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the activation process of arabidopsis thaliana a1 gene encoding the translation elongation factor ef-1 alpha is conserved among angiosperms.in arabidopsis thaliana, the activation process of the a1 ef-1 alpha gene depends on several elements. using the gus reporter gene, transient expression experiments have shown that mutations of upstream cis-acting elements of the a1 promoter, or the deletion of an intron located within the 5' non-coding region, similarly affect expression in dicot or monocot protoplasts. the results reported here strongly suggest that this 5' intron is properly spliced in zea mays. we show that two trans-acting ...19921600144
biological activities of racemomycin-b, beta-lysine rich streptothricin antibiotic, the main component of streptomyces lavendulae op-2.racemomycin-b (rm-b), the main component of streptomyces lavendulae op-2 which is the basis of 50% of the antibiotics produced, is a streptothricin antibiotic which contains three beta-lysine moieties in the molecule. rm-b had antimicrobial activity against plant-pathogenic microorganisms and growth-inhibitory activity against the root of brassica rapa l. at the concentration of 50 ppm. it strongly inhibited the growth of pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci ifo-3508 (minimum inhibitory concentration ...19902177682
dna transfer from agrobacterium to zea mays or brassica by agroinfection is dependent on bacterial virulence functions.dna transfer from agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium, to the non-host graminaceous monocotyle-donous plant zea mays, was analysed using the recently developed technique of agroinfection. agroinfection of z. mays with maize streak virus using strains of a. tumefaciens carrying mutations in the ptic58 virulence region showed an almost absolute dependence on the products of the bacterial virc genes. in contrast, agroinfection of the control host brassica rapa with cauliflower mosaic virus ...19892770696
horizontal transfer in the phytopathogenic fungal genus leptosphaeria and host-range expansion.all isolates examined of the phytopathogenic fungus leptosphaeria maculans that are aggressive to brassica napus and brassica rapa have a repetitive element, lmr1. horizontal transfer of lmr1 to an isolate of a closely related species of leptosphaeria correlates with the expansion of the host range of this isolate to include brassica juncea.19957627459
replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite rna of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite rna (sat-rna) of lucerne transient streak virus (ltsv) in two monocotyledonous species, triticum aestivum and dactylis glomerata. additionally, ltsv sat-rna replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in brassica rapa, raphanus raphanistrum and sinapsis arvensis, but not in thlaspi arvense or nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interactio ...19937682254
molecular cloning of a cdna from brassica napus l. for a homologue of acyl-coa-binding protein.a cdna encoding an acyl-coa-binding protein (acbp) homologue has been cloned from a lambda gt11 library made from mrna isolated from developing seeds of oilseed rape (brassica napus l.). the derived amino acid sequence reveals a protein 92 amino acids in length which is highly conserved when compared with acbp sequences from yeast, cow, man and fruit fly. southern blot analysis of brassica napus genomic dna revealed the presence of 6 genes, 3 derived from the brassica rapa parent and 3 from bras ...19948075407
multi-functional acetyl-coa carboxylase from brassica napus is encoded by a multi-gene family: indication for plastidic localization of at least one isoform.three genes coding for different multifunctional acetyl-coa carboxylase (accase; ec 6.4.1.2) isoenzymes from brassica napus were isolated and divided into two major classes according to structural features in their 5' regions: class i comprises two genes with an additional coding exon of approximately 300 bp at the 5' end, and class ii is represented by one gene carrying an intron of 586 bp in its 5' untranslated region. fusion of the peptide sequence encoded by the additional first exon of a cl ...19979096417
identification of two loci for resistance to clubroot (plasmodiophora brassicae woronin) in brassica rapa l.in an analysis of 114 f(2) individuals from a cross between clubroot-resistant and susceptible lines of brassica rapa l., 'g004' and 'hakusai chukanbohon nou 7' (a9709), respectively, we identified two loci, crr1 and crr2, for clubroot (caused by plasmodiophora brassicae woronin) resistance. each locus segregated independently among the f(2) population, indicating that the loci reside on a different region of chromosomes or on different chromosomes. genetic analysis showed that each locus had li ...200312955203
additive transgene expression and genetic introgression in multiple green-fluorescent protein transgenic crop x weed hybrid generations.the level of transgene expression in crop x weed hybrids and the degree to which crop-specific genes are integrated into hybrid populations are important factors in assessing the potential ecological and agricultural risks of gene flow associated with genetic engineering. the average transgene zygosity and genetic structure of transgenic hybrid populations change with the progression of generations, and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) transgene is an ideal marker to quantify transgene expres ...200313679991
nitrate leaching in an andisol treated with different types of fertilizers.nitrate (no3) leaching was studied in an andisol treated with four n fertilizers (sc: swine compost, cu: coated urea, an: ammonium n, or nf: no fertilizer) for 7 years. sweet corn (zea mays l.) was grown in summer, followed by chinese cabbage (brassica rapa l. var. amplexicaulis) or cabbage (brassica oleracea l. var. capitata) in autumn each year. in chemical fertilizer plots treated with an or cu, no(3)-n concentrations in soil water at 1-m depth increased markedly in the summer of the second y ...200312685774
restoring enzyme activity in nonfunctional low erucic acid brassica napus fatty acid elongase 1 by a single amino acid substitution.genomic fatty acid elongation 1 (fae1) clones from high erucic acid (hea) brassica napus, brassica rapa and brassica oleracea, and low erucic acid (lea) b. napus cv. westar, were amplified by pcr and expressed in yeast cells under the control of the strong galactose-inducible promoter. as expected, yeast cells expressing the fae1 genes from hea brassica spp. synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids that are not normally found in yeast, while fatty acid profiles of yeast cells expr ...200212423362
ability of honeybee, apis mellifera, to detect and discriminate odors of varieties of canola (brassica rapa and brassica napus) and snapdragon flowers (antirrhinum majus).honeybees (apis mellifera) use odors to identify and discriminate among flowers during foraging. this series of experiments examined the ability of bees to detect and discriminate among the floral odors of different varieties of two species of canola (brassica rapa and brassica napus) and also among three varieties of snapdragons (antirhinnum majus). individual worker honeybees were trained using a proboscis extension assay. the ability of bees to distinguish a floral odor from an air stimulus d ...200212035922
