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spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants.this research work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom substrate (sms) in the production of horticultural seedlings replacing part of the peat in the growing media. three vegetable species with different salt sensitivities, the less sensitive being tomato (lycopersicon esculentum var. muchamiel), the moderately salt-sensitive being courgette (cucurbita pepo l. var. afrodite f1) and the most salt-sensitive being pepper (capsicum annum l. var. lamuyo f1) w ...200919409775
inferring an augmented bayesian network to confront a complex quantitative microbial risk assessment model with durability studies: application to bacillus cereus on a courgette purée production chain.the monte carlo (mc) simulation approach is traditionally used in food safety risk assessment to study quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) models. when experimental data are available, performing bayesian inference is a good alternative approach that allows backward calculation in a stochastic qmra model to update the experts' knowledge about the microbial dynamics of a given food-borne pathogen. in this article, we propose a complex example where bayesian inference is applied to a hig ...201322967223
determination of lutein from fruit and vegetables through an alkaline hydrolysis extraction method and hplc analysis.a simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. the method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase hplc. the optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. the optimized method was ...201526540023
intake of vitamin a and carotenoids from the italian population--results of an italian total diet study.the present study focused on vitamin a and carotenoids (alpha-and beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) daily intake from the italian total diet. the input of some food groups (cereals, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy, meat and meat products, fish) most responsible for major and minor contributions to the daily intake of these molecules was evaluated. furthermore the contribution to the dietary intake of beta-carotene and lutein of the most consumed vegetables in ...200617048188
the effect of cooking method upon the titratable acidity of a popular vegetarian dish--scope for reducing its erosive potential?the purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of cooking method on the erosive potential of ratatouille. two cooking methods, stewing and oven roasting, were applied to standardised ingredients taken from the same fruits and vegetables. the resultant dishes were liquidised and diluted with 100 mls of distilled water. five 25 ml samples of each group were titrated to ph 7.0 against 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide. in order to ascertain the relative contribution of each ingredient each ...200616599095
micellarisation of carotenoids from raw and cooked vegetables.the efficiency of carotenoid micellarisation from plant foods can be used as an effective tool for the initial screening of carotenoid bioavailability. therefore, the objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of cooking on the micellarisation of beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein from courgette (zucchini), red pepper and tomato; and, to a minor extent, investigate uptake of lutein by caco-2 cells from micellar fractions obtained from raw and cooked courgettes ...200818587647
agroindustrial compost as a peat alternative in the horticultural industry of ecuador.this work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using different agroindustrial composts in the production of horticultural seedlings, thereby replacing part of the peat in the growing media. three vegetable species differing in salt sensitivity - tomato (solanum lycopersicum l. var. malpica) (the least sensitive), courgette (cucurbita pepo l. var. mastil f1) (moderately sensitive) and pepper (capsicum annuum l. var. largo de reus pairal) (the most sensitive) - were grown in ni ...201727815007
carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc.carbonaceous soil amendments, comprising mixtures of biosolids and biochar, have been demonstrated to improve fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. we aimed to determine the efficacy of a biosolids/biochar soil amendment in biofortification of vegetables with zn, an element that is deficient in one third of humanity. we grew beetroot (beta vulgaris), spinach (spinacia oleracea), radish (raphanus sativus), broccoli (brassica oleracea), carrot (daucus carota), leek (allium ampeloprsum), onion ...201323146312
phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus.in the search for a suitable plant to be used in p phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in p-enriched soils, and screened for p accumulation potentials. a large variation in p concentrations of different plant species was observed. some vegetable species such as cucumber (cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential p accumulators with >1% (dry weight) p in their shoots. these plants also disp ...200716904249
impact of a pulsed electric field on damage of plant tissues: effects of cell size and tissue electrical conductivity.efficiency of pulsed electric field (pef) induced permeabilization at 293 k in selected fruit and vegetable plant tissues (apple, potato, carrot, courgette, orange, and banana) at electric field strength (e) of 400 v·cm(-1), 1000 v·cm(-1) and pulse duration (t(p)) of 1000 μs was studied experimentally. the mean cell radius (〈r〉) was within 30 to 60 μm, and the ratio of electrical conductivities of the intact and damaged tissues (σ(i)/σ(d)) was within 0.07 to 0.79 for the studied tissues. electro ...201121535680
