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development and regulation of three glyoxysomal enzymes during cotton seed maturation and growth.the temporal, nonconcerted development of activities of malate synthase (ms), isocitrate lyase (icl), and catalase (cat) was explored in more detail in maturing and germinated cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) seeds. rna was extracted at six intervals beginning at 17 days post anthesis (dpa) through 72 hours post imbibition (hpi). in vitro translations revealed that mrnas for each enzyme were translatable at all intervals. enzyme activities and immunoselected proteins also were found at all interva ...19901714313
the degree of susceptibility of nectary-inoculated cotton flowers and bolls to subsequent seed infection by aspergillus flavus is determined at or before anthesis.in greenhouse and field studies, cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) flowers were inoculated with aspergillus flavus at the involucral nectaries. bolls developing from early-season flowers had significantly higher percentages of a. flavus-infected seed than did bolls from flowers formed later in the season. seeds from bolls inoculated 2 weeks after anthesis had the same infection levels as those from flowers inoculated at anthesis. these results indicate that early-season flowers are predisposed to a ...19902119569
characterization of a cdna clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of cotton isocitrate lyase.a cdna clone encoding the glyoxysomal enzyme isocitrate lyase (icl) (ec 4.1.3.1) was isolated from a library prepared from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) cotyledon poly(a)+ rna. the clone is 1893 basepairs (bp) in length and contains a 1728 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 576 residues (mr = 64,741). the deduced amino acid sequence of cotton icl is 85.2%, 90.3% and 41.1% identical to icl from rapeseed, castor bean and e. coli, respectively. cotton icl has a c-terminal tripeptide o ...19902194576
cottonseed extract versus pharmamedia for the in vitro mould-yeast conversion of blastomyces dermatitidis.a cottonseed medium, based on a 1% aqueous extract of seeds of any of the eight indigenously available varieties of cotton belonging to gossypium hirsutum or gossypium arboreum, was evaluated for the mould-yeast conversion of blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro, and compared with pharmamedia agar as a control. the cottonseed agar was found to be as efficient as pharmamedia agar for the mould-yeast conversion of the 19 b. dermatitidis strains tested. therefore, cottonseeds provide an adequate and i ...19902380881
proceedings: distribution of histamine-releasing activity in gossypium hirsutum l. 19734132097
american cotton rat (sigmodon hispidus) as an experimental host for brugia pahangi. 19655857267
organization, inheritance and expression of acetohydroxyacid synthase genes in the cotton allotetraploid gossypium hirsutum.the acetohydroxyacid synthase (ahas) gene family of the cotton ad allotetraploid gossypium hirsutum has been cloned and characterized. we have identified six different ahas genes from an analysis of genomic clones and southern blots of genomic dna. four of the six genes are organized as tandem pairs, in which the genes are separated by only 2-3 kb. conservation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms between g. hirsutum and a-genome and d-genome-containing diploid cottons was sufficient to ...19957640356
a view of plant dehydrins using antibodies specific to the carboxy terminal peptide.dehydrins are characterized by the consensus kikeklpg amino acid sequence found near the carboxy terminus, and usually repeated from one to many times within the protein. a synthetic peptide containing this consensus sequence was used to produce specific antibodies that recognize dehydrins in a wide range of plants. this range covered two families of monocots, viz. gramineae (hordeum vulgare l., triticum aestivum l., zea mays l., oryza sativa l.) and liliaceae (allium sativa l.), and five famili ...19937693020
cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) pollen-specific polygalacturonase mrna: tissue and temporal specificity of its promoter in transgenic tobacco.a gene (g9) expressed during late microsporogenesis in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) was isolated. sequence analysis of the cdna (1.3 kb) as well as the gene (2.6 kb) revealed an open reading frame of 1233 bases encoding a protein of 43.9 kda. the coding region of the gene is interrupted by three introns. northern analysis of the rna from developing anthers showed that the transcripts appear 12 days before anthesis and that the maximal concentration of rna occurs in pollen on the day of anthesi ...19947858233
differential induction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coa reductase in two cotton species following inoculation with verticillium.gossypium barbadense cottons are typically more resistant to wilt pathogens than are gossypium hirsutum cultivars. both species make terpenoid phytoalexins in response to infection, implicating isoprenoid biosynthesis as a factor in resistance. conserved regions in plant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase (hmgr), the first enzyme in the terpene biosynthesis pathway, were used to design polymerase chain reaction primers for cloning a fragment of a cotton hmgr gene. the clone was used ...19958664497
purification of (+)-delta-cadinene synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase from bacteria-inoculated cotton foliar tissue.a sesquiterpene cyclase whose activity is induced in a glandless, bacterial blight-resistant line of cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) catalyses the conversion of (e,e)-farnesyl diphosphate to (+)-delta-cadinene. this enzyme was purified by a combination of salt-induced phase separation, hydroxylapatite fractionation, hydrophobic interaction and strong anion-exchange chromatography, and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by renaturation with tween 80. the purified enzyme has a ...19968728715
use of meiotic fish for identification of a new monosome in gossypium hirsutum l.the extensive use of molecular cytogenetics in human genetics and clinical diagnostics indicates that analogous applications in plants are highly feasible. one sort of application would be the identification of new aneuploids, which traditionally involves either direct karyotypic identification, which is feasible in only a few plant species, or tests with markers (cytogenetic, genetic, or molecular), which require sexual hybridization and at least one subsequent seed or plant generation. we have ...19979061912
analysis of plastid dna-like sequences within the nuclear genomes of higher plants.a wide-ranging examination of plastid (pt)dna sequence homologies within higher plant nuclear genomes (promiscuous dna) was undertaken. digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and southern analysis was used to distinguish plastid and nuclear dna in order to assess the extent of variability of promiscuous sequences within and between plant species. some species, such as gossypium hirsutum (cotton), nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), and chenopodium quinoa, showed homogenity of these se ...19989615455
gtpase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin.a cdna encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (gossypium hirsutum) fiber cdna library. the cdna was expressed in escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. we then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. an "add-back experiment" was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on beta-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. however, it was found that the recomb ...199910069831