identification of repetitive, genome-specific probes in crucifer oilseed species.direct amplification of minisatellite dna by pcr (damd pcr) was used to amplify and subsequently clone several fragments of dna from crucifer species. the pcr-derived fragments of dna were generated using known minisatellite core sequences as pcr primers. southern hybridization of these putative minisatellite dna fragments revealed that many were genome-specific; they hybridized with high affinity only to the genomic dna of the species from which they were cloned. the dna fragments were believed ...200212033617
paenibacillus polymyxa produces fusaricidin-type antifungal antibiotics active against leptosphaeria maculans, the causative agent of blackleg disease of canola.a bacterial isolate capable of inhibiting the growth of leptosphaeria maculans (desmaz.) ces. & de not., the causative agent of blackleg disease of canola (brassica napus l. and brassica rapa l.), was identified as a potential biological control agent. this environmental isolate was determined to be paenibacillus polymyxa based on its (i) biochemical and growth characteristics and (ii) 16s rrna sequence similarity, and was given the strain designation pkb1. antifungal peptides were produced by p ...200211958569
[rapd-markers linked to the locus for resistance to the race 4 pathogen for black rot, xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (pamm.) dow., in brassica rapa l].association between the rapd markers and the resistance to race 4 of the black rot causative agent was studied in brassica rapa l. experiments were carried out using doubled haploid lines, obtained via crosses between the race 4-susceptible fodder turnip and resistant pak-choi, and the f2 progeny of the crosses between the doubled haploid lines with contrasting resistance. the we(22)980 rapd marker inherited from the pak-choi and associated with the clubroot susceptibility was also linked to the ...200010779910
genetics of brassica rapa (syn. campestris). 2. multiple disease resistance to three fungal pathogens: peronospora parasitica, albugo candida and leptosphaeria maculans.although the genetic basis of multiple disease resistance (mdr) is poorly understood, it is of great value for understanding the evolution of disease resistance in natural plant populations and for increasing crop yields in agriculture. in brassica rapa, we studied genetic correlations among levels of disease resistance to three fungal pathogens: peronospora parasitica, albugo candida and leptosphaeria maculans. a large, replicated quantitative genetics experiment used artificial selection on re ...19957591832
characterization of a salicylic acid- and pathogen-induced lipase-like gene in chinese cabbage.a cdna clone for a salicylic acid-induced gene in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) was isolated and characterized. the cabbage gene, designated br-sil1 (for brassica rapa salicylate-induced lipase-like 1 gene), encodes a putative lipase that has the family ii lipase motif gdsxxdxg around the active site serine. a database search showed that plant genomes have a large number of genes that contain the family ii lipase motif. the lipase-like proteins include a myrosinase-associated ...200314536025
growth stimulation of ectomycorrhizal fungi by root exudates of brassicaceae plants: role of degraded compounds of indole glucosinolates.brassicaceae plants are nonmycorrhizal. they were found to inhibit va mycorrhizal infection in their host plants. we tested if they can influence growth of ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungi. when roots and leaves of brassicaceae plants and ecm fungi were cultured together in the same petri dishes, the root exudates of turnip (brassica rapa), swede (b. napobrassica), cabbage (b. oleracea, var. capitata), broccoli (b. oleracea, var. italica plenck), kohlrobi (b. caulorapa pasq.), mustard (b. juncea), ra ...200312918920
a novel dwarfing mutation in a green revolution gene from brassica rapa.mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling pathways of gibberellin (ga) can cause dwarfing phenotypes in plants, and the use of such mutations in plant breeding was a major factor in the success of the green revolution. della proteins are ga signaling repressors whose functions are conserved in different plant species. recent studies show that ga promotes stem growth by causing degradation of della proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. the most widely utilized dwarfing alleles in wheat ...200515734906
scar and caps mapping of crb, a gene conferring resistance to plasmodiophora brassicae in chinese cabbage ( brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).clubroot disease, caused by plasmodiophora brassicae wor., is highly damaging for chinese cabbage. the cr (clubroot resistant) shinki dh (doubled haploid) line of chinese cabbage carries a single dominant gene, crb, which confers resistance to the p. brassicae races 2, 4, and 8. an f(2) population derived from a cross between the cr shinki dh line and a susceptible line, 94sk, was used to map the crb gene. inoculation of f(3) families with ssi (single-spore isolate) resulted in a 1:2:1 segregati ...200414997298
transgenic bt-producing brassica napus: plutella xylostella selection pressure and fitness of weedy relatives.release of transgenic insect-resistant crops creates the potential not only for the insect pest to evolve resistance but for the escape of transgenes that may confer novel or enhanced fitness-related traits through hybridization with their wild relatives. the differential response of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) populations in eastern and western canada to bt-producing (gt) brassica napus and the potential for enhanced fitness of gt b. napus and weedy gt brassica rapa x b. napus hybrid ...200315612282
plant growth inhibition by cis-cinnamoyl glucosides and cis-cinnamic acid.spiraea thunbergii sieb. contains 1-o-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose (cg) and 6-o-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-1-o-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose (bcg) as major plant growth inhibiting constituents. in the present study, we determined the inhibitory activity of cg and bcg on root elongation of germinated seedlings of lettuce (lactuca sativa), pigweed (amaranthus retroflexus), red clover (trifolium pratense), timothy (phleum pratense), and bok choy (brassica rapa var chinensis) in c ...200515898503
differences in cell death induction by phytophthora elicitins are determined by signal components downstream of map kinase kinase in different species of nicotiana and cultivars of brassica rapa and raphanus sativus.elicitins are small, secreted proteins produced by species of the plant-pathogenic oomycete phytophthora. they induce hypersensitive cell death in most nicotiana species and in some cultivars of brassica rapa and raphanus sativus. in this study, two true-breeding fast cycling b. rapa lines were established that showed severe necrosis (line 7-r) or no visible response (line 18-nr) after treatment with elicitin. unexpectedly, microscopic examination revealed localized cell death in line 18-nr plan ...200515980203
infection of chinese cabbage by plasmodiophora brassicae leads to a stimulation of plant growth: impacts on cell wall metabolism and hormone balance.the importance of plant hormones in clubroot infection has long been recognized. the morphological changes, such as cell division and cell elongation leading to gall formation are triggered in the early stages of infection. we analysed cell expansion by localizing xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (xth)-action and screened the endogenous concentrations of several classes of phytohormones by mass spectrometry in the early stages of plasmodiophora brassicae infection in chinese cabbage (br ...200515760367
