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inhibition of growth of escherichia coli o157:h7 in fresh radish (raphanus sativus l.) sprout production by calcinated calcium.the inhibitory effect of calcinated calcium on the growth of escherichia coli o157:h7 during fresh radish (raphanus sativus l.) sprout production was studied. it was revealed that the addition of 0.4% (wt/vol) calcinated calcium into radish sprouting medium which was artificially contaminated with e. coli o157:h7 (3.0 to 3.2 log cfu/ml) completely inhibited the growth or inactivated the microorganism. when radish seed extract was used instead of radish sprout production, the same extent of growt ...199910030630
permeabilization of fungal membranes by plant defensins inhibits fungal growth.we used an assay based on the uptake of sytox green, an organic compound that fluoresces upon interaction with nucleic acids and penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes, to investigate membrane permeabilization in fungi. membrane permeabilization induced by plant defensins in neurospora crassa was biphasic, depending on the plant defensin dose. at high defensin levels (10 to 40 microm), strong permeabilization was detected that could be strongly suppressed by cations in the medium. th ...199910584003
[stimulatory action of brassica oleracea var. sabauda (savoy) on mycobacteria and mycobacterial infection (author's transl)].eleven vegetable species were investigated for the presence of growth-stimulating activity on mycobacteria. it was found that savoy juice (brassica oleracea var. sabauda), given orally, posessed a pronounced stimulating effect on m. tuberculosis, m. bovis, m. kansasii, m. avium and m. intracellulare serotype davis in the serum of experimental animals when tested in auxanograms (table 1). another 2 species, paprica (capsicum frutescens) and radish (raphanus sativus var. albus) showed only insigni ...1978746996
evidence that the role of plant defensins in radish defense responses is independent of salicylic acid.radish leaves contain two homologous 5-kda plant defensins which accumulate systemically upon infection by fungal pathogens (f.r.g. terras et al., 1995, plant cell 7: 573-588). here we report on the molecular cloning of the cdnas encoding the two pathogen-inducible plant defensin isoforms from radish (raphanus sativus l.) leaves. tissue-print and whole-leaf electroblot immunostaining showed that the plant defensin peptides not only accumulate at high levels at or immediately around the infection ...19989715534
borate-rhamnogalacturonan ii bonding reinforced by ca2+ retains pectic polysaccharides in higher-plant cell wallsthe extent of in vitro formation of the borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan ii (rg-ii) complex was stimulated by ca2+. the complex formed in the presence of ca2+ was more stable than that without ca2+. a naturally occurring boron (b)-rg-ii complex isolated from radish (raphanus sativus l. cv aokubi-daikon) root contained equimolar amounts of ca2+ and b. removal of the ca2+ by trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-n,n,n',n'-tetraacetic acid induced cleavage of the complex into monomeric rg-ii. these data su ...19999880361
antiurolithiatic activity of raphanus sativus aqueous extract on rats.the aqueous extract of the bark of raphanus sativus was tested for its antiurolithiatic and diuretic activity. the urolithiasis was experimentally induced by implantation of zinc disc in the urinary bladder of rats. significant decrease in the weight of stones was observed after treatment in animals which received aqueous extract in comparison with control groups. this extract showed an increase in the 24 h urine volume as compared to the control.199910624898
involvement of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus rna2 and rna3 in viral systemic spread in radish plant.the genetics of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (cmv) and the pathogenicity of the virus for raphanus sativus were analyzed using pseudorecombinants constructed from the infectious transcripts of two naturally occurring strains of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (cmv-d8 and cmv-y). cmv-d8, but not cmv-y, could cause systemic infection of the plant. viral accumulation and systemic movement in the plants was examined using immuno-tissue blot analysis, dot blot and northern blot hybridization. virus was eq ...19989687868
identification and expression of the kosena radish (raphanus sativus cv. kosena) homologue of the ogura radish cms-associated gene, orf138.a cms-associated gene, orf125, present in the japanese radish cultivar kosena, has a sequence homologous to that of the ogura cms-associated gene, orf138, except for two amino acid substitutions and a 39 bp deletion in the orf138 coding region. in kosena radish, orf125 is linked with orfb, whereas the orf125 locus differs in a brassica napus cms cybrid derived from protoplast fusion between kosena radish and b. napus. a novel mtdna sequence is present in the 3'-flanking region of orf125 in the b ...199910080721
expression of functional raphanus sativus antifungal protein in yeast.rs-afp2 is a 51 amino acid cysteine-rich peptide isolated from radish (raphanus sativus) seeds that exhibits potent inhibitory activity against filamentous fungi. a cdna clone encoding the rs-afp2 preprotein was modified by recombinant dna methods to allow expression in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae. this peptide was expressed in yeast as a fusion protein carrying at its n-terminus the prepro-sequences derived from the precursor of the yeast pheromone mating factor alpha 1. these sequences ...19948034047
effects of semi-purified dietary fibers isolated from lagenaria siceraria, raphanus sativus and lentinus edodes on fecal steroid excretions in rats.rats were fed diets, each of which contained 5% of the semi-purified dietary fiber (df) preparations from three kinds of foods, continuously for a total of 7 weeks. the fat level was varied, and cholesterol (chol) was added toward the end of the experimental period. after 7 weeks, decreases of serum and liver chol concentrations were observed in the shiitake (lentinus edodes) group when compared to the cellulose (cp) group. in the absence of chol, fecal excretions of several secondary bile acids ...19968780968
production and characterization of antibodies to the beta-(1-->6)-galactotetraosyl group and their interaction with arabinogalactan-proteins.rabbit antisera were raised against beta-(1-->6)-galactotetraose coupled to bovine serum albumin (gal4-bsa). the antisera reacted with arabinogalactan-proteins (agps) isolated from seeds, roots, or leaves of radish (raphanus sativus l.) as revealed by immunodiffusion analysis. extensive removal of alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl residues from these agps enhanced the formation of precipitin with the antisera. the antisera did not react with such other polysaccharides as soybean arabinan-4-galactan, beta ...19937763824
a view of plant dehydrins using antibodies specific to the carboxy terminal peptide.dehydrins are characterized by the consensus kikeklpg amino acid sequence found near the carboxy terminus, and usually repeated from one to many times within the protein. a synthetic peptide containing this consensus sequence was used to produce specific antibodies that recognize dehydrins in a wide range of plants. this range covered two families of monocots, viz. gramineae (hordeum vulgare l., triticum aestivum l., zea mays l., oryza sativa l.) and liliaceae (allium sativa l.), and five famili ...19937693020
