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isolation and fusion studies on protoplasts from pollen tetrads.different enzymes were tested for isolation of intact protoplasts from pollen tetrads. about 80% isolation was achieved from pollen tetrads of cajanus cajan and zea mays and about 60% from luffa cylindrica and lycopersicon esculentum after 4 h of treatment with 5% cellulase. when these mononucleate protoplasts were incubated in presence of 0.05 m cacl2 in 0.3 m glucose at ph 10.5, 70-80% fusion was achieved. fusion was rare in sodium nitrate solutions.1977321241
complete amino acid sequence of luffin-a, a ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica).the complete amino acid sequence of luffin-a has been determined. twenty-two peptides were isolated from the tryptic digest of luffin-a and sequenced employing the dabitc/pitc double coupling method. overlaping of these peptides was achieved by analyzing the chymotryptic peptides or cnbr-fragments of luffin-a and their s. aureus v8 protease peptides. luffin-a consists of 248 amino acid residues and its relative molecular mass is calculated to be 27,021 da, excluding the attached sugar chains rea ...19901368651
complete amino acid sequence of luffin-b, a ribosome-inactivating protein from sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica) seeds.the complete amino acid sequence of luffin-b has been determined. all the twenty-seven tryptic peptides were isolated by reverse-phase hplc from the tryptic digests of intact luffin-b and one of its cnbr fragments (cb4), and sequenced using the dabitc/pitc double coupling method. the overlap of these peptides was achieved by analyzing the cnbr fragments and their chymotryptic peptides. luffin-b consists of 250 amino acid residues with a relative molecular mass of 27,275 da. investigation for gly ...19911368666
structures of two new fibrinolytic saponins from the seed of luffa cylindrica roem.two new fibrinolytic saponins, lucyosides n and p, were isolated from the seeds of luffa cylindrica roem. (cucurbitaceae). on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence, lucyoside n was characterized as 3-o-beta-d-galactopyranosyl-(1----2)-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl-28- o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-l -rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-alpha-arabinopyranosyl quillaic acid. lucyoside p was characterized as a gypsogenin glycoside with the same sugar moiety as lucyos ...19911913996
identification of lysine residue at or near active site of luffin-a, a ribosome-inactivating protein from seeds of luffa cylindrica.luffin-a, a ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica), was modified with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (tnbs) at ph 8.0 and 20 degrees c. the inhibitory activity of the modified luffin-a on protein synthesis using rabbit reticulocyte lysate was lost rapidly at a rate compatible with that of the modification of a single highly reactive amino group in the initial stage of the reaction. by cation-exchange fplc of the products of 5-min modification, tnp-luf ...19892516857
isolation and molecular characterization of four arginine/glutamate rich polypeptides from the seeds of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica).four arginine/glutamate rich polypeptides referred to as 5 k-, 6.5 k-, 12.5 k-, and 14 k-agrps were purified to homogeneity by gel filtration on sephadex g-75 followed by cm-cellulose, butyl-toyopearl 650 m, and reverse-phase hplc from the seed of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica). tricine sds-page indicated that 5 k- and 6.5 k-agrps are single polypeptides, but 12.5 k- and 14 k-agrps consist of two polypeptide chains, which are linked by disulfide bond(s). the n-terminal amino acid sequences of f ...19979028046
differential response of human melanoma and ehrlich ascites cells in vitro to the ribosome-inactivating protein luffin.the cytotoxicity and inhibitory effect on proliferation of the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein luffin purified from the seeds of luffa aegyptiaca were investigated both in human metastatic melanoma cells and in murine ehrlich ascites tumour cells. results indicate that luffin from the seeds of luffa aegyptiaca is cytotoxic to the cell lines tested, with approximately 10 times greater potency in ehrlich cells. luffin was found to induce an increase in cytosolic oligonucleosome-bound dna in b ...19989835461
regulation of pathogenicity in hop stunt viroid-related group ii citrus viroids.nucleotide sequences were determined for two hop stunt viroid-related group ii citrus viroids characterized as either a cachexia disease non-pathogenic variant (cvd-iia) or a pathogenic variant (cvd-iib). sequence identity between the two variants of 95.6% indicated a conserved genome with the principal region of nucleotide difference clustered in the variable (v) domain. full-length viroid rt-pcr cdna products were cloned into plasmid sp72. viroid cdna clones as well as derived rna transcripts ...19989880036
immobilization of polymethylgalacturonase producing aspergillus niger on luffa sponge material.the vegetable sponge of luffa cylindrica was studied as a matrix for the immobilization of aspergillus niger 26, producer of polymethylgalacturonase (pmg). entrapped spores could grow and multiply within the lattice of the sponge. the influence of loofa sponge inoculum content, initial spore inoculum content, and duration of the growth cycle on the enzyme activity and mycelium growth was studied. the best yield of pmg was reached with 1 piece of loofa sponge (approx. 0.10 g dry weight), 10(9) sp ...19989933964
vegetable sponge as a matrix to immobilize micro-organisms: a trial study for hyphal fungi, yeast and bacteria.the vegetable sponge of luffa cylindrica was studied as a matrix for the immobilization of hyphal fungi, yeast and bacteria. all were observed to be entrapped within the sponge. when the various immobilized systems were subcultured in their respective fresh nutrient media, the hyphal fungi showed an increase in biomass with no cellular release and secondary colony formation. the immobilized yeast and bacteria released cells into the medium. advantages of the reticulated biostructure as an immobi ...19947764701
amino acid sequences of the two smallest trypsin inhibitors from sponge gourd seeds. 19911368760
n-acetyl-d-glucosamine-asparagine structure in ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of luffa cylindrica and phytolacca americana.glycosylation-site-containing peptides were isolated from the proteolytic digests of luffin-a, luffin-b, pap-s and cnbr-fragments of pap-s by reverse-phase hplc, and their amino acid compositions and sequences were analyzed. six peptides were obtained from luffin-a, and three each from luffin-b and pap-s. all of these peptides were negative toward the phenol-h2so4 reaction and gave only n-acetyl-d-glucosamine in gas chromatography after methanolysis and reacetylation. amounts of n-acetyl-d-gluco ...19911368685
