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peroxidase as a developmental marker in plant tissue culture.peroxidase was studied as a developmental marker in pumpkin (cucurbita pepo l.) callus lines and horse-radish (armoracia lapathifolia gilib) transformants. embryogenic callus lines de grown on ms medium with 2.4-d and na-3 grown on medium with naa and adenine sulfate showed about a 20 times higher enzyme activity than the habituated non-embryogenic line z5b/t grown on medium without hormones. a rise in peroxidase activity indicated that somatic embryogenesis was triggered in a few habituated tis ...19911667582
differential replication in zucchini squash of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna maps to rna 1 of the helper virus.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) supports the replication and encapsidation of its satellite rna, both in solanaceous and cucurbit host plants; however, different strains of cmv support the replication of satellite rnas with different efficiency. in addition, replication of satellite rna is very efficient in solanaceous host plants and generally poor in cucurbit host plants. the wl1-satellite (wl1-sat) rna is an exception, and replicates to high levels in both solanaceous and curcubit host plants wit ...19911704659
the influence of plant growth regulators on callus induction in pumpkin (cucurbita pepo l.) hairy roots.following in vitro infection with agrobacterium rhizogenes wild strain (mannopine, 8196) and two a. tumefaciens transconjugant strains (c58c1 para4abc and c58c1 para4b) transformed (hairy) roots were induced in pumpkin (c. pepo l.) cotyledons. the presence of pri t-dna in pumpkin long-term hairy root cultures was determined by southern hybridization. the influence of plant growth regulators on callus induction in root explants from hairy root lines, which differed mutually in morphology and grow ...19911814408
infectious in vitro rna transcripts derived from cloned cdna of the cucurbit potyvirus, zucchini yellow mosaic virus.a full-length cdna clone of the rna genome of the cucurbit potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) was constructed downstream from a bacteriophage t7 rna polymerase promoter. a single extra guanosine residue not present in zymv rna was added to the 5' and 3' ends. capped (m7gpppg) zymv rna transcripts were infectious in 10 of 91 cucurbita pepo test plants; uncapped rna transcripts were not infectious. the appearance of symptoms in plants inoculated with the infectious transcript was delaye ...19911940860
gc balance in the internal transcribed spacers its 1 and its 2 of nuclear ribosomal rna genes.the internal transcribed spacer (its) 1 and 2, the 5.8s rrna gene, and adjacent 18s rrna and 25s rrna coding regions of two cucurbitaceae (cucurbita pepo, zucchini, its 1: 187 bp, and its 2: 252 bp in length, and cucumis sativus, cucumber, its 1: 229 bp, and its 2: 245 bp in length) have been sequenced. the evolutionary pattern shown by the itss of these plants is different from that found in vertebrates. deletions, insertions, and base substitutions have occurred in both spacers; however, it is ...19902107331
restriction site and genetic map of cucurbita pepo chloroplast dna.a detailed restriction map of squash chloroplast dna (cpdna) was constructed with five restriction endonucleases, sali, pvuii, bgli, sacii, and psti. the cleavage sites were mapped by sequential digestion of cpdna using low-gelling temperature agarose. the restriction map shows that squash cpdna is an approximately 153 kilobase (kb) circle with a large inverted repeat sequence of 23.3 kb, separated by a large (83.7 kb) and a small (22.7 kb) single copy region. genes for a number of chloroplast p ...19902249258
the reaction of nitric oxide with copper proteins and the photodissociation of copper-no complexes.the reactivity with nitric oxide was investigated for a number of type-1, type-2 and type-3 copper proteins azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa (type-1 copper); bovine superoxide dismutase, diamine oxidase from pig kidney and galactose oxidase from dactylium dendroides (type-2 copper); haemocyanin from helix pomatia (type-3 copper); the blue oxidases ceruloplasmin from pig serum, and ascorbate oxidase from cucurbita pepo medullosa. type-1 copper formed complexes with no in the oxidised state, whi ...19872822126
specific guanine nucleotide binding by membranes from cucurbita pepo seedlings.a microsomal membrane preparation from hypocotyls of dark-grown cucurbita pepo l. (zucchini) seedlings contains specific high-affinity binding sites for the non-hydrolyzable gtp analog guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (gtp-gamma-s). both the binding affinity and the pattern of binding specificity for gtp and guanine nucleoside triphosphate analogs are shared with the more thoroughly characterized animal g-proteins that are known to be involved in signal transduction. the sensitivity of gtp- ...19883052446
presence of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins in a plant hypocotyl microsomal fraction.the presence of specific guanine nucleotide-binding proteins in a zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.) hypocotyl microsomal fraction was investigated. polypeptides were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. incubation of nitrocellulose blots with [alpha-32p]gtp and [gamma-32p]gtp indicated the presence of four specific and distinct gtp-binding proteins with molecular masses of approx. 23.4 kda, 24.8 kda, 26.6 kda and 28.5 kda. binding ...19883124845
characterization of the tmv encapsidation initiation site on 18s rrna.tobacco mosaic virus capsid protein oligomers react with and encapsidate 18s rrna from both plant and mammalian sources in vitro. the site (ei) in 18s rrna which reacts with capsid protein to initiate the packaging reaction has been localized and partially characterized by testing the ability of transcripts from different regions of a cloned cucurbita pepo rdna repeat unit to become encapsidated. the 18s rrna ei is found to react more slowly with capsid protein than does the functional virion ei ...19883412887
purification and characterization of the trypsin inhibitor from cucurbita pepo var. patissonina fruits.three trypsin inhibitor fractions were found in white bush fruits (cucurbita pepo l. var. patissonina). one of them, cppti-fiii, was purified to homogeneity by means of affinity and ion exchange chromatography. it is a cysteine-poor protein with an approximate mr of 21 000. the inhibitor contains arginine at position p1 of the reactive site and inhibits bovine trypsin, hog pancreatic kallikrein and subtilisin. this inhibitor differs from the inhibitors of white bush dormant seeds, cppti-i and cp ...19853933527
the serine proteinase inhibitor from summer squash (cucurbita pepo): some structural features, stability and proteolytic degradation.the serine proteinase inhibitor from summer squash seeds (cpti-ii) with mr of about 3250 contains three disulphide bridges and is unusually resistant to denaturing agents (e.g. 10% trichloroacetic acid at about 100 degrees c), thermolysin and proteinase v8 from staphylococcus aureus. the inhibitor is digested by pepsin; the digestion of the virgin form proceeds more rapidly than when the peptide bond of the reactive site is broken. the inhibitor is not specifically reduced by sodium borohydride ...19853938587