formulation and characterization of functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour.fruits and vegetables are extensively processed and the residues are often discarded. however, due to their rich composition, they could be used to minimize food waste. this study aimed to develop food products based on the solid residue generated from the manufacture of an isotonic beverage. this beverage was produced based on integral exploitation of several fruits and vegetables: orange, passion fruit, watermelon, lettuce, courgette, carrot, spinach, mint, taro, cucumber and rocket. the remai ...201525694690
socio-economic factors associated with an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption: a 12-year study in women from the e3n-epic study.to identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with an increase in fruit and vegetable (f&v) consumption over a 12-year period and evaluate if some socio-economic factors were differentially associated with the change in consumption of some types of f&v.201729183405
effect of simulated rainfall on leaching and efficacy of fenamiphos.there is increasing concern in the united states about the pesticide movement in soil, groundwater contamination, and pesticide residue in food. the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy, degradation, and movement of fenamiphos (nemacur 15g) in the soil and residues in squash fruit as influenced by four simulated rainfall treatments (2.5 or 5.0 cm each applied 1 or 3 days after nematicide application) under field conditions. in 1990, concentrations of fenamiphos were greater in t ...199519277322
screening and quantification of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables making use of gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source has been used to enhance the potential of gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (qtof) mass spectrometry (ms) for screening and quantification purposes in pesticide residue analysis. a screening method developed in our laboratory for around 130 pesticides has been applied to fruit and vegetable samples, including strawberries, oranges, apples, carrots, lettuces, courgettes, red peppers, and tomatoes. samples were analyzed tog ...201424828980
infant nutritional recommendations from pediatricians. epidemiologic survey of feeding recommendations for the first year of life in piedmont.timing the introduction of solids and milk formulas in infants' diet varies throughout the world. the aim of the present study was to assess the modalities of weaning, suggested by pediatricians in piedmont, italy, and to compare them to current scientific guidelines.200415249916
comparison of probabilistic and deterministic predictions of time to growth of listeria monocytogenes as affected by ph and temperature in food.stochastic models are useful for estimating the risk of foodborne illness and they can be integrated, besides other sources of variability, into microbial risk assessment. a stochastic approach to evaluate growth of two strains of listeria monocytogenes influenced by different factors affecting microbial growth (ph and storage temperature) was performed. an individual-based approach of growth through optical density measurements was used. from results obtained, histograms of the lag phase were g ...201020932086
improving quantitative exposure assessment by considering genetic diversity of b. cereus in cooked, pasteurised and chilled foods.the natural contamination of foods with a bacterial pathogen frequently consists of a mixture of strains with their own characteristics of survival, growth potential and virulence. quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) must account for this genetic diversity to reflect the variability of the pathogen risk and to identify the genetic groups present at key stages of the food pathway. to describe the transmission dynamics of a heterogeneous population of b. cereus, we developed an exposure ...200818805600
is antioxidant plasma status in humans a consequence of the antioxidant food content influence?a constantly growing part of consumers considers the organic foods healthier than the conventional foods. however, so far few nutritional intervention studies in humans are available on the comparison of organic and conventional food products.200717970235
identification of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer, a natural antioxidant, in dietary vegetables.aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (simply named dimer) is a natural sulfur-containing tricyclic compound detected, until now, in human urine, bovine cerebellum, and human plasma. recently, the antioxidant properties of this compound have been demonstrated. in this investigation, the presence of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer was identified in garlic, spinach, tomato, asparagus, aubergine, onion, pepper, and courgette. identification of this compound in dietary ve ...200211902974
phenylcoumaran benzylic ether and isoflavonoid reductases are a new class of cross-reactive allergens in birch pollen, fruits and vegetables.we investigated the biochemical function of the birch pollen allergen bet v 6 and its role in the ige-cross-reactivity between birch pollen and plant foods, and characterized pyr c 5, a bet v 6-related food allergen, from pear; the proteins were expressed as his-tag fusion proteins in eschershia coli and purified by ni-chelate affinity chromatography under native conditions. nonfusion proteins were obtained by factor xa protease treatment. the highest degree of amino-acid sequence identity of py ...200111606193