complete amino acid sequence of luffin-a, a ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of luffa cylindrica. 19901368623
isolation and partial characterization of three protein-synthesis inhibitory proteins from the seeds of luffa cylindrica.three new proteins which inhibit protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates were isolated from an extract of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica) seeds by chromatography on a af-blue toyopearl column followed by fplc with a mono s column. these three protein-synthesis inhibitory proteins (psis) have molecular masses of 19 kda, 15 kda, and 9 kda, and were designated 19k-psi, 15k-psi, and 9k-psi, respectively. although the 19k-psi had no effect on protein synthesis in hela cells, its inhibitory a ...19901368610
crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of luffaculin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from sponge-gourd seeds.luffaculin is a ribosome-inactivating protein. crystals suitable for x--ray diffraction were first obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. x-ray studies show that the crystals belong to space group c2, with unit-cell parameters a = 89.90, b = 59.82, c = 55.18 a, beta = 120.81 degrees, and have one molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. the crystals diffract x-rays to at least 2.0 a resolution.200010666599
antiproliferative effect and apoptotic response in vitro of human melanoma cells to liposomes containing the ribosome-inactivating protein luffin.the present study describes the liposome-mediated delivery of the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein luffin to human melanoma cells in vitro. luffin from luffa cylindrica seeds has been successfully incorporated into lecithin/cholesterol and lecithin/cholesterol/dicetylphosphate negatively charged liposomes. the exposure of melanoma cells to the two types of liposomes resulted in the inhibition of protein synthesis and cell growth; apoptotic cell death was verified by means of tunel reaction a ...199910572941
chemical modifications of momordin-a and luffin-a, ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of momordica charantia and luffa cylindrica: involvement of his140, tyr165, and lys231 in the protein-synthesis inhibitory activity.effects of chemical modifications on the protein-synthesis inhibitory (psi) activities of momordin-a and luffin-a were investigated. treatment with a 50-fold excess of diethylpyrocarbonate at ph 6.5 modified one histidine residue in momordin-a and luffin-a and reduced their psi activities to 10% and 8.3%, respectively. modifications with a 20-fold excess of ki3 at ph 7.0 at 0 degree c greatly reduced their psi activities to 10% by iodination of nearly one tyrosine residue. the psi activity of mo ...19989648227
isolation and characterization of luffacylin, a ribosome inactivating peptide with anti-fungal activity from sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica) seeds.a purification scheme involving ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose and mono s was employed to isolate a peptide with a molecular weight of 7.8kda from sponge gourd seeds. the peptide, which was designated luffacylin, exhibited an n-terminal sequence with pronounced resemblance to that of the 6.5kda arginine-glutamate rich polypeptide previously isolated from sponge gourd seeds. luffacylin in ...200212126727
primary structure of 6.5k-arginine/glutamate-rich polypeptide from the seeds of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica).the amino acid sequence of 6.5k-arginine/glutamate rich polypeptide (6.5k-agrp) from the seeds of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica) has been determined. the 6.5k-agrp consists of a 47-residue polypeptide chain containing two disulfide bonds, and a molecular mass calculated to be 5695 da, which fully coincides with a value of [m+h]+ = m/zeta 5693.39 obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms). the mass spectrometric evidence indicated that ...19979214759
effect of luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.the present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (stz) diabetic rats. treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in stz diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. l. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose level with a potency similar to that of the biguanide, metformin. the total glycaemic are ...19968778506
[biological characters of the different varieties for luffa cylindrica].the yield of luffa cylindrica cultivated in taiyuan of shanxi province, which introduced from zhejiang province, was obviously high than that of local variety. the paper reported the biological characters of the two varieties.199912575101
protein, cdna, and genomic dna sequences of the towel gourd trypsin inhibitor. a squash family inhibitor.two trypsin inhibitor components of the squash family were isolated and purified from the juice of the towel gourd (luffa cylindrica) using anhydrotrypsin affinity chromatography followed by high pressure liquid chromatography. the inhibitors were sequenced and found to consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues. the determined sequences show high similarity to other inhibitors of the squash family, especially in the location of disulfide bonds and the reactive site and also in the cooh-terminal r ...19938419358
a novel circulating loop bioreactor with cells immobilized in loofa ( luffa cylindrica) sponge for the bioconversion of raw cassava starch to ethanol.a circulating loop bioreactor (clb) with cells immobilized in loofa sponge was constructed for simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic processes. the clb consists of an aerated riser and a non-aerated downcomer column connected at the top and bottom by cylindrical pipes. ethanol production from raw cassava starch was investigated in the clb. aspergillus awamori iam 2389 and saccharomyces cerevisiae ir2 immobilized on loofa sponge were placed, respectively, in the aerated riser column and non-aerated ...200312664145
the ribosome-inactivating, antiproliferative and teratogenic activities and immunoreactivities of a protein from seeds of luffa aegyptiaca (cucurbitaceae).1. the protein isolated from luffa aegyptiaca seeds was capable of inhibiting protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and [3h]thymidine uptake by mouse melanoma (b16) cells. 2. it also adversely affected the development of mouse embryos in culture. 3. in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay it reacted with antisera raised against other ribosome-inactivating proteins.19938365647