isolation of two trypsin inhibitors from resting seeds of the white bush (cucurbita pepo var. patissonina) and their properties.two trypsin inhibitors, cppti-i and cppti-ii of mr 3 250 and 7 850, respectively, were isolated from resting white bush seeds. both inhibitors are cysteine-rich proteins. in addition to trypsin, they inhibit a trypsin-like enzyme isolated from streptomyces griseus proteinase but they do not act on chymotrypsin, kallikrein or subtilopeptidase a. the isolated inhibitors contain a lysine residue in position p1 of the reactive site.19853938588
a protein-protochlorophyll complex obtained from inner seed coats of cucurbita pepo. the resolution of its two pigment groups into true protochlorophyll and a pigment related to bacterial protochlorophyll.1. the inner seed coats of cucurbita pepo were extracted with aqueous acetone and found to contain pigments with spectra similar to that of protochlorophyll. 2. when the fruits of c. pepo were stored the amount of protochlorophyll-like material in the inner seed coats increased and a form of protochlorophyll absorbing at longer wavelength was apparently formed. 3. the pigment was resolved into two forms of protochlorophyll by chromatography on sugar columns. one form with absorption maxima in et ...19665971776
[essential amino acids of pumpkin-seed pie (cucurbita pepo, l.) for chickens]. 19816800320
host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in sri lanka.75 plant species from 11 families were tested in sri lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. after inoculation with this virus, six species, cucurbita pepo, cucumis sativus, nicotiana tabacum, chenopodium amaranticolor, gomphrena globosa and lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in sri lanka.19817342959
synthesis, cloning and expression in escherichia coli of the gene coding for the trypsin inhibitor from cucurbita pepo.a chemically synthesized gene coding for the serine proteinase inhibitor cpti ii was cloned in e. coli and its expression was investigated in cytoplasmic and secretion systems. under all conditions investigated the biologically active form of the inhibitor was found only in the latter system, although the yield was rather low.19957653151
characterization of the p1 protein and coding region of the zucchini yellow mosaic virus.the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-terminal p1 coding region of an aphid-transmissible isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv; strain fl/at), a mild isolate (strain md) and a severe isolate (strain sv), all from florida, were compared with two other zymv isolates. the zymv md and sv isolates and an isolate from california (zymv ca) had 95-98% sequence similarities to fl/at, whereas an isolate from reunion island (zymv ru) had a 60% sequence similarity to fl/at. zymv md had an 18 nucleotide ...19957844540
identification of the proteins responsible for sar dna binding in nuclear matrix of cucurbita pepo.the nuclear matrices from white bush (cucurbita pepo var. patisonina) cell nuclei have been isolated using three methods: i, standard procedure involving extraction of cell nuclei with 2 m nacl and 1% triton x-100; ii, the same with pre-treatment of cell nuclei with 0.5 mm cuso4 (stabilisation step); and iii, method with extraction by lithium diiodosalicylate (lis), and compared the polypeptide pattern. the isolated matrices specifically bind sar dna derived from human beta-interferon gene in th ...19958588459
purification and characterization of assimilatory nitrite reductase from candida utilis.nitrate assimilation in many plants, algae, yeasts and bacteria is mediated by two enzymes, nitrate reductase (ec 1.6.6.2) and nitrite reductase (ec 1.7.7.1). they catalyse the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrite to ammonia respectively. the nitrite reductase from an industrially important yeast, candida utilis, has been purified to homogeneity. purified nitrite reductase is a heterodimer and the molecular masses of the two subunits are 58 and 66 kda. the native enzyme exhibits ...19968694757
study of the three-dimensional images of potyvirus-induced cytoplasmic inclusions using confocal laser scanning microscopy.the three-dimensional structure of the cytoplasmic inclusions in leaves of cucurbita pepo l. infected with a singapore isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-s) was studied using a confocal laser scanning microscope. the cytoplasmic inclusions were found to be linear filamentous structures that varied in thickness and length. the formation of the inclusions probably begins when finely-pointed linear filamentous structures aggregate into bundles forming flat parallel arrays, or diverge int ...19968844619
purification, characterization and subcellular localization of a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of cucurbita pepo.the flesh of the fruit of cucurbita pepo contains a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein (rip), which we named pepocin. pepocin was purified to apparent homogeneity by acid fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography and adsorption chromatography. the protein was found to have a molecular mass of 26 kda and a pi of about 9.9. it does not contain glycosidic linkages. the protein inhibits protein synthesis in a rabbit-reticulocyte lysate with an ic50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) of 15.4 p ...19969022685
characterization of cucumber mosaic virus. v. cell-to-cell movement requires capsid protein but not virions.to ascertain the importance of amino-terminal proximal capsid protein (cp) sequences in cel-to-cell movement, virion formation, and stabilization, two cp mutants of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) were generated by deletion of sequences encoding cp amino acids 15-40 (delta sal-nru) or 26-40 (delta sac-nru). wildtype cmv and cmv containing delta sac-nru could infect systemically four host species, although symptoms induced by the two viruses usually were different cmv containing delta sal-nru could o ...19989657941
high-resolution structures of three new trypsin-squash-inhibitor complexes: a detailed comparison with other trypsins and their complexes.an anionic trypsin from atlantic salmon and bovine trypsin have been complexed with the squash-seed inhibitors, cmti-i (cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor i, p1 arg) and cpti-ii (cucurbita pepo trypsin inhibitor ii, p1 lys). the crystal structures of three such complexes have been determined to 1.5-1.8 a resolution and refined to crystallographic r factors ranging from 17.6 to 19.3%. the two anionic salmon-trypsin complexes (st-cpti and st-cmti) and the bovine-trypsin complex (bt-cpti) have been ...199910089404
elicitin 172 from an isolate of phytophthora nicotianae pathogenic to tomato.elicitin 172, an acid protein with elicitor activity, has been isolated in true form from culture filtrates of phytophthora nicotianae, the causal agent of crown and root rot of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum). the m(r) (10,349 +/- 1) of the purified protein, determined by es-ms, is identical to that calculated for parasiticein using the mean isotopic composition and assuming the occurrence of three disulfide bridges. the primary structure of elicitin 172, determined using also maldi-ms experim ...199910192962
