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isolation of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor from the balsam pear (momordica charantia abreviata). 197720099
inhibition of growth and guanylate cyclase activity of an undifferentiated prostate adenocarcinoma by an extract of the balsam pear (momordica charantia abbreviata).we have recently described the presence of a guanylate cyclase gtp pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), ec 4.6.1.2 inhibitor (gci) in an aqueous extract of the balsam pear (momordica charantia abbreviata). because the guanylate cyclase-cyclic gmp system is though to be involved in cell growth, dna and rna synthesis, and possible malignant transformation, we examined the effect of the aqueous extract containing gci on an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of the rat prostate and concanavalin-a-stimulate ...197824847
inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro by a lectin from momordica charantia and by other haemagglutinins.protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate is inhibited by the haemagglutinating lectins from momordica charantia and crotalaria juncea seeds and from the roe of rutilus rutilus, and by a commercial preparation of the mitogenic lectin from phytolacca americana. the haemagglutinins from the seeds of ricinus communis and of vicia cracca acquired inhibitory activity after their reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol.1979508306
effects of momordica charantia l. fruit extract on the testicular function of dog. 1978704696
in vitro anthelmintic action of some indigenous medicinal plants on ascardia galli worms.different parts of ten indigenous medicinal plants were screened for their in vitro anthelmintic activity against ascaridia galli worms of the birds. preparations from carica papaya, sapindus trifoliatus, butea frondosa and momordica charantia were more effective than piperazine hexahydrate.1976965077
acute poisoning in a puppy caused by the balsam pear (momordica charantia). 19761047586
beta-momorcharin, a plant glycoprotein, inhibits synthesis of macromolecules in embryos, splenocytes and tumor cells.1. beta-momorcharin, a glycoprotein isolated from seeds of the bitter gourd, inhibited incorporation of [3h]leucine, [3h]uridine and [3h]thymidine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity in peri-implantation mouse embryos, mouse splenocytes with or without activation by concanavalin a, and human squamous carcinoma of the tongue and larynx, but did not affect incorporation of the aforementioned radioisotopes into mouse liver cells. 2. the results suggest that inhibition of protein, r ...19921383043
proteins with abortifacient, ribosome inactivating, immunomodulatory, antitumor and anti-aids activities from cucurbitaceae plants.1. the biochemical characteristics and biological activities of eight cucurbitaceae plant proteins designated trichosanthin (isolated from tubers of trichosanthes kirilowii), beta-trichosanthin (isolated from tubers of trichosanthes cucumeroides), alpha- and beta-momorcharins (isolated from seeds of momordica charantia), momorchochin (isolated from tubers of momordica cochinchinensis), luffaculin (isolated from seeds of luffa acutangula) and luffin-a and luffin-b (isolated from seeds of luffa cy ...19921397965
[hypoglycemic effects of siamese momordica charantia and phyllanthus urinaria extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (the 1st report)].hypoglycemic effects of the extracts of two siamese plants, momordica charantia (m.c.) and phyllanthus urinaria (p.u.), were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. oral administration of a 50% methanol extract (30 mg/kg) of m.c. and p.u. decreased the blood glucose levels (bgl) by 25% and 24%, respectively, at 3 hr after administration. among other fractions such as the ethyl ether or water soluble fractions, the 10 and 30 mg/kg n-butanol soluble fraction from m.c. extract was most ef ...19921464400
amino acid sequencing of a trypsin inhibitor by refined 1.6 a x-ray crystal structure of its complex with porcine beta-trypsin.the stoichiometric complex formed between porcine beta-trypsin and the momordica charantia, linn. cucurbitaceae trypsin inhibitor-a (mcti-a) was crystallized and its x-ray crystal structure determined using molecular replacement method. the primary sequence and topology of the inhibitor was determined by recognizing the electron density and refined to a final r value of 0.167 (7.0-1.6 a) with rms deviation of bond lengths from standard values 0.012 a. the sequence was compared with those obtaine ...19921551419
purification and amino acid sequence of a bitter gourd inhibitor against an acidic amino acid-specific endopeptidase of streptomyces griseus.an inhibitor (bgia) against an acidic amino acid-specific endopeptidase of streptomyces griseus (glu s. griseus protease) was isolated from seeds of the bitter gourd momordica charantia l., and its amino acid sequence was determined. the molecular weight of bgia based on the amino acid sequence was calculated to be 7419. bgia competitively inhibited glu s. griseus protease with an inhibition constant (ki) of 70 nm, and gel filtration analyses suggested that bgia forms a 1:1 complex with this pro ...19911679433
map 30: a new inhibitor of hiv-1 infection and replication.a new inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from the seeds and fruits of the momordica charantia. this compound, map 30 (momordica anti-hiv protein), is a basic protein of about 30 kda. it exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of cell-free hiv-1 infection and replication as measured by: (i) quantitative focal syncytium formation on cem-ss monolayers; (ii) viral core protein p24 expression; and (iii) viral-associated reverse transcriptase (rt) ...19901699801
ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the caribs of guatemala.an ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the carib population of guatemala in 1988-1989. in general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. one hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information ...19911795521
method for detecting the lectin activity of momordica charantia transferred from micro two-dimensional electrophoretic gel on to nitrocellulose.a method was devised for detecting both the molecular mass and the isoelectric point (pi) of the lectin in the seed extract of momordica charantia on a nitrocellulose membrane. it was associated with the electrophoretic blotting technique that produced replicas of proteins separated on micro two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. the red blood cell adherence procedure on the blotted membrane exhibited only one red spot with molecular mass 107.10(3) and pi 5.3, which indicated the lectin activity. ...19911797856
