper, liver copper, hemoglobin, hematocrit value & excretion of copper in urine & feces. 1979232076
rhizobium ciceri sp. nov., consisting of strains that nodulate chickpeas (cicer arietinum l.).the taxonomic status of 16 collection strains of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) rhizobia which were previously determined to belong to two groups (groups a and b) were compared with reference strains belonging to different genera and species of the family rhizobiaceae. we used the following taxonomic, phylogenetic, and phenotypic characteristics and approaches to study these organisms: dna homology, guanine-plus-cytosine content, restriction fragment length polymorphism of the amplified 16s-inter ...19947520739
genomic heterogeneity of strains nodulating chickpeas (cicer arietinum l.) and description of rhizobium mediterraneum sp. nov.the genetic diversity of chickpea strains was studied by using 30 isolates obtained from nodules on chickpeas growing in uninoculated fields over a wide geographic range. the following taxonomic approaches were used: dna-dna relatedness analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amplified 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) intergenic spacer (igs), and total 16s rrna sequence analysis. the division of chickpea-infective strains into two major phylogenetic groups (groups a and b) tha ...19957547282
starch degradation during germination of civer arietinum l. seeds.the variations in starch and soluble sugar content, in phosphorylase and amylase activities in cotyledons of germinating seeds of cicer arietinum l. are determined. results from various experiments prove that the alpha-amylases are chiefly responsible for amylase activity. phosphorylase plays an important rôle during the first two days of germination, but it is relegated to a secondary position as the amylase activity increases. disc electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel shows the existence of a ...197878513
hepatic and serum arginase and ornithine transcarbamylase activities of rats maintained on diets of different protein quality.groups of rats were fed diets containing 15% protein from arhar dal (cajanus cajan), bengal gram dal (cicer arietinum), urad dal (phaseolus mungo) and also isolated proteins from casein, egg, soya bean, gluten and gelatin for a period of 10 days. rats maintained on the casein diet had the highest liver arginase activity and those having egg the lowest. all the leguminous proteins gave similar levels of arginase activity, the values falling between the casein and egg groups. serum arginase level ...19873426155
nutritional evaluation of chickpea and germinated chickpea flours.the ability of seed germination to increase the nutritional quality of chickpea was studied. chickpea flours germinated for 0, 24 and 48 h were evaluated nutritionally by determination of protein efficiency ratio (per), net protein ratio (npr), digestibility and essential amino acid availability "in vivo". a significant increase in ascorbic acid was observed during germination. per and npr values indicated that germinated chickpea flours compared favorably to casein. protein digestibility decrea ...19883200798
aortic collagen & glycosaminoglycans in bengal gram induced alterations in atherosclerosis. 19873443486
genotypic and phenotypic diversity of rhizobium isolated from chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).the diversity of 16 strains of chickpea-infective rhizobia from various geographical origins was analysed using genotypic and phenotypic approaches. multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was performed, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the amplified 16s + igs (intergenic spacer) rrna gene, assimilation of 147 carbon sources, antibiotic resistance, and tolerance to nacl and extreme ph values and temperatures were tested. these approaches had different discriminating powers. esterase po ...19947915190
insoluble dietary fiber of grain food legumes and protein digestibility.the present work aimed to verify the digestibility of cooked whole food grain legumes. samples of beans (phaseolus vulgaris and vigna sinensis), chickpeas (cicer arietinum) and lentils (lens culinaris) were used in the experiment. the interrelationship between the insoluble dietary fiber presented in the food grain legumes and the low protein digestibility was studied. the insoluble dietary fiber and the proteic nitrogen presented in the neutral detergent fiber (ndf) were determined. "in vivo" d ...19938002707
studies on the development of infant foods from plant protein sources. part iii. preparation, processing and properties of various products developed.studies have been carried out on the development of a low-cost, high-quality infant food of low paste viscosity from rice, chickpea (cicer arietinum) and cow's milk. in order to improve the overall quality of the product, chickpea was processed by different methods prior to its incorporation. a number of formulations was prepared by mixing 52% rice, 30% each, the processed chickpea sample, and 18% whole milk powder. these mixtures were processed by extrusion cooking or drum drying. in the case o ...19853842932