l-lactic acid production from raw cassava starch in a circulating loop bioreactor with cells immobilized in loofa (luffa cylindrica).l-lactic acid was produced from raw cassava starch, by simultaneous enzyme production, starch saccharification and fermentation in a circulating loop bioreactor with aspergillus awamori and lactococcus lactis spp. lactis immobilized in loofa sponge. a. awamori was immobilized directly in cylindrical loofa sponge while the l. lactis was immobilized in a loofa sponge alginate gel cube. in the loofa sponge alginate gel cube, the sponge serves as skeletal support for the gel with the cells. the algi ...200312889820
luffin-s--a small novel ribosome-inactivating protein from luffa cylindrica. characterization and mechanism studies.we purified and characterized a novel rip (ribosome inactivating protein), luffin-s from the seeds of luffa cylindrica. different from luffin-a and b, which are rna n-glycosidases with molecular weights of 27 and 28 kda, respectively, luffin-s has an m.w. of only approx. 10 kda, much smaller than any other rips so far investigated. its abundant resources, toxicity similar to tcs in a cell-free protein synthesis system and unique mechanism as phosphodiesterase, like alpha-sarcin, promisingly make ...19948034014
[chemical constituents of luffa cylindrica (l.) roem].six compounds were isolated from the fruits of luffa cylindrica. they were identified as lucyosides c, e, f, h, a mixture of alpha-spinasterol and stigmasta-7,22,25-trien-3 beta-oh and a mixture of alpha-spinasteryl glucoside and delta 7,22,25-stigmasteryl-beta-d-glucoside by means of chemical evidence and spectral analysis.19947945857
anti-complement activity of oleanolic acid: an inhibitor of c3-convertase of the classical complement pathway.oleanolic acid is a naturally occurring compound, isolated from luffa cylindrica, which inhibits the in-vitro immunohaemolysis of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes by guinea-pig serum. in further experiments this reduced immunohaemolysis was found to be due to inhibition of the c3-convertase of the classical complement pathway. the threshold concentration for inhibition of c3-convertase was 100 micrograms ml-1. however, higher concentrations of oleanolic acid showed constant inhibitory effects ...19947897600
scale up of fuel ethanol production from sugar beet juice using loofa sponge immobilized bioreactor.production of fuel ethanol from sugar beet juice, using cells immobilized on loofa sponge was investigated. based on ethanol productivity and ease of cell immobilization, a flocculating yeast strain, saccharomyces cerevisiae ir2 was selected for ethanol production from sugar beet juice. it was found that raw sugar beet juice was an optimal substrate for ethanol production, requiring neither ph adjustment nor nitrogen source supplement. when compared with a 2 l bubble column bioreactor, mixing wa ...200111315804
[studies on the constituents of cucurbitaceae plants. vi. on the saponin constituents of luffa cylindrica roem. (1)]. 19846470933
occurrence and significance of cryptococcus neoformans in vegetables and fruits.cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from three of 437 (0.6%) samples of a wide variety of vegetables collected from a number of markets in delhi. the vegetables yielding c. neoformans were tomato, lycopersicon esculentum (1/70), 'vegetable sponge', luffa cylindrica (1/56) and brinjal, solanum melongena (1/55). only solitary samples of these three vegetables were found to be positive. in vitro studies at 25 degrees c revealed that a reference c. neoformans isolate readily colonized, as did candi ...200015597680
[antiviral effect of an extract of luffa cylindrica (l 043) on japanese b encephalitis virus infection in vivo]. 19853006360
loofa sponge as a scaffold for culture of rat hepatocytes.the dried fruit from luffa cylindrica (loofa sponge, ls), which represents a new chitinous source material, was used as a 3-d scaffold for the culture of rat hepatocytes. with the macroporous structure and large pore size (ca. 800 microm) of ls, cell loading to the scaffold should be carried out by dynamic seeding with continuous shaking throughout the seeding period. hepatocytes attach well to the surface of loofa fibers after seeding and maintain their round shapes. the initial ammonia removal ...200515903271
characterization of a translation inhibitory protein from luffa aegyptiaca.a protein with a molecular weight of about 30,000 was purified from the seeds of luffa aegyptiaca. this protein inhibited cell free translation at pm concentrations. in spite of functional similarity to other ribosomal inhibitory proteins, the nh2-terminal analysis did not show any significant homology. competitive inhibition studies indicate no immunological crossreactivity between the inhibitory protein from luffa aegyptiaca, pokeweed antiviral protein (pap) and recombinant ricin a chain. chem ...19892719679
[antiviral effects of extracts of the luffa cylindrica vine. in vivo and in vitro studies]. 19872446788
production of fungal biomass immobilized loofa sponge (fbils)-discs for the removal of heavy metal ions and chlorinated compounds from aqueous solution.a white rot basidiomycete, phanerochaete chrysosporium, was immobilized on loofa sponge (fbils) discs. it removed ca. 37 and 71 mg cd (ii) g(-1) from 50 and 200 mg l(-1) aqueous solutions and up to 89% of 4-chloroanisole from a 10 mg l(-1) aqueous solution. fbils are physically strong and chemically recalcitrant, resisting temperature, mechanical agitation, and variations in ph without alteration to shape, structure or texture.200516215832
anti-allergic effect of bryonolic acid from luffa cylindrica cell suspension cultures.the anti-allergic activity of bryonolic acid (1) isolated from the cultured cells of luffa cylindrica l. (cucurbitaceae) was compared with that of glycyrrhetinic acid (2), the aglycone of glycyrrhizin from licorice. compound 1, when administered to rats intraperitoneally at a dose of 600 mg/kg, inhibited homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis more strongly than 2 at the same dose. compound 1 also significantly inhibited delayed hypersensitivity in mice which could not be inhibited by 2. in con ...19911818343
nucleotide sequence of cdna encoding beta-luffin, another ribosome-inactivating protein from luffa cylindrica. 19921643290
nucleotide sequence of cdna encoding alpha-luffin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from luffa cylindrica. 19921600156
two proteins with ribosome-inactivating, cytotoxic and abortifacient activities from seeds of luffa cylindrica roem (cucurbitaceae).two immunologically distinct glycoproteins, with a molecular weight of 28,000 and 28,500 respectively, were isolated from seeds of luffa cylindrica using a procedure that involved acetone precipitation, gel filtration on sephadex g-75 and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose cl-6b. the proteins differed in the content of aspartic acid, threonine, proline and alanine but were otherwise similar in amino acid composition. the proteins were capable of inducing mid-term abortion in mice, inhib ...19921503559