screening of the antimalarial activity of plants of the cucurbitaceae family.crude ethanolic extracts (cees) from two species of cucurbitaceae, cucurbita maxima and momordica charantia (commonly called "abóbora moranga" and "melão de são caetano", respectively) were assayed for antimalarial activity by the 4-d suppressive test. the cee of dry c. maxima seeds showed strong antimalarial activity following oral administration (250 and 500 mg/kg), reducing by 50% the levels of parasitemia in plasmodium berghei-infected mice. treatment of normal animals with 500 mg/kg of the ...19911841996
cloning of the cdna of alpha-momorcharin: a ribosome inactivating protein.using a lambda gt11 cdna library constructed from the seeds of the bitter melon (momordica charantia), we have obtained a full length cdna containing the entire sequence of alpha-momorcharin by immunoscreening. the length of this cdna is 1044 basepairs long and it consists of an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 286 amino acids. the first 23 residues of this polypeptide probably code for a signal sequence. the n-terminal sequence of the deduced protein is exactly identical to that d ...19912001404
analgesic effect of momordica charantia seed extract in mice and rats. 19912030591
effect of momordica charantia fruit juice on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.the oral hypoglycaemic activity of momordica charantia fruit juice was investigated in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. oral administration of the juice (10 ml/kg for 30 days) did not show a significant effect, either acute or cumulative, on the ability to tolerate an external glucose load. the glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations were significantly elevated in both juice-treated and untreated diabetic rats and there was no significant difference between the two groups. viable beta- ...19902255210
induction of tumor cytotoxic immune cells using a protein from the bitter melon (momordica charantia).the fruit and seeds of the bitter melon (momordica charantia) have been reported to have anti-leukemic and antiviral activities. this anti-leukemic and antiviral action was associated with an activation of murine lymphocytes. a partially purified protein factor from the bitter melon caused an infiltration and activation of peritoneal exudate cells in c57b1/6j, c3h/hej, and c3h/hen mice. when the extract was injected twice a week at 8 micrograms of protein per ip injection for 0-4 weeks, the peri ...19902311123
effects of lectins with various carbohydrate binding specificities on lipid metabolism in isolated rat and hamster adipocytes.1. mannose-binding and n-acetylglucosamine binding lectins exhibited potent antilipolytic and lipogenic activities. 2. fucose-binding lectins had minimal lipogenic activity but possessed antilipolytic activity. 3. most galactose-binding and n-acetylgalactosamine-binding lectins were devoid of significant antilipolytic and lipogenic activities. notable exceptions were lectins from momordica charantia, wisteria floribunda, vicia villosa, codium fragile and the siberian pine tree. lipogenic activit ...19892545472
blood sugar lowering potentiality of selected cucurbitaceae plants of indian origin.using five experimental models, the blood sugar lowering efficacy of eight plants of cucurbitaceae family has been assessed. the ethanolic extract of cucumis sativus linn, cucumis melo utilissimum roxb, cucumis melo linn, benincasa hispida thunb cogn and tricosanthes anguina nees, when administered in 250 mg/kg dose, orally to rats failed to lower blood sugar or to depress the peak value, after glucose load. however, ethanolic extract of momordica charantia linn plant and coccinia indica whit an ...19892620957
effects of long term feeding of acetone extract of momordica charantia (whole fruit powder) on alloxan diabetic albino rats.acetone extract of whole fruit powder of momordica charantia a given orally daily lowered the blood sugar and serum cholesterol levels to normal range after 15 to 30 days in alloxan diabetic rats. the blood sugar once lowered after 30 days treatment did not increase even after 15 days of discontinuation of the treatment.19892777367
effects of ginsenosides, lectins and momordica charantia insulin-like peptide on corticosterone production by isolated rat adrenal cells.ginsenosides rb1, rb2, rc and rg1 inhibited steroidogenesis induced by a maximally active dose of corticotropin in isolated rat adrenal cells. the galactose-binding lectins from momordica charantia seeds and trichosanthes kirilowii tubers and mannose-binding concanavalin a did not affect basal corticosterone production. the lectins potentiated steroidogenesis induced by a submaximal dose of corticotropin but were without effect on steroidogenesis induced by a maximally active dose of corticotrop ...19872826928
a steryl glycoside fraction from momordica charantia seeds with an inhibitory action on lipid metabolism in vitro.a saponin fraction was isolated from momordica charantia seeds by delipidation, saline extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and extraction of the resulting supernatant with n-butanol. thin-layer chromatography, in the upper phase of the n-butanol--ethyl acetate--water (4:1:5, by volume) system on plastic sheets coated with silica gel 60 f254, revealed the presence of a single spot after spraying with 10% sulfuric acid. the lack of contamination of the saponin preparation with proteins was ...19863021185
peptides with antilipolytic and lipogenic activities from seeds of the bitter gourd momordica charantia (family cucurbitaceae).decorticated momordica charantia seeds were extracted with acidic ethanol. the ph of the extract was adjusted to 8 and the resulting precipitate was chromatographed on cm sepharose cl-6b and then desalted on sephadex g-10. a number of factors which exhibited antilipolytic and lipogenic activities in rat adipocytes were isolated. two of the factors were demonstrated to be peptides with similar amino acid compositions and a molecular weight of approximately 8000. however the peptides greatly diffe ...19873106137
selective cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins composed of a monoclonal anti-thy 1.1 antibody and the ribosome-inactivating proteins bryodin and momordin.the ribosome-inactivating proteins, bryodin, from bryonia dioica, and momordin, from momordica charantia, were coupled by a disulphide bond to a monoclonal anti-thy 1.1 antibody (ox7). both immunotoxins were specifically cytotoxic to the thy 1.1-expressing mouse lymphoma cell line akr-a in vitro. the ox7-bryodin immunotoxins were the more powerfully toxic and reduced protein synthesis in akr-a cells by 50% at a concentration of 1-4 x 10(-11) m as compared with 1 x 10(-9) m for the ox7-momordin i ...19883265330