comparative study of the chemical composition and nutritional value of pumpkin seed cake, soybean meal and casein.the chemical composition and nutritional value of pumpkin (cucurbita pepo) seed cake (psc) were studied and compared with those of casein and soybean meal. crude protein and ether extract content in dry matter of psc was 598.0 g/kg and 124.6 g/kg, respectively, and was higher than the percentage of these components (474.2 and 28.3 g/kg, respectively) in soybean meal used in this experiment. the main fatty acids in psc cake were oleic acid (50.4%) and linoleic acid (29.9%). protein found in psc c ...199910633538
rna aptamers that bind to and inhibit the ribosome-inactivating protein, pepocin.pepocin, isolated from cucurbita pepo, is a ribosome-inactivating protein (rip). rips site-specifically recognize and depurinate an adenosine at position 4324 in rat 28 s rrna, rendering the ribosome incapable of interacting with essential elongation factors. aptamers that target pepocin were isolated from a degenerate rna pool by in vitro selection. a conserved hairpin motif, quite different from the sequence of the toxin-substrate domain in rat 28 s rrna, was identified in the aptamer sequence ...200010671532
effect of silver reflective mulch and a summer squash trap crop on densities of immature bemisia argentifolii (homoptera: aleyrodidae) on organic bean.polyethylene mulch with a reflective silver stripe and a yellow summer squash, cucurbita pepo l., trap crop were tested alone and in combination as tactics to reduce densities of bemisia argentifolii bellows & perring eggs and nymphs, and incidence of bean golden mosaic geminivirus on snap bean, phaseolus vulgaris l. egg densities were consistently higher on squash than on bean, but egg densities and virus incidence were not lower on bean grown with squash than on bean grown in monoculture. silv ...200010902322
allergy caused by ingestion of zucchini (cucurbita pepo): characterization of allergens and cross-reactivity to pollen and other foods.allergy to zucchini (cucurbita pepo), a member of the cucurbitaceae family, has not previously been reported. we examined 4 patients complaining of allergic symptoms, such as oral allergy syndrome, nausea, diarrhea, or pruritus, after the intake of zucchini.200010932084
technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by f-actin affinity chromatography.proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. in plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. to identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, g-actin) or actin filaments ( ...200011029710
complex spatial responses to cucumber mosaic virus infection in susceptible cucurbita pepo cotyledons.cucumber mosaic virus infection of its susceptible host cucurbita pepo results in a program of biochemical changes after virus infection. applying a spatial analysis to expanding infected lesions, we investigated the relationship between the changes in enzyme activity and gene expression. patterns of altered expression were seen that could not be detected by rna gel blot analysis. for all the host genes studied, there was a downregulation (shutoff) of expression within the lesion. in addition, t ...200011041891
permeability and channel-mediated transport of boric acid across membrane vesicles isolated from squash roots.boron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and the boron content of plants differs greatly, but the mechanism(s) of its uptake into cells is not known. boron is present in the soil solution as boric acid and it is in this form that it enters the roots. we determined the boron permeability coefficient of purified plasma membrane vesicles obtained from squash (cucurbita pepo) roots and found it to be 3 x 10(-7) +/-1.4 x 10(-8) cm s(-1), six times higher than the permeability of microsoma ...200011080310
the earliest archaeological maize (zea mays l.) from highland mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications.accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (zea mays l.) from guilá naquitz cave in oaxaca, mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the americas. macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. these results, together with the modern geograph ...200111172082
invasion of ras-transformed breast epithelial cells depends on the proteolytic activity of cysteine and aspartic proteinases.it has been suggested that the lysosomal proteinases cathepsin b, l and d participate in tumour invasion and metastasis. whereas for cathepsins b and l the role of active enzyme in invasion processes has been confirmed, cathepsin d was suggested to support tumour progression via its pro-peptide, rather than by its proteolytic activity. in this study we have compared the presence of active cathepsins b, l and d in ras-transformed human breast epithelial cells (mcf-10a neot) with their ability to ...200111517941
immunolocalization of plasma-membrane h+-atpase and tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase in the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the stem of ricinus communis l.plasma-membrane-located primary pumps were investigated in the sieve element (se)-companion cell complex in the transport phloem of 2-week-old stems of ricinus communis l. and, for comparison, in stems of cucurbita pepo l. and in the secondary phloem of agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown galls as a typical sink tissue. the plasma-membrane (pm) h+-atpase and the tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase (ppase) were immunolocalized by epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm) upon s ...200111523647
characterization of gtp binding and hydrolysis in plasma membranes of zucchini.we have investigated the possibility that g-protein-like entities may be present in the plasma membrane (pm) of zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.) hypocotyls by examining a number of criteria common to animal and yeast g-proteins. the gtp binding and hydrolysis characteristics of purified zucchini pm are similar to the characteristics of a number of known g-proteins. our results demonstrate gtp binding to a single pm site having a kd value between 16-31 nm. this binding has a high specificity for g ...199211542503
differentiation between lutein monoester regioisomers and detection of lutein diesters from marigold flowers (tagetes erecta l.) and several fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (lc-apcims) was employed for the identification of eight lutein monoesters, formed by incomplete enzymatic saponification of lutein diesters of marigold (tagetes erecta l.) by candida rugosa lipase. additionally, the main lutein diesters naturally occurring in marigold oleoresin were chromatographically separated and identified. the lc-ms method allows for characterization of lutein diesters occurring as minor compo ...200211754543