proteins with abortifacient, ribosome inactivating, immunomodulatory, antitumor and anti-aids activities from cucurbitaceae plants.1. the biochemical characteristics and biological activities of eight cucurbitaceae plant proteins designated trichosanthin (isolated from tubers of trichosanthes kirilowii), beta-trichosanthin (isolated from tubers of trichosanthes cucumeroides), alpha- and beta-momorcharins (isolated from seeds of momordica charantia), momorchochin (isolated from tubers of momordica cochinchinensis), luffaculin (isolated from seeds of luffa acutangula) and luffin-a and luffin-b (isolated from seeds of luffa cy ...19921397965
[studies on the chemical structure of lucyoside r from leaves of luffa cylindrica roem].a new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin, lucyoside r, has been isolated from the leaves of luffa cylindrica along with lucyoside g. its stucture was established as 2 alpha, 21 beta-dihydroxyhederagenin-3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside based on spectral and chemical evidence.199711596219
molecular cloning and characterization of isomultiflorenol synthase, a new triterpene synthase from luffa cylindrica, involved in biosynthesis of bryonolic acid.an oxidosqualene cyclase cdna, lcims1, was isolated from cultured cells of luffa cylindrica roem. by heterologous hybridization with cdna of glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase. expression of lcims1 in yeast lacking endogenous oxidosqualene cyclase activity resulted in the accumulation of isomultiflorenol, a triterpene. this is consistent with lcims1 encoding isomultiflorenol synthase, an oxidosqualene cyclase involved in bryonolic acid biosynthesis in cultured luffa cells. the deduced amino ...200111733028
acetylation of loofa (luffa cylindrica) sponge as immobilization carrier for bioprocesses involving cellulase.the feasibility of using loofa sponge for immobilization of cellulase-producing microorganisms was investigated by acetylating loofa sponge. acetylation was achieved by autoclaving process of loofa sponge immersed in acetic anhydride at various temperatures for various times. the degree of acetylation, as inferred by the weight percentage gain (wpg), was enhanced by increasing both temperature and the duration of acetylation. the acetylation of a piece of loofa sponge in an autoclave at 120 degr ...200717502271
luffangulin, a novel ribosome inactivating peptide from ridge gourd (luffa acutangula) seeds.a ribosome inactivating peptide, with an n-terminal sequence exhibiting pronounced similarity to that of the 6.5 kda-arginine/glutamate-rich polypeptide from luffa cylindrica seeds, was isolated from seeds of a closely related species, the ridge gourd luffa acutangula. the 5.6 kda-peptide designated luffangulin inhibited cell-free translation with an ic50 of 3.5 nm but lacked inhibitory activity toward hiv-1 reverse transcriptase. it was similar to luffaculin, the 28 kda ribosome inactivating pr ...200211853228
isolation of lilin, a novel arginine- and glutamate-rich protein with potent antifungal and mitogenic activities from lily bulbs.from the dried bulbs of the lily (lilium brownii), a protein with strong antifungal and mitogenic activities was isolated. it also exhibited an inhibitory action on the activity of hiv-1 reverse transcriptase. the protein was single-chained and possessed a molecular weight of 14.4 kda and an n-terminal sequence distinct from chitinases and antimicrobial proteins of garlic, leek and onion which belong to a family closely related to lily. however, there was a small degree of resemblance to cycloph ...200211860155
preparation and use of a monoclonal antibodyagainst luffin b.luffin b is one of the most toxic single chain plant ribosome inactivating proteins. it has been successfully used to prepare an immunotoxin against human melanoma cells. two strains of hybridomas (1e5 and 2e1) were screened out using cell fusion technique which steadily secreted monoclonal antibodies against luffin b. these antibodies specifically reacted with luffin b. the affinity constants of 1e5 and 2e1 monoclonal antibodies were determined to be 1.1x10(9) mol(-1).l and 7.5x10(8) mol(-)1.l, ...200112053196
loofa sponge as a scaffold for the culture of human hepatocyte cell line.loofa sponge was investigated as a three-dimensional scaffold for stationary and perfusion culture of human hepatoblastoma cell line c3a/hepg2. in stationary culture, c3a/hepg2 cells in loofa cubes showed higher alpha-fetoprotein and albumin secretion rates than those in polyurethane foam (pu). to use loofa cylinders in a packed-bed reactor, immobilization of c3a/hepg2 cells by recirculating medium at 26 ml/min (superficial velocity = 51.7 cm/min) resulted in a cell loading density of 5.15 x 10( ...200312675596
[purification and partial characterization of luffin p1, a peptide with translational inhibitory activity and trypsin inhibitory activity, from seeds of luffa cylindrica].a peptide, luffin p1, from seeds of luffa cylindrica, was purified by ammonia sulfate precipitation, cm-52 ion exchange chromatography, blue-gel affinity chromatography and fplc mono s ion exchange chromatography. its molecular weight was 5226.5 as determined by maldi-tof-ms analysis. the sequence of n-terminal 11 amino acids of luffin p1 was identical with the partial n-terminal sequence (from g3 to r13) of 6.5k arg/glu rich peptide, which was also isolated from the seeds of luffa cylindrica. b ...200312958659
removal and recovery of nickel(ii) from aqueous solution by loofa sponge-immobilized biomass of chlorella sorokiniana: characterization studies.the biosorption process for the removal of nickel(ii) by loofa sponge-immobilized biomass of chlorella sorokiniana (libcs), a newly developed immobilized biosorbent, was characterized. effects of environmental factors on metal uptake capacity of libcs were studied and compared with free biomass of c. sorokiniana (fbcs). nickel(ii) removal by libcs was found to be influenced by ph of the solution, initial metal concentration, and biomass concentration. the biosorption of nickel(ii) ions by both l ...200415081166
loofa sponge immobilized fungal biosorbent: a robust system for cadmium and other dissolved metal removal from aqueous solution.the potential of loofa sponge discs to immobilize fungal biomass of phanerochaete chrysosporium (a known biosorbent) was investigated as a low cost biosorbent for the removal of cd(ii) ions from aqueous solution. a comparison of the biosorption of cd(ii) by immobilized and free fungal biomass from 10 to 500 mg l(-1) aqueous solutions showed an increase in uptake of over 19% when the biomass is immobilized (maximum biosorption capacity of 89 and 74 mg cd(ii) g(-1) biomass for immobilized and free ...200516202804