acid-ethanol extractable compounds from fruits and seeds of the bitter gourd momordica charantia: effects on lipid metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes.fruits and seeds of the bitter gourd momordica charantia (family cucurbitaceae) were extracted with acidic ethanol. the extract was adjusted to ph 3 and proteins and peptides were precipitated by addition of a copious volume of acetone. the precipitate was dissolved, dialyzed and lyophilized. the resulting material, designated "p-fraction" was tested for antilipolytic and lipogenic activities. seed "p-fraction" was further chromatographed on fetuin agarose to yield an unadsorbed fraction (f) whi ...19873318384
trichosanthin, alpha-momorcharin and beta-momorcharin: identity of abortifacient and ribosome-inactivating proteins.the abortifacient proteins trichosanthin, alpha-momorcharin and beta-momorcharin at nm concentrations inhibit cell-free protein synthesis. the momorcharins and the ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from momordica charantia seeds cross-react with the respective antisera. the ribosome-inactivating proteins saporins, pokeweed antiviral protein (pap) and, to a lesser extent, gelonin have abortifacient activity on pregnant mice.19883372132
effect of momordica charantia linn. pomous aqueous extract on cataractogenesis in murrin alloxan diabetics.the fruit extract of momordica charantia linn. was studied in charles foster rats of both sexes in respect of its dose-response hypoglycemia and at maximal effective dose, its influence on the development of diabetic cataract. alloxan (120 mg/kg s.c./rat, single dose) diabetic rats with greater than 150 mg% of blood sugar were classified into four groups (n = 10) wherein two were control and the rest were test groups). in the test group, the oral dose response hypoglycemic herbal effect was foun ...19883387455
retardation of retinopathy by momordica charantia l. (bitter gourd) fruit extract in alloxan diabetic rats. 19873446597
the immunosuppressive activities of two abortifacient proteins isolated from the seeds of bitter melon (momordica charantia).two abortifacient proteins, alpha- and beta-momorcharin, have been purified from the seeds of the bitter melon (momordica charantia). it was found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of these plant proteins can significantly inhibit the mitogenic responses of mouse splenocytes to concanavalin a, phytohaemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. in addition, the alloantigen-induced lymphoproliferation and the in vitro generation of a primary cytotoxic lymphocyte response were s ...19873497134
insulin-like molecules in momordica charantia seeds.decorticated momordica charantia seeds were extracted and processed by a method which was developed originally for the purification of insect and annelid insulins. essentially, the method entailed hcl--ethanol extraction, neutralization with nh4oh, gel filtration on sephadex g-50, ion exchange chromatography on cm sepharose cl-6b and desalting on sephadex g-10. of the seven fractions collected, three fractions were obtained with antilipolytic and lipogenic activities in isolated adipocytes and o ...19863520153
isolation and characterization of a galactose binding lectin with insulinomimetic activities. from the seeds of the bitter gourd momordica charantia (family cucurbitaceae).a galactose binding lectin was isolated from the seeds of the bitter gourd momordica charantia by delipidation with petroleum ether, extraction with phosphate buffered saline, ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography on lactogel. the lectin had a molecular weight of 124,000 and approximately 5% carbohydrate content. the molecular weights of the individual subunits were 37,000, 35,000 and 33,000. the lectin exhibited potent hemagglutinating activity. in addition, it demonstrated ...19863533814
extra-pancreatic effects of momordica charantia in rats.the extra pancreatic effects of the oral hypoglycaemic plant momordica charantia have been investigated in rats. it was found that the fruit juice of this plant caused an increased glucose uptake by tissues in vitro without concomitant increase of tissue respiration. oral treatment with the juice prior to a glucose load was found to increase the glycogen content of liver and muscle while it had no effect on the triglyceride content of adipose tissue. pretreatment of fasted rats with m. charantia ...19863807387
effect of momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance in maturity onset diabetes.investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance of maturity onset diabetic patients. the fruit juice of m. charantia was found to significantly improve the glucose tolerance of 73% of the patients investigated while the other 27% failed to respond.19863807390
effects of momorcharins on the mouse embryo at the early organogenesis stage.previous studies showed that the two forms of momorcharins which are isolated from seeds of momordica charantia l. are effective in inducing early and midterm abortions in the mouse. momorcharins were found to be teratogenic to the cultured mouse embryos at the early organogenesis stage. morphological abnormalities were seen in the head, trunk and limbs. ultrastructural studies on the visceral yolk sac of the momorcharin-treated embryos showed that the endodermal layer was deranged, membrane inv ...19863816236
influence of balsam pear (the fruit of momordica charantia l.) on blood sugar level. 19853851122
characterization of a saponaria officinalis seed ribosome-inactivating protein: immunoreactivity and sequence homologies.a ribosome inactivating protein from saponaria officinalis, so-6, was purified and the n-terminus sequenced. the sequence shows extensive homology with pokeweed antiviral protein, pokeweed antiviral protein ii, pokeweed antiviral seed protein and dodecandrin. sds gel electrophoresis in the laemmli system revealed two bands of similar intensities with a smear between them, probably an artifact due to the high pi of the protein. use of a harsher denaturing gel system resulted in one band in electr ...19853925952
the inhibitory effects of beta-momorcharin on endometrial cells in the mouse.beta-momorcharin purified from the seeds of momordica charantia l. suppressed the decidual response of pseudopregnant mouse uterus to mechanical stimulus. in the beta-momorcharin-treated uterus, stromal cells failed to decidualise, uterine glands distended, and a diminished cell proliferation was found in the endometrium and myometrium. beta-momorcharin also inhibited the biosynthetic activity of the cultured endometrial cells. the rate of incorporation of 3h-thymidine, 3h-uridine and 3h-leucine ...19853987275
an in vitro study on the effect of momordica charantia on glucose uptake and glucose metabolism in rats. 19854011748
screening of trichosanthes kirilowii, momordica charantia and cucurbita maxima (family cucurbitaceae) for compounds with antilipolytic activity.saline extracts of trichosanthes kirilowii root tubers and momordica charantia seeds were subjected to differential acetone fractionation. the fraction that precipitated after addition of 0.8 vol. acetone was designated api, the fraction that precipitated after addition of another 1.2 vol. acetone was designated apii, and the fraction that precipitated after addition of another volume acetone was designated apiii. api, apii and apiii are fractions enriched with lectins, abortifacient proteins an ...19854058034