botrytis cinerea endopolygalacturonase genes are differentially expressed in various plant tissues.botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of blight, rot, and gray mold on many plant species, secretes various endopolygalacturonases during all stages of infection. the expression pattern of the encoding genes (bcpg 1-6) was studied on four hosts: tomato, broad bean, apple, and courgette (also known as zucchini). all gene family members are differentially expressed, depending on the stage of infection and the host. bcpg1 is expressed in all tissues tested although differences in transcript levels occ ...200111456462
prevalence, characterization and growth of bacillus cereus in commercial cooked chilled foods containing vegetables.in cooked-chilled and pasteurized vegetable products, initial numbers of bacillus cereus were below 10 cfu g-1. before the appearance of spoilage, numbers reached 6-8 log cfu g-1 at 20 degrees c and 4-6 log cfu g-1 at 10 degrees c. bacillus cereus was not detected in samples stored at 4 degrees c. ten percent of strains isolated from the products were able to grow at 5 degrees c and 63% at 10 degrees c. bacillus cereus strains unable to degrade starch, a feature linked to the production of emeti ...200010792519
stimulus control over action for food in obese versus healthy-weight individuals.in the current study we examined an associative learning mechanism by which food cues (signaling low- versus high-calorie food) can bias instrumental responses directed toward those foods. to investigate the clinical relevance of this mechanism, we used a computerized pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task and compared performance of 19 severely obese individuals to that of 19 healthy-weight controls matched for age, education and gender. during the response-priming test we exposed participants ...201728450844
the potential of host plants for biological control of tuta absoluta by the predator dicyphus errans.dicyphus errans (wolff) has been shown to be a suitable biocontrol agent for tuta absoluta (meyrick). this generalist predator shares various host plants with the exotic pest, and these interactions could be exploited to enhance pest control. therefore, host preference, survival rate and development times of the predator and prey were investigated on crop and non-crop plant species. among the tested plants, the favourite hosts were solanum species for t. absoluta, and herb robert, european black ...201728132661
exposure to vegetable variety in infants weaned at different ages.the aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of different vegetable exposure methods (variety versus single taste) over a 9 day period in two groups of infants; those introduced to solids prior to the age of 5.5 months, and those introduced after 5.5 months. sixty parent-infant dyads were recruited in south birmingham, uk. infants' acceptance of a novel vegetable (pea puree) was measured after a 9 day exposure period in the infants a week after they were first introduced to soli ...201424685457
a robust gc-ms/ms method for the determination of chlorothalonil in fruits and vegetables.chlorothalonil is a non-systemic fungicide that is easily degraded in contact with plants and soil or even by the effect of light and ph. a method for the determination of chlorothalonil in courgettes, strawberries, oranges, leeks and tomato by solvent extraction followed by gc-ms/ms with a triple quadrupole analyser was developed. the causes of chlorothalonil degradation during sample treatment were studied and minimised. the final method was based on extraction with acetone in the presence of ...201323116300
quechers-based extraction procedure for multifamily analysis of phytohormones in vegetables by uhplc-ms/ms.a new method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins) in vegetables. the compounds were extracted using a quechers-based method (acronym of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe). the separation and determination of the selected phytohormones were carried out by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (uhplc-ms/ms), using electrospray ionization source (esi) in ...201121595026
effects of a resistant corn hybrid and fenamiphos on meloidogyne incognita in a corn-squash rotation.the efficacy of a double-cross corn (zea mays) hybrid (old raccoon selection x t216) x (tebeau selection x mp 307) resistant to meloidogyne incognita as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos treatment for management of root-knot nematode (m. incognita race 1) in squash (cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) was evaluated in field tests during 1996 and 1997. numbers of m. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were lower on the resistant hybrid than on a commercial cultivar dekalb dk-683. treatment mean ...199919270888
stability of japanese-lacquer-tree (rhus vernicifera) laccase to thermal and chemical denaturation: comparison with ascorbate oxidase.the thermal denaturation of laccase from the japanese lacquer tree (rhus vernicifera) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. the endotherms of holo-laccase, type 2-cu-depleted laccase and apo-laccase were deconvoluted into two independent two-state transitions, providing evidence for a domain structure of the protein. the correlation of the two transitions with the bleaching of copper optical bands and the decrease of the transitions' enthalpy on cu removal show that the process invol ...19957702562