bioethanol production from uncooked raw starch by immobilized surface-engineered yeast cells.surface-engineered yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and streptococcus bovis alpha-amylase on the cell surface was used for direct production of ethanol from uncooked raw starch. by using 50 g/l cells during batch fermentation, ethanol concentration could reach 53 g/l in 7 days. during repeated batch fermentation, the production of ethanol could be maintained for seven consecutive cycles. for cells immobilized in loofa sponge, the concentration of ethanol c ...200818425612
statistical optimization of alpha-amylase production with immobilized cells of streptomyces erumpens mtcc 7317 in luffa cylindrica l. sponge discs.the purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of streptomyces erumpens cells immobilized in various matrices, i.e., agar-agar, polyacrylamide, and luffa (luffa cylindrica l.) sponge for production of alpha-amylase. luffa sponge was found to be 21% and 51% more effective in enzyme yield than agar-agar and polyacrylamide, respectively. response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of three main variables, i.e., incubation period, ph, and temperature on enzyme production ...200918521760
biosorption characteristics of unicellular green alga chlorella sorokiniana immobilized in loofa sponge for removal of cr(iii).loofa sponge (ls) immobilized biomass of chlorella sorokiniana (lsibcs), isolated from industrial wastewater, was investigated as a new biosorbent for the removal of cr(iii) from aqueous solution. a comparison of the biosorption of cr(iii) by lsibcs and free biomass of c. sorokiniana (fbcs) from 10-300 mg cr(iii)/l aqueous solutions showed an increase in uptake of 17.79% when the microalgal biomass was immobilized onto loofa sponge. maximum biosorption capacity for lsibcs and fbcs was found to b ...200818574966
production of an anti-allergic triterpene bryonolic acid, by plant cell cultures.cell suspension cultures of luffa cylindrica, citrullus lanatus, and related cucurbitaceous plants accumulate large quantities of bryonolic acid (3 beta-hydroxy-d:c-friedoolean-8-en-29-oic acid) [1], an acidic, pentacyclic triterpene found exclusively in the roots of the intact plants. this compound could readily be isolated from cultured cells with chcl3 and purified simply by recrystallization. pharmacological tests using mice demonstrated that bryonolic acid or its derivative is active agains ...19938463793
production of lactic acid with loofa sponge immobilized rhizopus oryzae rbu2-10.lactic acid production by rhizopus oryzae rbu2-10 immobilized in loofa sponge was evaluated. shape and texture of loofa sponge, which was obtained from the mature dried fruit of luffa cylindrica, remained intact after its treatment with buffers of varying ph and following its repeated autoclaving for up to four cycles (121 degrees c, 20 min per cycle). the medium having four pieces of loofa sponge (1.008 cm(3)) per 100 ml medium and inoculated with 3 x1 0(6) spores ml(-1) resulted maximum produc ...200716790343
cloning and expression of luffin-b cdna from the seeds of luffa cylindrica.luffin-b with mr. 28 kd, isolated from the seeds of luffa cylindrica,is one of the most toxic single chain plant ribosome inactivating proteins. the cdna sequence of luffin-b was already reported by kataoka in 1992. in this work, the luffin-b gene(lufb) coding sequence was cloned from the fresh seeds of luffa cylindrica by rt-pcr, and the coding sequence of the gene was shown to be identical with that determined by kataoka. the lufb expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the lufb cdna f ...200112050811
in vitro inhibition of human melanoma cells by immunotoxin luffin b-ng76.luffin b, a plan single-chain ribosome inactivating protein, was purified from seeds of luffa cylindrica by blue sepharose cl-6b affinity chromatography. an immunotoxin was constructed with luffin b and ng76, a monoclonal antibody to human melanoma cell m(21). luffin b-ng76 showed 4 000-fold more cytotoxic to target melanoma cells than free luffin b. the ic(50) of luffin b-ng76 for m(21) cells and non-target hela cells was 2.5x10(-11) mol/l and 3.0x10(-8) mol/l, respectively. the results suggest ...199812167988
the complete nucleotide sequence of two distinct geminiviruses infecting cucurbits in vietnam.we have characterised two distinct geminiviruses that infect cucurbit cultivars in vietnam. the genomes of both viruses consisted of two circular ssdna components (dna-a and dna-b), with a genome arrangement and coding sequence typical of viruses in the begomovirus genus in the family geminiviridae. the sequence of dna-a of one of the viruses was approximately 97% similar to squash leaf curl virus-china (slcv-ch), for which a dna-b has yet to be identified. we have named this virus squash leaf c ...200312898329
alginate coated loofa sponge discs for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions.a biosorbent was prepared by coating the fibrous network of loofa sponge (luffa cylindrica) with a thin film of calcium alginate. alginate-coated loofa sponge removed cd(ii) rapidly, reaching equilibrium loading of 124 mg g(-1) in 30 min. seventy % of equilibrium uptake was achieved in 10 min. in contrast, it took 240 min for alginate beads to reach a loading equilibrium of 88 mg g(-1) under identical conditions. the biosorption behaviour followed the langmuir adsorption isotherm and the acls bi ...200415000486
disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.this study examined the potential of extracts of the plant luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of l. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. the maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. fruit extracts were more successful at in ...200920088208
experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. this research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (agave sisalana), coir fiber (cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and ...200515946707
evaluation of antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production of some common vegetables.the objectives of this study were to study the antioxidant activities and nitric oxide (no) scavenging effects of vegetables in vitro systems and to study the inhibitory effects of vegetables on the no production and no-induced dna damage in raw 264.7 macrophage. the results indicated that water extracts from indian lotus, jew's ear, shiitake, eggplant, and winter mushroom showed stronger antioxidant activity and free-radical-scavenging ability than that of other vegetable extracts. the scavengi ...200616506819
immunomodulatory effects of two sapogenins 1 and 2 isolated from luffa cylindrica in balb/c mice.two triterpenoids (sapogenins 1 and 2) isolated from luffa cylindrica were subjected to immunomodulatory activity in male balb/c mice. mice were treated with three doses of sapogenins 1 and 2 (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and levamisole (2.5 mg/kg) used as a standard reference drug for 15 days. immune responses to t-dependent antigen srbcs were observed using parameters like ha, pfc, dth, lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytosis. as regards these parameters, sapogenins 1 and 2 elicited a significant i ...200717270438