evolution in heterogeneous environments and the potential of maintenance of genetic variation in traits of adaptive significance.the maintenance of genetic variation in traits of adaptive significance has been a major dilemma of evolutionary biology. considering the pattern of increased genetic variation associated with environmental clines and heterogeneous environments, selection in heterogeneous environments has been proposed to facilitate the maintenance of genetic variation. some models examining whether genetic variation can be maintained, in heterogeneous environments are reviewed. genetic mechanisms that constrain ...200515881684
genotypic effects on glucosinolates and sensory properties of broccoli and cauliflower.the objective of this study was to investigate the influence that the species, form or cultivar exerts on the glucosinolate spectrum for glucosinolates and free sugars in selected vegetable species of the brassica genus (brassica oleracea var. italica plenck, brassica rapa var. alboglabra and brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.). the results showed significant differences amongst the cultivar groups for the glucosinolate proportions as well as the contents of health-promoting and flavour-influenc ...200415053347
bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, brassica rapa.the movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. the possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. oilseed rape, brassica napus (l.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (brassica rapa (l.)). hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent intersp ...200215612253
introgression of genomic components from chinese brassica rapa contributes to widening the genetic diversity in rapeseed (b. napus l.), with emphasis on the evolution of chinese rapeseed.in spite of its short history of being an oil crop in china, the chinese semi-winter rapeseed (brassica napus l., 2n = 38, aacc) has been improved rapidly by intentional introgression of genomic components from chinese b. rapa (2n = 20, aa). as a result, the chinese semi-winter rapeseed has diversified genetically from the spring and winter rapeseed grown in the other regions such as europe and north america. the objectives of this study were to investigate the roles of the introgression of the ...200616604336
dna from plant mitochondria.dna was isolated from a mitochondrial fraction of each of the following plant materials: mung bean (phaseolus aureus) etiolated hypocotyl; turnip (brassica rapa) root; sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) root; and onion (allium cepa) bulb. it was found that all of these mitochondrial fractions contained dna, the densities of which were identical (rho=1.706 g.cm(-3)). an additional dna (rho=1.695) band found in the mitochondrial fraction of brassica rapa, was identical to dna separately isolated from ...196616656268
electron microscopic and molecular characterization of turnip vein-clearing virus.we recently isolated turnip vein-clearing virus (tvcv), a tobamovirus which causes vein clearing in brassica rapa (turnip) and a mosaic in nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). we present an electron microscopic and molecular characterization of tvcv. viral particles from lower epidermis peel contained rod-shaped viral particles, typical of tobamoviruses. viral rna extracted from infected turnip leaves was used as template for cdna synthesis prior to cloning in a plasmid vector. inserts of selected cdna ...19947998835
safety assessment of recombinant green fluorescent protein orally administered to weaned rats.several proposed biotechnological applications of green fluorescent protein (gfp) are likely to result in its introduction into the food supply of domestic animals and humans. we fed pure gfp and diets containing transgenic canola expressing gfp to young male rats for 26 d to evaluate the potential toxicity and allergenicity of gfp. animals (n = 8 per group) were fed either ain-93g (control), control diet plus 1.0 mg of purified gfp daily, modified control diet with 200 g/kg canola (brassica rap ...200312771338
nutritional evaluation of low glucosinolate mustard meals (brassica juncea) in broiler diets.experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of meal derived from low glucosinolate cultivars of mustard (brassica juncea) in comparison to samples of canola meal (brassica napus, brassica rapa). samples of brassica seed (four b. juncea, one b. napus, and one b. rapa) were processed using laboratory procedures to produce oil-extracted meals, which were examined for composition (dm basis), and nutritional value for broiler chickens as judged by nutrient retention (amen, ileal prot ...19979276890
a family of auxin conjugate hydrolases from brassica rapa: characterization and expression during clubroot disease.during the obligate biotrophic interaction of plasmodiophora brassicae with members of the brassicaceae, the host roots show hypertrophy and galls are established. an increased auxin pool appears to correlate with cell expansion and cell division, but the origin of the free auxin is not yet clear. as previous results point to increased iaa-hydrolytic activity in infected roots of brassica rapa at later time points of infection, we isolated iaa-amidohydrolase-like genes from various tissues. we c ...200616771990
response of spinach and komatsuna to biogas effluent made from source-separated kitchen garbage.recycling of kitchen garbage is an urgent task for reducing public spending and environmental burdens by incineration and/or landfill. there is an interesting regional effort in ogawa, saitama prefecture, japan, in which source-separated kitchen garbage is anaerobically fermented with a biogas plant and the resultant effluent is used as a quick-release organic fertilizer by surrounding farmers. however, scientific assessments of fertilizer values and risks in the use of the effluent were lacking ...200616973635
the expression, localization, and effect of a human interferon in plants.the orf ii of cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) dna was replaced with the human ifn alpha d coding sequence to yield a stable camv strain designated ca524i. inoculation of turnip (brassica rapa cv "just right") with strain ca524i dna excised from plasmid pca524i resulted in the production of biologically active ifn alpha d in infected plants. this was also true for its mutant (ca562i) where one of the cys codons was deleted. ifn alpha d produced in planta did not hamper superinfection with a singl ...19892773316
growth conditions, elemental accumulation and induced physiological changes in chinese cabbage.soils contaminated with low levels of heavy metals and other trace elements are now frequently used for vegetable growing. in this situation, heavy metals and trace elements from these polluted soils may accumulate in the agricultural plants being grown in them and thereby enter the human food chain. the objectives of this study are to elucidate the effects of growth conditions, manipulated by the crop covers, on the phytoaccumulation of elements, and to investigate the conceivable influences of ...200312781236
a mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in brassica.a single gene mutant (elongated internode [ein/ein]) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of brassica rapa. relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. the application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. conversely, exogenous gibberellin ...199016667574
identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in brassica rapa.resistance to six known races of black rot in crucifers caused by xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (pammel) dowson is absent or very rare in brassica oleracea (c genome). however, race specific and broad-spectrum resistance (to type strains of all six races) does appear to occur frequently in other brassica genomes including b. rapa (a genome). here, we report the genetics of broad spectrum resistance in the b. rapa chinese cabbage accession b162, using qtl analysis of resistance to races 1 ...200717160671
isolation and characterization of a bluegill-degrading microorganism, and analysis of the root hair-promoting effect of the degraded products.bluegill-degrading bacteria were isolated from various environmental sources. brevibacillus sp. bgm1 degraded bluegill efficiently at 50 degrees c, and its culture supernatant showed the highest peptide and amino acid concentrations as trichloroacetic acid (tca) soluble fraction (asf) (10.7 mg/ml) of all supernatants obtained with bluegill as a substrate. strain bgm1 secreted a protease(s) into the medium, and the concentration of peptides and amino acids gradually increased. the fertile effect ...200616495648
probing host-selective phytotoxicity: synthesis and biological activity of phomalide, isophomalide, and dihydrophomalide.the cyclic depsipeptide phomalide [cyclo(val-(e)-aba-hpp-hmp-(r)-leu); aba = 2-amino-2-butenoic acid, hpp = (2s)-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid, hmp = (2s)-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid] is the host-selective phytotoxin produced by the fungus [leptosphaeria maculans (desm.) ces. et de not., asexual stage phoma lingam (tode ex fr.) desm.] which causes blackleg disease (a devastating disease of several economically important brassica crops). efficient total syntheses of phomalide, its (z)-iso ...199911674233
in planta sequential hydroxylation and glycosylation of a fungal phytotoxin: avoiding cell death and overcoming the fungal invader.to facilitate plant colonization, some pathogenic fungi produce phytotoxic metabolites that damage tissues; plants may be resistant to a particular pathogen if they produce an enzyme(s) that catalyzes detoxification of this metabolite(s). alternaria blackspot is one of the most damaging and significant fungal diseases of brassica crops, with no source of resistance known within the brassica species. destruxin b is the major phytotoxin produced by the blackspot-causing fungus, alternaria brassica ...200111149945
expression of bra r 1 gene in transgenic tobacco and bra r 1 promoter activity in pollen of various plant species.bra r 1 encodes a ca2+-binding protein specifically expressed in anthers of brassica rapa. in this study, we isolated a genomic clone of bra r 1 and found sequences similar to pollen box core motifs and lat56/59 box, pollen-specific cis-acting element, in the 5' upstream region of bra r 1. reporter gene fusion revealed that the bra r 1 promoter directs male gametophytic expression in nicotiana tabacum, arabidopsis thaliana and b. napus, showing strong expression in mature pollen grains similar t ...200010945346
expression of a gene for a protein similar to hiv-1 tat binding protein 1 (tbp1) in floral organs of brassica rapa.a cdna for a protein similar to human immunodeficiency virus tat binding protein was isolated from an anther cdna library of brassica rapa. rna in situ analysis in flower buds showed that the gene for this cdna was specifically expressed in the tapetum and middle layer of anthers and pollen.19979327593
a gibberellin-deficient brassica mutant-rosette.a single-gene mutant (rosette [ros/ros]) in which shoot growth and development are inhibited was identified from a rapid cycling line of brassica rapa (syn campestris). relative to normal plants, the mutant germinated slowly, had delayed or incomplete floral development, and reduced leaf, petiole, and internode growth. the exogenous application of ga(3) by foliar spray or directly to the shoot tip of rosette resulted in rapid flowering, bolting (shoot elongation), and viable seed production. sho ...198916666569
electron transfer reactions of cytochrome f from brassica komatsuna with hexacyanoferrate.the electron transfer reactions of membrane-bound monomeric cytochrome f from brassica komatosuna (brassica rapa l. var. perviridis bailey) with hexacyanoferrate (ii)-(iii) have been studied as a function of ph, ionic strength and temperature. the second-order rate constant for the oxidation of cytochrome f by fe(cn)6(3-) at ph 7.0, mu 0.1 m, and 20 degrees c is 1.7 x 10(5) m-1 x s-1, which is similar to the value of oligomeric cytochrome f from parsley. the activation parameters obtained were d ...19807451411
molecular characterization of two important antifungal proteins isolated by downy mildew infection in non-heading chinese cabbage.two cdna clones for a pathogen induced genes in non-heading chinese cabbage (brassica rapa ssp. chinensis l. cv. suzhouqing) were isolated and characterized. the two full-length cdna clones, designated bcchi and bcaf were isolated during the resistance response to peronospora parasitica. sequence analysis of corresponding cdna clones confirmed the translation products of both genes showed high degree of homology to other plant chitinases and plant defensins, respectively. genomic dna southern bl ...200817762976
cloning and sequencing of cdnas encoding a pathogen-induced putative peroxidase of wheat (triticum aestivum l.).we report here the complete amino acid sequence of a pathogen-induced putative peroxidase from wheat (triticum aestivum l.) as deduced from cdna clones representing mrna from leaves infected with the powdery mildew fungus erysiphe graminis. the protein consists of 312 amino acids, of which the first 22 form a putative signal sequence, and has a calculated pi of 5.7. sequence comparison revealed that the putative wheat peroxidase is most similar to the turnip (brassica rapa) peroxidase, with whic ...19911893103
characterization of salicylic acid-induced genes in chinese cabbage.salicylic acid is a messenger molecule in the activation of defense responses in plants. in this study, we isolated four cdna clones representing salicylic acid-induced genes in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by subtractive hybridization. of the four clones, the bc5-2 clone encodes a putative glucosyltransferase protein. the bc5-3 clone is highly similar to an arabidopsis gene encoding a putative metal-binding farnesylated protein. the bc6-1 clone is a chitinase gene with simi ...200312835914
effects of the ethanol extract of the roots of brassica rapa on glucose and lipid metabolism in c57bl/ksj-db/db mice.the antidiabetic efficacy of turnip (brassica rapa) roots ethanol extract (te) was investigated in type 2 diabetic animals.200817996336
actin dynamics in papilla cells of brassica rapa during self- and cross-pollination.the self-incompatibility system of the plant species brassica is controlled by the s-locus, which contains s-receptor kinase (srk) and s-locus protein11 (sp11). sp11 binding to srk induces srk autophosphorylation and initiates a signaling cascade leading to the rejection of self pollen. however, the mechanism controlling hydration and germination arrest during self-pollination is unclear. in this study, we examined the role of actin, a key cytoskeletal component regulating the transport system f ...200717337527