cloning of a gene for an acyl-coa dehydrogenase from pisum sativum l. and purification and characterization of its product as an isovaleryl-coa dehydrogenase.isovaleryl-coa dehydrogenase (ivd, ec ) catalyzes the third step in the catabolism of leucine in mammals. deficiency of this enzyme leads to the clinical disorder isovaleric acidemia. ivd has been purified and characterized from human and rat liver, and the x-ray crystallographic structure of purified recombinant human ivd has been reported. nothing is known about ivd activity in plants, although cdna clones from arabidopsis thaliana and partial sequences from gossypium hirsutum and oryza sativa ...200010913142
feeding behavior of bollworm and tobacco budworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae) larvae in mixed stands of nontransgenic and transgenic cotton expressing an insecticidal protein.feeding behavior of third-instar bollworm, helicoverpa zea (boddie), and tobacco budworm, heliothis virescens (f.), was observed in pure and mixed stands of nontransgenic and transgenic cotton (btk), gossypium hirsutum l., expressing an insecticidal protein cryia(c) from a bacterium, bacillus thuringiensis berliner subsp. kurstaki. five plant stands composed of btk and non-btk plants were evaluated; two pure stands and three mixed stands. percentage ratios of btk to non-btk plants in the stands ...200010985046
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid metabolism in transgenic tolerant cotton (gossypium hirsutum).the metabolic fate of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) was studied in leaves of transgenic 2,4-d-tolerant cotton (gossypium hirsutum), which is obtained by transfer of the tfda gene from the bacterium alcaligenes eutrophus. the tdfa gene codes for a dioxygenase catalyzing the degradation of 2,4-d to 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp). [phenyl-(14)c]-2,4-d was administered by petiolar absorption followed by an 18 h water chase or converted to the isopropyl ester and sprayed onto the leaf surface ...200011087477
impact of bt cottons expressing one or two insecticidal proteins of bacillus thuringiensis berliner on growth and survival of noctuid (lepidoptera) larvae.a series of laboratory assays were performed to compare the relative impact of commercial and experimental cultivars of cotton, gossypium hirsutum (l.), expressing zero, one, or two insecticidal proteins of bacillus thuringiensis berliner, on several lepidopteran pests. assays in which larvae were fed fresh plant tissue indicated that dual-toxin b. thuringiensis (bt) cultivars, expressing both cry1ac and cry2ab endotoxins of b. thuringiensis, were more toxic to bollworms, helicoverpa zea (boddie ...200111425033
cellulose in cyanobacteria. origin of vascular plant cellulose synthase?although cellulose biosynthesis among the cyanobacteria has been suggested previously, we present the first conclusive evidence, to our knowledge, of the presence of cellulose in these organisms. based on the results of x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy of microfibrils, and cellobiohydrolase i-gold labeling, we report the occurrence of cellulose biosynthesis in nine species representing three of the five sections of cyanobacteria. sequence analysis of the genomes of four cyanobacteria revea ...200111598227
bollworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae) survival on 'bollgard' and 'bollgard ii' cotton flower bud and flower components.genetically modified cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., cultivars ('bollgard') that produce crystalline proteins from bacillus thuringiensis (berliner) are valuable tools for managing lepidopteran insect pests in the united states. however, high numbers of bollworm, helicoverpa zea (boddie), larvae have been observed feeding in white flowers of these cultivars. fresh tissue bioassays were conducted to investigate bollworm survival on bollgard and 'bollgard ii' cottons. bollworm survival was higher o ...200111777047
biochemical and molecular inhibition of plastidial carbonic anhydrase reduces the incorporation of acetate into lipids in cotton embryos and tobacco cell suspensions and leaves.two cdnas encoding functional carbonic anhydrase (ca) enzymes were recently isolated from a non-photosynthetic, cotyledon library of cotton (gossypium hirsutum) seedlings with putative plastid-targeting sequences (genbank accession nos. af132854 and af132855). relative ca transcript abundance and enzyme activity increased 9 and 15 times, respectively, in cotton embryos during the maximum period of reserve oil accumulation. specific sulfonamide inhibitors of ca activity significantly reduced the ...200211950990
a novel root-specific gene, mic-3, with increased expression in nematode-resistant cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) after root-knot nematode infection.a full-length cdna, mic-3, has been identified from a lambda zapii cdna library constructed from the mrna of nematode-resistant cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) roots after infection with root-knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita). the putative open reading frame of mic-3 encoded a protein of 141 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 15.3 kda. seven alternative polyadenylation sites have been identified for the mic-3 transcripts, and the major transcripts are the longest ones. the mic-3 ...200212031505
effects of kaolin-based particle film application on boll weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae) injury to cotton.this study examined a non-insecticidal tactic for suppressing boll weevil, anthonomus grandis grandis boheman, damage to cotton, gossypium hirsutum l. in cage assays, kaolin, a reflective white mineral, applied to excised cotton squares or to the cotton foliage, initially resulted in lower levels of boll weevil injury to squares than nontreated squares. boll weevil oviposition and feeding on kaolin-treated squares and squares on kaolin-treated cotton plants increased when nontreated squares and ...200212216817
survival of the rhizosphere-competent biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens nbri2650 in the soil and phytosphere.pseudomonas fluorescens nbri2650 was isolated after screening 360 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) grown in fungal-disease-suppressive field soil. the strain was selected because of its high rhizosphere competence and ability to inhibit the growth of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, rhizoctonia bataticola, and pythium sp. under in vitro conditions. survival and colonization of nbri2650 in the phytosphere of chickpea, cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), cucumber ...200212224558
quantum yields and rate constants of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching (experiment and model).sunflower (helianthus annuus l.), cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.), sorghum (sorghum bicolor moench.), amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.), and cytochrome b6f complex-deficient transgenic tobacco leaves were used to test the response of plants exposed to differnt light intensities and co2 concentrations before and after photoinhibition at 4000 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 and to thermoinhibition up to 45[deg]c. quantum yields of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitatio ...199712223845
[tagging and mapping of qtls controlling lint yield and yield components in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) using ssr and rapd markers].using interval mapping and marker simple regression methods, the qtls of yield and its components in (simian 3 x tm-1) f2 and f2:3, were tagged and mapped with 39 ssr and 10 rapd markers having polymorphism between parents screened from 301 pair ssr primers and 1040 rapd primers. simian 3 is being grown extensively in yangtze river cotton-growing valley characterized as high productivity with more bolls and higher lint percent, whereas tm-1, genetic standard in upland cotton with more heavy boll ...200212148276