effect of extrusion processing on the nutritional quality of protein in rice-legume blends.the effect of extrusion processing using wenger x-5 extruder on the quality of products of rice-legume (75:25) blends was investigated. the products were palatable and had a good texture. the nutritional quality of protein in the extrudates was significantly improved. the protein efficiency ratio values of rice-soybean, rice-bengal gram and rice-black gram products were: 2.25, 2.30 and 2.28 as compared to 2.10, 1.89 and 1.98 for the respective raw blends. extrusion processing reduced the phytate ...19883362195
a mechanism for the hypocholesterolaemic activity of saponins.1. saponins are steroid or triterpene glycosides which occur in a number of important food plants, including such staples as soya beans (glycine max) and chickpeas (cicer arietinum). they are known to be hypocholesterolaemic. 2. some saponins form an insoluble complex with cholesterol which prevents its absorption from the small intestine. others cause an increase in the faecal excretion of bile acids, an indirect route for elimination of cholesterol. 3. we have investigated the effects of diffe ...19863676181
effect of bengal gram, cicer arietinum l., on experimental atherosclerosis. 19734779297
studies on the development of infant foods from plant protein sources. part ii. effect of processing conditions on the chemical and nutritive properties of chickpea (cicer arietinum).in order to improve the taste, flavor and nutritional quality of chickpea (cicer arietinum), various processing conditions were studied. the decorticated samples were processed under various conditions, either by presoaking or non-soaking in water or sodium carbonate solution. the proteins were also isolated from water or carbonate-presoaked chickpea and subjected to various processing. carbonate-presoaked samples gave slightly lower protein and ash values. no major changes in other constituents ...19853842055
choline and glycine betaine uptake in various strains of rhizobia isolated from nodules of vicia faba var. major and cicer arietinum l.: modulation by salt, choline, and glycine betaine.two strains of rhizobia isolated from nodules of vicia faba var. major and one strain isolated from nodules of cicer arietinum l. were characterized for salt resistance. the presence of 1 mm glycine betaine or choline in a minimal medium with added nacl had a beneficial role on the growth of the three strains. both molecules were found to be taken up by cells obtained at low osmolarity, and whereas glycine betaine uptake activity was stimulated significantly in cells grown in the presence of 0.1 ...19979009070
[supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (cicer arietinum) flour. i. preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].the feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. a 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-makin ...19873455191
[supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (cicer arietinum) flour. ii. chemical composition and biological quality of breads made with blends of the same].experimental bread made of wheat flour complemented with 5, 10 and 15% chick-pea flour was studied, using wheat bread as control. samples were analyzed for their proximal chemical composition and amino acids content. crude fiber and protein increased from 0.36% to 0.55%, and from 14% to 17.6%, respectively, when 15% chick-pea flour was added. the lysine content increased as the level of supplementation was raised. biological quality of proteins was measured in rats as protein efficiency ratio (p ...19873506405
interaction of proteases with legume seed inhibitors. molecular features.after having found that raw black beans (phaseolus vulgaris) were toxic, while the cooked ones constitute the basic diet of the underdeveloped peoples of the world, in the sixties, our research directed by dr. jaffé, concentrated mainly around the detection and identification of the heat labile toxic factors in legume seeds. a micromethod for the detection of protease inhibitors (pi) in individual seeds was developed, for the purpose of establishing that the multiple trypsin inhibitors (ti) foun ...19969137634
functional properties of thermally treated legume flours.functional properties of four thermally treated decorticated legume flours namely, bengal gram (cicer arietinum), black gram (phaseolus f1p4o roxb.), green gram (phaseolus aureus roxb.) and lentils (lens esculenta) were studied. samples with moisture levels of 3.2, 3.3, 1.3 and 5.0% for all four were subjected to dry heat treatment in a covered vessel in pressure cooker. (untreated flours served as controls. thermal treatment lowered nitrogen solubility profiles of all flours and increased water ...19979205596
[use of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) in non-dairy formulas. i. chemical composition and nutritive quality of chickpeas and a comparison with commercial infant formulas].a study was carried out to determine, in rats, the chemical composition and protein quality determinations: per, npr and npu of chick-pea, milk powder and two different commercial infant formulas for babies with lactose intolerance. the formulas studied were "casec" (calcium caseinate), "sobee" (soy flour), "plenilac" (milk powder) and cooked chick-pea flour, alone or supplemented with methionine and/or tryptophan. the protein and fat contents of "casec" were 88 and 2%, respectively, while chick ...19873506409