the anti-growth properties of extracts from momordica charantia l. 19715104841
toxicity of momordica charantia lectin and inhibitor for human normal and leukaemic lymphocytes.a haemagglutinin (lectin) and another protein (inhibitor) purified from the seeds of momordica charantia inhibited protein and subsequently dna synthesis in normal (mitogen-stimulated) and leukaemic human peripheral blood lymphocytes. the effect of the lectin was more rapid and more pronounced than that of the inhibitor, probably due to a better penetration of the lectin into cells. both proteins acted on lymphocytes more markedly and at concentrations much lower than those required to inhibit p ...19806110273
guanylate cyclase activity in human leukemic and normal lymphocytes. enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity of plant extracts.cyclic gmp is thought to be involved in lymphocytic cell proliferation and leukemogenesis. in general, the nucleotide is elevated in leukemic vs. normal lymphocytes and changes have been reported to occur during remission and relapse of this disease. although the ca/cg ratios are higher for normal lymphocytes the basal guanylate cyclase (ec 4.6.1.2) activities do not correlate with altered cyclic gmp levels. the crude guanylate cyclases display classical michaelis-menten kinetics with kms for mn ...19826122565
purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon.we have previously reported that a crude aqueous extract of the bitter melon (momordica charantia) has both cytostatic and cytotoxic activities, and is a competitive inhibitor of guanylate cyclase activity. this crude preparation kills human leukemic lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner while not affecting the viability of normal human lymphocytes at these same doses. in this report we describe the purification and characterization of one of these cytostatic factors which also exhibits anti-vi ...19836142453
purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon momordica charantia.in this report we describe the purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon (momordica charantia). as determined by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), this purified factor is a single component with an apparent molecular weight of 11,000. the factor is not sensitive to boiling or to pretreatments with trypsin, ribonuclease (rnase), or deoxyribonuclease (dnase). as determined by radioactive precursor uptake st ...19826185939
purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon.we have previously reported that a crude aqueous extract of the bitter melon (momordica charantia) has both cytostatic and cytotoxic activities, and is a competitive inhibitor of guanylate cyclase activity. this crude preparation kills human leukemic lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner while not affecting the viability of normal human lymphocytes at these same doses. in this report we describe the purification and characterization of one of these cytostatic factors which also exhibits anti-vi ...19836196772
effect of ribosome-inactivating proteins on virus-infected cells. inhibition of virus multiplication and of protein synthesis.hep-2 cells were infected with herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1) or with polio-virus i in the presence of plant proteins which inactivate ribosomes in cell-free systems, while exerting scarce effect on whole cells. ribosome-inactivating proteins used were gelonin, from seeds of gelonium multiflorum, an inhibitor from the seeds of momordica charantia, dianthin 32, from the leaves of dianthus caryophyllus (carnation), and pap-s, from the seeds of phytolacca americana (pokeweed). all proteins tested h ...19826284092
cytotoxicity acquired by ribosome-inactivating proteins carried by reconstituted sendai virus envelopes.association of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips): pokeweed antiviral protein (pap), gelonin, momordica charantia inhibitor (mci), with reconstituted sendai virus envelopes (rsve) was obtained without detectable loss of activities either of rips or of viral envelope glycoproteins. rips are inactive towards intact cells, but, once encapsulated in rsve, they become cytotoxic. the concentration of rsve-associated pap, which causes 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by friend erythroleukemic ...19836305714
oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of sri lanka.investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some sri lankan medicinal plants. approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. of these, the mostly widely used are (a) salacia reticulata (celastraceae) (b) aegle marmelos (rutaceae) and (c) momordica charantia (cucurbitaceae). aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance ...19846492834
cytoxicity of erythrocyte ghosts loaded with ribosome-inactivating proteins following fusion with cho cells.the ribosome-inactivating proteins gelonin, momordica charantia inhibitor, pokeweed antiviral protein, and one from saponaria officinalis were enclosed in human erythrocyte ghosts. the proteins once trapped in ghosts and fused with cho cells inhibited colony formation at concentrations of approximately 1 ng/ml (3 x 10(-11) m), whereas the free proteins only had an effect at concentrations of greater than 1 microgram/ml.19846541045
in vivo antitumor activity of the bitter melon (momordica charantia).the in vivo antitumor activity of a crude extract from the bitter melon (momordica charantia) was determined. the extract inhibited tumor formation in cba/h mice which had been given i.p. injections of 1.0 x 10(5) cba/dl tumor cells (77% of the untreated mice with tumors versus 33% of the treated mice with tumors after 6 weeks). the extract also inhibited tumor formation in dba/2 mice which had been given i.p. injections of either 1 x 10(5) p388 tumor cells (0% of untreated mice survived after 3 ...19836616452
the termination of early pregnancy in the mouse by beta-momorcharin.beta- momorcharin is a basic glycoprotein found in the seeds of momordica charantia l. it differed immunologically from alpha- momorcharin also of the same source but possessed similar mid-term abortifacient activity. intraperitoneal administration of beta- momocharin into mice on days 4 and 6 of pregnancy led to an inhibition of pregnancy. in vitro study showed that the protein disturbed peri-implantation development by: (a) blocking the hatching of embryos from the zona pellucida; (b) decreasi ...19846734206