assessing potential risks from exposure to natural uranium in well water.over 50% of the wells in the nambe region of northern new mexico exceed the us environmental protection agency's recommended drinking water standard of 20 microg l(-1) for 238u; the highest in the area was measured at 1,200 microg u l(-1). uranium uptake was estimated in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum), squash (cucurbita pepo), lettuce (lactuca scarriola), and radish (raphanus sativus) irrigated with nambe well water containing <1, 150, 500, and 1,200 microg u l(-1). plant uptake and human dose ...200211848150
a spatial analysis of physiological changes associated with infection of cotyledons of marrow plants with cucumber mosaic virus.changes in host primary metabolism associated with the compatible interaction between cucumber mosaic virus and cotyledons of the marrow plant (cucurbita pepo l.) have been localized, first by measuring activities of key enzymes in infected and uninfected regions of the cotyledon, and second by histochemical techniques applied to tissue prints of the infected region. a series of progressive metabolic changes occurs within the expanding infected lesion. virus replication and the synthesis of vira ...199612226342
localization of boron in cell walls of squash and tobacco and its association with pectin (evidence for a structural role of boron in the cell wall).b deficiency results in a rapid inhibition of plant growth, and yet the form and function of b in plants remains unclear. in this paper we provide evidence that b is chemically localized and structurally important in the cell wall of plants. the localization and chemical fractionation of b was followed in squash plants (curcurbita pepo l.) and cultured tobacco cells (nicotiana tabacum) grown in b-replete or b-deficient medium. as squash plants and cultured tobacco cells became deficient, an incr ...199412232235
systemic movement of a movement-deficient strain of cucumber mosaic virus in zucchini squash is facilitated by a cucurbit-infecting potyvirus.zucchini squash (cucurbita pepo) is a systemic host for most strains of the cucumovirus cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), although the long-distance movement of the m strain of cmv (m-cmv) is inhibited in some cultivars. however, co-infection of zucchini plants with m-cmv and the potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain a (zymv-a) allowed m-cmv to move systemically, as demonstrated by tissue-print analysis. these doubly infected plants exhibited severe synergism in pathology. infection of zucchi ...200212466495
"chitin-specific" peroxidases in plants.the activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (avena sativa), rice (oryza sativa), horseradish (armoracia rusticana), garden radish (raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (a ...200312693984
characterization of hungarian isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv, potyvirus) transmitted by seeds of cucurbita pepo var styriaca.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) has emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last few years in hungary. the hungarian isolates show a high biological variability, have specific nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the n-terminal region of coat protein and form a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree. the virus is spread very efficiently in the field by several aphid species in a non-persistent manner. it can be transmitted by seed in holl-less seeded oil pumpkin (cucurbi ...200312701712
cytological modifications in zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv)-infected styrian pumpkin plants.the present research demonstrates severe ultrastructural changes induced by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) within the cells of older and younger leaves of styrian pumpkin plants (cucurbita pepo l. subsp. pepo var. styriaca greb.). cylindrical inclusions (pinwheels), proliferated endoplasmatic reticulum and filamentous viral particles were found throughout the cytoplasm of zymv-infected cells and within sieve elements. zymv-infection also induced severe modifications in the number and ultras ...200312756618
a defect in the yeast plasma membrane urea transporter dur3p is complemented by cpnip1, a nod26-like protein from zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.), and by arabidopsis thaliana delta-tip or gamma-tip.dur3 encodes the yeast plasma membrane urea transporter and deltadur3 mutants are unable to grow on media containing low concentrations of urea as sole nitrogen source. complementation of the deltadur3 mutant line with expression libraries generated from whole arabidopsis thaliana seedlings or from zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.) vascular tissue yielded numerous lines that had regained the capacity to grow on low urea as sole nitrogen source. analysis of several of these yeast lines revealed that t ...200312860388
crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic studies of mavicyanin from cucurbita pepo medullosa.mavicyanin isolated from cucurbita pepo medullosa is a glycosylated protein containing a single polypeptide chain of 109 amino-acid residues and is a member of the phytocyanin subclass of cupredoxins. non-glycosylated recombinant mavicyanin, which was expressed in escherichia coli, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the precipitant at ph 5.5. the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group p6(1) (or p6(5)), with unit-cell parameters a = 64.0, ...200312876356
plant uptake and translocation of air-borne chlordane and comparison with the soil-to-plant route.in order to assess fully the impact of persistent organic pollutants (pops) on human health, pollutant exchange at the interface between terrestrial plants, in particular food crops, and other environmental compartments must be thoroughly understood. in this regard, transfers of multicomponent and chiral pollutants are particularly informative. in the present study, zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.) was planted in containerized, uncontaminated soil under both greenhouse and field conditions and expos ...200312892673
involvement of rna2 for systemic infection of cucumber mosaic virus isolated from lily on zucchini squash.a lily strain of cucumber mosaic virus (lk-cmv) was not able to systemically infect zucchini squash (cucurbita pepo), while fny strain of cmv (fny-cmv) caused systemic mosaic and stunting symptom at 4 days post-inoculation on the same host species. the pathogenicity of lk-cmv in zucchini squash was investigated by reassortments of genomic rnas of lk-cmv and fny-cmv for infection, as well as by pseudorecombinants generated from biologically active transcripts of cdna clones of lk-cmv and fny-cmv, ...200314550582
synthesis of l-ascorbic acid in the phloem.although plants are the main source of vitamin c in the human diet, we still have a limited understanding of how plants synthesise l-ascorbic acid (asa) and what regulates its concentration in different plant tissues. in particular, the enormous variability in the vitamin c content of storage organs from different plants remains unexplained. possible sources of asa in plant storage organs include in situ synthesis and long-distance transport of asa synthesised in other tissues via the phloem. in ...200314633288