biosorption of lead, mercury, and cadmium ions by aspergillus terreus immobilized in a natural matrix.our aim was to investigate the biosorption of pb2+, hg2+, cd2 from aqueous solution by aspergillus terreus (both free and immobilized on loofa sponge discs). our results show that the adsorption capacity of fungal biomass on loofa sponge (fbls) is superior to free fungal biomass (ffb). the adsorption selectivity by fbls was in the order pb2+>hg2+>cd2+. the maximum metal ions adsorbed was 247.2, 37.7, 23.8 mg/g fbls for pb2+, hg2+ and cd2+, respectively. metal uptake by fbls was affected by the p ...201020568528
cloning and soluble expression of mature alpha-luffin from luffa cylindrica and its antitumor activities in vitro.luffin-a, a single-chain type i ribosome-inactivating protein, which is known to be the most toxic of the luffin family and apparently possesses antitumor activity, was isolated from luffa cylindrica seeds. in the present study, mature alpha-luffin was cloned from l. cylindrica and it was found that mature alpha-luffin shared 96% amino acid similarity with luffin-a. the recombinant mature alpha-luffin was successfully expressed in a partly soluble form in escherichia coli after optimization of e ...201020705600
a new flavone glycoside from the fruits of luffa cylindrica.the methyl ester of diosmetin 7-o-beta-d-glucuronide (1) was isolated from the fruits of luffa cylindrica. its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods.200717689887
dye adsorption behavior of luffa cylindrica fibers.using natural luffa cylindrica fibers as adsorbent removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions at different temperatures and dye concentrations was investigated in this study. thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were also investigated. the adsorption isotherms could be well defined with langmuir model instead of freundlich model. the thermodynamic parameters of methylene blue (mb) adsorption indicated that the adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous. the average mb adsorption cap ...200817919814
chlorella sorokiniana immobilized on the biomatrix of vegetable sponge of luffa cylindrica: a new system to remove cadmium from contaminated aqueous medium.a new sorption system of microalgal cells immobilized on the biostructural matrix of luffa cylindrica for sequestering cadmium is reported. free and immobilized chlorella sorokiniana removed cadmium from 10 mgl(-1) solution at the efficiency of 92.7% and 97.9% respectively. maximum cadmium sorption was observed to be 39.2 mgg(-1) at equilibrium (c(eq)) of 112.8 mgl(-1) by immobilized microalgal biomass as compared to 33.5 mgg(-1) at c(eq) of 116.5 mgl(-1) by free biomass from initial concentrati ...200312576011
cortical aerenchyma formation in hypocotyl and adventitious roots of luffa cylindrica subjected to soil flooding.aerenchyma formation is thought to be one of the important morphological adaptations to hypoxic stress. although sponge gourd is an annual vegetable upland crop, in response to flooding the hypocotyl and newly formed adventitious roots create aerenchyma that is neither schizogenous nor lysigenous, but is produced by radial elongation of cortical cells. the aim of this study is to characterize the morphological changes in flooded tissues and the pattern of cortical aerenchyma formation, and to an ...200717921518
morphosynthesis: high fidelity inorganic replica of the fibrous network of loofa sponge (luffa cylindrica).high fidelity calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite (bio) inorganic replicas of the fibrous network of the dried fruit of luffa cylindrica are described, utilizing a facile synthetic route. the loofa sponge is a highly complex macroscopic architectural template, an inexpensive and sustainable resource. in the context of the morphosynthesis, the capability of replication of the loofa sponge opens the possibility of the use of biodiversity in obtaining new materials. we would like to emphasize that ...200515692676
pcr-based detection and partial genome sequencing indicate high genetic diversity in bangladeshi begomoviruses and their whitefly vector, bemisia tabaci.the population diversity of bangladeshi begomoviruses and their vector, bemisia tabaci was analysed by pcr-based detection and partial genome sequencing. b. tabaci adults and plants expressing symptoms of virus infection were collected from locations representing diverse agro-ecological regions of the country. universal and species-specific primers were used to detect begomoviruses in seven crops (chilli, okra, papaya, pumpkin, sponge gourd, tomato and yardlong bean) and two common weeds (agerat ...200716927121
dynamic seeding and perfusion culture of hepatocytes with galactosylated vegetable sponge in packed-bed bioreactor.a galactose moiety was introduced into the fiber surface of a vegetable sponge by the covalent binding of lactobionic acid. the galactosylated sponge was used as scaffold for the culture of rat hepatocytes in a packed-bed bioreactor. hepatocytes could be dynamically seeded into and uniformly distributed throughout the scaffold, and the immobilized cells maintained high albumin and urea production rates during long-term perfusion culture. the hepatocytes showed an increasing albumin production ra ...200616952835
genetic analysis of fruit shape traits at different maturation stages in sponge gourd.the fruit shape is important quantitative trait closely related to the fruit quality. however, the genetic model of fruit shapes has not been proposed. therefore, in the present study, analysis of genetic effects for fruit shape traits (fruit length and fruit perimeter) in sponge gourd was conducted by employing a developmental genetic model including fruit direct effects and maternal effects. analysis approaches of unconditional and conditional variances were applied to evaluate the genetic beh ...200717542062
immobilization of streptomyces clavuligerus on loofah sponge for the production of clavulanic acid.clavulanic acid, a naturally occurring powerful inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamases, is produced by streptomyces clavuligerus. the high void volume, permeability, and low cost of fibrous matrices prompted the use of luffa cylindrica as a matrix for the immobilization of s. clavuligerus for the production of clavulanic acid. immobilization of s. clavuligerus onto loofah sponge discs was studied with respect to the optimization of the inoculum size (number of discs) and its reusability for clav ...200817643297