detection, introgression and localization of genes conferring specific resistance to leptosphaeria maculans from brassica rapa into b. napus.blackleg (stem canker) caused by the fungus leptosphaeria maculans is one of the most damaging diseases of oilseed rape (brassica napus). crop relatives represent a valuable source of "new" resistance genes that could be used to diversify cultivar resistance. b. rapa, one of the progenitors of b. napus, is a potential source of new resistance genes. however, most of the accessions are heterozygous so it is impossible to directly detect the plant genes conferring specific resistance due to the co ...200717668174
a cdna clone encoding an ige-binding protein from brassica anther has significant sequence similarity to ca(2+)-binding proteins.thirteen cdna clones encoding ige-binding proteins were isolated from expression libraries of anthers of brassica rapa l. and b. napus l. using serum ige from a patient who was specifically allergic to brassica pollen. these clones were divided into two groups, i and ii, based on the sequence similarity. all the group i cdnas predicted the same protein of 79 amino acids, while the group ii predicted a protein of 83 amino acids with microheterogeneity. both of the deduced amino acid sequences con ...19958616215
evaluation of brassicas in grazing systems for sheep: ii. blood composition and nutrient status.blood composition of lambs grazing brassicas and stockpiled grass or grass-clover pastures in the fall of 4 yr was monitored to assess possible effects of plant metabolites (e.g., glucosinolates, s-methyl cysteine sulfoxide) on health and performance. serum thyroxine (t4) concentrations in lambs grazing brassicas decreased upon initiation of grazing, with a subsequent recovery, and concentrations were increased by oral dosing with i or i+cuo. serum triiodothyronine (t3) increased gradually with ...19947928763
determination of structure and composition of suberin from the roots of carrot, parsnip, rutabaga, turnip, red beet, and sweet potato by combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.suberin from the roots of carrots (daucus carota), parsnip (pastinaca sativa), rutabaga (brassica napobrassica), turnip (brassica rapa), red beet (beta vulgaris), and sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) was isolated by a combination of chemical and enzymatic techniques. finely powdered suberin was depolymerized with 14% bf(3) in methanol, and soluble monomers (20-50% of suberin) were fractionated into phenolic (<10%) and aliphatic (13-35%) fractions. the aliphatic fractions consisted mainly of omega- ...197516659124
an intensive understanding of vacuum infiltration transformation of pakchoi (brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).pakchoi (brassica rapa l. ssp. chinensis), a kind of chinese cabbage, is an important vegetable in asian countries. agrobacterium mediated in planta vacuum infiltration transformation has been performed in pakchoi since 1998, but a detailed study on this technique was lacking. pakchoi plants 40-50 days old with inflorescences were vacuum infiltrated with agrobacterium tumefaciens strain c58c1 harboring the binary vector pbbbast-gus-intron. the transformation frequency in the harvested seeds main ...200818542966
phytogrowth-inhibitory and antibacterial activities of 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane and its derivatives.2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane (i) and its derivatives (ii-iv) showed rather marked inhibitory activities on the growth of the roots of two plant species. all compounds tested had phytogrowth-inhibitory activities. these compounds markedly inhibited the growth of the two plant species at the concentration of 1.0 x 10(-3) m. seeds of brassica rapa treated with 2,5-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dithiane (iii) and its diacetate (iv) at the same concentration failed to germinate. among these compounds, iv ...19902337944
over-expression of chinese cabbage calreticulin 1, brcrt1, enhances shoot and root regeneration, but retards plant growth in transgenic tobacco.calreticulin (crt) is a ubiquitously expressed, high capacity ca(2+)-binding protein that is involved in intracellular ca(2+) homeostasis and molecular chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum (er). a cdna encoding a calreticulin, brcrt1 (brassica rapa calreticulin 1), has been isolated from chinese cabbage (b. rapa subsp. pekinensis) flower bud. constitutive over-expression of the brcrt1 gene promotes robust shoot production and root formation at sub-optimal concentrations of ba/naa, which are ...200516245153
molecular characterization of a thij-like gene in chinese cabbage.a cdna clone for a salicylic acid-induced gene in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) was isolated and characterized. the cabbage gene encoding a protein of 392 amino acids contained a tandem array of two thij-like sequences. thij is a thiamin biosynthesis enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine (hmp) to hmp monophosphate. although the cabbage gene shows a similarity to bacterial thij genes, it also shares a similarity with the human dj-1, a multifuncti ...200415469717
plant phenolics affect oxidation of tryptophan.the effect of berry phenolics such as anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins from raspberry (rubus idaeus), black currant (ribes nigrum), and cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccus) and byproducts of deoiling processes rich in phenolics such as rapeseed (brassica rapa l.), camelina (camelina sativa), and soy (glycine max l.) as well as scots pine bark (pinus sylvestris) was investigated in an h2o2-oxidized tryptophan (trp) solution. the oxidation of trp was analyzed with high-performance liq ...200818646765
toxic effects of digested, composted and thermally-dried sewage sludge on three plants.in order to evaluate potential toxic effects of stabilized sewage sludge that are currently applied to agricultural soils, three types of municipal sewage sludge and one pig slurry were subjected to phytotoxicity assays using three plants (brassica rapa, lolium perenne and trifolium pratense). equivalent batches of aerobically and anaerobically-digested sludge (f) from two municipal wastewater treatment plants, were composted (c) or thermally dried (t). in addition, one anaerobically-digested an ...200818280152
rflp and aflp analysis of inter- and intraspecific variation of brassica rapa and b. napus shows that b. rapa is an important genetic resource for b. napus improvement.fingerprinting of 29 accessions of oilseed rape, including seven accessions of brassica napus, and 22 accessions of b. rapa (b. campestris) from europe, north america, and china was analyzed using rflp and aflp markers. in total, 1,477 polymorphic rflp bands and 183 polymorphic aflp bands from 166 enzyme-probe combinations and two pairs of aflp primers, respectively, were scored for the 29 accessions. on average, rflp analysis showed that the arabidopsis est probe detected more polymorphic bands ...200616980128
denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial community profiles in the rhizosphere of cry1ac-carrying brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis.the effect of genetically modified (gm) brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (chinese cabbage) expressing bt toxin gene (cry1ac) to the rhizosphere bacterial community was examined using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) fingerprinting method. from the visual comparison of the dgge profiles, there were no significant differences between the profiles of bt and control rhizosphere in both suwon and yesan samples. from the sequence analysis of the individual bands, sphingomonas sp. of a ...200818337686