effect of the medium characteristics and the heating and cooling rates on the nonisothermal heat resistance of bacillus sporothermodurans ic4 spores.in recent years, highly thermo-resistant mesophilic spore-forming bacteria belonging to the species bacillus sporothermodurans have caused non-sterility problems in industrial sterilization processes. the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the heating medium characteristics (ph and buffer/food) on the thermal inactivation of b. sporothermodurans spores when exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal heating and cooling treatments and the suitability of non-linear weibull and geeraa ...201223498193
effect of temperature on growth characteristics of bacillus cereus tz415.the effect of temperature on the maximal specific growth rate was studied in bacillus cereus between 5 and 40 degrees c cultivated in courgette broth and rich medium (j broth). b. cereus grown from 5 to 38 degrees c in rich medium. no growth was observed in courgette broth below 10 degrees c. the arrhenius plot was fitted from experimental data of b. cereus grown in rich medium and at regulated ph, oxygen and temperature. two domains which are separated by a critical temperature around 13 degree ...200010791720
food fried in extra-virgin olive oil improves postprandial insulin response in obese, insulin-resistant women.the benefits of low glycemic load (gl) diets on clinical outcome in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have extensively been demonstrated. the gl of a meal can be affected by modulating the bioavailability of carbohydrates or by changing food preparation. we investigated the effect on plasma glucose and insulin response in lean and obese women of adding raw or fried extra-virgin olive oil to a carbohydrate-containing meal. after an overnight fast, 12 obese insulin-resistant women (bod ...201121142948
application of single-drop microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for the determination of multiclass pesticides in vegetables with nitrogen phosphorus and electron capture detection.in the present work the single-drop microextraction (sdme) technique coupled with gc-npd and gc-ecd was evaluated for the determination of multi-class pesticides in vegetables. the donor sample solution preparation was optimized by testing different mixtures of solvents and dilutions with water. the sdme procedure was optimized by controlling drop organic solvent, drop volume, agitation, and exposure time. the optimum sample preparation was achieved with the use of a mixture of acetone/h(2)o (10 ...200918692190
effects of different cooking methods on nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of selected vegetables.the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three common cooking practices (i.e., boiling, steaming, and frying) on phytochemical contents (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, glucosinolates, and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant capacities (tac), as measured by three different analytical assays [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (teac), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (trap), ferric reducing antioxidant power (frap)] and physicochemical parameters of three veg ...200818069785
is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? lessons learned from a dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations.children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. the intervention ...201829158150
courgette production: pollination demand, supply, and value.courgette (cucurbita pepo l.) production in the united kingdom is estimated to be worth £6.7 million. however, little is known about this crop's requirement for insect-mediated pollination (pollinator dependence) and if pollinator populations in a landscape are able to fulfil its pollination needs (pollination deficit). consequently, pollination experiments were conducted over 2 yr to explore pollinator dependence and pollination deficit in field-grown courgette in the united kingdom. results sh ...201728981657
methemoglobinemia caused by the ingestion of courgette soup given in order to resolve constipation in two formula-fed infants.methemoglobinemia is not a rare condition arising from the exposure to hemoglobin-oxidizing agents such as nitrates-nitrites present in well water or vegetables. infants < 3 months of age are more susceptible than adults because of lower amounts of a key enzyme, nadh-cytochrome b5 reductase, which converts methemoglobin back to hemoglobin. we report 2 infants, aged respectively 2 and 1 months, suffering from methemoglobinemia, fed with a formula that was reconstituted with a high concentration o ...200616809905
application of matrix solid-phase dispersion to the determination of a new generation of fungicides in fruits and vegetables.a method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (mspd) and gas chromatography to determine eight fungicides in fruits and vegetables is described. fungicide residues were identified and quantified using nitrogen-phosphorus detection and electron-capture detection connected in parallel and confirmed by mass spectrometric detection. the method required 0.5 g of sample, c18 bonded silica as dispersant sorbent, silica as clean-up sorbent and ethyl acetate as eluting solvent. recoveries from spiked o ...200212236504