effect of wheat flour, bengal gram flour and corn flour on lipid metabolism in rats.male albino rats were fed on respective diets of wheat flour, bengal gram flour and corn flour for 8 weeks at the 59% level. it was observed that the increase in weight after wheat flour and bengal gram flour feeding was 6.8 and 12.0% respectively and that the decrease after corn flour feeding was 5.2% as compared to the control animals on sucrose diet. serum cholesterol and liver cholesterol levels were significantly (p less than 0.01) decreased after wheat flour, bengal gram flour and corn flo ...19846491775
genetic diversity of rhizobial symbionts isolated from legume species within the genera astragalus, oxytropis, and onobrychis.the genetic diversity of 44 rhizobial isolates from astragalus, oxytropis, and onobrychis spp. originating from different geographic locations was evaluated by mapped restriction site polymorphism (mrsp) analysis of 16s rrna genes and by pcr dna fingerprinting with repetitive sequences (rep-pcr). a comparison of tree topologies of reference strains constructed with data obtained by mrsp and by 16s rrna gene sequence analyses showed that the topologies were in good agreement, indicating that the ...19979406393
probiotic fermented food mixtures: possible applications in clinical anti-diarrhoea usage.a probiotic fermented pcmt food mixture was developed by fermentation of an autoclaved and cooled slurry of pearl millet flour, chickpea flour, skim milk powder and fresh tomato pulp (pcmt 2:1:1:1, w/w) with lactobacillus acidophilus (10(5) cells/ml), a probiotic organism at 37 degrees c for 24 h. such a fermented mixture inhibited the growth of pathogenic organisms, namely shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhosa and e. coli. a significant decline in ph with a corresponding increase in titratab ...19989502235
purification, characterization and differential hormonal regulation of a beta-1,3-glucanase and two chitinases from chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) cell-suspension cultures were used to isolate one beta-1,3-glucanase (ec 3.2.1.29) and two chitinases (ec 3.2.1.14). the beta-1,3-glucanase (m(r) = 36 kda) and one of the chitinases (m(r) = 32 kda) belong to class i hydrolases with basic isoelectric points (10.5 and 8.5, respectively) and were located intracellularly. the basic chitinase (bc) was also found in the culture medium. the second chitinase (m(r) = 28 kda), with an acidic isoelectric point of 5.7, showed h ...19937763357
acetoacetyl coenzyme a reductase and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in rhizobium (cicer) sp. strain cc 1192biochemical controls that regulate the biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (phb) were investigated in rhizobium (cicer) sp. strain cc 1192. this species is of interest for studying phb synthesis because the polymer accumulates to a large extent in free-living cells but not in bacteroids during nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) plants. evidence is presented that indicates that cc 1192 cells retain the enzymic capacity to synthesize phb when they differentiate from th ...19989687441
studies on the development of infant foods from plant protein sources. part i. effect of germination of chickpea (cicer arietinum) on the nutritive value and digestibility of proteins.for the purpose of developing an infant food of improved dispersibility characteristics and high nutritive quality, different treatments and technologies were applied to chickpea (cicer arietinum). samples were germinated for two and four days at room temperature (25 - 27 degrees c). one portion of each germinated chickpea sample was boiled for 40 min and the other portion was autoclaved at 15 psi for 15 min. these processed samples were then compared with the corresponding value of raw germinat ...19853836608
effect of different levels of bengal gram protein on the ferroenzymes of rat liver. 19806249732
copper and zinc in selected foods.few data on the copper and zinc contents of convenience items and frozen foods have been reported in the literature. in this study, selected meats, frozen vegetables, and convenience items were analyzed for copper and zinc content by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. foods found to have the highest copper content tended to be highest in zinc as well. beef liver was an outstanding source of both minerals. protein foods were generally good sources of zinc, supplying more than 2 mg/100-gm servin ...19846470373
effect of processing methods on the calcium, phosphorus, and phytic acid contents and nutritive utilization of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).the effect of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) processing methods on the nutritive utilization of calcium and phosphorus and on phytic acid, a seed component that affects mineral utilization, was studied. chemical and biological methods were used for nutritional determinations in growing rats. the digestive utilization of calcium from raw chickpea was adequate for growing rats; however, processing resulted in a slight decrease. the metabolic utilization of chickpea calcium was low because of the lo ...199910552569
imitation milks from cicer arietinum (l.), vigna unguiculata (l.) walpers and vigna radiata (l.) wilczek and other legumes. 19816894776