movement of coat protein genes from a commercial virus-resistant transgenic squash into a wild relative.we monitored pollen-mediated transgene dissemination from commercial transgenic squash czw-3 into its wild relative cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera var. texana (c. texana). transgenic squash czw-3 expresses the neomycin phosphotransferase ii (nptii) gene and the coat protein (cp) genes of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv); thereby, it is resistant to these three aphid-borne viruses. the rate of npt ii and cp transgene introgression in ...200415612351
comparative fitness of a wild squash species and three generations of hybrids between wild x virus-resistant transgenic squash.we compared some fitness components of the wild squash species cucurbita pepo spp. ovifera var. texana (c. texana) and three generations of hybrids (f1, bc1, and bc2) between c. texana and commercial transgenic squash czw-3 over three consecutive years under field conditions of low (ldp) and high disease pressure (hdp) by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv). transgenic squash czw-3 expresses the coat protein (cp) genes of cmv, zymv, ...200415612352
changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during virus infection in cucurbita pepo (l.).changes in the subcellular distribution and quantification of glutathione were studied with electron microscopic immunogold cytochemistry in zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv)-infected styrian pumpkin plants (cucurbita pepo l. ssp. pepo var. styriaca greb.) two weeks after inoculation. the amount of gold particles bound to glutathione was statistically evaluated for different cell structures, including mitochondria, plastids, nuclei, peroxisomes, and cytosol. in general, zymv-infected plants sh ...200515666214
occurrence, distribution and relative incidence of mosaic viruses infecting field--grown squash in tehran province, iran.squash (cucurbita pepo) belongs to cucurbitaceae family. every year cucurbitaceae are planted world wide. they are one of the most important economic crops. cucurbitaceae are threatened by viruses. many viruses damage the plants of this family. since nine viruses have been reported on squash from iran. in this survey, during 2002--2003, to determine the distribution of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv), 466 samples were collected f ...200415756831
salicylic acid-induced resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in squash and arabidopsis thaliana: contrasting mechanisms of induction and antiviral action.salicylic acid (sa)-induced resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) results from inhibition of systemic virus movement and is induced via a signal transduction pathway that also can be triggered by antimycin a, an inducer of the mitochondrial enzyme alternative oxidase (aox). in arabidopsis thaliana, inhibition of cmv systemic movement also is induced by sa and antimycin a. these results indicate that the mechanisms underlying induced resistance to cmv in tobacco ...200515915641
arabidopsis peroxisomal citrate synthase is required for fatty acid respiration and seed germination.we tested the hypothesis that peroxisomal citrate synthase (csy) is required for carbon transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria during respiration of triacylglycerol in arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. two genes encoding peroxisomal csy are expressed in arabidopsis seedlings, and seeds from plants with both csy genes disrupted were dormant and did not metabolize triacylglycerol. germination was achieved by removing the seed coat and supplying sucrose, but the seedlings still did not use triacyl ...200515923350
effect of pumpkin seed (cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of certain plasma enzymes in ccl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.the effects of pumpkin seed (cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of lactate dehydrogenase (ld), alanine transaminase (alt), aspartate transaminase (ast) and alkaline phosphatase (alp) against carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed rats were investigated. a group of male sprague-dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group wi ...200516041732
effects of different fixation and freeze substitution methods on the ultrastructural preservation of zymv-infected cucurbita pepo (l.) leaves.different fixation protocols [chemical fixation, plunge and high pressure freezing (hpf)] were used to study the effects of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) disease on the ultrastructure of adult leaves of styrian oil pumpkin plants (cucurbita pepo l. subsp. pepo var. styriaca greb.) with the transmission electron microscope. additionally, different media were tested for freeze substitution (fs) to evaluate differences in the ultrastructural preservation of cryofixed plant leaf cells. fs was ...200516123060
comparative study on biological parameters of bemisia tabaci (genn.) collected on four host plants from varamin-iran.during 2003 biological parameters of sweetpotato whitefly, b. tabaci (genn.) (horn. aleyrodidae) as a major pest of field crops, vegetables and ornamentals were studied. in this study, the infested leaves of cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.) eggplant (solanum melongena l.) and cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) with whitefly nymphs and pupae were collected from varamin-iran, and were transferred to the laboratory. the newly emerged males and females of each population were r ...200516628901
immunopurification and initial characterization of dicotyledonous phytochrome.antiserum was prepared against proteolytically undegraded phytochrome obtained from etiolated zucchini squash (cucurbita pepo l., cv. black beauty). the antiserum was prepared by injecting into a rabbit immunoprecipitates between zucchini phytochrome and specific antiserum against undegraded oat (avena sativa l., cv. garry) phytochrome. specific antiphytochrome immunoglobulins were purified from this crude serum by an affinity column consisting of conventionally purified undegraded pea phytochro ...198216662209
emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to l-cysteine.leaf discs and detached leaves exposed to l-cysteine emitted a volatile sulfur compound which was proven by gas chromatography to be h(2)s. this phenomenon was demonstrated in all nine species tested (cucumis sativus, cucurbita pepo, nicotiana tabacum, coleus blumei, beta vulgaris, phaseolus vulgaris, medicago sativa, hordeum vulgare, and gossypium hirsutum). the emission of volatile sulfur by cucumber leaves occurred in the dark at a similar rate to that in the light. the emission of leaf discs ...198216662510
extracts from pygeum africanum and other ethnobotanical species with antiandrogenic activity.extracts from pygeum africanum, serenoa repens and cucurbita pepo are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) and prostate cancer (pca). the activity of the androgen receptor (ar) is known to control growth of the prostate. here, we examined extracts of these plants for their antiandrogenic activity using an ar responsive reporter gene assay for drug discovery. a selective dichloromethane extract from the stem barks of pygeum africanum revealed the highest antiandrogenic effe ...200616783690