cloning of a cdna encoding cytosolic acetoacetyl-coenzyme a thiolase from radish by functional expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae.a cdna coding for radish (raphanus sativus l.) acetoacetyl-coenzyme a thiolase (aact) was cloned by complementation of the erg10 mutation affecting aact in yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae). the longest reading frame encodes a protein of 406 amino acids with a predicted relative molecular weight of 42,032, with significant similarities to eukaryotic and prokaryotic thiolases. there is no evidence for the presence of a leader peptide characteristic, e.g. of glyoxysomal thiolase. yeast transformant ...19968756496
a new species of the genus aphelenchoides fischer, 1894 (nematoda: aphelenchoididae) from rootlets of radish (raphanus sativus) in lucknow. 19695381125
[immunomodulation with natural products. i. effect of an aqueous extract of raphanus sativus niger on experimental influenza infection in mice].a raphanus sativus niger water extract was administered by intranasal instillations to mice before inoculation of the influenza virus a/pr 8/34 (h1n1) strain by the same route. the extract ensured some protection against the experimental influenza infection. a significant decrease of the hemagglutinin titre of the mouse lung homogenate was noted, as well as a decrease of the mortality rate and a significant increase of the rate of survival as compared to the untreated controls.19873617495
mutational analysis of a plant defensin from radish (raphanus sativus l.) reveals two adjacent sites important for antifungal activity.mutational analysis of rs-afp2, a radish antifungal peptide belonging to a family of peptides referred to as plant defensins, was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based site-directed mutagenesis and yeast as a system for heterologous expression. the strategy followed to select candidate amino acid residues for substitution was based on sequence comparison of rs-afp2 with other plant defensins exhibiting differential antifungal properties. several mutations giving rise to peptide variant ...19978995418
small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins from radish: their role in host defense.radish seeds have previously been shown to contain two homologous, 5-kd cysteine-rich proteins designated raphanus sativus-antifungal protein 1 (rs-afp1) and rs-afp2, both of which exhibit potent antifungal activity in vitro. we now demonstrate that these proteins are located in the cell wall and occur predominantly in the outer cell layers lining different seed organs. moreover, rs-afps are preferentially released during seed germination after disruption of the seed coat. the amount of released ...19957780308
biodegradation of phenoxyacetic acid in soil by pseudomonas putida pp0301(pr0103), a constitutive degrader of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate.the efficacy of using genetically engineered microbes (gems) to degrade recalcitrant environmental toxicants was demonstrated by the application of pseudomonas putida pp0301(pr0103) to an oregon agricultural soil amended with 500 micrograms/g of a model xenobiotic, phenoxyacetic acid (paa). p. putida pp0301(pr0103) is a constitutive degrader of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-d) and is also active on the non-inducing substrate, paa. paa is the parental compound of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ...19921344988
development and loss of toluene diisocyanate reactivity: immunologic, pharmacologic, and provocative challenge studies.toluene diisocyanate (tdi) sensitivity accompanied by nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness occurs in approximately 5% of occupationally exposed workers. we report the case of a 32-yr-old worker followed longitudinally after removal from isocyanate exposure. tdi reactivity was lost 11 mo after removal from exposure and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness resolved after 17 mo. bronchial reactivity to radishes (raphanus sativus), which developed concurrently with tdi reactivity, was lost ...19826288789
rescuing activity of galactoglycerolipids from cellular lesions induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid.an anti-oxygen radical reagent of a bacterial metabolite, m874 monogalactoglycerolipid (di-o-12-methyl-tetradecanoyl-3-o-beta-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol ), was tested for its ability to protect two organisms against cellular lesions induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ala) and light. in corynebacterium flavescens atcc 10340, extracellular uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin were the main porphyrin products. although less than 2 mm ala increased porphyrin synthesis, ala levels above 3 mm inhibited ...200010788790
chromatographic separation of a small subunit (psbw/psay) and its assignment to photosystem i reaction center.by using a hydroxyapatite column, the five major photosystem i (psi) subunits (psaa,-b,-c,-d,-e) solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) were fractionated from a spinach psi reaction center preparation. another small (5-6 kda) polypeptide was also separated, and purified to homogeneity. mass spectroscopy yielded its molecular weight to be 5942 +/- 10. this polypeptide had an n-terminal sequence homologous to those of previously reported 5-kda subunits from spinach and wheat and a 6.1-kda sub ...200010924904
an unusual case of 'uncompetitive activation' by ascorbic acid: purification and kinetic properties of a myrosinase from raphanus sativus seedlings.myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; ec 3.2.3.1) is a plant enzyme that hydrolyses glucosinolates, principally to isothiocyanates. myrosinase was purified to homogeneity in good yield from 8-day-old seedlings of raphanus sativus (daikon) using a four-step procedure involving chromatographies on anion exchange, hydrophobic phenyl-sepharose, gel filtration and concanavalin a-sepharose. in order to stabilize the enzyme and to avoid excessive peak broadening during chromatography, 30% (v/v) gly ...199910417337
predicting variability in biological control of a plant-pathogen system using stochastic models.a stochastic model for the dynamics of a plant-pathogen interaction is developed and fitted to observations of the fungal pathogen rhizoctonia solani (kühn) in radish (raphanus sativus l.), in both the presence and absence of the antagonistic fungus trichoderma viride (pers ex gray). the model incorporates parameters for primary and secondary infection mechanisms and for characterizing the time-varying susceptibility of the host population. a parameter likelihood is developed and used to fit the ...199910518323
regulation by organic acids of polysaccharide-mediated microbe-plant interactions.a polysaccharide flocculant of klebsiella pneumoniae h12 has been suggested to mediate microbe-plant interactions with the aid of ca2+ [k. nakata et al., biosci. biotechnol. biochem., 64, 459-465, 2000]. here, two-way regulation of polysaccharide-mediated interactions between k. pneumoniae and raphanus sativus was studied using organic acids. namely, 10 mm equivalents of organic acids promoted production of the polysaccharide by the bacterium, but inhibited flocculation of bacterial cells by the ...200011129573
[seasonality of parasites and intestinal bacteria in vegetables that are consumed raw in costa rica].in costa rica, a total of 640 samples from eight different vegetables used for raw consumption, were analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites and fecal coliforms. eighty samples of each vegetable were analyzed, forty during the dry season and forty in the rainy. a greater, but unsignificant (p > 0.05) level of fecal coliforms was found during the dry season. levels of escherichia coli, were higher (p < 0.05) during the dry season in lettuce (latuca sativa) and cilantro (coleandrum sativ ...19969246361