cloning and expressionanalysis of two cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) genes encodingcell wall proline-rich proteins.two cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) genes, ghprp1 and ghprp2, encoding cell wall proline-rich proteins (prps) have been cloned and characterized. the ghprpl gene has an open reading frame (orf) that encodes a prp of 299 amino acids (aa), whereas the ghprp2 gene contains an orf that codes for a 310-aa prp. the ghprp1 has an 80% identity in aa sequence with that of ghprp2. like other plant cell wall prps, both cotton prps have a hydrophobic signal peptide at their n-termini, followed by repeating p ...200111913783
[cloning and characterization of d-113 gene promoter from cotton].to study the expression of late embryogenesis abundant gene in seeds, the 1,024 bp 5' flanking sequence of d-113 gene, a late embryogenesis abundant gene of gossypium hirsutum cv. coker 312, was cloned by pcr. the similarity compared with the sequence of lea protein gene family published was 92.50%. there are three putative abres and one enhancer-like which riches a/t in the promoter. the promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene to form pld ii. via a particle bombardment, pld ii was int ...200211902000
efficacy of the organic-certified insecticide diatect ii against the boll weevil (anthonomus grandis) in cotton.the efficacy of the organic insecticide diatect ii against boll weevil (anthonomus grandis boheman) in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l) in the lower rio grande valley of texas were assessed in small-plot field trials and greenhouse cage tests using azinphos-methyl treatments as a standard for comparison. plastic sheets were placed in the furrows of the treated plots to retrieve boll weevils which dropped from the plants after being killed by the insecticides. samples of live weevils taken by a trac ...200212400443
plant allocation to defensive compounds: interactions between elevated co(2) and nitrogen in transgenic cotton plants.plant allocation to defensive compounds in response to growth in elevated atmospheric co(2) in combination with two levels of nitrogen was examined. the aim was to discover if allocation patterns of transgenic plants containing genes for defensive chemicals which had not evolved in the species would respond as predicted by the carbon nutrient balance (cnb) hypothesis. cotton plants (gossypium hirsutum l.) were sown inside 12 environmental chambers. six of them were maintained at an elevated co(2 ...200211807136
the experimental herbicide cga 325'615 inhibits synthesis of crystalline cellulose and causes accumulation of non-crystalline beta-1,4-glucan associated with cesa protein.developing cotton (gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cultured in vitro with their associated ovules, were used to compare the effects of two herbicides that inhibit cellulose synthesis: 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dcb) and an experimental thiatriazine-based herbicide, cga 325'615. cga 325'615 in nanomolar concentrations or dcb in micromolar concentrations causes inhibition of synthesis of crystalline cellulose. unlike dcb, cga 325'615 also causes concomitant accumulation of non-crystalline beta-1,4-gluc ...200111457949
genetic diversity evaluation of some chinese elite cotton varieties with rapd markers.rapds analysis was used to assess the genetic diversity of some elite cotton varieties. 17 cotton varieties or breeding lines were screened with 200 arbitrary primers to generate 113 polymorphic bands. cluster analysis and upgma showed that 17 varieties could be put into 3 clusters corresponding to genome difference. the genetic similarity among them ranged from 0.2000 to 0.8451. three elite varieties ejing-1, sumian-3 and zhongmiansuo-12 are highly similar in genetic base. 7581, an offspring fr ...200011132498
salicylic acid mediated by the oxidative burst is a key molecule in local and systemic responses of cotton challenged by an avirulent race of xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum.we analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species, the accumulation of salicylic acid (sa), and peroxidase activity during the incompatible interaction between cotyledons of the cotton (gossypium hirsutum) cv reba b50/xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (xcm) race 18. sa was detected in petioles of cotyledons 6 h after infection and 24 h post inoculation in cotyledons and untreated leaves. the first peak of sa occurred 3 h after generation of superoxide (o(2)(.-)), and was inhibited by inf ...200010712539
identification and expression of cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) plastidial carbonic anhydrase.four carbonic anhydrase (ca) cdna clones were isolated from a 48 h dark-grown cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) seedling cdna library. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed two different ca isoforms designated ghca1 and ghca2. the encoded polypeptides possess n-terminal serine/threonine-rich regions indicative of plastid transit peptides, and approximately 80% sequence identity to other plant plastidial beta-cas. the ghca1 cdna encodes a nearly complete preprotein of 323 amino acids with a molecula ...199910682348
interplant movement of heliothis virescens (lepidoptera: noctuidae) larvae in pure and mixed plantings of cotton with and without expression of the cry1ac delta-endotoxin protein of bacillus thuringiensis berliner.laboratory and field studies were conducted during 1993 and 1994 to quantify interplant movement of heliothis virescens (f.) larvae in pure and mixed plantings of cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., with ('event 531') and without ('coker 312') the expression of cry1ac delta-endotoxin protein of bacillus thuringiensis berliner. field studies were conducted with neonate, 4-, and 7-d-old larvae placed on 3-plant experimental units and observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after inoculation of larvae. combini ...199910504897
identification of disease response genes expressed in gossypium hirsutum upon infection with the wilt pathogen verticillium dahliae.verticillium wilt is a vascular disease of cotton (gossypium spp.) caused by the fungal pathogen verticillium dahliae. to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms of the disease response in cotton cultivars that display superior wilt tolerance, such as gossypium hirsutum cv. sicala v-1, a cdna library was constructed with mrna isolated from root tissue of sicala v-1, 24 h after inoculation with v. dahliae. the library was screened by a differential screening technique which was successful in ...199910412907
united states department of agriculture-agricultural research service studies on polyketide toxins of fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control.a group of 133 isolates of the cotton wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum schlecht f sp vasinfectum (atk) sny & hans, representing five races and 20 vegetative compatibility groups within race 1 were used to determine the identity, biosynthetic regulation and taxonomic distribution of polyketide toxins produced by this pathogen. all isolates of f oxysporum f sp vasinfectum produced and secreted the nonaketide naphthazarin quinones, bikaverin and norbikaverin. most isolates of race 1 (previously den ...200312846324
field and laboratory evaluations of transgenic cottons expressing one or two bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki berliner proteins for management of noctuid (lepidoptera) pests.field studies were conducted from 1999 to 2001 to evaluate the efficacy of the transgenic cotton, gossypium hirsutum (l.), genotype, bollgard ii (monsanto 15985), which expresses two bacillus thuringiensis berliner (bt) proteins (cry1ac + cry2ab) that are active against lepidopterous pests. bollgard ii was compared with bollgard (dp50b), which expresses only one bt protein (cry1ac), and, in all tests, the conventional variety, dp50, was used as a non-bt control. larval populations of the bollwor ...200312852613