biochemical controls of citrate synthase in chickpea bacteroids.bacteroids formed by mesorhizobium ciceri cc 1192 in symbiosis with chickpea plants (cicer arietinum l.) contained a single form of citrate synthase [citrate oxaloacetate-lyase (coa-acetylating) enzyme; ec 4.1.3.7], which had the same electrophoretic mobility as the enzyme from the free-living cells. the citrate synthase from cc 1192 bacteroids had a native molecular mass of 228 +/- 32 kda and was activated by kcl, which also enhanced stability. double reciprocal plots of initial velocity agains ...200010648103
fate and interconversion of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-hch on gram (cicer arietinum linn.) plants under subtropical field conditions at ludhiana, india. 19937684288
comparative analysis of the chromosomal and genomic organization of ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.we have investigated the physical distribution of the reverse transcriptase genes of ty1-copia-like retrotransposable elements from 12 plant species belonging to different subdivisions by hybridization in situ on chromosome preparations. ty1-copia-like elements showed different and non-random hybridization patterns. a dispersed distribution throughout most of the chromosomes with reduced hybridization at some regions or with some weak clustering at other regions was found in allium cepa, beta vu ...19979037155
effect of wheat and bengal gram diets on glutamic acid metabolism in rat brain. 19816115815
emblica officinalis gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits.twelve albino rabbits of either sex weighing 1.0-1.25 kg were fed a standard laboratory diet of green grass and sattu (roasted bengal gram). after a 2-week run-in period their serum cholesterol levels were estimated. all animals were now fed 0.5 g cholesterol and 1.0 g clarified butter daily and were not divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each. while all received the standard cholesterol-rich diet, group a animals received no additional substances, animals in group b were each fed 10 mg vitamin ...19817295546
characterization of an atrazine-degrading pseudaminobacter sp. isolated from canadian and french agricultural soils.atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. fourteen bacterial strains able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen were isolated from soils obtained from two farms in canada and two farms in france. these strains were indistinguishable from each other based on repetitive extragenic palindromic pcr genomic fingerprinting performed with primers eric1r, eric2, and boxa1r. based on 16s rrna sequence analysis of one representativ ...200010877767
effect of aluminum on the production of siderophore by rhizobium sp. (cicer arietinum).rhizobium sp. strain bicc 651 in the presence of 100 microm al3+ produced a threefold higher level of siderophore than in the control culture under iron limitation during the stationary phase. al3+ in increasing concentrations resulted in decreased growth, and the effect was alleviated by the addition of iron. siderophore production decreased gradually in al3+-treated culture as well as in the control with the addition of increasing concentrations of fe3+, and at 50 microm fe3+ the level of side ...200010919391
hypocholesterolemic effect of amaranth seeds (amaranthus esculantus).hypocholesterolemic effect of amaranth seeds was studied in male wistar strain albino rats as against bengal gram. the results showed that liver weights were significantly higher in animals with hypercholesterolemia inducing diet. contrarily, weights of other organs like brain, kidney, testes and spleen showed higher weights with amaranth and bengal gram diets. serum lipid and tg (triglyceride) contents were lower and hdl-cholesterol fraction was higher and comparable with amaranth seed diet. fe ...19938332587
in vitro screening of potential anti-cancer chemicals: effect of purine pyrimidine analogues on seed germination.germinating cicer arietinum seeds were used to simulate embryonic tissue for evaluating toxicity of purine and pyrimidine analogues. 6-mercaptopurine stimulated germination, whereas 8-azaadenine, 8-azaguanine, 2,6-diaminopurine, 6-amino, 2-hydroxypurine and 5-fluorouracil inhibited germination. 6-methyluracil, 5-aminouracil and methylxanthines, viz. caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and uric acid exhibited little inhibitory effects. rna synthesis ensued immediately after water imbibition and r ...19817292509
hemagglutinins in vegetative tissues of bengal gram.hemagglutinating activity was identified in the roots and vegetative tissues of bengal gram using rabbit erythrocytes. the activity in the roots appears to be similar to that of the seeds in respect to their sugar inhibition property. seed and root extracts were found to have fetuin inhibitory agglutinating activity, whereas cotyledons showed different sugar specificity. however, 7-day cotyledons and roots from 3 and 7-day plants were also found to have galactose and n-acetyl-d-galactosamine inh ...200011030478
[obtaining a fermented chickpea extract (cicer arietinum l.) and its use as a milk extensor].chickpea (cicer arietinum l) is cultivated in the north part of méxico and it is considered a good source of vegetal protein of low cost (20% average), nevertheless, the 80% used for the exportation and only the 20% less was used for animal feeding. the main objective in this study is to obtain a fermented chickpea extract for using in dairy extensor. chickpea water absorbtion kinetics were carried out in e temperature conditions:while the conditions were established, chickpea was grounded and f ...200011048588