tissue printing for myrosinase activity in roots of turnip and japanese radish and horseradish: a technique for localizing myrosinases.a method for analyzing the tissue distribution of myrosinase activity in brassicaceous plants was developed. this technique is based on 'tissue printing' to visualize enzyme activity. the freshly-cut surface (transverse direction) of the root of three species, japanese radish (raphanus sativus), turnip (brassica campestris) and japanese horseradish (wasabi, wasabia japonica), was pressed onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (pvdf) filter to immobilize the proteins onto the membrane. the sites of myr ...200111166428
detergent-solubilization, purification, and characterization of membrane-bound 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase from radish seedlings.3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase (nadph) was solubilized with polyoxyethylene ether (brij) w-1 from a heavy-membrane fraction, sedimented at 16000 x g from a cell-free homogenate of four-day-old, dark-grown radish seedlings (raphanus sativus l.). approximately 350-fold purification of the solubilized enzyme activity was achieved by (nh4)2so4 precipitation followed by column chromatography on deae-sephadex a-50, blue-dextran-agarose and hmg-coa-hexane-agarose. the presence of detergent, w ...19863510865
[effect of azacytidine on expression of traits concomitant with tumor formation in the radish (raphanus sativus) in vitro].the effect of azacytidine, a demethylating agent, on the expression of traits concomitant with tumor formation was studied in inbred radish (rhaphanus sativus) lines carrying genomic sequences homologous to the tmr/tml genes of agrobacteriium tumefaciens. azac was found to have no effect on the traits studied, which provided evidence that the capacity for tumor formation in radish lines does not depend on the level of methylation of these sequences.200011190484
isolation of monomeric cytochrome f from japanese radish and a mechanism of autoreduction.monomeric cytochrome f from japanese radish (raphanus sativus l. var acanthiformis makino) leaves was isolated in a homogeneous state with an a420.5/a277 of 7.6. radish cytochrome f is a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 33,000. the midpoint potential is 350 mv. the amino acid analysis indicates the existence of 3 residues of half-cystine. radish cytochrome f contains one thiol group which reacts with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) only after denaturation by sodium d ...1978701259
purification, properties, and molecular cloning of a novel ca(2+)-binding protein in radish vacuoles.to understand the roles of plant vacuoles, we have purified and characterized a major soluble protein from vacuoles of radish (raphanus sativus cv tokinashi-daikon) taproots. the results showed that it is a novel radish vacuole ca(2+)-binding protein (rvcab). rvcab was released from the vacuolar membrane fraction by sonication, and purified by ion exchange and gel filtration column chromatography. rvcab is an acidic protein and migrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel with an appare ...200011080284
alpha-l-fucosyltransferases from radish primary roots.a novel alpha-l-fucosyltransferase capable of transferring l-fucose (l-fuc) from gdp-l-fuc to the o-2 of alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl residue (gdp-l-fuc:alpha-l-arabinofuranoside 2-alpha-l-fucosyltransferase) has been found in the microsomal fraction of primary roots from 6-d-old radish (raphanus sativus l.) seedlings. enzyme activity was measured fluorometrically at 25 degrees c using a pyridylaminated trisaccharide, l-arabinofuranosylf alpha(1-->3)d-galactopyranosyl beta(1-->6)d-galactose (aragalg ...19968742340
chemistry and biology of phototropism-regulating substances in higher plants.most people are familiar with the sight of a young seedling bending towards a window or the brightest source of light to which it is exposed. this directional growth response is known as phototropism, which is caused by a lateral growth-promoting auxin in the bending organ (cholodny-went theory, cited in high school textbook). recently, however, bruinsma et al., weiler et al., and hasegawa et al. independently found that the shaded half did not contain more auxin than the illuminated one. instea ...200111933243
allozyme diversity and population structure of japanese and korean populations of wild radish, raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. raphanistroides (brassicaceae).raphanus satiuus var. hortensis f. raphanistroides (wild radish: brassicaceae) is an insect-pollinated wild plant that grows mainly on beaches in east asia. starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the allozyme diversity and genetic structure of 25 japanese and 9 korean populations of this plant. although the korean populations were small, isolated, and patchily distributed, they maintained a high level of genetic diversity; the average percentage of polymorphic loci was 63.1%, the mea ...200111376547
transgenic expression in arabidopsis of a polyprotein construct leading to production of two different antimicrobial proteins.we developed a method for expression in arabidopsis of a transgene encoding a cleavable chimeric polyprotein. the polyprotein precursor consists of a leader peptide and two different antimicrobial proteins (amps), dmamp1 originating from dahlia merckii seeds and rsafp2 originating from raphanus sativus seeds, which are linked by an intervening sequence ("linker peptide") originating from a natural polyprotein occurring in seed of impatiens balsamina. the chimeric polyprotein was found to be clea ...200211950983
transgenic radish (raphanus sativus l. longipinnatus bailey) by floral-dip method--plant development and surfactant are important in optimizing transformation efficiency.transgenic radish (raphanus sativus l. longipinnatus bailey) plants were produced from the progeny of plants which were dipped into a suspension of agrobacterium carrying both the beta-glucuronidase (gusa) gene and a gene for resistance to the herbicide basta (bar) between t-dna border sequences. the importance of development of the floral-dipped plant and presence of surfactant in the inoculation medium were evaluated in terms of transgenic plant production. plants dipped at the primary bolt st ...200111592715
assessing potential risks from exposure to natural uranium in well water.over 50% of the wells in the nambe region of northern new mexico exceed the us environmental protection agency's recommended drinking water standard of 20 microg l(-1) for 238u; the highest in the area was measured at 1,200 microg u l(-1). uranium uptake was estimated in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum), squash (cucurbita pepo), lettuce (lactuca scarriola), and radish (raphanus sativus) irrigated with nambe well water containing <1, 150, 500, and 1,200 microg u l(-1). plant uptake and human dose ...200211848150
purification and sequencing of radish seed calmodulin antagonists phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase.a family of radish (raphanus sativus) calmodulin antagonists (rcas) was purified from seeds by extraction, centrifugation, batch-wise elution from carboxymethyl-cellulose, and high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on an sp5pw cation-exchange column. this rca fraction was further resolved into three calmodulin antagonist polypeptides (rca1, rca2, and rca3) by denaturation in the presence of guanidinium hcl and mercaptoethanol and subsequent reverse-phase hplc on a c8 column eluted with an ...19938278508