heterologous myb genes distinct from gl1 enhance trichome production when overexpressed in nicotiana tabacum.myb-class transcription factors implicated in cell shape regulation were overexpressed in arabidopsis thaliana and nicotiana tabacum in an attempt to assess the extent to which cellular differentiation programs might be shared between these distantly related plants. glabrous 1, a myb gene required for trichome development in arabidopsis, did not alter the trichome phenotype of the tobacco plants in which it was overexpressed. mixta, which in antirrhinum majus is reported to regulate certain aspe ...19999895315
manipulation of catalase levels produces altered photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants.constructs containing the cdnas encoding the primary leaf catalase in nicotiana or subunit 1 of cottonseed (gossypium hirsutum) catalase were introduced in the sense and antisense orientation into the nicotiana tabacum genome. the n. tabacum leaf cdna specifically overexpressed cat-1, the high catalatic [corrected] form, activity. antisense constructs reduced leaf catalase specific activities from 0.20 to 0.75 times those of wild type (wt), and overexpression constructs increased catalase specif ...19989449845
permanent gases inside healthy and microbially infected cotton fruit during development.permanent gases inside developing cotton fruit (gossypium hirsutum l.) were, by weight, 46% nitrogen, 29% oxygen, 4% argon and 20% carbon dioxide, whereas plant canopy air assayed at 73% nitrogen, 25% oxygen, 2% argon and 0.3% carbon dioxide. light exposure, fruit age, and mild infection (erwinia) had no compositional effect but aggressive infection (aspergillus) raised carbon dioxide content to 31% by weight and correspondingly lowered oxygen to 17%. respiration with oxygen replenishment except ...19938466505
toxicity of cotton phytoalexins to zoopathogenic fungi.the sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins desoxyhemigossypol, desoxymethoxyhemigossypol, and hemigossypolone formed in cotton (gossypium hirsutum and g. barbadense) stem xylem infected with verticillium dahliae were shown to be highly toxic to zoopathogenic fungi. this appears to be the first study of the toxicity of terpenoid phytoalexins to zoopathogenic fungi. the toxicities of the phytoalexins expressed as mic (micrograms ml-1) values were 8 to 128 against four isolates of candida albicans and one is ...19938167949
purification and biosynthesis of cottonseed (gossypium hirsutum l.) catalase.as part of our research on peroxisome biogenesis, catalase was purified from cotyledons of dark-grown cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) seedlings and monospecific antibodies were raised in rabbits. purified catalase appeared as three distinct electrophoretic forms in non-denaturing gels and as a single protein band (with a subunit mr of 57,000) on silver-stained sds/polyacrylamide gels. western blots of crude extracts and isolated peroxisomes from cotton revealed one immunoreactive polypeptide with ...19883134010
gene expression in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) fiber: cloning of the mrnas.cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. the number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. through differential screening of a fiber cdna library, we isolated five cdna clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. one of the cdna clones, pcke6, corresponded to an abundant mrna in fiber. transcripts for e6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation pro ...19921631059
overwintering of heliothis virescens (f.) and helicoverpa zea (boddie) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in cotton fields of northeast mississippi.following the 1995-2001 crop seasons, population densities of pupae of tobacco budworm, heliothis virescens (f.), and corn earworm, helicoverpa zea (boddie), overwintering in cotton fields, gossypium hirsutum l., in monroe county, ms, were estimated by digging a total of 43,542 m-row. densities of pupae varied greatly among years with the highest densities occurring in years with low rainfall in the late summer and early fall. the sex ratio of pupae was variable and significantly male-biased in ...200314650516
a putative plant homolog of the yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase subunit fks1 from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) fibers.a novel plant gene cfl1 was cloned from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) fibers by expressed sequence tag (est) database searching and 5'-race (rapid amplification of cdna ends). this gene shows sequence homology with fks1 which has been identified as the putative catalytic subunit of the yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase. it encodes a protein (cfl1p) of 219 kda with 13 deduced transmembrane helices and 2 large hydrophilic domains, one of which is at the n-terminus and the other in the internal regio ...200111469587
early-season colonization patterns of the boll weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae) in central texas cotton.it is commonly believed that colonization of early-season cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., by overwintered boll weevils, anthonomus grandis grandis boheman, is concentrated on field margins. however, supporting experimental evidence is not available. in 1999 and 2000, we examined colonization patterns of overwintered boll weevils in central texas cotton on the bases of adult collections by a pneumatic sampler and hand collections of abscised infested squares. samples were taken from sites arranged ...200314994797
electron transport through photosystem ii in leaves during light pulses: acceptor resistance increases with nonphotochemical excitation quenching.light response curves of photosystem (ps) ii electron transport from oxygen evolving complex to plastoquinone (pq) were measured in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.), cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) leaves by recording o(2) evolution and fluorescence in 5-200 ms light pulses of 500-13500 micromol absorbed quanta m(-2) s(-1). the leaves were pre-adapted at 60-2000 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) for 60 min to obtain different nonphotochemical excitation quenching, whi ...200011106767
effects of ddt on the growth of crop plants.the effects of ddt on the germination and growth of plants were studied using many crop species. of the species tested, oil-rich seeds of plants, such as peanut (arachis hypogaea) and mustard (brassica juncea), were more prone to ddt induced inhibition of germination and subsequent plant growth than cereals, pulses and fibre crops, like rice (oryza sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare), mung bean vigna radiata), pigeon pea (cajanus cajan) and cotton (gossypium hirsutum). studies with (14)c labelled ...198915092369
effects of burial and soil condition on postharvest mortality of boll weevils (coleoptera: curculionidae) in fallen cotton fruit.effects of soil condition and burial on boll weevil, anthonomus grandis grandis boheman, mortality in fallen cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., fruit were assessed in this study. during hot weather immediately after summer harvest operations in the lower rio grande valley of texas, burial of infested fruit in conventionally tilled field plots permitted significantly greater survival of weevils than in no-tillage plots. burial of infested squares protected developing weevils from heat and desiccation ...200415154462