in vitro antioxidative activity of pumpkin seed (cucurbita pepo) protein isolate and its in vivo effect on alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in acetaminophen-induced liver injury in low protein fed rats.the antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed protein isolate (cucurbita pepo) were investigated in vitro. the isolate exhibited about 80% radical scavenging activity, chelating activity of approximately 64% on fe2+ ions and an inhibition of approximately 10% of xanthine oxidase. subsequently the effects of the isolate on the plasma activity levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase against acetaminophen induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed male sprague-dawley rats were asce ...200616807884
inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.the oil from the pumpkin (cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. this investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given f ...200616822218
compensatory capsid protein mutations in cucumber mosaic virus confer systemic infectivity in squash (cucurbita pepo).cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) systemically infects both tobacco and zucchini squash. cmv capsid protein loop mutants with single-amino-acid substitutions are unable to systemically infect squash, but they revert to a wild-type phenotype in the presence of an additional, specific single-site substitution. the d118a, t120a, d192a, and d197a loop mutants reverted to a wild-type phenotype but did so in combination with p56s, p77l, a162v, and i53f or t124i mutations, respectively. the possible effect o ...200616840352
eastern north america as an independent center of plant domestication.the status of eastern north america as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from mexico. here, i provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern north america ...200616894156
antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in ccl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.the effects of pumpkin seed (cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the plasma activity levels of catalase (ca), superoxide dismutase (sod), glutathione peroxidase (gshpx) and total antioxidant capacity (tac) as well as glucose-6-phosphatase (g6pase) in liver homogenates and lipid peroxidation (lpo-malondialdehyde-mda) levels in liver homogenates and liver microsomal fractions against carbon tetrachloride (ccl(4))-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed sprague-dawley rats (rattus norvegicus) ...200616909447
fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detector.a high-performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) separation method with an evaporative light-scattering detector (elsd) has been developed for the separation and quantitative analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (fame) in three different oils. reverse-phased c18 hplc separation of 13 fame is achieved using a methanol/water eluent mixture. the retention times (rt) reflect the elution behavior of these compounds on c18 reversed-phase hplc. the proposed method is tested on: soybean oil (glycine max ...200617007865
potential for phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-(pcb-)contaminated soil.weathered soils contaminated with commercial-grade aroclor 1260 from three sites in canada were used to investigate the polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) phytoextraction potential of nine plant species (festuca arundinacea, glycine max, medicago sativa, phalaris arundinacea, lolium multiflorum, carex normalis, and three varieties of cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) under controlled greenhouse conditions. the soils used varied in pcb concentration (90-4200 microg/g) and total organic content (0.06-2.02%). ...200617120525
artificial elevation of glutathione affects symptom development in zymv-infected cucurbita pepo l. plants.styrian oil pumpkin seedlings (cucurbita pepo l. subsp. pepo var. styriaca greb: .) were treated for 48 h with 1 mm otc (l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) in order to artificially increase cellular glutathione content. they were inoculated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) 10 days later. the effects of otc treatment and zymv infection on glutathione levels were examined at the subcellular level by immunogold labeling of glutathione using a transmission electron microscope (tem). thes ...200717143780
virus-induced changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione precursors in cucurbita pepo (l.).changes in glutathione contents occur in plants during environmental stress situations, such as pathogen attack, as the formation of reactive oxygen species leads to the activation of the antioxidative defence system. as glutathione is synthesized out of its constituents cysteine, glycine, and glutamate the availability of these components will limit glutathione synthesis in plants especially during stress situations and therefore the ability of the plant to fight oxidative stress. to gain a dee ...200717143806
membrane associated qualitative differences in cell ultrastructure of chemically and high pressure cryofixed plant cells.membrane contrast can sometimes be poor in biological samples after high pressure freezing (hpf) and freeze substitution (fs). the addition of water to the fs-medium has been shown to improve membrane contrast in animal tissue and yeast. in the present study we tested the effects of 1% and 5% water added to the fs-medium (2% osmium with 0.2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone) on the quality and visibility of membranes in high pressure frozen leaf samples of cucurbita pepo l. plants and compare ...200717270463
ethnomedicines used in trinidad and tobago for reproductive problems.throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by european folk medicine, either through the early spanish and french settlers or through the continuous immigration of spanish-speaking peoples from venezuela. some folk uses are ancient and were documented by galen and pliny the elder.200717362507
chlorophyllase is a rate-limiting enzyme in chlorophyll catabolism and is posttranslationally regulated.chlorophyll is a central player in harvesting light energy for photosynthesis, yet the rate-limiting steps of chlorophyll catabolism and the regulation of the catabolic enzymes remain unresolved. to study the role and regulation of chlorophyllase (chlase), the first enzyme of the chlorophyll catabolic pathway, we expressed precursor and mature versions of citrus (citrus sinensis) chlase in two heterologous plant systems: (1) squash (cucurbita pepo) plants using a viral vector expression system; ...200717369368
detection by rapd-pcr of polymorphism in populations of bemisia tabaci (genn.) collected on four host plants from iran.the sweetpotato whitefly, bernisia tabaci (genn.) (hom: aleyrodidae) is a major pest of field crops, vegetables and ornamentals in iran. in this study, the infested leaves of cucumber (cucurnis sativus l.) zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.) eggplant (solanum melongena l.) and cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) with whitefly nymphs and pupae were collected from iran, and were transferred to the laboratory. the newly emerged males and females of each population were released separately into a large cage set ...200617385530