"chitin-specific" peroxidases in plants.the activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (avena sativa), rice (oryza sativa), horseradish (armoracia rusticana), garden radish (raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (a ...200312693984
effects of pulp mill solids and three composts on early growth of tomatoes.compost has been proposed as a means of simultaneously diverting organic materials from landfills while producing a valuable product that improves tilth, organic matter content and nutrient supply of agricultural soils. composts manufactured from different source materials may have markedly different properties however, even if they meet all regulatory requirements. we compared the capacity of composts made from three different combinations of organic wastes (horse manure and bedding, mink farm ...200312798121
[antimicrobial properties of raphanus sativus. ii. antimicrobial properties of a preparation from acid substances from raphanus sativus var. niger]. 196114478783
[antibiotic effect of the allyl isothiocyanate extracted from various horticultural forms of the seeds of raphanus sativus l., var. radicula pers. towards various bacteria, including two strains of tubercle bacillus avian type, cow 18 and cow 70; note ii]. 195114864944
a fern spore storage protein is genetically similar to the 1.7 s seed storage protein of brassica napus.the ostrich fern, matteuccia struthiopteris l., contains two globulin spore storage proteins of 2.2 s and 11.3 s, with physical characteristics similar to those of seed storage proteins of brassica napus (rapeseed) and raphanus sativus (radish). by the use of a cloned cdna that encodes the 1.7 s b. napus storage protein (napin), gene sequences that hybridized with napin were detected in fern nuclear dna, and a 900-nucleotide homologous mrna was detected in developing spores. in vitro translation ...19883242496
growth stimulation of ectomycorrhizal fungi by root exudates of brassicaceae plants: role of degraded compounds of indole glucosinolates.brassicaceae plants are nonmycorrhizal. they were found to inhibit va mycorrhizal infection in their host plants. we tested if they can influence growth of ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungi. when roots and leaves of brassicaceae plants and ecm fungi were cultured together in the same petri dishes, the root exudates of turnip (brassica rapa), swede (b. napobrassica), cabbage (b. oleracea, var. capitata), broccoli (b. oleracea, var. italica plenck), kohlrobi (b. caulorapa pasq.), mustard (b. juncea), ra ...200312918920
essential oils from mediterranean lamiaceae as weed germination inhibitors.the essential oils obtained from rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis l.), thyme (thymus vulgaris l.), and savory (satureja montana l.) and the four monoterpenes that are their major constituents have been analyzed by gc and gc-ms and tested for their allelopathic properties on the seeds of three different annual weeds (chenopodium album, portulaca oleracea, and echinochloa crus-galli) and three crops (raphanus sativus, capsicum annuum, and lactuca sativa), with the aim to evaluate in vitro their po ...200314518938
detection and prevalence of listeria monocytogenes in the agricultural ecosystem.the sensitivity of four different enrichment procedures to detect listeria monocytogenes in the presence of high levels of streptococcus faecalis was investigated. defined mixed cultures of strep. faecalis and l. monocytogenes gave better results with one-stage enrichment techniques. for manure samples, however, two-stage enrichment techniques gave the best performance. the so-called cold enrichment techniques were found to be unsatisfactory for samples from natural environments. the following m ...19911955415
inhibition of mutagenicity of food-derived heterocyclic amines by sulphoraphene--an isothiocyanate isolated from radish.the naturally derived isothiocyanate, sulphoraphene [4-isothiocyanato-(1r)-(methylsulphinyl)-1-(e)-butene], isolated from seeds of radish ( raphanus sativus l., cruciferae) was investigated for its antigenotoxic effects against a battery of cooked food mutagens (heterocyclic amines) in the ames salmonella/reversion assay using salmonella typhimurium ta98 (frame-shift mutation sensitive) and ta100 (base -pair mutation sensitive) bacterial strains in the presence of aroclor 1254 induced rat liver ...200312624832
pharmacological basis for the gut stimulatory activity of raphanus sativus leaves.the crude extract of raphanus sativus leaves (rl.cr) showed a dose-dependent (0.03-5.0 mg/ml) spasmogenicity in guinea-pig ileum and colon. the effect was insensitive to atropine pre-treatment but was completely abolished by pyrilamine indicating involvement of histaminergic (h(1)) receptors. the contractile effect at high doses (3.0-5.0mg/ml) was followed by relaxation. rl.cr also enhanced the transit of charcoal meal in mice at 30-100 mg/kg. the petroleum spirit, chloroform and aqueous fractio ...200415507331
an important determinant of the ability of turnip mosaic virus to infect brassica spp. and/or raphanus sativus is in its p3 protein.turnip mosaic virus (tumv, genus potyvirus, family potyviridae) infects mainly cruciferous plants. isolates tu-3 and tu-2r1 of tumv exhibit different infection phenotypes in cabbage (brassica oleracea l.) and japanese radish (raphanus sativus l.). infectious full-length cdna clones, ptuc and ptur1, were constructed from isolates tu-3 and tu-2r1, respectively. progeny virus derived from infections with ptuc induced systemic chlorotic and ringspot symptoms in infected cabbage, but no systemic infe ...200415218194
vernalization, photoperiod and ga3 interact to affect flowering of japanese radish (raphanus sativus chinese radish jumbo scarlet).raphanus sativus l. chinese radish jumbo scarlet has characteristics that make it an excellent plant model for vernalization studies. this study further characterizes flower induction of r. sativus chinese radish jumbo scarlet. seed were imbibed in distilled water containing 0, 10-5 m or 10-3 m ga3 for 24 h and were then exposed to 6 +/- 0.5 degrees c (vernalized) for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 days. seedlings were then grown under a short- (8 h) or long-day photoperiod (8 h with or without a 4-h night in ...200212060249
antioxidant constituents of radish sprout (kaiware-daikon), raphanus sativus l.methanol extracts of 11 kinds of commonly available vegetables were examined for hydroxyl radical scavenging potency using the bleomycin-fe method. in this method, the iron ion and bleomycin in water form hydroxyl radicals, and the scavenging activity is monitored by the modified thiobarbituric acid method. all extracts showed scavenging capacity, even though the activity of some of them was lower than that of l-ascorbic acid. those vegetables were classified into three groups according to their ...200314690397
4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, a principal antimutagen in daikon (raphanus sativus; japanese white radish).the antimutagenic activity of n-hexane extracts from eight strains of daikon (raphanus sativus; japanese white radish) have been examined using the uv-induced mutation assay of escherichia coli b/r wp2. a correlation was found between the potency of antimutagenicity and the amount of 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (mtbitc) in their n-hexane extracts. because the pure mtbitc also showed antimutagenicity, mtbitc is presumably the active antimutagen principle in n-hexane extracts of daikon ...200111743759
effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-thc-9-carboxylic acid in urine.bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. urine samples containing 40 ng/ml of 11-nor-delta9-thc-9-carboxylic acid (thc-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/l of commonly available ...200212423000
defensins from insects and plants interact with fungal glucosylceramides.growth of the yeast species candida albicans and pichia pastoris is inhibited by rsafp2, a plant defensin isolated from radish seed (raphanus sativus), at micromolar concentrations. in contrast, gcs-deletion mutants of both yeast species are resistant toward rsafp2. gcs genes encode udp-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferases, which catalyze the final step in the biosynthesis of the membrane lipid glucosylceramide. in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based binding assay, rsafp2 was found to in ...200414604982
reducing environmental bias when measuring natural selection.crucial to understanding the process of natural selection is characterizing phenotypic selection. measures of phenotypic selection can be biased by environmental variation among individuals that causes a spurious correlation between a trait and fitness. one solution is analyzing genotypic data, rather than phenotypic data. genotypic data, however, are difficult to gather, can be gathered from few species, and typically have low statistical power. environmental correlations may act through traits ...200212487346
conversion of the carbohydrate structures of glycoproteins in roots of raphanus sativus using several glycosidase inhibitors.an attempt was made to convert the n-glycan structures in raphanus sativus seeds during germination with a view to develop a method for regulating the n-glycan structures using glycosidase inhibitors. the n-glycan structures of glycoproteins in the roots of seedlings germinated for three days were analyzed by hydrazinolysis followed by n-acetylation, pyridylamination and hplc. pyridylaminated sugar chains obtained in the absence of the inhibitors had plant type structures consisting of man(3)fuc ...200415625323
effects of black radish root (raphanus sativus l. var niger) on the colon mucosa in rats fed a fat rich diet.the effect of black radish root (raphanus sativus l. var niger) was studied on the structure and redox state of the colon mucosa in fat-rich diet fed rats. the epithelial lining disrupted, the number of enterocytes and the goblet cells reduced and inflammatory cells were observed in rats fed with a fat-rich diet. after treatment with granules from black radish root all of the histopathological changes and parameters of the redox state caused by the fat-rich diet were improved. the structure of t ...200212410553
fusicoccin binding to its plasma membrane receptor and the activation of the plasma membrane h+-atpase (iii. is there a direct interaction between the fusicoccin receptor and the plasma membrane h+-atpase?).a radioimmunoassay using antibodies raised against bovine serum albumin-conjugated fusicoccin (fc) was applied to measure fc bound to the plasma membrane (pm) isolated from seedlings of radish (raphanus sativus l.) and of arabidopsis thaliana treated in vivo plus or minus the toxin. fc bound to the pm from seedlings treated with 5 [mu]m fc was 2-fold (radish) to 7-fold (a. thaliana) higher than the binding capacity of control pm. fc binding depended on the duration of the in vivo treatment but w ...199612226232
copper and zn uptake by radish and pakchoi as affected by application of livestock and poultry manures.environmental safety of agricultural utilization of livestock and poultry manures from intensive farming is attracting great attention because the manures often contain high concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants. pot experiments, in which a pig manure (pm), a chicken manure (cm) and a commercial organic manure (om) with different concentrations of cu and zn to simulate soil metal accumulation by manure application for different times were utilized in a garden soil at a rate of 2% ...200415722088
isolation and characterization of a novel phgpx gene in raphanus sativus.a full-length cdna encoding putative phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (phgpx) was cloned from raphanus sativus. the cdna, designated rsphgpx, includes an open reading frame which encodes 197 amino acid residues. the alignment of amino acid sequences showed that rsphgpx had the highest sequence homology to plant phgpx and contained an n-terminal extension characteristic of a mitochondrial targeting peptide. northern blot analysis indicated that rsphgpx was constitutively and ubiq ...200515777688
radish seed extract mediates its cardiovascular inhibitory effects via muscarinic receptor activation.in this study, we describe the hypotensive, cardio-modulatory and endothelium-dependent vasodilator actions of raphanus sativus (radish) seed crude extract in an attempt to provide scientific basis for its traditional use in hypertension. the plant extract (rs.cr) was prepared in distilled water and was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard analytical procedures. in vivo blood pressure was monitored in anaesthetized normotensive rats. isolated tissue preparations were suspended in ...200616448395
equilibrium dialysis measurements of the ca2+-binding properties of recombinant radish vacuolar ca2+-binding protein expressed in escherichia coli.vacuoles of radish (raphanus sativus) contained a ca2+-binding protein (rvcab) of 43 kda. we investigated the ca2+-binding properties of the protein. rvcab was expressed in escherichia coli and was purified from an extract by ion-exchange chromatography, nitrocellulose membrane filtration, and gel-filtration column chromatography. ca2+-binding properties of the recombinant protein were examined by equilibrium dialysis with 45ca2+ and small dialysis buttons. the protein was estimated to bind 19ca ...200212506976
transformation of radish (raphanus sativus l.) via sonication and vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds with agrobacterium harboring a group 3 lea gene from b. napus.a protocol for producing transgenic radish (raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, agrobacterium-mediated transformation. the agrobacterium strain lba4404 contained the binary vector pbi121-lea (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a group 3 lea gene, from brassica napus. among six combinations, agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transfo ...200515843933
gastrointestinal stimulatory and uterotonic activities of dietary radish leaves extract are mediated through multiple pathways.raphanus sativus, commonly known as radish, is a food plant known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal properties especially as a laxative and abortifacient. this study reports the gastrointestinal and uterine tone modulatory activities of the crude extract (rl.cr) of radish leaves. rl.cr, showing the presence of saponins and alkaloids, exhibited a spasmogenic effect (0.03-10 mg/ml) in isolated rabbit jejunum, rat stomach fundus and uterus which was partially blocked by atropine. in contrast ...200516220566
determination of major carotenoids in a few indian leafy vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography.leafy vegetables [basella rubra l., peucedanum sowa roxb., moringa oleifera lam., trigonella foenum-graecum l., spinacia oleracea l., sesbania grandiflora (l.) poir., and raphanus sativus l.] that are commonly used by the rural population in india were evaluated in terms of their main carotenoid pattern. the extracted carotenoids were purified by open column chromatography (occ) on a neutral alumina column to verify their identity by their characteristic uv-visible absorption spectra. reverse-ph ...200515826027