increased nuclear dna content in developing cotton fiber cells.the nuclear dna content of developing cotton fiber cells (gossypium hirsutum, cv. md51ne) increases ~24% after 2 d postanthesis (dpa). the amount of nuclear dna at 2 dpa is 5.4 +/- 0.27 pg. at 3-4 dpa it increases to 6.7 +/- 0.24 pg and by 5 dpa it is 6.8 +/- 0.70 pg. these values were obtained by nuclear fluorescence after staining with hoechst 33258. human oral squamous cell nuclei were used as a dna standard. nuclear dna content increases in fibers growing on either fertilized or unfertilized ...199910371719
higher plants contain homologs of the bacterial cela genes encoding the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase.in spite of much effort, no one has succeeded in isolating and characterizing the enzyme(s) responsible for synthesis of cellulose, the major cell wall polymer of plants. we have characterized two cotton (gossypium hirsutum) cdna clones and identified one rice (oryza sativa) cdna that are homologs of the bacterial cela genes that encode the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. three regions in the deduced amino acid sequences of the plant cela gene products are conserved with respect to the ...19968901635
influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.in fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., in tift county, georgia. the objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. the five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, secale cereale l., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, trifolium incarnatum l., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, trifoli ...200415384330
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from cotton (gossypium hirsutum) hypocotyls: properties of the enzyme induced by a verticillium dahliae phytotoxin.phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (ec 4.3.1.5), induced by a verticillium dahliae phytotoxin, has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from cotton hypocotyls by differential ammonium sulfate fractionation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, with a yield of 52%. the enzyme is a tetramer with a molecular weight of 332,000 to 337,000. the isoelectric point is 4.6, and no isoforms were observed. the subunits of the enzyme are unstable and breaks down to fragments with m(r)'s of 69,000 and ...19948043606
[cloning of a mads box protein gene (ghmads1) from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.)].as a kind of transcription factors, mads-box protein plays an important role in various cellular processes, especially in the development of floral organs. based on the contig analysis of the cotton ests, the coding region of a cotton mads-box protein (ghmads1) was obtained by rt-pcr from floral buds of cotton (g. hirsutum). the cloned fragment of 713 bp (ghmads1, genbank accession no. af538965) contains an open reading frame of 711 bp,coding a polypeptide of 236 amino acids. it was demonstrated ...200415552050
comparative production of helicoverpa zea (lepidoptera: noctuidae) from transgenic cotton expressing either one or two bacillus thuringiensis proteins with and without insecticide oversprays.transgenic cotton, gossypium hirsutum (l.), expressing either one or two bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki berliner (bt) proteins was compared with the conventional sister line in field experiments with regard to production of bollworm, helicoverpa zea (boddie), and bolls damaged by bollworm. the relative numbers of bollworms that developed on bollgard (monsanto co., st. louis, mo), bollgard ii (monsanto co.), and conventional cotton were estimated under nontreated conditions in 2000 and both ...200415568364
relative concentration of cry1a in maize leaves and cotton bolls with diverse chlorophyll content and corresponding larval development of fall armyworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (lepidoptera: crambidae) on maize whorl leaf profiles.to manage insect resistance to transgenic crops that express insecticidal proteins from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) berliner, the u.s. environmental protection agency recommends a refuge-based insect resistance management strategy where a percentage of non-bt (refuge) crop is grown in proximity to a bt-expressing crop. an important requirement for this strategy is that the toxin exists at a high effective dose for control of the target pest(s), so that heterozygous individuals in the population ...200415568367
simultaneous induction of postabscission and germination mrnas in cultured dicotyledonous embryos.cloned mrnas identify three programs of gene expression in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) embryos that are associated with the maturation (reserve accumulation) stage, the postabscission stage, which is marked by expression of late-embryogenesis-abundant (lea) mrnas, and germination (broadly defined as including all events through early postgerminative growth). in order to test if the regulation of these programs is the same in other dicotyledonous species, their expression was studied in normal ...19947764404
addition of proteins to the cylindrical gel embedding medium for transverse molecular-weight markers in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.as an aid in the comparison of different complex mixtures of proteins resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a simple method which results in the electrophoresis of molecular-weight standards as appropriately migrating, highly resolved bands extending across the entire second-dimension slab gel is described. the proteins to be used as markers are included in the molten agarose mixture used to affix the first-dimension cylindrical gel atop the second-dimension slab gel. as the proteins whic ...19846486420
water relation alterations observed during hypersensitive reaction induced by bacteria.upon exposure to pathogenic bacteria, resistant and nonhost plants undergo a hypersensitive reaction (hr) that is expressed as rapid plant cell death. if sufficient concentrations of these bacteria are inoculated to such plant tissue, then that portion of the tissue rapidly collapses and becomes necrotic. as the tissue collapses the water relations of inoculated tissues become markedly disturbed. we measured a decline in the relative water content (rwc) in the leaf-like cotyledons of cotton (gos ...199312232016
boll injury and yield losses in cotton associated with brown stink bug (heteroptera: pentatomidae) during flowering.brown stink bug, euschistus servus (say), was infested on cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., plants during reproductive stages to determine the effects on boll injury and seedcotton yield. during each week in 2002 and 2003, significantly more bolls with > or = 1 injured locule, bolls with > or = 2 injured locules, and bolls with discolored lint were recorded on stink bug-infested plants compared with that on noninfested plants. significantly fewer bolls displayed external injury on the boll exocarp ...200415666747
a host-specific bacteria-to-plant signal molecule (nod factor) enhances germination and early growth of diverse crop plants.lipo-chitooligosaccharides (lcos), or nod factors, are host-specific bacteria-to-plant signal molecules essential for the establishment of a successful n(2)-fixing legume-rhizobia symbiosis. at submicromolar concentrations nod factors induce physiological changes in host and non-host plants. here we show that the nod factor nod bj v(c18:1,mefuc) of bradyrhizobium japonicum 532c enhances germination of a variety of economically important plants belonging to diverse botanical families: zea mays, o ...200312520335
effects of black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor on proteolytic activity and on development of anthonomus grandis.the cotton boll weevil anthonomus grandis (boheman) is one of the major pests of cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the new world. this feeds on cotton floral fruits and buds causing severe crop losses. digestion in the boll weevil is facilitated by high levels of serine proteinases, which are responsible for the almost all proteolytic activity. aiming to reduce the proteolytic activity, the inhibitory effects of black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor (bt ...200312737983