physiological and metabolic changes of cucurbita pepo leaves in response to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) infection and salicylic acid treatments.the changes of some physiological and biochemical parameters in pumpkin (cucurbita pepo cv eskandarani) leaves associated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) infection and the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid (sa) were studied in this paper. in comparison to the untreated leaves, zymv infected leaves showed many symptoms, including severe mosaic, size reduction, stunting and deformation. results from analysis of physiological parameters indicated that viral infection and sa ...200717466528
ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in british columbia, canada.this paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in british columbia, canada. ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. the majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. the following plants were used as anthelmintics: artemisi ...200717628343
content of nutrient and antinutrient in edible flowers of wild plants in mexico.nutrient and antinutritional/toxic factors present in some edible flowers consumed in mexico were determined. the edible flowers were: agave salmiana, aloe vera, arbutus xalapensis, cucurbita pepo (cultivated), erythrina americana, erythrina caribaea, euphorbia radians benth and yucca filifera. the nutrient content in the flowers studied is similar to that of the edible leaves and flowers studied mainly in africa. the moisture content of the flowers varied from 860 to 932 g kg(-1). crude protein ...200717768684
cold tolerance and plant growth promotion potential of serratia marcescens strain srm (mtcc 8708) isolated from flowers of summer squash (cucurbita pepo).to determine the cold tolerance and plant growth promotion potential of serratia marcescens strain srm (mtcc 8708).200818028329
dde remediation and degradation.ddt and its metabolites, ddd and dde, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. the parent compound, ddt, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the united states in 1973. the daughter compound, dde, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. dde has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade ddt. the p,p'-dde isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-dde, with a reported half-life of -5.7 ye ...200818069646
purine-containing cucurbitane triterpenoids from cucurbita pepo cv dayangua.phytochemical investigation of the fruits of cucurbita pepo cv dayangua led to the isolation of cucurbitaglycosides a (1) and b (2). this is the first report of cucurbitane triterpenoids with a purine unit. their structures were elucidated mainly based on interpretation of hresims results, as well as 1d and 2d nmr spectra. cucurbitaglycosides a and b showed cytotoxic activity against the human epithelial carcinoma cell line hela with ic50 of 17.2 and 28.4 microg/ml, respectively.200818325551
microsatellites for the genus cucurbita and an ssr-based genetic linkage map of cucurbita pepo l.until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. the austrian oil-pumpkin variety gleisdorfer olkürbis (c. pepo subsp. pepo) and the c. moschata cultivar soler (puerto rico) were used for ssr development. ssr-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. of these 1,058 (44%) contained an ssr at least four repeats long. primers were designed for 532 ssrs; 500 primer pairs produced fragm ...200818379753
sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) as a pre-columbian domesticate in mexico.mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal b.c. followed by many other plants, such as maize (zea mays), peppers (capsicum annuum), common beans (phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (gossypium hirsutum). we present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of mexican domesticates by ...200818443289
pancreatic proteolytic enzymes of ostrich purified on immobilized protein inhibitors. characterization of a new form of chymotrypsin (chtr1).four forms of chymotrypsin (chtr1, chtr2, chtr3, chtr4), one form of trypsin and one form of elastase were purified from a slightly alkaline extract of ostrich (struthio camelus) pancreas. the zymogens in the crude extract were activated with immobilized trypsin and then separated by affinity chromatography using immobilized inhibitors and ion exchange chromatography. one of the purified forms of chymotrypsin (chtr1) exhibited an unusual interaction with the highly selective protein trypsin inhi ...200818598777
influence of compost amendment on pyrene availability from artificially spiked soil to two subspecies of cucurbita pepo.the dissolved organic matter (dom) fraction of soil organic matter (som) may positively contribute to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) bioavailability. this work investigated the effects of dom-rich and pahs-free compost amendment on the plant uptake of pyrene. two subspecies of cucurbita pepo (ssp. pepo cv. raven and ssp. texana cv. sunray) were grown for three weeks in a spiked soil containing 83.9 mg kg(-1) pyrene under four different treatments; inorganic fertilizer (if) alone, 15% (v ...200818632137
papaya ringspot virus-p: characteristics, pathogenicity, sequence variability and control.taxonomy: papaya ringspot virus (prsv) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus potyvirus, family potyviridae, with a positive sense rna genome. prsv isolates belong to either one of two major strains, p or w. the p strains infect both papaya and cucurbits whereas the w strains infect only cucurbits. geographical distribution: prsv-p is found in all major papaya-growing areas. physical properties: virions are filamentous, non-enveloped and flexuous measuring 760-800 x 12 nm. vi ...200818705869
an easy method using glutaraldehyde-introduced fluorescence for the microscopic analysis of plant biotrophic interactions.the method introduced in this article makes use of the glutaraldehyde-induced auto-fluorescence of proteins after cross-linking with glutaraldehyde for the analysis of cellular and sub-cellular structures. because the interface of biotrophic interactions is rich in proteins, the method presented is particularly suitable for the analysis of such interactions; we have exemplified its usefulness by analyzing (1) the root feeding sites induced in roots from arabidopsis thaliana by the root-knot nema ...200818778431
melon resistance to cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus is characterized by reduced virus accumulation.abstract the pattern of accumulation of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (cysdv; genus crinivirus, family closteroviridae) rna has been analyzed in several cucurbit accessions. in susceptible accessions of melon (cucumis melo), cucumber (cucumis sativus), marrow (cucurbita maxima), and squash (cucurbita pepo), cysdv rna accumulation peaked during the first to second week postinoculation in the first to third leaf above the inoculated one; younger leaves showed very low or undetectable lev ...200318943165