potential of a novel antibiotic, 2-methylheptyl isonicotinate, as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt of crucifers.screening for newer bioactive compounds from microbial metabolites resulted in the isolation of a novel antibiotic from the culture filtrate, streptomyces sp 201, of a soil. the bioactive compound, with antifungal and antibacterial activity, was identified as 2-methylheptyl isonicotinate. the antifungal activity of live culture, culture broth and the isolated bioactive compound showed marked inhibition against dominant soil-borne phytopathogens such as fusarium oxysporum schlect, f moniliforme s ...200211975177
mutations in turnip mosaic virus genomes that have adapted to raphanus sativus.the genetic basis for virulence in potyviruses is largely unknown. earlier studies showed that there are two host types of turnip mosaic virus (tumv); the brassica/raphanus (br)-host type infects both brassica and raphanus systemically, whereas the brassica (b)-host type infects brassica fully and systemically, but not raphanus. the genetic basis of this difference has been explored by using the progeny of an infectious clone, p35tunos; this clone is derived from the uk1 isolate, which is of the ...200515659771
gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from egypt.man's use of illuminants in lamps or as torches to extend the working day and range of environments accessible to him would have been a major technological advance in human civilisation. the most obvious evidence for this in the archaeological record comes from pottery and stone vessels showing sooting due to the use of a wick in conjunction with a lipid-based fuel or illuminant. a wide range of potential fuels would have been exploited depending upon availability and burning requirements. repor ...200515912234
nmr solution structure of attp, an arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor.the three-dimensional structure of the precursor form of the arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor (att(p), genbank entry z46816), a 68-residue (approximately 7.5 kda) rapeseed class proteinase inhibitor, has been determined in solution at ph 5.0 and 25 degrees c by multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. the protein contains one alpha-helix and two strands of antiparallel beta-sheet, with a type iv beta-turn connecting the two strands. the alpha-helix and the inhibitory loop are connecte ...200212369816
variation of female frequency and cytoplasmic male-sterility gene frequency among natural gynodioecious populations of wild radish (raphanus sativus l.).in gynodioecious plant populations, sex determination often involves both cytoplasmic male-sterility (cms) genes and specific nuclear genes that restore male function. how gynodioecy is maintained under the joint dynamics of cms and restorer genes remains controversial. although many theoretical models deal with interactions between cms genes and restorer genes with sexual phenotypes and predict changes in their frequencies, it is difficult to observe the frequencies because no molecular markers ...200415245417
synergistic enhancement of the antifungal activity of wheat and barley thionins by radish and oilseed rape 2s albumins and by barley trypsin inhibitors.although thionins and 2s albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. we have now found that the wheat (triticum aestivum l.) or barley (hordeum vulgare l.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2s albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (raphanus sativus l.) or oilseed rape (brassica napus l.). furthermore, t ...199312232024
beet leafhopper (hemiptera: cicadellidae) settling behavior, survival, and reproduction on selected host plants.experiments were conducted to determine the settling behavior, survival, and reproduction of the beet leafhopper, circulifer tenellus (baker), when maintained on selected host plants. this leafhopper was recently identified in the columbia basin of washington and oregon as the probable vector of the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent phytoplasma, causal agent of several vegetable crop diseases, including potato purple top. plants selected for study were sugar beet, beta vulgaris l.; ra ...200516539100
purification and cloning of a chinese red radish peroxidase that metabolise pelargonidin and forms a gene family in brassicaceae.an anionic peroxidase rsprx1 was purified (rz=3.0) and characterized from roots of chinese red radish (raphanus sativus var. niger, brassicaceae). the specific activity of rsprx1 (micromol mg(-1) min(-1)) is 413.5 (ferulic acid); 258.7 (abts); 177.3 (caffeic acid) and 10.0 (guaiacol acid). the optimum ph is 4.0 (citrate buffer) using abts as substrate. rsprx1 can utilise the red pigment present in the root, pelargonidin, as substrate and the specific activity is 93.6 micromol mg(-1) min(-1). the ...200415588587
comparative studies on ferredoxin-nadp+ oxidoreductase isoenzymes derived from different organs by antibodies specific for the radish root- and leaf-enzymes.determination of the prosthetic group and titration of sulfhydryl group of ferredoxin-nadp+ oxidoreductase (fnr) from roots of radish (raphanus sativus var acanthiformis cv miyashige) confirmed its similarity to leaf-fnr. antisera directed against radish root-fnr and leaf-fnr distinguished the enzyme forms from roots and leaves of radish as well as other flowering plants. the fnr isoenzymes showed organ-specific distributions. in horsetail (equisetum arvense l.) and cultured liverwort cells (mar ...199312231952
occurrence of gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in tropical and subtropical plants of western ghats, india.endophytic bacteria were isolated from the tissues of surface sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of fifty different crop plants. phenotypic, biochemical tests and species-specific pcr assay permitted identification of four isolates of gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from root tissues of carrot (daucus carota l.), raddish (raphanus sativus l.), beetroot (beta vulgaris l.) and coffee (coffea arabica l.). further the plant growth promoting traits such as nitrogenase activity, production of phytoh ...200415462523
alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from radish (raphanus sativus l.) seeds.an alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase has been purified 1043-fold from radish (raphanus sativus l.) seeds. the purified enzyme was a homogeneous glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 64,000 and an isoelectric point value of 4.7, as evidenced by denaturing gel electrophoresis and reversed-phase or size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing. the enzyme characteristically catalyzes the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl alpha-l-ar ...199216652973
effect of japanese radish (raphanus sativus) sprout (kaiware-daikon) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.no information is available about the effects of japanese radish sprout (jrs) on diabetes. to clarify the effects, the influence of jrs on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. the rats were fed a diet containing 0%, 2.5% or 5% of jrs ad libitum for 21 days. compared with the corresponding control groups, the jrs-fed normal rats showed lower plasma levels of total cholesterol (tc), triglycerides (tg), phospholipids (pl), fructosam ...200616557609