improvement in glucose tolerance due to momordica charantia (karela).the effect of karela (momordica charantia), a fruit indigenous to south america and asia, on glucose and insulin concentrations was studied in nine non-insulin-dependent diabetics and six non-diabetic laboratory rats. a water-soluble extract of the fruits significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations during a 50 g oral glucose tolerance test in the diabetics and after force-feeding in the rats. fried karela fruits consumed as a daily supplement to the diet produced a small but significant i ...19816786635
effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia) seed & glibenclamide in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus. 19826811427
properties of the ribosome-inactivating proteins gelonin, momordica charantia inhibitor, and dianthins.the amino acid and sugar compositions of four ribosome-inactivating proteins (gelonin, momordica charantia inhibitor, dianthin 30 and dianthin 32) were determined. the proteins are all basic glycoproteins (pi greater than 8) containing mannose (more abundant in gelonin), glucose, xylose, fucose (absent from gelonin) and glucosamine. the ribosome-inactivating properties of the proteins examined are not modified by pretreatment with n-ethylmaleimide. precipitating and inactivating antibodies can b ...19826819861
the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of the bitter melon (momordica charantia) on human lymphocytes.we have previously reported that a crude extract from the bitter melon (momordica charantia) killed human leukemic lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner while not affecting the viability of normal human lymphocyte cells at these same doses (takemoto et al., 1980). we now report that the crude preparation has both cytostatic and cytotoxic activities which are heat stable and trypsin-sensitive. time and dose-response curves suggest that the factors act quickly, perhaps by entry into the cell. the ...19827201686
effect of momordica charantia on blood glucose level of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. 19817280086
inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro by proteins from the seeds of momordica charantia (bitter pear melon).1. a haemagglutinating lectin was purified from the seeds of momordica charantia by affinity chromatography on sepharose 4b and on acid-treated sepharose 6b. it has mol.wt. 115 000 and consists of four subunits, of mol.wts. 30 500, 29 000, 28 500 and 27 000. 2. the lectin inhibits protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an id50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of approx. 5 micrograms/ml. protein synthesis by yoshida ascites cells is partially inhibited by the lectin at a conc ...19807378061
purification and partial characterization of two lectins from momordica charantia.2 different lectins have been purified from the seeds of momordica charantia by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. these 2 lectins appear to be composed of 2 subunits of 26,000 daltons. protein fraction i, but not ii, showed agglutinating activity toward human type-o red blood cells. the amino acid compositions and amino-terminal sequences of these two homologous proteins are quite different.19807379938
effect of dietary intake of freeze dried bitter gourd (momordica charantia) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.consumption of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) by diabetic patients is a common practice in india, with the belief that it has an useful hypoglycemic potential. in the absence of conclusive information on the hypoglycemic influence of continuous intake of bitter gourd, in the present investigation, we have examined the hypoglycemic potency of dietary bitter gourd in experimentally induced diabetic rats. wistar rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) were maintained ...19957477242
inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) type 1 by anti-hiv plant proteins map30 and gap31.map30 (momordica anti-hiv protein of 30 kda) and gap31 (gelonium anti-hiv protein of 31 kda) are anti-hiv plant proteins that we have identified, purified, and cloned from the medicinal plants momordica charantia and gelonium multiflorum. these antiviral agents are capable of inhibiting infection of hiv type 1 (hiv-1) in t lymphocytes and monocytes as well as replication of the virus in already-infected cells. they are not toxic to normal uninfected cells because they are unable to enter healthy ...19957568024
trypsin and elastase inhibitors from bitter gourd (momordica charantia linn.) seeds: purification, amino acid sequences, and inhibitory activities of four new inhibitors.serine proteinase inhibitors of the squash family were isolated from bitter gourd (momordica charantia linn.) seeds by the conventional purification method. heat treatment of the extract of the seeds allowed removal of large amounts of protein without loss of trypsin and elastase inhibitory activities. from the supernatants thus obtained, the inhibitors were isolated to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and reversed phase chromatography. one trypsin inhibitor (momordica ...19957608135
anti-hiv and anti-tumor activities of recombinant map30 from bitter melon.map30 is an anti-hiv plant protein that we have identified and purified to homogeneity from bitter melon (momordica charantia). it is capable of acting against multiple stages of the viral life cycle, on acute infection as well as replication in chronically infected cells. in addition to antiviral action, map30 also possesses anti-tumor activity, topological inactivation of viral dna, inhibition of viral integrase and cell-free ribosome-inactivation activities. we have cloned and expressed the m ...19957665070
in vitro and in vivo properties of an anti-cd5-momordin immunotoxin on normal and neoplastic t lymphocytes.an anti-cd5 monoclonal antibody (mab) was linked to the plant toxin momordin, a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein purified from momordica charantia. the in vitro cytotoxicity of the immunotoxin was evaluated as the inhibition of protein and/or dna synthesis on isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) and on human t cell leukemia jurkat. the potency of the immunotoxin on pbmc was very high (ic50 = 1 - 10 pm) and was not affected by blood components. the conjugate was also very effici ...19937682894
potentiation of anti-hiv activity of anti-inflammatory drugs, dexamethasone and indomethacin, by map30, the antiviral agent from bitter melon.map30 is an antiviral protein from bitter melon (momordica charantia). the enhancement of weak hiv antagonists, dexamethasone and indomethacin, by map30 has been examined by measuring the reduction in p24 expression in acutely infected mt-4 lymphocytes. in the presence of 1.5 nm map30 the ic50 dose of dexamethasone and indomethacin has been lowered, without concurrent cytotoxicity, at least a thousand-fold to 10(-7) m and 10(-8) m, respectively. this observation indicates that map30, a multifunc ...19957695636