identification and characterization of a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family potyviridae isolated from cucurbits in florida.abstract a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in florida. the virus, for which the name squash vein yellowing virus (sqvyv) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of approximately 840 nm in length. the experimental host range was limited to species in the family cucurbitaceae, with the most dramatic symptoms observed in squash and watermelon, but excluded all tested species in the fami ...200718944369
effect of ripe fruit pulp extract of cucurbita pepo linn. in aspirin induced gastric and duodenal ulcer in rats.a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ap) activity and mucosal thickness and increase in ulcer index (ui) was observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. however, pretreatment with c. pepo fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed increase in ap activity and mucosal thickness along with decrease in ui, suggesting gastroduodenal protective and anti-ulcerogenic properties of c. pepo.200818949893
population size and incidence of virus infection in free-living populations of cucurbita pepo.impact assessments of virus resistance transgene introgression into wild, free-living populations are important for determining whether these transgenes present a risk to agriculture or the environment. transgenic virus-resistant cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera var. ovifera l. (squash) cultivars have been commercialized, and may be cultivated in close proximity to cross-compatible wild, free-living relatives (c. pepo subsp. pepo vars. ozarkana and texana). therefore, the potential impact of these vi ...200819081007
rotations with coastal bermudagrass and fallow for management of meloidogyne incognita and soilborne fungi on vegetable crops.the efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (hibiscus esculentus cv. emerald), squash (cucurbita pepo cv. dixie hybrid), and sweet corn (zea mays cv. merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. numbers of m. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fallow ...199519277312
crop rotation studies with velvetbean (mucuna deeringiana) for the management of meloidogyne spp.results from a greenhouse experiment at cabrils, spain, with two velvetbean (mucuna deeringiana) accessions (florida and mozambique) growing in sterilized sandy loam and inoculated with meloidogyne arenaria race 2, m. incognita race 1, and m. javanica revealed that the legume was not a host for these nematodes. in contrast, roots of 'clemson spineless' okra (hibiscus esculentum), 'summer crookneck' squash (cucurbita pepo), and 'davis' soybean (glycine max) were galled by all three root-knot nema ...199219283043
potential of crops uncommon to alabama for management of root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes.vigna unguiculata, cassia fasiculata, and sesamum indicum did not support meloidogyne arenaria, m. incognita, or heterodera glycines race 4 in greenhouse studies with soils from peanut and soybean fields. fagopyron eseulentum, cyamopsis tetragonoloba, and cucurbita pepo were hosts to the two meloidogyne spp. but were nonhosts to h. glycines. meloidogyne arenaria and m. incognita galled but reproduced poorly in the roots of three types of amaranthus cruentus, and low densities of these two meloid ...198819290317
inhibitory effect of watermelon mosaic virus on meloidogyne javanica (treub) chitwood infecting cucurbita pepo l. 198419295884
spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants.this research work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom substrate (sms) in the production of horticultural seedlings replacing part of the peat in the growing media. three vegetable species with different salt sensitivities, the less sensitive being tomato (lycopersicon esculentum var. muchamiel), the moderately salt-sensitive being courgette (cucurbita pepo l. var. afrodite f1) and the most salt-sensitive being pepper (capsicum annum l. var. lamuyo f1) w ...200919409775
rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases by transmission electron microscopy.a clear and rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases is of great importance for agriculture and scientific experiments in plant phytopathology. even though negative staining and transmission electron microscopy (tem) are often used for detection and identification of viral particles and provide rapid and reliable results, it is necessary to examine ultrastructural changes induced by viruses for clear identification of the disease. with conventional sample preparation for tem it can take several d ...200919665483
risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: fitness effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild cucurbita pepo.the development of crops genetically engineered for pathogen resistance has raised concerns that crop-to-wild gene flow could release wild or weedy relatives from regulation by the pathogens targeted by the transgenes that confer resistance. investigation of these risks has also raised questions about the impact of gene flow from conventional crops into wild plant populations. viruses in natural plant populations can play important roles in plant fecundity and competitive interactions. here, we ...200919688918
deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts.previous studies have shown that vector-borne pathogens can alter the phenotypes of their hosts and vectors in ways that influence the frequency and nature of interactions between them, with significant implications for the transmission and spread of disease. for insect-borne pathogens, host odors are particularly likely targets for manipulation, because both plant- and animal-feeding insects use volatile compounds derived from their hosts as key foraging cues. here, we document the effects of a ...201020133719
floral transmission of erwinia tracheiphila by cucumber beetles in a wild cucurbita pepo.cucumber beetles, acalymma vittatum (f.) and diabrotica undecipunctata howardi (barber), are specialist herbivores of cucurbits and the vector of erwinia tracheiphila (e.f. smith) holland, the causative agent of wilt disease. cucumber beetles transmit e. tracheiphila when infected frass falls onto leaf wounds at the site of beetle feeding. we show that e. tracheiphila also can be transmitted via the floral nectaries of cucurbita pepo ssp. texana l. andres (texas gourd). under field conditions, w ...201020146850
inoculation of plants with begomoviruses by particle bombardment without cloning: using rolling circle amplification of total dna from infected plants and whiteflies.a new system for inoculation of plants with begomoviral dna without cloning or the use insect vectors is described. total dna extracted from begomovirus-infected plants was amplified by rolling circle amplification (rca) using the bacteriophage phi29 dna polymerase, and inoculated to plants by particle bombardment. infection rates of up to 100% were obtained using this technique. this technique successfully inoculated all the begomoviruses evaluated: five bipartite (bean golden yellow mosaic vir ...201020447420
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