occupational rhinitis/asthma to courgette. 200010782531
a plant metabolic activation system from persea americana with cytochrome p450-dependent and peroxidase activities.microsomal fractions from different tissues of various plants (potato, cauliflower, aubergine, avocado pear, courgette, cucumber, banana, kiwi and strawberry) were prepared and their content of cytochrome p-450 (cyt-p450) determined. a s117 fraction from persea americana (avocado pear) presented the highest content of cyt-p450. as a consequence of these data, we have developed and characterized this fraction as a plant metabolic activation system. the p. americana s117, used in this work, contai ...19957770073
an investigation of the origins of contrast in nmr spin echo images of plant tissue.the effects that the spatial distribution of water protons and their transverse relaxation times have on the image contrast of spin echo images of courgette was investigated. the t2-weighted image of courgette contains the most anatomical information. the image contrast was explained using a phenomenological theory based on the bloch equations, which gave an insight into the morphology and microdynamics of water in the plant tissue. the perceived contrast in the spin echo images of courgette, gl ...19921373464
the influence of chemical and diffusive exchange on water proton transverse relaxation in plant tissues.transverse water proton relaxation in parenchyma tissue of courgette, onion and apple shows a dependence on cpmg pulse spacing characteristic of each tissue. an analysis of this dependence suggests that transverse relaxation in these tissues is caused by various combinations of fast proton exchange between water and cell biopolymers (or solutes) and diffusion through internally generated magnetic field gradients. diffusion between intra- and extracellular water compartments also averages the wat ...19902164129
kinetic features of ascorbic acid oxidase after partial deglycation.by means of specific exoglycosidases, sugars have been removed under non-denaturing conditions from ascorbic acid oxidase (aao), different deglycation schedules being followed. our results indicate that deglycation clearly affects the kinetic features of aao, leading to an increase of 'affinity' and 'catalytic ability' of the enzymic forms so generated. a better exposure of the catalytic-site residues could be supposed to occur upon treatment with exoglycosidases. this is supported by the three- ...19892604732
degradation of direct azo dye by cucurbita pepo free and immobilized peroxidase.enzymatic decolourization of the azo dye, direct yellow (dy106) by cucurbita pepo (courgette) peroxidase (cp) is a complex process, which is greatly affected by ph, temperature, enzyme activity and the concentrations of h2o2 and dye. courgette peroxidase was extracted and its performance was evaluated by using the free-cp (fcp) and immobilized-cp (icp) forms in the decolourization of dy106. immobilization of peroxidase in calcium alginate beads was performed according to a strategy aiming to min ...201324191614
italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (cucurbita pepo, cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century milan.summer squash, the young fruits of cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. of the summer squash, the zucchini, c. pepo subsp. pepo zucchini group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. the zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. the zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of c. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in milan in 1901. ...201627343231
activity of natural products against courgette powdery mildew.the effectiveness of several natural products in field trials were tested against powdery mildew on courgette. sulphur, sodium bicarbonate (alone or in mixture with pinolene, mineral oil or sulphur), sodium silicate in mixture with mineral oil, potassium permanganate, lecithin, equisetum arvense in mixture with timus vulgaris, ampelomyces quisqualis and reynoutria sachalinensis were evaluated. generally, in our working conditions (very strong pathogen infection), only some products were effectiv ...200415756857
carotenoid micellarization varies greatly between individual and mixed vegetables with or without the addition of fat or fiber.carotenoid bioavailability is influenced by a number of factors, including the type of food matrix and the presence of fat, fiber, and other carotenoids. therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to assess the effects of mixing raw vegetables on the micellarization of beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein compared with individual vegetables; second, to investigate the effects of adding different oils on carotenoid transfer to the micelles; and third, and to a ...201719326348
application of solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to the determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables.a rapid and simple method for simultaneous analysis of four neonicotinoid insecticides including acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam in fruit and vegetable matrices has been developed. for instance, ready-to-use cartridges filled with a macroporous diatomaceous material were used to extract in a single step insecticide residues with dichloromethane from aqueous-acetone extracts of fruits and vegetables. the eluate was evaporated, the residue redissolved with methanol and then ...200616448655
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