possible dietary protective factors in relation to the distribution of duodenal ulcer in india and bangladesh.in india there are regions of high incidence and regions of low incidence of duodenal ulcer. rats prefed for two weeks on diets from low incidence areas developed significantly fewer rumenal ulcers after pyloric ligation than rats fed on diets from high incidence areas. the protective action was found in various individual items of food taken from the diets of low incidence areas. unrefined wheat and rice, certain pulses (black gram, green gram, horse gram), some millets (sava, kutki, ragi), soy ...19807461465
glycaemic response in normal subjects to five different legumes commonly used in the philippines.five legumes including chick pea (cicer arietinum linn), pigeon pea (cajanus cajan linn. huth.), black bean (phaseolus vulgaris linn), mung bean (phaseolus areus roxb) and white bean (phaseolus vulgaris linn) were cooked and tested for blood glucose response among healthy human volunteers. the blood glucose response to all legumes was significantly lower compared to bread. the glycaemic response to chick pea was significantly lower (p < or = 0.01) than that to black bean, pigeon pea and mung bea ...19957621088
strenuous exercise decreases motility and cross-sectional area of human gastric antrum. a study using ultrasound.gastric emptying in humans is delayed with strenuous exercise. we used ultrasound imaging in six healthy volunteers to determine whether changes in motility and configuration of the gastric outlet contribute to this delay. after fasting, all individuals ingested chicken broth and garbanzo beans. with subjects sitting upright, transverse and longitudinal real-time views of the gastric antrum were recorded on video tape. in the exercise studies, subjects pedaled an ergometer for 10 min to attain a ...19948174435
symbiotic effectiveness of spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants of rhizobium sp. cicer nodulating chickpea (cicer arietinum).spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutants were isolated from two fast growing gum-producing strains ca85 and ca401 and from two moderately growing strains ca181 and ca534 of rhizobium sp. cicer. the nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the mutants relative to parent strains were evaluated on chickpea (cicer arietinum) grown in sterilized chillum jars. some mutants of strains ca85 and ca401 showed nod phenotype whereas some mutants of strains ca181 and ca534 showed nod(+) fix(-) phe ...200111297364
effects of salinity on protein and lipopolysaccharide pattern in a salt-tolerant strain of mesorhizobium ciceri.to characterize the physiological and metabolic responses of mesorhizobium ciceri strain ch-191 to salt stress, investigating the changes induced by salinity in protein and lipopolysaccharide profiles, as well as determining the accumulation of amino acids, glutamate and proline.200111298245
effects of rhizobacteria and root symbionts on the reproduction of meloidogyne javanica and growth of chickpea.the effects of rhizobacteria, i.e. pseudomonas fluorescens, azotobacter chyroococcum and azospirillum brasilense, alone and in combination with root symbionts, rhizobium sp. and glomus mosseae, on the growth of chickpea, cicer arietinum, and reproduction of meloidogyne jaranica were studied. when added alone g. mosseae was better at improving plant growth and reducing galling and nematode reproduction than any other tested organism. application of p. fluorescens caused an almost similar increase ...200111396906
extrusion and boiling improve rat body weight gain and plasma cholesterol lowering ability of peas and chickpeas.this study investigated the effect of feeding peas (pisum sativum) and chickpeas (cicer arietinum) processed by boiling or extrusion on growth performance, plasma cholesterol concentrations and organ weights of rats. casein was used as the protein source in the control diets. complementarity of wheat and legumes on protein quality was also evaluated. boiled or extruded legumes significantly increased body weight gain (bwg) of rats but not protein efficiency ratio (per) when compared with raw leg ...19969001374
rhizobial survival and nodulation of chickpea as influenced by fungicide seed treatment.the survival of rhizobium ciceri on chickpea (cicer arietinum cv. myles) seed, treated separately with 1 of 4 commercial fungicides, i.e., apron, arrest 75w, crown, or captan, was examined under laboratory conditions using standard serial dilution and plate count techniques. the resulting effects of fungicide-rhizobium interactions on nodulation, n2 fixation, and plant growth were assessed in a controlled environment. fungicide treatment decreased the number of viable rhizobia on the seed. in ge ...200111467735
properties of a lectin purified from the seeds of cicer arietinum.a lectin was isolated from seed extracts of cicer arietinum by (nh4)2so4 precipitation and subsequent ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. affinity chromatography on desialylated human igm coupled to ah-sepharose was also performed, but the amount bound was very low. the lectin has a molecular mass of about 44000 da, as determined by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed one band corresponding to a molecular mass of 26000 da ...19836884991
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