loofa egyptiaca as a novel adsorbent for removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution.in this paper, loofa egyptiaca (le), an agricultural plant cultivated in egypt, was used to prepare low-cost activated carbon (le(c1) and le(c2)) adsorbents. the adsorbents (le, le(c1) and le(c2)) were evaluated for their ability to remove direct blue 106 dye from aqueous solutions. batch mode experiments were conducted using various parameters such as ph, contact time, dye concentration and adsorbent concentration. the surface chemistry of le, le(c1) and le(c2) was analyzed by scanning electron ...200919346057
luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice as a source of peroxidase.peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. the research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. the studies made have shown that luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/ml. the k(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen ...201121804936
a novel recombinant immunotoxin with the smallest ribosome-inactivating protein luffin p1: t-cell cytotoxicity and prolongation of allograft survival.in the creation of stable tolerance to mhc-incompatible allografts, reducing the large mass of donor-reactive cells via apoptosis is often required. apoptosis induction by immunotoxins targeting surface molecules specifically presented on donor-reactive cytopathic t effector (t(eff)) cells is a promising strategy. traditionally, the toxin moieties are bacterial exotoxins or plant-derived ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips) with large molecular size and strong immunogenicity, hence causing the ...201019583807
isolation, purification and characterization of a group of novel small molecular ribosome inactivating protein -- luffins from seeds of luffa cylindrica.a group of novel rips--luffins(1), luffins(2), luffins(3) (mw about 8 kd) were purified by ammonia sulfate precipitation, cm-52 chromatography, hrlc size chromatography and mono s fplc. luffins(1), luffins(2) and luffins(3) have similar weight of about 8kd, and their n-terminal amino acid is ala, pro and thr respectively. the n-terminal nine amino acid sequence of luffins(2) was determined as pro-arg-arg-gly-gln-glu-ala-phe-asp. the reaction mechanism of luffinss is the same as that of tcs, whic ...199812174287
biosynthesis of gibberellic acid from milk permeate in repeated batch operation by a mutant fusarium moniliforme cells immobilized on loofa sponge.gibberellic acid (ga) production from milk permeate was studied by 28 mutants of fusarium moniliforme, among which mutant gamma-14 was selected as the best producer. experiments were carried out in shaker flasks and fermentative process was analyzed with free and immobilized cells. immobilization of mutant gamma-14 cells onto loofa sponge discs was studied with respect to the optimization of the incubation temperature, initial ph, inoculum size (number of discs) and its reusability for ga produc ...200918684618
Aerobic pretreatment of olive oil mill wastewater using Ralstonia eutropha.Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) has a high polluting power, with total phenolics (TP) around 2.5 g l(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) 85 g l(-1). Biological systems offer advantages in treating this type of agro-industrial wastewater. The performance of phenol-adapted Ralstonia eutropha for aerobic biotreatment of OMW has been studied, and a TP concentration of 250 mg l(-1) found to be fully degraded within 24 h. This simple procedure may be adopted as a pretreatment prior to the normal aero ...201121882561
distribution and molecular diversity of three cucurbit-infecting poleroviruses in china.cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (cabyv) and melon aphid-borne yellows virus (mabyv) have been found to be associated with cucurbit yellowing disease in china. our report identifies for the first time a third distinct polerovirus, tentatively named suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (sabyv), infecting suakwa vegetable sponge. to better understand the distribution and molecular diversity of these three poleroviruses infecting cucurbits, a total of 214 cucurbitaceous crop samples were collected fr ...200919664664
purification and characterization of luffin p1, a ribosome-inactivating peptide from the seeds of luffa cylindrica.a peptide designated luffin p1 was purified from the seeds of luffa cylindrica. its molecular mass was determined to be 5226.1 da by maldi-tof ms analysis. the purified luffin p1 shows a strong inhibitory activity on protein synthesis in the cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate with ic(50) of 0.88 nm. its reaction mechanism is the same as that of the ribosome-inactivating protein trichosanthin, which is an rrna n-glycosidase. besides, the results of gel filtration chromatography suggested the ex ...200312948831
alginate-loofa as carrier matrix for ethanol production.an alginate-loofa matrix was developed as a cell carrier for ethanol fermentation owing to its porous structure and strong fibrous nature. the matrix was effective for cell immobilization and had good mechanical strength and stability for long-term use. after a storage period of 4 months, yeast cells remained firmly immobilized and active.200717964486
immobilization of lactobacillus salivarius atcc 11741 on loofa sponge coated with chitosan for lactic acid fermentation.lactic acid (la) fermentation by lactobacillus salivarius atcc 11741 immobilized on loofa sponge (ls) was evaluated. to increase the surface area of ls for cell immobilization, h2o2 and chitosan were introduced as surface modifying reagents. four chitosan of different molecular weight were separately coated on ls. all experiments were conducted in shaking flask mode at 100 rpm rotating speed and 37 degrees with 5% caco3 as a ph regulating agent. the effects of initial glucose concentration were ...201020134241
kinetic studies for the biosorption of lead and copper ions by penicillium simplicissimum immobilized within loofa sponge.biosorption potential of penicillium simplicissimum (penicillium sp.) immobilized within loofa sponge (psils) for lead and copper from aqueous media was explored. the effects of ph, contact time and initial concentration were studied in batch experiments. the maximum uptake of metal ions was obtained at ph 5.0. biosorption equilibrium was established by 60 min. the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models were applied to study the kinetics of the biosorp ...200818403109
effect of larval density and host species on preimaginal development of bactrocera tau (diptera: tephritidae).the fruit fly, bactrocera tau (walker) (diptera: tephritidae), is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops. in this study, host preference of b. tau females and the effects of host species and larval density on larval survival, pupal weight, adult emergence, and developmental duration were investigated on cucumber (cucumis sativus l.), sponge gourd (luffa cylindrical l. (roem)), bitter gourd [momordica charantia (cucurbitaceae) l.], guava [psidium guajava (myrtaceae) l.], and tangerine [ci ...201122299343