three-dimensional structure of gurmarin, a sweet taste-suppressing polypeptide.the solution structure of gurmarin was studied by two-dimensional proton nmr spectroscopy at 600 mhz. gurmarin, a 35-amino acid residue polypeptide recently discovered in an indian-originated tree gymnema sylvestre, selectively suppresses the neural responses of rat to sweet taste stimuli. sequence-specific resonance assignments were obtained for all backbone protons and for most of the side-chain protons. the three-dimensional solution structure was determined by simulated-annealing calculation ...19957787425
effect of momordica charantia on key hepatic enzymes.the effect of momordica charantia on certain key hepatic enzymes was investigated using male sprague-dawley rats as the animal model. fruit juice and seed extract of momordica charantia were administered orally at a daily dose of 1 ml/100 g body weight for 30 days under light ether anaesthesia while the control group received equivalent amounts of distilled water under identical conditions (n = 10 in each case). serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (p < 0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.01-0.00 ...19947853870
characterization of the okra mucilage by interaction with gal, galnac and glcnac specific lectins.a bio-active polysaccharide, which was the major component of the extract of the common okra, hibiscus esculentus, was isolated from the extract by precipitation with ethanol between 28.5 to 45%. according to a previous report (whistler, r.l. and conrad, h.e. (1954) j. am. chem. soc. 76, 1673-1674), this polysaccharide contains the gal alpha 1-->4gal sequence, which is the ligand for the uropathogenic escherichia coli and toxic lectins. analysis of the binding property of the okra polysaccharide ...19957873558
inhibition of serine proteases of the blood coagulation system by squash family protease inhibitors.squash family inhibitors are the smallest protein serine protease inhibitors, being composed of approximately 30 amino acid residues. we isolated 8 squash family inhibitors from the seeds of bitter gourd, squash, gourd and luffa and examined their effect on serine proteases of the blood coagulation system. five of them prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time of human plasma to various extents, but three did not. only momordica charantia (bitter gourd) trypsin inhibitor-ii prolonged t ...19947896727
action of alpha-momorcharin, a ribosome inactivating protein, on cultured tumor cell lines.1. alpha-momorcharin, a glycoprotein isolated from seeds of the bitter gourd, momordica charantia inhibited incorporation of [3h]thymidine, [3h]leucine and [3h]uridine into p388 (mouse monocyte-macrophage), j774 (balb/c macrophage), jar (human placental choriocarcinoma) and sarcoma s180 cell lines. 2. the most potent inhibitory effect was exerted on p388 cells and the smallest effect on sarcoma cells. 3. alpha-momorcharin also enhanced the tumoricidal effect of mouse macrophages on mouse mastocy ...19948026716
studies on hypoglycemic effects of fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant of momordica charantia on normal and diabetic model rats.extracts of momordica charantia fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant were tested for their hypoglycemic effects on normal and diabetic rat models. the results show that during the oral glucose tolerance test the peak blood glucose values in rats are obtained much earlier (15-45 min) than in human subjects (around 60 min). pulp juice of m. charantia lowered fasting blood glucose levels in normal rats (p < 0.05 at 120 min); the effect was more pronounced with the saponin-free methanol extract of the ...19938255932
hypoglycaemic activity of coccinia indica and momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and elevation of both liver and red-cell shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.coccinia indica leaves were extracted with 60% ethanol, solvents were evaporated and the residue was suspended in water. this suspension was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt. after 18 h of fasting to normal fed and streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats (180-250 g). after 90 min the rats were killed, and blood-glucose, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pdh) and red-cell g6pdh were assayed. blood sugar was depr ...19938389127
refined 1.6 a resolution crystal structure of the complex formed between porcine beta-trypsin and mcti-a, a trypsin inhibitor of the squash family. detailed comparison with bovine beta-trypsin and its complex.the crystal structure of the complex formed by porcine beta-trypsin with the mcti-a inhibitor (momordica charantia, linn. cucurbitaceae) has been determined at 1.6 a resolution using the molecular replacement method. the sequence of mcti-a was determined by recognizing the electron density, and shows that mcti-a is a member of the squash family of trypsin inhibitors. we report the first high-resolution structure of porcine beta-trypsin. detailed comparisons have been made on the overall structur ...19938445634
influence of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) on growth and blood constituents in albino rats.feeding of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) at 0.02, 0.1 and 0.5% (dry weight) levels in a semi-synthetic diet for a period of 8 weeks did not have any adverse influence on the food intake, growth and organ weights of normal adult rats. the haematological parameters of these experimental rats were also normal. serum cholesterol levels of the rats receiving 0.5% bitter gourd were significantly lower than those of the control rats. there was no hypoglycaemic effect of bitter gourd in these normo ...19938510714
the activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins map30 and gap31 against herpes simplex virus in vitro.we examined the effect on anti-hiv proteins map30 and gap31, from momordica charantia and gelonium multiflorum, on the infection and replication of herpes simplex viruses (hsv). human lung wi-38 fibroblasts cultured in the presence of tenfold dilutions of map30 or gap31 were exposed to hsv and viral yield was measured at 24-48 hours by elisa. the effective concentrations for 50% inhibitions (ec50) were 0.1-0.2 microm for hsv-2, and 0.3-0.5 microm for hsv-1 for map30 and gap31, respectively. in c ...19968645280
screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in aspergillus nidulans.knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. a screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in cuba: lepidium virginicum l. (brassicaceae): plantago major l. and plantago lanceolata l. (plantaginaceae); ortosiphon aristatus blume, mentha x piperita l., melissa officinalis l. and plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) spreng. (lamiaceae); cymbopogon citr ...19968771452