biological and phylogenetic characterization of fusarium oxysporum complex, which causes yellows on brassica spp., and proposal of f. oxysporum f. sp. rapae, a novel forma specialis pathogenic on b. rapa in japan.although the causal agent of yellows of brassica rapa (turnip, pak choi, and narinosa) in japan was reported in 1996 to be fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans, this classification has remained inconclusive because of a lack of detailed genetic and pathogenic studies. therefore, we analyzed the taxonomic position of this organism using japanese isolates of f. oxysporum complex obtained from diseased individuals of various b. rapa subspecies. phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the ...200818944198
[isolation and identification of specific sequences correlated to cytoplasmic male sterility and fertile maintenance in cauliflower (brassica oleracea var. botrytis)].analysis of issr (inter-simple sequence repeat) and ddrt-pcr (differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) was performed between cytoplasmic male sterility cauliflower ogura-a and its corresponding maintainer line ogura-b. totally, 306 detectable bands were obtained by issr using thirty oligonucleotide primers. commonly, six to twelve bands were produced per primer. among all these primers only the amplification of primer issr3 was polymorphic, an 1100 bp specific band w ...200818464586
occurrence of a new subclade of leptosphaeria biglobosa in western australia.stem canker of crucifers is caused by an ascomycete species complex comprising of two main species, leptosphaeria maculans and l. biglobosa. these are composed of at least seven distinct subclades based on biochemical data or on sequences of internal transcribed spacer (its), the mating type mat1-2 or fragments of actin or beta-tubulin genes. in the course of a wide-scale characterization of the race structure of l. maculans from western australia, a few isolates from two locations failed to amp ...200818944083
alternative transcription initiation of the nitrilase gene (brnit2) caused by infection with plasmodiophora brassicae woron. in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa l.).in clubroot disease, gall formation is induced by infection with the obligate biotroph plasmodiophora brassicae, and cell hypertrophy is dependent on increased auxin levels. the enzyme nitrilase is suggested to play an important role in auxin biosynthesis in plants. here, we investigated the expression of nitrilase genes in clubroot disease in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa l.). we isolated four isogenes of nitrilase (brnit1, brnit2, brnit3, and brnit4) from chinese cabbage. when a brnit2-specif ...200818726557
impact of cry1ac-carrying brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis on leaf bacterial community.the effects of chinese cabbage (brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) carrying cry1ac derived from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) on leaf bacterial community were examined by analyzing the horizontal transfer of trans-gene fragments from plants to bacteria. the effect of plant pathogenic bacteria on the gene transfer was also examined using pseudomonas syringae pathovar. maculicola. the frequency of hygromycin-resistant bacteria did not alter in bt leaves, though slight increase was observed in pseudomo ...200919229489
broadening the genetic basis of verticillium longisporum resistance in brassica napus by interspecific hybridization.abstract verticillium wilt caused by the vascular fungal pathogen verticillium longisporum is one of the most important pathogens of oilseed rape (brassica napus sp. oleifera) in northern europe. because production of this major oilseed crop is expanding rapidly and no approved fungicides are available for v. longisporum, long-term control of the disease can only be achieved with cultivars carrying effective quantitative resistance. however, very little resistance to v. longisporum is available ...200718943507
responses of some common cruciferae to root-knot nematodes.ten cultivated plants of the family cruciferae were evaluated for susceptibility to meloidogyne arenaria race 1, m. incognita races 1 and 3, and m. javanica in a series of four separate greenhouse tests. after 62-64 days, or 1,032-1,072 degree days (10 c base), several of the crops evaluated showed moderate to severe levels of galling (> 3.0 on 0-5 scale) and moderate numbers of egg masses (>2.0 on 0-5 scale) in response to each of the nematode species and races. among the plants tested, collard ...199519277321
metabolic changes in agrobacterium tumefaciens-infected brassica rapa.agrobacterium has the ability to transfer its genetic material, t-dna, into the plant genome. the unique interaction between the bacterium and its host plant has been well studied at the transcriptome, but not at the metabolic level. for a better understanding of this interaction it is necessary to investigate the metabolic changes of the host plant upon infection with agrobacterium tumefaciens. this study investigated the metabolic response of brassica rapa to infection with disarmed and tumor- ...200919346030
diversity, distribution and role of wild crucifers in major cabbage and kale growing areas of kenya.an investigation of the diversity and distribution of wild crucifer species and their importance for cultivated crucifers was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in the highland and mid-altitude semi-arid areas of kenya. thirteen species of wild crucifers in nine genera were recorded: raphanus raphanistrum, erucastrum arabicum, sisymbrium officinale, crambe kilimandscharica, capsella bursa-pastoris, rorippa nudiuscula, ro. micrantha, ro. microphylla, lepidium bonariense, coronopus didymus, brassica r ...200919063754
behavior of glucosinolates in pickling cruciferous vegetables.crucifer species, which include widely consumed vegetables, contain glucosinolates as secondary metabolites. cruciferous vegetables are consumed in japan in salt-preserved or pickled form as well as cooked and raw fresh vegetables. in this study, changes in contents of glucosinolates during the pickling process were investigated. 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate, a major glucosinolate in the root of japanese radish, daikon (raphanus sativus l.), was detected in pickled products with a short ...200617147429
lead phytoextraction from contaminated soil with high-biomass plant species.in this study, cabbage [brassica rapa l. subsp. chinensis (l.) hanelt cv. xinza no 1], mung bean [vigna radiata (l.) r. wilczek var. radiata cv. vc-3762], and wheat (triticum aestivum l. cv. altas 66) were grown in pb-contaminated soils. application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta) (3.0 mmol of edta/kg soil) to the soil significantly increased the concentrations of pb in the shoots and roots of all the plants. lead concentrations in the cabbage shoots reached 5010 and 4620 mg/kg dry mat ...200212469839
interaction between plants and bacteria: glucosinolates and phyllospheric colonization of cruciferous vegetables by enterobacter radicincitans dsm 16656.for determining interactive plant-bacterial effects between glucosinolates and phyllospheric colonization by a plant growth-promoting strain, enterobacter radicincitans dsm 16656, in cruciferous vegetables, the extent of bacterial colonization was assessed in 5 cruciferous vegetables (brassica juncea, brassica campestris, brassica oleracea var. capitata, brassica rapa var. alboglabra, nasturtium officinale) using a species-specific taqman probe and quantitative real-time pcr. colonization abilit ...200919556746
sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil: ecotoxicological effects on representative soil organisms.application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is a current practice in eu. european legislation permits its use when concentrations of metals in soil do not increase above the maximum permissible limits. in order to assess the fate and the effects on representative soil organisms of sewage sludge amendments on agricultural lands, a soil microcosm (multi-species soil system-ms3) experiment was performed. the ms3 columns were filled with spiked soil at three different doses: 30, 60 and 120tha ...200919261330
emergence and seasonal activity of the entomophagous rove beetle aleochara bilineata (coleoptera: staphylinidae) in canola in western canada.aleochara bilineata gyllenhal (coleoptera: staphylinidae) is an important natural enemy of root maggots (delia spp.) (diptera: anthomyiidae), which are serious pests of brassicaceous crops in north america and europe. adults of a. bilineata feed on eggs and larvae of root maggots, and a. bilineata larvae parasitize delia spp. pupae. emergence and seasonal activity patterns of a. bilineata were investigated during 2003-2005 in canola (brassica rapa l. and brassica napus l.) in central alberta, ca ...200819161688
growth, productivity, and competitiveness of introgressed weedy brassica rapa hybrids selected for the presence of bt cry1ac and gfp transgenes.concerns exist that transgenic crop x weed hybrid populations will be more vigorous and competitive with crops compared with the parental weed species. hydroponic, glasshouse, and field experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of introgression of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) cry1ac and green fluorescent protein (gfp) transgenes on hybrid productivity and competitiveness in four experimental brassica rapa x transgenic brassica napus hybrid generations (f1, bc1f1, bc2f1 and bc2f2). the av ...200516101783
variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of brassica rapa.glucosinolate levels in leaves were determined in a collection of 113 varieties of turnip greens (brassica rapa l.) from northwestern spain grown at two sites. sensorial attributes were also assessed by a consumer panel. the objectives were to determine the diversity among varieties in total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate profile and to evaluate their sensory attributes in relation to glucosinolate content for breeding purposes. sixteen glucosinolates were identified, being the aliphati ...200717187832
a novel plant cysteine-rich peptide family conferring cadmium tolerance to yeast and plants.we have identified a novel cdna clone, termed dccdt1, from digitaria ciliaris, that confers cadmium (cd)-tolerance to yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae). the gene encodes a predicted peptide of 55 amino acid residues of which 15 (27.3%) are cysteine residues. we found that monocotyledonous plants possess multiple dccdt1 homologues, for example rice contains five dccdt1 homologues (designated oscdt1~5), whereas dicotyledonous plants, including arabidopsis thaliana, brassica rapa, poplar (populus tr ...200919816106
evolutionary trajectory of turnip mosaic virus populations adapting to a new host.little is known about how some plant viruses establish successful cross-species transmission whilst others do not; the genetic basis for adaptation is largely unknown. this study investigated the genetic changes that occurred using the progeny of an infectious clone, p35tunos, derived from the turnip mosaic virus (tumv) uk 1 isolate, which has a brassica host type, but rarely infects raphanus systemically and then only asymptomatically. the genetic trajectory leading to viral adaptation was stud ...201019906944
stable bacillus thuringiensis (bt) toxin content in interspecific f1 and backcross populations of wild brassica rapa after bt gene transfer.stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. here, we investigate the stability of bt toxin content in wild brassica rapa acquiring the bt gene from bt brassica napus. the bt toxin content in nine bt-expressing b. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. these nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild b. rapa and the bt gene was successfully transferred t ...200414653804
resistance to white rust in pak choi and chinese cabbage at the cotyledon stage.the biothrofic pathogen albugo candida (pers.) attacks all the cultivated brassica species and several wild crucifers causing the disease known as white rust. the symptoms consist on the initial appearance of more or less conspicuous white sori on the plant leaves and stems, followed by severe distortions of the affected organs, especially flowers and siliqua. on delicate vegetable types of brassica rapa l., like pak choi (b. rapa var. chinensis l.) and chinese cabbages (b. rapa var. pekinensis ...200617390845
sulfur, chromium, and selenium accumulated in chinese cabbage under direct covers.currently, pollution of our agricultural soils and waters is increasing and is often associated with many human health ailments. soils contaminated with low levels of heavy metals and other trace elements are frequently used for growing vegetable crops and in such a situation, these toxic contaminants often accumulate in the edible portions of these agricultural plants and thereby enter the human food chain. in 3 consecutive years of field experiments (1994-1996), two different crop-covering tre ...200515572085
plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. when field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between gmos and parental plants. to measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (bt ...200919419653
characterization of conserved and novel micrornas and their targets, including a tumv-induced tir-nbs-lrr class r gene-derived novel mirna in brassica.nine conserved mirna families and three potential novel mirnas in brassica rapa were identified from a small rna library. the expression patterns of some conserved mirnas had different tissue specificity in brassica and arabidopsis. one of the three potential mirnas, named bra-mir1885, was verified as a true functional mirna. it could be induced specifically by turnip mosaic virus (tumv) infection, and target tir-nbs-lrr class disease-resistant transcripts for cleavage. based on the hypothesis f ...200818558089
s-glycoprotein-like protein regulates defense responses in nicotiana plants against ralstonia solanacearum.rsrga4 (for ralstonia solanacearum-responsive gene a4) encodes a polypeptide similar to s-locus glycoprotein (sgp) from brassica rapa and sgp-like proteins from ipomoea trifida and medicago truncatula. therefore, we designated rsrga4 as ntsglp (for nicotiana tabacum sgp-like protein) and nbsglp (its nicotiana benthamiana ortholog). nbsglp is expressed in root, leaf, petal, gynoecium, and stamen. expression of nbsglp was strongly induced by inoculation with an avirulent strain of r. solanacearum ...201020118275
protective effect of the ethanol extract of the roots of brassica rapa on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in llc-pk1 cells and rats.a study was conducted to determine whether the ethanol extract of the roots of brassica rapa (ebr) ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in terms of oxidative stress, as characterized by lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ros) production, and glutathione (gsh) depletion in llc-pk1 cells. pretreatment of cells with ebr prevented cisplatin-induced decreases in cell viability and cellular gsh content. the effect of ebr was then investigated in rats given ebr for 14 d before cisplat ...200617142978