evaluation of efficacy and safety of a herbal medicine used for the treatment of malaria.resistance of plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has been reported in several countries. other anti-malarial drugs in use are expensive and not readily accessible to most people in malaria endemic countries. this has led to renewed interest in the development of herbal medicines that have the potential to treat malaria with little or no side effects. this study obtained a preliminary information on the safety and effectiveness of a plant decoction (am-1), used in treating malaria. the am-1 is ...200312820245
recombinantly expressed isoenzymic aminopeptidases from helicoverpa armigera (american cotton bollworm) midgut display differential interaction with closely related bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins.several investigators have independently identified membrane-associated aminopeptidases in the midgut of insect larvae as the initial interacting ligand to the insecticidal crystal proteins of bacillus thuringiensis. though several isoenzymes of aminopeptidases have been identified from the midgut of an insect and their corresponding cdna cloned, only one of the isoform has been expressed heterologously and studied for its binding to cry toxins. here we report the cloning and expression of two a ...200312441000
molecular cloning, differential expression, and functional characterization of a family of class i ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (e2) genes in cotton (gossypium).two cdnas and their corresponding genes (ghubc1 and ghubc2) encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (e2s) have been cloned and characterized from allotetraploid cotton gossypium hirsutum ((ad)(1) genome). three additional e2 genes (gaubc1, gtubc2, and grubc2) have also been identified from diploid cottons gossypium arboreum (a(2) genome), gossypium thurberi (d(1) genome), and gossypium raimondii (d(5) genome), respectively. the derived amino acid sequences of the five closely related cotton e2s a ...200312591614
in vitro prenylation of the small gtpase rac13 of cotton.previous work (d.p. delmer, j. pear, a. andrawis, d. stalker [1995] mol gen genet 248: 43-51) has identified a gene in cotton (gossypium hirsutum), rac13, that encodes a small, signal-transducing gtpase and shows high expression in the fiber at the time of transition from primary to secondary wall synthesis. since rac13 may be important in signal transduction pathway(s), regulating the onset of fiber secondary wall synthesis, we continue to characterize rac13 by determining its ability to underg ...199612226460
functional characterization of gossypium hirsutum profilin 1 gene (ghpfn1) in tobacco suspension cells. characterization of in vivo functions of a cotton profilin gene.cotton fiber is an extremely long plant cell. fiber elongation is a complex process and the genes that are crucial for elongation are largely unknown. we previously cloned a cdna encoding an isoform of cotton profilin and found that the gene (designated ghpfn1) was preferentially expressed in cotton fibers. in the present study, we have further analyzed the expression pattern of ghpfn1 during fiber development and studied its cellular function using tobacco suspension cells as an experimental sy ...200516001260
size-dependent feeding and reproduction by boll weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae).the considerable variation in adult size of the boll weevil, anthonomus grandis grandis boheman, has been well documented, but the influences of adult size on reproductive rate are not known. we examined the relationship between the size of boll weevils and their feeding and oviposition. weevils weighed to the nearest milligram were grouped into five categories based on pupal weight: < or =5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, and >20 mg. numbers of lifetime punctures produced in flower buds (squares) of cotto ...200516022302
effects of planting dates on boll weevils (coleoptera: curculionidae) and cotton fruit in the subtropics.the effects of planting dates 2-3-wk apart on boll weevil, anthonomus grandis grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae), field-level populations, and feeding and oviposition damage to cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., squares and bolls, were studied during 2002 and 2003 in the lower rio grande valley of texas. squares were 44-56% more abundant in some later planted treatments than in the earlier planted treatments, but mean cumulative numbers of oviposition- and feeding-damaged squares were 2.7 - ...200516022308
paget's disease of bone in lancashire and arsenic pesticide in cotton mill wastewater: a speculative hypothesis.a 1974 survey of paget's disease of bone in 31 uk towns identified a cluster of six lancashire former cotton mill towns with the highest prevalence rates of the disease and noted a link with the cotton industry. the two highest-prevalence towns are situated on estuaries and are jointly the smallest of the six by the size of their former cotton industry. the two lowest-prevalence towns of the six are highest above sea level and jointly the largest by the size of their former cotton industry. this ...200212231419
8-hydroxy-(+)-delta-cadinene is a precursor to hemigossypol in gossypium hirsutum.[(3)h](+)-delta-cadinene and its 8-hydroxy derivative, prepared from (1rs)-[1-(3)h]fpp by the action of one and two recombinant enzymes, respectively, were infiltrated into cotyledons of bacterial blight-resistant cotton plants as they biosynthesized sesquiterpene phytoalexins in response to infection by xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum. following both treatments, tritium appeared in the hplc fraction that contained hemigossypol. hemigossypol was isolated from the cotyledons that had been ...200312946420
characterization of the targeting signal of the arabidopsis 22-kd integral peroxisomal membrane protein.using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we characterized the sorting pathway and molecular targeting signal for the arabidopsis 22-kd peroxisome membrane protein (pmp22), an integral component of the membrane of all peroxisomes in the mature plant. we show that nascent pmp22 is sorted directly from the cytosol to peroxisomes and that it is inserted into the peroxisomal boundary membrane with its n- and c-termini facing the cytosol. this direct sorting of pmp22 to peroxisomes contrast ...200312972647
an atp-binding cassette transporter ghwbc1 from elongating cotton fibers.we have isolated a cdna (ghwbc1) from cotton (gossypium hirsutum) that encodes an atp-binding cassette transporter of the wbc (white/brown complex) subfamily. members of this subfamily are half-sized transporters and are reported to mediate lipid and drug excretion in human (homo sapiens). ghwbc1 is highly expressed in developing fiber cells, but transcripts were also detectable in other tissues except roots. the transcript level peaked in rapidly expanding fibers from 5 to 9 dpa and then decrea ...200312972649
bollgard ii cotton: compositional analysis and feeding studies of cottonseed from insect-protected cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) producing the cry1ac and cry2ab2 proteins.bollgard ii cotton event 15985 producing the cry1ac and cry2ab2 proteins has been developed by genetic modification to broaden the spectrum of insects to which the plant is tolerant and to provide an insect resistance management tool to impede the onset of resistance. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition and nutrition of bollgard ii cotton, relative to the use for food and animal feed, compared to that of conventional cotton varieties. compositional analyses were conducted t ...200415537305
wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrid mapping of the cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) genome.whole-genome radiation hybrid mapping has been applied extensively to human and certain animal species, but little to plants. we recently demonstrated an alternative mapping approach in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), based on segmentation by 5-krad gamma-irradiation and derivation of wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrids (wwrhs). however, limitations observed at the 5-krad level suggested that higher doses might be advantageous. here, we describe the development of an improved second-genera ...200616362372
isolation of a cotton reversibly glycosylated polypeptide (ghrgp1) promoter and its expression activity in transgenic tobacco.reversibly glycosylated polypeptides (rgps) are thought to be involved in polysaccharide metabolism. a cdna of the cotton (gossypium hirsutum) rgp gene, designated ghrgp1, has previously been characterized, and is preferentially expressed in fiber cells. in order to investigate its temporal and spatial control, we isolated a 624bp fragment upstream of the ghrgp1 coding sequence using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based genomic walking method, transcriptionally fused the 624bp promoter sequen ...200616455356
improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsa and acsb genes into gossypium hirsutum l. by means of vacuum infiltration.a novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. the acsa and acsb genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants. transformation was carried out in cotton pollen-germinating medium, and transformation ...200414740167
proactive spraying against boll weevils (coleoptera: curculionidae) reduces insecticide applications and increases cotton yield and economic return.the current standard practice of two to three preemptive insecticide applications at the start of pinhead (1-2-mm-diameter) squaring followed by threshold-triggered (whenever 10% of randomly selected squares have oviposition punctures) insecticide applications for boll weevil, anthonomus grandis grandis boheman, control does not provide a reliably positive impact on cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., yields in subtropical conditions. this study showed that four fewer spray applications in a "proacti ...200516539122
cloning and characterization of two erebp transcription factors from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.).in this research, two erebp (ethylene response element binding protein) genes were isolated by the yeast one-hybrid system, named ghereb2 and ghereb3, and both have one intron in their coding regions. the deduced amino acid sequences of ghereb2 and ghereb3 have some typical features of transcription factors, one potential basic nuclear-localization signal, one possible acidic activation domain, and one conserved dna binding domain, and they show high similarity, especially in the dna-binding dom ...200616545065
the complete chloroplast genome sequence of gossypium hirsutum: organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms.cotton (gossypium hirsutum) is the most important fiber crop grown in 90 countries. in 2004-2005, us farmers planted 79% of the 5.7-million hectares of nuclear transgenic cotton. unfortunately, genetically modified cotton has the potential to hybridize with other cultivated and wild relatives, resulting in geographical restrictions to cultivation. however, chloroplast genetic engineering offers the possibility of containment because of maternal inheritance of transgenes. the complete chloroplast ...200616553962
the bifunctional lkr/sdh locus of plants also encodes a highly active monofunctional lysine-ketoglutarate reductase using a polyadenylation signal located within an intron.both plants and animals catabolize lysine (lys) via two consecutive enzymes, lys-ketoglutarate reductase (lkr) and saccharopine dehydrogenase (sdh), which are linked on a single polypeptide encoded by a single lkr/sdh gene. we have previously shown that the arabidopsis lkr/sdh gene also encodes a monofunctional sdh that is transcribed from an internal promoter. in the present report, we have identified two cdnas derived from cotton (gossypium hirsutum) boll abscission zone that encode a novel en ...200212226495
comparative study on biological parameters of bemisia tabaci (genn.) collected on four host plants from varamin-iran.during 2003 biological parameters of sweetpotato whitefly, b. tabaci (genn.) (horn. aleyrodidae) as a major pest of field crops, vegetables and ornamentals were studied. in this study, the infested leaves of cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) zucchini (cucurbita pepo l.) eggplant (solanum melongena l.) and cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) with whitefly nymphs and pupae were collected from varamin-iran, and were transferred to the laboratory. the newly emerged males and females of each population were r ...200516628901
relationship between the heat tolerance of photosynthesis and the thermal stability of rubisco activase in plants from contrasting thermal environments.inhibition of net photosynthesis (pn) by moderate heat stress has been attributed to an inability of rubisco activase to maintain rubisco in an active form. to examine this proposal, the temperature response of pn, rubisco activation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and the activities of rubisco and rubisco activase were examined in species from contrasting environments. the temperature optimum of rubisco activation was 10 degrees c higher in the creosote bush (larrea tridentata) compared with the ant ...200415084731
two isoforms of rubisco activase in cotton, the products of separate genes not alternative splicing.in several plant species, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase consists of two isoforms that are produced by alternative splicing of a pre-mrna. two forms of activase corresponding to the longer, redox-regulated alpha and the shorter, beta forms were detected immunologically in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) leaves, but their n-termini differed in 4 of 14 residues. the cdnas for the alpha and beta forms of cotton activase diverged throughout the translated and 3'-un ...200312624760
oxidative and phosphorylative activities of mitochondria isolated from cotton hypocotyls.mitochondria isolated from 2 strains of cotton plant hypocotyls (gossypium hirsutum l. var. rex smooth leaf and rex glandless) were examined for their oxidative phosphorylation activities. bovine serum albumin at a relatively high concentration was essential in the extraction medium for the isolation of oxidatively active mitochondria from both strains of cotton. phosphorylation was obtained only with rex glandless cotton mitochondria. this activity was low in comparison to the mitochondria isol ...196816657001
the cotton ghnhx1 gene encoding a novel putative tonoplast na(+)/h(+) antiporter plays an important role in salt stress.a cdna clone was isolated from cotton (gossypium hirsutum) cdna library and characterized with regard to its sequence, regulation in response to salt stress and functions in yeast mutants and transgenic tobacco plants. the clone, designated as ghnhx1, contains 2485 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1629 nucleotides, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed high identities with other plant vacuolar-type na(+)/h(+) antiporters. northern blot analysis indicated that the mrna accumulation ...200415169942
auxin transport: a new synthetic inhibitor.the new synthetic plant growth regulator dpx1840 (3,3a-dihydro-2-(p-methoxyphenyl)-8h-pyrazolo [5,1-a] isoindol-8-one) was examined for its effects on auxin transport. at a concentration of 0.5 mm in the receiver agar cylinders dpx1840 significantly inhibited the basipetal transport of naphthaleneacetic acid-1-(14)c in stem sections of vigna sinensis endl., pisum sativum l., phaseolus vulgaris l., glycine max l., helianthus annuus l., gossypium hirsutum l., and zea mays l. without significantly ...197216658167