a natural sorbent, luffa cylindrica for the removal of a model basic dye.in this work, application of luffa cylindrica in malachite green (mg) removal from aqueous solution was studied in a batch system. the effect of contact time, ph and temperature on removal of malachite green was also investigated. by the time ph was increased from 3 to 5, the amount of sorbed malachite green also increased. beyond the ph value of 5, the amount of sorbed malachite green remains constant. the fits of equilibrium sorption data to langmuir, freundlich and dubinin-radushkevich equati ...201020378245
[development and reproduction of b-biotype bemisia tabaci on four cucurbitaceous host plants].the study on the development and reproduction of b-biotype bemisia tabaci on four cucurbitaceous host plants, i. e., cucumber, hairy gourd, bitter cucumber, and sponge gourd, showed that the one generation development duration of b. tabaci was the shortest (19.3 d) on hairy gourd and the longest (29.0 d) on bitter cucumber, the survival rate from egg to adult was the highest (92.85%) on cucumber and the lowest (53.08%) on bitter cucumber, the laid eggs were the most (187.4 eggs per female) on cu ...200818655599
degradation of carbendazim and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by immobilized consortium on loofa sponge.a fungicide, carbendazim (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate; mbc), and a herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), could be simultaneously degraded by a microbial consortium obtained from several soil samples in japanese paddy fields with enrichment continuous culture. the degradation ability of the consortium was increased by immobilization on loofa (luffa cylindrica) sponge in comparison with that of free-living consortium. mbc and 2,4-d were completely degraded within 5.5 d and 1.5 d, ...200416233662
host range and complete genome sequence of cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, a new member of the genus crinivirus.cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (ccyv) causes chlorotic yellows on cucumber (cucumis sativus) and melon (cucumis melo) and is transmitted by bemisia tabaci biotype b and q whiteflies. to characterize the host range of ccyv, 21 cucurbitaceous and 12 other plant species were inoculated using whitefly vectors. all tested cucumis spp. except cucumis anguria and cucumis zeyheri were systemically infected with ccyv, although infection rates varied among species. citrullus lanatus, cucurbita pepo, and ...201020465411
immobilization of trichoderma viride for enhanced methylene blue biosorption: batch and column studies.an efficient dye biosorbent was developed by entrapping a fungus mold, trichoderma viride, within loofa sponge (ls) matirx. immobilization enhanced the sorption of dye by 30% at equilibrium as compared with t. viride free biomass (tvfb). the maximum dye biosorption capacity of t. viride immobilized onto loofa sponge (tvils) and tvfb was found to be 201.52 and 155.06 mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. the kinetics of dye removal by tvils was rapid, with 84.3% sorption within the first 30 min and equ ...200919286314
pollen deposition is more important than species richness for seed set in luffa gourd.in the context of global biodiversity decline, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of bee communities for sustaining the vital ecosystem service of pollination. bee species can be assigned to functional groups (average difference among species in functionally related traits) on the basis of complementarity (trait variations exhibited by individual organisms) in their behavior but is not yet known which functional group trait is most important for seed set. in this study, first, ...201627155975
biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol in a fluidized bed reactor with immobilized phanerochaete chrysosporium.the performance of a fluidized bed reactor using immobilized phanerochaete chrysosporium to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp) from aqueous solution was investigated. the contribution of lignin peroxidase (lip) and manganese peroxidase (mnp) secreted by phanerochaete chrysosporium to the 2,4-dcp degradation was examined. results showed that lip and mnp were not essential to 2,4-dcp degradation while their presence enhanced the degradation process and reaction rate. in sequential batch experimen ...201020729600
balsamin, a novel ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of balsam apple momordica balsamina.plant seeds, a rich source of proteins, are considered important for their application as functional ingredients in a food system. a novel ribosome-inactivating protein (rip), balsamin was purified from the seeds of balsam apple, momordica balsamina. balsamin was purified by ion exchange chromatography on cm sepharose and gel filtration on superdex-75. it has a molecular weight of 28 kda as shown by sds-page analysis. balsamin inhibits protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate-based cell ...201122120616
antioxidant constituents in the fruits of luffa cylindrica (l.) roem.hydrophilic antioxidant constituents in the fruits of the vegetable luffa cylindrica (l.) roem (sponge gourds) were separated by an antioxidant-guided assay to yield eight compounds: p-coumaric acid (1), 1-o-feruloyl-beta-d-glucose (2), 1-o-p-coumaroyl-beta-d-glucose (3), 1-o-caffeoyl-beta-d-glucose (4), 1-o-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)glucose (5), diosmetin-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide methyl ester (6), apigenin-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide methyl ester (7), and luteolin-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide methyl ester (8). the ...200616756345
structural characterization and anti-hiv-1 activities of arginine/glutamate-rich polypeptide luffin p1 from the seeds of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica).luffin p1, the smallest ribosome-inactivating peptide from the seeds of luffa cylindrica was found to have anti-hiv-1 activity in hiv-1 infected c8166 t-cell lines and be able to bind with hiv rev response element. nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the luffin p1 comprises a helix-loop-helix motif, with the two alpha helices tightly associated by two disulfide bonds. based on our findings, we conclude that unlike the well-studied ribosome-inactivating proteins, which exert the ...201021195767
cucurbits depicted in byzantine mosaics from israel, 350-600 ce.thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the roman and byzantine empires. some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. hundreds of floor mosaics produced in israel during the byzantine period have survived. the objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete pictu ...201424948671
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