differences in cell death induction by phytophthora elicitins are determined by signal components downstream of map kinase kinase in different species of nicotiana and cultivars of brassica rapa and raphanus sativus.elicitins are small, secreted proteins produced by species of the plant-pathogenic oomycete phytophthora. they induce hypersensitive cell death in most nicotiana species and in some cultivars of brassica rapa and raphanus sativus. in this study, two true-breeding fast cycling b. rapa lines were established that showed severe necrosis (line 7-r) or no visible response (line 18-nr) after treatment with elicitin. unexpectedly, microscopic examination revealed localized cell death in line 18-nr plan ...200515980203
tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area.five seasonal vegetables from three growing sites in hangzhou city, zhejiang province, were studied for the levels of four chlorobenzenes(cbs): o-dichlorobenzene (o-dcb), p-dichlorobenzene (p-dcb), m-dichlorobenzene (m-dcb), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-tcb). samples of each vegetable from each site were subdivided into leaves, stems, and roots, and these subsamples were analyzed separately for the levels of accumulated cbs. relations between the levels of cbs in vegetables with the total o ...200516002141
differential antifungal and calcium channel-blocking activity among structurally related plant defensins.plant defensins are a family of small cys-rich antifungal proteins that play important roles in plant defense against invading fungi. structures of several plant defensins share a cys-stabilized alpha/beta-motif. structural determinants in plant defensins that govern their antifungal activity and the mechanisms by which they inhibit fungal growth remain unclear. alfalfa (medicago sativa) seed defensin, msdef1, strongly inhibits the growth of fusarium graminearum in vitro, and its antifungal acti ...200415299136
bayesian analysis of botanical epidemics using stochastic compartmental models.a stochastic model for an epidemic, incorporating susceptible, latent, and infectious states, is developed. the model represents primary and secondary infection rates and a time-varying host susceptibility with applications to a wide range of epidemiological systems. a markov chain monte carlo algorithm is presented that allows the model to be fitted to experimental observations within a bayesian framework. the approach allows the uncertainty in unobserved aspects of the process to be represente ...200415302941
the zinc uptake regulator zur is essential for the full virulence of xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.zur is a regulator of the high-affinity zinc uptake system in many bacteria. in xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004, a putative protein encoded by the open reading frame designated as xc1430 shows 42% amino acid similarity with the zur of escherichia coli. an xc1430-disrupted mutant 1430nk was constructed by homologous suicide plasmid integration. 1430nk failed to grow in rich medium supplemented with zn2+ at a concentration of 400 microm and in nonrich medium supplemented with zn2+ at a ...200516042011
isolation of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate from raphanus sativus sprouts (kaiware daikon) and its redox properties.the most promising among glucosinolates (gls) are those bearing in their aglycon an extra sulfur function, such as glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl gl; grh) and glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl gl; gre). the gre/grh redox couple is typically met among secondary metabolites of raphanus sativus l. and, whereas gre prevails in seeds, grh is the major gl in full-grown roots. during the 10 days of sprouting of r. sativus seeds, the gre and grh contents were determined according to the ...200516366671
antioxidant effect of squeezed juice from black radish (raphanus sativus l. var niger) in alimentary hyperlipidaemia in rats.black radish (raphanus sativus l. var. niger) root has been used in folk medicine since antiquity as a natural drug for the stimulation of bile function. according to in vitro studies the squeezed juice from black radish root exhibited significant antioxidant properties. in the present study, the beneficial effect of the black radish juice on some free radical reactions in rats fed with a diet rich in lipids (20% sunflower oil, 2% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid in normal chow) was examined. thiob ...200516161062
complete nucleotide sequences and genome characterization of double-stranded rna 1 and rna 2 in the raphanus sativus-root cv. yidianhong [corrected].four distinct double-stranded (ds) rna bands were extracted from leaves of raphanus sativus-root cv. yidianhong [corrected] with yellowing at the leaf edge in china. purified viral particles of 28-30 nm in diameter contained dsrna segments with the same number and mobility as these extracted directly from radish leaves. the two major dsrna segments, namely rasr 1 and rasr 2, were 1866 and 1791 bp in length, respectively. computer analysis predicted that they both contained a single open reading ...200616369860
uptake and transport of radioactive nickel and cadmium into three vegetables after wet aerial contamination.knowledge of radionuclide or trace element retention and translocation to plants following an aerial contamination event, for example, sprinkling with contaminated water, is necessary for the evaluation of human exposure through consumption of contaminated vegetables. the fate of 63ni and 109cd in all plant parts of three different vegetables after wet deposition on leaves or on fruits was studied. lettuce (lactuca sativa l.), radish (raphanus sativus l.), and bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) grown ...200516091602
effect of radish (raphanus sativus linn.) on thyroid status under conditions of varying iodine intake in rats.cruciferous plants viz. cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, mustard etc. that contain goitrogenic/antithyroid substances, constitute a portion of regular human diet. the effect of chronic feeding of fresh and cooked radish, r. sativus under varying state of iodine intake on morphological and functional status of thyroid in albino rats was evaluated by thyroid gland morphology and histology, thyroid peroxidase activity, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotropin levels. the consumption p ...200616924836
selenium species bioaccessibility in enriched radish (raphanus sativus): a potential dietary source of selenium.an in vitro gastrointestinal method was employed to predict the potential bioavailability of selenium and its species from radish, belonging to the brassicaceae family, grown in hydroponics media in the presence of inorganic selenium, such as na2seo3 and na2seo4. a low transformation of se into organic forms was observed in radish plants grown in se(vi)-enriched culture media. on the contrary, in those plants exposed to selenite, >95% of the total selenium was found as selenocystine (secys2), se ...200616536627
raphanus sativus and its isothiocyanates inhibit vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and induce g(1) cell cycle arrest.mu (raphanus sativus, korean white radish) crude extract (mu-ce) has been studied for its anti-proliferative activity on mouse aortic smooth muscle cells. the abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (vsmc) is a prominent feature of vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis after angioplasty. we examined the mechanisms of the action of mu-ce on vsmc proliferation. the viability of vsmc decreased to 35% at 24 h of treatment with mu-ce. treatment of mu-ce showed potent inhibit ...200616546717
