secretion of saliva by human lip mucous glands and parotid glands in response to gustatory stimuli and test the suggestion that minor salivary glands, such as the lower lip mucous glands, respond to stimulation in a similar manner to major glands such as the parotid, an appliance was constructed for each subject using an organopolysiloxane dental impression material which held a strip of filter paper against the inner aspect of the lower lip. the volume of labial secretion produced was determined by weight difference. saliva from the right parotid duct was collected into pre-weighed tubes usin ...19846596041
chewing gum bezoars of the gastrointestinal tract.children have chewed gum since the stone age. black lumps of prehistoric tar with human tooth impressions have been found in northern europe dating from approximately 7000 bc (middle stone age) to 2000 bc (bronze age). the bite impressions suggest that most chewers were between 6 and 15 years of age. the greeks chewed resin from the mastic tree (mastic gum). north american indians chewed spruce gum. the first manufacturing patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 for a natural gum, chicle, deri ...19989685468
medicinal plants used for dogs in trinidad and tobago.this paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in trinidad and tobago. in 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (rra) technique. semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agri ...200010821961
bioactive novel polyphenols from the fruit of manilkara zapota (sapodilla).activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract from the fruit of manilkara zapota cv. tikal resulted in the isolation of two new antioxidants, methyl 4-o-galloylchlorogenate (1) and 4-o-galloylchlorogenic acid (2), along with eight known polyphenolic antioxidants, namely, methyl chlorogenate (3), dihydromyricetin (4), quercitrin (5), myricitrin (6), (+)-catechin (7), (-)-epicatechin (8), (+)-gallocatechin (9), and gallic acid (10). of the 10 polyphenols, 1 showed the highest antioxidant act ...200312880319
antimicrobial activity of terminalia catappa, manilkara zapota and piper betel leaf extract.aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of terminalia catappa l., manilkara zapota l. and piper betel l. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 gram positive, 12 gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, candida tropicalis. piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. the three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. the methanolic extract w ...200820046756
determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, india.many plants used in saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. in the present study, some parts of five plants, guazuma ulmifolia l., manilkara zapota l., melia azedarach l., syzygium cumini l. and wrightia tomentosa r.& s., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold ...200920502546
evaluation of anti-quorum-sensing activity of edible plants and fruits through inhibition of the n-acyl-homoserine lactone system in chromobacterium violaceum and pseudomonas find out an alternative strategy to antibiotic usage against bacterial infection.201020720417
Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).With a greater awareness of the hazards associated with the use of synthetic organic insecticides, there has been an urgent need to explore suitable alternative products for pest control. Musca domestica is ubiquitous insect that has the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans and livestock. They are mechanical carriers of more than hundred human and animal intestinal diseases and are responsible for protozoan, bacterial, helminthic, and viral infections. The present work aimed to i ...201122033735
Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis L ...201121882684
inhibition of ehrlich ascites carcinoma by manilkara zapota l. stem bark in swiss albino evaluate the antitumor activity of manilkara zapota (m. zapota) l. stem bark against ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) in swiss albino mice.201123569811
plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. six fungi namely aspergillus fumigatus, a. niger, a. terreus, f. solani, p. digitatum and r. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloi ...201324506041
anti-advanced glycation end-product and free radical scavenging activity of plants from the yucatecan flora.formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (age) is recognized as a major pathogenic process in diabetic complications, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. in addition, reactive oxygen species and free radicals have also been reported to participate in age formation and in cell damage. natural products with antioxidant and antiage activity have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension and related complications. objective: to test ethanoli ...201727695268
understanding long-term fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. the population density of three pestiferous anastrepha species [anastrepha ludens (loew), anastrepha obliqua (macquart), and anastrepha serpentina (wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (citrus x paradisi macf ...201222812118
identification and characterization of a basic thaumatin-like protein (tlp 2) as an allergen in sapodilla plum (manilkara zapota).cases of oral allergy syndrome following the ingestion of sapodilla plum (manilkara zapota) have been reported rarely. as the causative allergens are not known, the main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the important allergens in sapodilla.201424311523
characterization and gene cloning of an acidic thaumatin-like protein (tlp 1), an allergen from sapodilla fruit (manilkara zapota).allergy to sapodilla (manilkara zapota) fruit ingestion is rare. an independent study from our group has identified a basic thaumatin-like protein (tlp 2) as the major allergen. the present study was aimed at identifying and characterizing additional allergens from sapodilla.201324060761
in vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of manilkara zapota, anona squamosa, and tamarindus indica.extracts prepared from seeds of manilkara zapota, anona squamosa, and tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. acetone and methanol extracts of t. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. mic values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/ml. methanol extract of t. indica and acetone extract of m. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal.201021031260
comparative antioxidant effect of bht and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.antioxidant properties of banana (musa paradisiaca) and sapodilla/chikoo (manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. four treatments viz., i. control (meat + 2% salt), ii.bht (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% bht), iii. bpe (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and iv. spe (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °c). the average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gall ...201424493901
assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected indian medicinal assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected indian medicinal flora.201223569897
Efficacy of adulticidal and larvicidal properties of botanical extracts against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and Anopheles subpictus.The aim of the present study was to investigate the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of dried leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Manilkara zapota, Ipomoea staphylina, and Acalypha indica against the adults of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasites were exposed to varying concentrations ...201121861064
inhibition of microbial pathogens using fruit and vegetable peel extracts.the aim of the present work is to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of some vegetable and fruit peels. the extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using various solvents with increasing polarity (hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous). the antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay against five gram positive bacteria, five gram negative bacteria and four fungi. all extracts demonstrated varied level of antimicrobial activity. the peel extracts ...201424725235
extraction process optimization of polyphenols from indian citrus sinensis - as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus.diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. it has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, india leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (ages) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. in this context, mangifera indica (m ...201424397983
Acaricidal activity of aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles from Manilkara zapota against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.Traditional parasite control is primarily based on the use of chemical acaricides, which unfortunately have many negative side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Manilkara zapota to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The UV-vis spect ...201121906765
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