effects of potassium humate solution and soaking periods on germination characteristics of undelinted cotton seeds (gossypium hirsutum l.).the present study was conducted to determine the effects of soaking in potassium humate (ph) solution (55% humic acid, 30% fulvic acid and 8% potassium hydroxide) and distilled water (dw) for different periods (0, 4, 8 and 16 hours) on germination characteristics of undelinted seeds of cotton cv ersan-92. radicle, hypocotyl and seedling length, radicle and hypocotyl elongation rate and vigor index increased by ph solution treatment and increasing soaking periods. the medium x soaking period inte ...200415907066
identification and quantification of gossypol in cotton by using packed micro-tips columns in combination with hplc.self-packed micro-tip columns containing a c18-bonded silica stationary phase, based on the same principles as solid-phase extraction methods, were used to obtain gossypol and related sesquiterpenoid aldehyde-enriched fractions. the enriched metabolite fractions were then analyzed by optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a c18 column (4.6 mm x 25 cm) eluted with the binary mobile phase acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous tfa solution (80:20). this method has proven to be highly repr ...200415372136
emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to l-cysteine.leaf discs and detached leaves exposed to l-cysteine emitted a volatile sulfur compound which was proven by gas chromatography to be h(2)s. this phenomenon was demonstrated in all nine species tested (cucumis sativus, cucurbita pepo, nicotiana tabacum, coleus blumei, beta vulgaris, phaseolus vulgaris, medicago sativa, hordeum vulgare, and gossypium hirsutum). the emission of volatile sulfur by cucumber leaves occurred in the dark at a similar rate to that in the light. the emission of leaf discs ...198216662510
a simple and rapid agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.): embryogenic calli as a source to generate large numbers of transgenic plants.a protocol is presented for efficient transformation and regeneration of cotton. embryogenic calli co-cultivated with agrobacterium carrying cry1ia5 gene were cultured under dehydration stress and antibiotic selection for 3-6 weeks to generate several transgenic embryos. an average of 75 globular embryo clusters were observed on selection plates and these embryos were cultured on multiplication medium followed by development of cotyledonary embryos on embryo maturation medium to obtain an averag ...200413680138
simultaneous measurements of steady state chlorophyll a fluorescence and co(2) assimilation in leaves: the relationship between fluorescence and photosynthesis in c(3) and c(4) plants.rates of co(2) assimilation and steady state chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured simultaneously at different intercellular partial pressures of co(2) in attached cotton (gossypium hirsutum l. cv deltapine 16) leaves at 25 degrees c. electron transport activity for co(2) assimilation plus photorespiration was calculated for these experiments. under light saturating (1750 microeinsteins per square meter per second) and light limiting (700 microeinsteins per square meter per second) conditions ...198616664735
udp-glucose: (1-->3)-beta-glucan synthases from mung bean and cotton: differential effects of ca and mg on enzyme properties and on macromolecular structure of the glucan product.a re-examination of the kinetic properties of udp-glucose: (1-->3)-beta-glucan (callose) synthases from mung bean seedlings (vigna radiata) and cotton fibers (gossypium hirsutum) shows that these enzymes have a complex interaction with udp-glucose and various effectors. stimulation of activity by micromolar concentrations of ca(2+) and millimolar concentrations of beta-glucosides or other polyols is highest at low (<100 micromolar) udp-glucose concentrations. these effectors act both by raising ...198716665323
efficacy of transgenic cotton containing a cry1ac gene from bacillus thuringiensis against helicoverpa armigera (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in northern china.nucotn 33b, a bt transgenic variety of upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) expressing the insecticidal protein cry1ac from bacillus thuringiensis berliner sp. kurstaki, was evaluated for resistance to helicoverpa armigera (hübner) during 1998-2000 in northern china. the results indicated that there was no significant difference in egg densities between nucotn 33b and three nontransgenic varieties (dp5415, zhongmian12, and shiyuan321) during the season, although the survival of larvae on nucotn ...200314503607
[glyphosate-resistant cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) transformed with aroam12 gene via agrobacterium tumefaciens].a mutant, aroam12, exhibiting resistance to glyphosate produced in a previous study using the staggered extension process with aroa genes from salmonella typhimurium and eschrichia coli. in this paper, we constructed a vector pgra1300 carrying aroam12 gene, comprising transit peptide of arabidopsis epsps, under the control of the camv35s promoter and used as selectable marker for cotton plant (gossypium hirsutum l.) transformation. transgenic cottons with increased resistance to glyphosate were ...200415599043
toxicity to cotton boll weevil anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil anthonomus grandis. adult a. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. the predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. the present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea ...200515649779
[cloning and characterization of the pts2 receptor gene (ghpex7) from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.)].peroxisomal targeting signals (pts), including pts1 and pts2, were proposed to play an important role in introducing proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. pex7, the pts2 receptor, is crucial to the import of pts2 proteins. based on the sequence of a fragment (f010) recovered from cdna-aflp, the full-length cdna sequence was obtained by race and the contig in cotton ests, and the coding sequence was further cloned. the ghpex7 cdna, 1314 bp in length, contained 5 non-coding (77 bp) upstream, 3 com ...200314577373
validation of a cotton-specific gene, sad1, used as an endogenous reference gene in qualitative and real-time quantitative pcr detection of transgenic cottons.genetically modified (gm) cotton lines have been approved for commercialization and widely cultivated in many countries, especially in china. as a step towards the development of reliable qualitative and quantitative pcr methods for detecting gm cottons, we report here the validation of the cotton (gossypium hirsutum) endogenous reference control gene, sad1, using conventional and real-time (rt)-pcr methods. both methods were tested on 15 different g. hirsutum cultivars, and identical amplicons ...200515726375
transgenic cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) seedlings expressing a tobacco glutathione s-transferase fail to provide improved stress tolerance.transgenic cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) lines expressing the tobacco glutathione s-transferase (gst) nt107 were evaluated for tolerance to chilling, salinity, and herbicides, antioxidant enzyme activity, antioxidant compound levels, and lipid peroxidation. although transgenic seedlings exhibited ten-fold and five-fold higher gst activity under normal and salt-stress conditions, respectively, germinating seedlings did not show improved tolerance to salinity, chilling conditions, or herbicides. ...200515824906
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