a highly efficient procedure for purifying the ribosome-inactivating proteins alpha- and beta-momorcharins from momordica charantia seeds, n-terminal sequence comparison and establishment of their n-glycosidase activity.a new purification scheme, involving two successive ion exchange chromatographic steps on deae-cellulose and mono-s fplc, was developed for the isolation of the ribosome-inactivating proteins, alpha- and beta-momorcharins, from the chinese herb kuquazi (seeds of momordica charantia). this simple and rapid procedure yielded 3.1 and 1.7 mg of alpha- and beta-momorcharins, respectively, from 2.5 g of decorticated seeds in only two days. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of beta-momorcharin was fou ...19968795701
demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes.in an effort to establish and document the hypoglycaemic activity of momordica charantia in validated models of diabetes, the alcoholic extract of the pulp was studied. in the normal glucose primed rat model, m. charantia fruit extract, 500 mg kg-1, depressed the plasma glucose levels by 10-15% at 1 h. under similar conditions, tolbutamide (100 mg kg-1) caused approximately 40% reductions in plasma glucose both at 1 and 2 h. at 500 mg kg-1, the efficacy of m. charantia was 25-30% of tolbutamide. ...19968817639
an investigation of some turkish herbal medicines in salmonella typhimurium and in the comet assay in human lymphocytes.medicinal plants play a major role in the life of turkish people and of late medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information about the biological activities of herbal medicine. in the present study, therefore, various turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic potential in the salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the alkaline single cell gel electroph ...19968875742
effect of bitter melon (momordica charantia) fruit juice on the hepatic cytochrome p450-dependent monooxygenases and glutathione s-transferases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.bitter melon (momordica charantia), commonly known as karela, has been reported to have hypoglycemic, antiviral, antidiabetic, and antitumor activities. in the present study, we have investigated the effects of oral feeding of karela fruit juice on the hepatic cytochrome p450 (cyp) and glutathione s-transferase (gst) drug-metabolizing enzymes in the streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rat. hepatic cyp contents, ethoxycoumarin-o-deethylase (ecod), ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod), aniline hy ...19968937480
characterization of the enzymatic mechanism of gamma-momorcharin, a novel ribosome-inactivating protein with lower molecular weight of 11,500 purified from the seeds of bitter gourd (momordica charantia).the enzymatic mechanism of a small ribosome-inactivating protein, gamma-momorcharin, purified from the seeds of momordica charantia, has been characterized. by sds-polyacrylamide and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, its molecular weight was measured to be 11,500 daltons which is much lower than other rips known to date. it can inhibit the protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system with id50 of 55 nm. when rat liver ribosome was incubated with gamma-momorcharin, a dia ...19968954120
[effect of momordica charantia l. in mice infected with plasmodium berghei].according to the world health organization malaria is one of the major public health problems in brazil and all over developing countries, where 80% of the population use traditional medicine to solve their primary medical problems. both treatment and control of this parasitosis have become difficult, because of parasite strains that are resistant to conventional drugs, such as chloroquine. that makes the search for new antimalarial drugs not only important but urgent. we aimed therefore at eval ...19968966309
plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: vegetables as potential hypoglycaemic agents.vegetables are among the numerous plant adjuncts tried for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. a few vegetables that are commonly consumed in india have been claimed to possess antidiabetic potency. in recent years, there has been a renewed interest to screen such plant food materials, for a possible beneficial use. considerable amount of work has been carried out in this regard with bitter gourd (momordica charantia) and ivy gourd (coccinia indica) both in experimental animals and human diabeti ...19979188186
antigenic determination fragments of alpha-momorcharin.alpha momorcharin is a protein isolated from the bitter gourd. it has a number of biological activities including induction of abortion, inhibition of tumor growth and anti-hiv. all these activities may be related to the ribosome-inhibiting activity of the protein. repeated use of alphammc can elicit an antigenic response which may neutralize its biological activity. to overcome this problem, we need to know which part of the molecule is the antigenic determinant. in this study, we constructed a ...19979367169
crystallization and preliminary x-ray studies of two serine proteinase inhibitors, bgia and bgit, from the seeds of bitter gourd.two serine proteinase inhibitors from seeds of the bitter gourd, bgia (bitter gourd inhibitor against acidic amino acid-specific proteinase of streptomyces griseus) and bgit (bitter gourd trypsin inhibitor), were crystallized for x-ray structure determination. crystals of bgia belong to the monoclinic space group c2 with cell dimensions of a = 54.0 a, b = 23.7 a, c = 47.9 a, and beta = 105.4 degrees, and diffracted x-ray up to 1.5 a resolution. crystals of bgit belong to the triclinic space grou ...19979417986
antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants extracts on escherichia coli, salmonella paratyphi and shigella dysenteriae.the antimicrobial activity of three plants extracts--momordica charantia, alstonia boonei, and ocimum bacilicum on pure and viable cultures of escherichia coli, salmonella paratyphi and shigella dysenterae was examined. cold maceration method of extraction using 95% ethanol was used for the extraction of the active constituents of the leaves. filter paper disks which were 6 mm in diameter were used for sensitivity testing. results showed that the extracts from the leaves of the three plants have ...19969532310
momordica charantia (bitter gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis.the present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of momordica charantia (bitter gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. topical application of momordica whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba) and/or during the tumor promotion stage reduced the (i) ...19989544697