genetic control of broad-spectrum resistance to turnip mosaic virus in brassica rapa (chinese cabbage).the brassica rapa line rlr22 was resistant to eight diverse turnip mosaic virus (tumv) isolates. a b. rapa genetic map based on 213 marker loci segregating in 120 first back-cross (b(1)) individuals was established and aligned with the b. rapa genome reference map using some of the rflp probes. b(1) individuals were self-pollinated to produce b(1)s(1) families. the existence of two loci controlling resistance to tumv isolate cdn 1 was established from contrasting patterns of segregation for resi ...200717947545
tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area.five seasonal vegetables from three growing sites in hangzhou city, zhejiang province, were studied for the levels of four chlorobenzenes(cbs): o-dichlorobenzene (o-dcb), p-dichlorobenzene (p-dcb), m-dichlorobenzene (m-dcb), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-tcb). samples of each vegetable from each site were subdivided into leaves, stems, and roots, and these subsamples were analyzed separately for the levels of accumulated cbs. relations between the levels of cbs in vegetables with the total o ...200516002141
increase in brao1 gene expression and aldehyde oxidase activity during clubroot development in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa l.).summary in clubroot disease, gall formation is induced by infection with the obligate biotroph plasmodiophora brassicae due to increased levels of auxins and cytokinins. because aldehyde oxidase (ao) may be involved in auxin biosynthesis in plants, we isolated two ao genes (brao1 and brao2) from chinese cabbage (brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. muso), which are the most similar to aao1 among arabidopsis ao genes, and examined their expressions during clubroot development. the expression of brao ...200620507442
genetic and physiological determinants of streptomyces scabies pathogenicity.summary common scab is a severe disease worldwide affecting tap root crops and potato tubers. it is caused by soil-borne filamentous bacteria belonging to the genus streptomyces. streptomycetes usually are saprophytic microorganisms, but a few species have acquired the ability to infect underground plant tissues. the predominant causal agent of potato scab worldwide is streptomyces scabies. the production of phytotoxins called thaxtomins is essential for the virulence of common scab-causing agen ...200919694949
sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.turnip rape and oilseed rape 2s albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. we recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (brassica rapa). in the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certai ...200818221477
genome-wide identification of glucosinolate synthesis genes in brassica rapa.glucosinolates play important roles in plant defense against herbivores and microbes, as well as in human nutrition. some glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanate and nitrile compounds have been clinically proven for their anticarcinogenic activity. to better understand glucosinolate biosynthesis in brassica rapa, we conducted a comparative genomics study with arabidopsis thaliana and identified total 56 putative biosynthetic and regulator genes. this established a high colinearity in the glucosinol ...200919456863
expression of a glutathione reductase from brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis enhanced cellular redox homeostasis by modulating antioxidant proteins in escherichia coli.glutathione reductase (gr) is an enzyme that recycles a key cellular antioxidant molecule glutathione (gsh) from its oxidized form (gssg) thus maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. a recombinant plasmid to overexpress a gr of brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (brgr) in e. coli bl21 (de3) was constructed using an expression vector pkm260. expression of the introduced gene was confirmed by semiquantitative rt-pcr, immunoblotting and enzyme assays. purification of the brgr protein was performed by ...200919936628
characterization of directly transformed weedy brassica rapa and introgressed b. rapa with bt cry1ac and gfp genes.crop to weed transgene flow, which could result in more competitive weed populations, is an agricultural biosafety concern. crop brassica napus to weedy brassica rapa hybridization has been extensively characterized to better understand the transgene flow and its consequences. in this study, weedy accessions of b. rapa were transformed with bacillus thuringiensis (bt) cry1ac- and green fluorescence protein (gfp)-coding transgenes using agrobacterium to assess ecological performance of the wild b ...200717333014
lactococcus fujiensis sp nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from vegetable.three strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from vegetable of chinese cabbage (brassica rapa l. var. glabra regel) were characterized taxonomically. they were gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic cocci that did not produce gas from glucose and formed l-lactic acid. their major fatty acids were c18:1omega9cis, c16:0, c14:0 and summed feature 10. morphological, physiological and phylogenetic data indicated that the strains belong to the genus lactococcus. these strains shar ...201020675438
screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3t3-l1 adipocytes.to search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. these activities in 3t3-l1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in japan. komatsuna (brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.), qing geng cai (brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (glycine max) ...201020717728
quantitative trait loci analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in seeds and leaves of brassica rapa.phytate, being the major storage form of phosphorus in plants, is considered to be an anti-nutritional substance for human, because of its ability to complex essential micronutrients. in the present study, we describe the genetic analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in brassica rapa using five segregating populations, involving eight parental accessions representing different cultivar groups. a total of 25 quantitative trait loci (qtl) affecting phytate and phosphate concentrations i ...200818266904
teaching human genetics with mustard: rapid cycling brassica rapa (fast plants type) as a model for human genetics in the classroom laboratory.we have developed experiments and materials to model human genetics using rapid cycling brassica rapa, also known as fast plants. because of their self-incompatibility for pollination and the genetic diversity within strains, b. rapa can serve as a relevant model for human genetics in teaching laboratory experiments. the experiment presented here is a paternity exclusion project in which a child is born with a known mother but two possible alleged fathers. students use dna markers (microsatellit ...200717548880
assessment of genetic diversity of accessions in brassicaceae genetic resources by frequency distribution analysis of s haplotypes.plant genetic resources are important sources of genetic variation for improving crop varieties as breeding materials. conservation of such resources of allogamous species requires maintenance of the genetic diversity within each accession to avoid inbreeding depression and loss of rare alleles. for assessment of genetic diversity in the self-incompatibility locus (s locus), which is critically involved in the chance of mating, we developed a dot-blot genotyping method for self-incompatibility ( ...201020039015
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