characterization of the major integral protein of vacuolar membrane.the vacuolar membrane of radish (raphanus sativus) taproot contained a large quantity of a protein of 23 kilodaltons that accounted for more than 25% of the total membrane proteins. the protein, tentatively named vm 23, was purified and characterized. vm 23 tends to aggregate at high temperature even in the presence of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. the apparent molecular size of vm 23 was estimated to be about 400 kilodaltons by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% triton x-10 ...199216668783
a plant mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase: its precise localization and higher enzymatic activity.a novel cdna of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (phgpx), which encodes a functional protein capable of complementing the yeast phghx-deletion mutant, was recently discovered in radish (raphanus sativus) and designated as rsphgpx [yang x-d, li w-j, liu j-y (2005) biochim biophys acta 1728:199-205]. sequence alignment suggested that rsphgpx contains a targeting peptide required for transport to mitochondria, but the experimental evidence for the exact intracellular distribution o ...200616944266
water channel activity of radish plasma membrane aquaporins heterologously expressed in yeast and their modification by site-directed mutagenesis.plants contain a number of aquaporin isoforms. we developed a method for determining the water channel activity of individual isoforms of aquaporin. six plasma membrane aquaporins (rspips) and two vacuolar membrane aquaporins (rstips) of radish (raphanus sativus) were expressed heterologously in saccharomyces cerevisiae bj5458, which is deficient in endogenous functional aquaporin. aquaporins were detected by immunoblot analysis with corresponding antibodies. water permeability of membranes from ...200415295065
phytotoxicity and accumulation of anthracene applied to the foliage and sandy substrate in lettuce and radish plants.the effects of anthracene (ant) on the growth of two species of vegetable plants (lactuca sativa l. and raphanus sativus l.), which play an important role in the human diet, were studied. ant was applied to the leaves of these plants by foliar deposition, in aerosol form, and to the sandy substrate in which the plants were grown in a greenhouse. it was found that ant affected plant biomass, especially root biomass, in the case of both foliar and soil application. under conditions of induced chem ...200716368141
phosphorylation of h2ax histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of raphanus sativus, vicia faba, and allium porrum.histone h2a variant h2ax is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of dna double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-h2ax foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred dna damage. in an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and h2ax phosphorylation in s/g(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised ag ...200717111099
fungicidal and binding properties of three plant peptides.the fungicidal properties of plant seed peptides from heuchera sanginea (hs-afp1), raphanus sativus (ea-afp2), and impatiens balsamina (ib-amp3) were determined for the non-germinated and germinated conidia of aspergillus flavus and fusarium moniliforme. these peptides were weakly lethal for germinated but not for non-germinated conidia of a. flavus. both non-germinated and germinated conidia of f. moniliforme were susceptible to these peptides. overall, f. moniliforme was more susceptible than ...199816284838
phototropism in hypocotyls of radish : ii. role of cis- and trans-raphanusanins, and raphanusamide in phototropism of radish hypocotyls.when etiolated radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) hypocotyls were subjected to a continuous unilateral illumination with white fluorescent light (0.1 watt per square meter), the growth rate at the lighted side was strongly inhibited for the first 2 hours, while that at the shaded side showed no change. after 2.5 hours growth on the lighted side recovered gradually, while that on the shaded side was slightly inhibited. the neutral growth inhibitors, cis- and trans-ra ...198616664969
phototropism in hypocotyls of radish : iii. influence of unilateral or bilateral illumination of various light intensities on phototropism and distribution of cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide.when etiolated radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) hypocotyls were subjected to a continuous unilateral illumination with white fluorescent light at 0.05, 0.1, or 1 watt per square meter, the suppression of the growth rate on the lighted side depended on the light intensity. the growth rate at the shaded side was only a little affected by the illumination at 0.05 and 0.1 watt per square meter but considerably suppressed by that at 1 watt per square meter. upon a cont ...198716665305
phototropism in hypocotyls of radish : i. isolation and identification of growth inhibitors, cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide, involved in phototropism of radish hypocotyls.three growth inhibitors which might be involved in phototropism of sakurajima radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) hypocotyls, were isolated as crystalline forms from light-exposed radish seedlings and identified as cis- and trans-raphanusanins and 6-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-oxazepin-2-one (designated raphanusamide). the cis- and trans-raphanusanins inhibited growth of etiolated radish hypocotyls at concentrations higher than 1.5 micromolar, raphanusamide at con ...198616664968
development of a filter assay for measuring homogalacturonan: alpha-(1,4)-galacturonosyltransferase activity.alpha-(1,4)-galacturonosyltransferases (galats) catalyze the addition of (1,4)-linked alpha-d-galacturonosyl residues onto the nonreducing end of homogalacturonan chains. the nucleotide-sugar donor for the enzymatic reaction is uridine diphospho-d-galactopyranosyluronic acid (udp-d-galpa). many galat activity assays are based on the incorporation of d-[(14)c]galpa from udp-d-[(14)c]galpa onto exogenously added homogalacturonan acceptors. reactions based on this method can be time-consuming becau ...200516005842
plasma membrane ca-atpase of radish seedlings : ii. regulation by calmodulin.the effect of calmodulin on the activity of the plasma membrane ca-atpase was investigated on plasma membranes purified from radish (raphanus sativus l.) seedlings. calmodulin stimulated the hydrolytic activity and the transport activity of the plasma membrane ca-atpase to comparable extents in a manner dependent on the free ca(2+) concentration. stimulation was marked at low, nonsaturating ca(2+) concentrations and decreased increasing ca(2+), so that the effect of calmodulin resulted in an inc ...199216668747
arabinogalactan-proteins from primary and mature roots of radish (raphanus sativus l.).organ-specific variations in blood group h-like activity were observed in developing radish plants. a temporary increase in serological activity was found to occur in the roots at the earlier stages of development. arabinogalactan-proteins (agps) were isolated from primary and mature roots, and investigated for changes in their physicochemical properties, structure, and serological activities. these root agps were composed mainly of l-arabinose and d-galactose but were distinguishable from each ...198816665859
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