chemical modifications of momordin-a and luffin-a, ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of momordica charantia and luffa cylindrica: involvement of his140, tyr165, and lys231 in the protein-synthesis inhibitory activity.effects of chemical modifications on the protein-synthesis inhibitory (psi) activities of momordin-a and luffin-a were investigated. treatment with a 50-fold excess of diethylpyrocarbonate at ph 6.5 modified one histidine residue in momordin-a and luffin-a and reduced their psi activities to 10% and 8.3%, respectively. modifications with a 20-fold excess of ki3 at ph 7.0 at 0 degree c greatly reduced their psi activities to 10% by iodination of nearly one tyrosine residue. the psi activity of mo ...19989648227
effects of neem flowers, thai and chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves on hepatic monooxygenases and glutathione s-transferase activities, and in vitro metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens in rats.the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of thai and the chinese bitter gourd (momordica charantia linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (ocimum basilicum linn) on the levels of phase i enzymes, which include cytochrome p450 (p450), aniline hydroxylase (anh) and aminopyrine-n-demethylase (amd) as well as the capacity to activate the mutagenicities ...19989674955
antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potentials of some thai vegetables.fifteen kinds of commonly consumed thai vegetables were sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform and methanol, and then tested for antimutagenic activities against direct-acting (af-2 and nan3) and indirect-acting (afb1 and b(a)p) mutagens using ames' salmonella mutagenicity test with salmonella typhimurium ta100 as tester strain. it was found that only the methanol extract of neem leaves contain weak antimutagen inhibiting the mutagenicities of both direct-acting mutagens. interestingly, ...19989675301
antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of momordica charantia (karela) in albino rats.petroleum ether, benzene and alcohol extracts of the seeds of momordica charantia tested in rats at the dose level of 25 mg/100 g body weight for 35 days showed antispermatogenic activity as the number of spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa was decreased. increase in cholesterol level and sudanophilic lipid accumulation indicates inhibition in the steroidogenesis. at the same time the weight of epididymis, prostate gland, seminal vesicle and levator ani was increased which showed its andro ...19989687077
nutritional quality of lactic fermented bitter gourd and fenugreek leaves.pediococcus pentosaceus was selected from isolates obtained from the naturally fermenting bitter gourd and fenugreek leaves based on its high titre and broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against spoilage organisms. this strain was then employed for fermentation of bitter gourd and fenugreek which resulted in a more acceptable product having enhanced fat, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid levels. it was of interest to note that vitamin b12 was formed in the fenugreek as a result of the fermentation ...19989713580
effects of momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.an investigation was made of the effect of momordica charantia fruit juice on the distribution and number of alpha, beta and delta cells in the pancreas of streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rats using immunohistochemical methods. the results indicated that there was a significant (student's t-test, p < 0.004) increase in the number of beta cells in m. charantia-treated animals when compared with untreated diabetics, however, their number was still significantly less than that obtained for no ...19989716917
nutritional characteristics of oil containing conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid.the nutritive value of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid (c18:3 delta9,11,13alpha-elaeostearic acid) as occurs in karela seed (momordica charantia) oil was studied. when rats were fed at the 20% level for 6 weeks, the growth pattern of rats and the food efficiency ratio showed a slightly significant difference compared to the group raised on linseed oil with non-conjugated octadecatrienoic acid (c18:3 delta9,12,15alpha-linolenic acid) as control. the concentrations of total cholesterol, tri ...19989812020
plants from puerto rico with anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis properties.this study assesses the antitubercular potential of natural products obtained from plants reputed to have medicinal properties and collected from the tropical flora of puerto rico.19989883470
dietary effects of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid (9 cis, 11 trans, 13 trans) levels on blood lipids and nonenzymatic in vitro lipid peroxidation in rats.the present study examined the antioxidant activity of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid (9 cis,11 trans,13 trans-18:3), alpha-eleostearic acid, of karela seed (momordica charantia), fed to rats for 4 wk. the growth pattern of rats and the effect on plasma cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (hdl) cholesterol and peroxidation of plasma lipid, lipoprotein, eryhrocyte membrane, and liver lipid were measured. rats were raised on diets containing sunflower oil mixed with three different le ...199910102236
crystal structure of a ribonuclease from the seeds of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) at 1.75 a resolution.the ribonuclease mc1 (rnase mc1) from seeds of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) consists of 190 amino acid residues with four disulfide bridges and belongs to the rnase t(2) family, including fungal rnases typified by rnase rh from rhizopus niveus and rnase t(2) from aspergillus oryzae. the crystal structure of rnase mc1 has been determined at 1.75 a resolution with an r-factor of 19.7% using the single isomorphous replacement method. rnase mc1 structurally belongs to the (alpha+beta) class of ...199910446375
alpha-momorcharin inhibits hiv-1 replication in acutely but not chronically infected t-lymphocytes.to identify the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) activities of alpha-momorcharin (alpha-mmc) from momordica charantia in acutely and chronically infected t-lymphocytes.199910452099
screening of turkish anti-ulcerogenic folk remedies for anti-helicobacter pylori activity.the anti-helicobacter pylori effect of the extracts and fractions obtained from seven turkish plants, which are used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ailments including peptic ulcers, were studied against one standard strain and eight clinical isolates of h. pylori by using the agar dilution method. flowers of cistus laurifolius and spartium junceum, cones of cedrus libani, herbs and flowers of centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis, fruits of momordica charantia, herbaceous parts ...199910473175
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