rapid determination of sequence variations in actinidin isolated from actinidia chinensis (var. hayward) using fast atom bombardment mapping mass spectrometry and gas phase microsequencing.a current limitation in the use of fast atom bombardment (fab) mass spectrometric mapping of peptide mixtures, derived from enzymic digestion of proteins, is that most of the hydrophilic peptides are not observed. however, it has been demonstrated from previous work that esterification of the peptide mixture results in the detection of almost all peptides in fab mass spectrometry. this strategy of fab mapping was applied to the protein actinidin, isolated from an italian variety of actinidia chi ...19892765702
a rare case of food allergy: monosensitivity to kiwi (actinidia chinensis).we present a case of hypersensitivity to kiwi in a 26 year-old patient with no previous atopic history. the first reaction episode occurred a few minutes after kiwi ingestion, presenting with a localized pruritic reaction. this symptomatology repeated itself a few months later, again immediately after eating kiwi and was accompanied by dysphagia, vomiting and urticaria. in the complementary laboratory analyses a total ige of 187 iu/ml was appreciated. the skin test to inhalant and food antigens ...19892816664
antimutagenic activity of extracts from anticancer drugs in chinese medicine.the antimutagenic activities of extracts of 36 commonly used anticancer crude drugs from chinese herbs were studied by using the salmonella/microsomal system in the presence of picrolonic acid or benzo[a]pyrene to test whether they contain direct or indirect antimutagens. each crude drug was extracted with boiling water for 2 h, the method which is commonly used by chinese people to prepare the drug for oral intake. the extracts of pteris multifida p. showed the highest antimutagenic activity ag ...19883278214
the action of proteinase a 2 of actinidia chinensis on the b-chain of oxidized insulin. 19734734375
hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit (chinese gooseberry, actinidia chinensis).this report describes a hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit in a patient who developed moderately severe generalized symptoms after handling the fruit. a search of the literature did not reveal any previous reference to kiwi-fruit sensitivity. it is suggested that ige antibody is an important factor in the reaction.19817264104
a glycoprotein inhibitor of pectin methylesterase in kiwi fruit. purification by affinity chromatography and evidence of a ripening-related precursor.the pectin methylesterase inhibitor from kiwi fruit (actinidia chinensis) was purified by a single-step procedure based on affinity chromatography. partially purified tomato pectin methylesterase was covalently bound to sepharose. the affinity resin strongly and selectively binds the inhibitor, which could be eluted in high yield as a single, homogeneous and sharp peak by high salt concentration at ph 9.5 without loss of inhibitory activity. the purified protein possesses a molecular mass of 18 ...19958521860
identification of the allergenic components of kiwi fruit and evaluation of their cross-reactivity with timothy and birch pollens.only a few food allergens have as yet been identified, mainly because of the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient number of patients who are clinically sensitized to a given food. this is more feasible in the case of the oral allergy syndrome (oas), a common form of food allergy, which is especially prevalent in patients with pollinosis.19968828538
enzymatic properties, substrate specificities and ph-activity profiles of two kiwifruit proteases.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) contains abundant protease, actinidin, and two possible components which were named a1 and a2. however, a comparison of the two components has not been thoroughly conducted. we have previously shown the presence of six proteases named kp1, kp2, kp3, kp4, kp5 and kp6 in kiwifruit, and that each purified kiwifruit protease was chromatographically pure. it was also indicated that the two representative components, kp4 and kp6, must be a1 and a2. to establish whether ...19979505243
a set of conserved pcr primers for the analysis of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in chloroplast genomes of dicotyledonous angiosperms.short runs of mononucleotide repeats are present in chloroplast genomes of higher plants. in soybean, rice, and pine, pcr (polymerase chain reaction) with flanking primers has shown that the numbers of a or t residues in such repeats are variable among closely related taxa. here we describe a set of primers for studying mononucleotide repeat variation in chloroplast dna of angiosperms where database information is limited. a total of 39 (a)n and (t)n repeats (n > or = 10) were identified in the ...199910207998
kiwi fruit (actinidia chinensis l.) polysaccharides exert stimulating effects on cell proliferation via enhanced growth factor receptors, energy production, and collagen synthesis of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and skin equivalents.within physiological engineering exogenous carbohydrates were recently confirmed as pharmacologically active compounds. to investigate potential dermatological activity purified polysaccharides from kiwi fruits (actinidia chinensis l., actinidiaceae) were characterized concerning monomer composition, linkage types and molecular weights and were tested under in vitro conditions for regulating activities on cell physiology of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and skin equivalents. ten micrograms p ...200515389574
the missing step of the l-galactose pathway of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants, an l-galactose guanyltransferase, increases leaf ascorbate content.the gene for one postulated enzyme that converts gdp-l-galactose to l-galactose-1-phosphate is unknown in the l-galactose pathway of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and a possible candidate identified through map-based cloning is the uncharacterized gene at4g26850. we identified a putative function for at4g26850 using psi-blast and motif searching to show it was a member of the histidine triad superfamily, which includes d-galactose uridyltransferase. we cloned and expressed this arabidopsis gene and ...200717485667
characterization of bet v 1-related allergens from kiwifruit relevant for patients with combined kiwifruit and birch pollen allergy.allergy to kiwifruit appears to have become more common in europe and elsewhere during the past several years. seven allergens have been identified from kiwifruit so far, with actinidin, kiwellin and the thaumatin-like protein as the most relevant ones. in contrast to other fruits, no bet v 1 homologues were characterized from kiwifruit so far. we cloned, purified, and characterized recombinant bet v 1-homologous allergens from green (actinidia deliciosa, act d 8) and gold (actinidia chinensis, ...200818925615
muscodor fengyangensis sp. nov. from southeast china: morphology, physiology and production of volatile compounds.the fungal genus muscodor was erected on the basis of muscodor albus, an endophytic fungus originally isolated from cinnamomum zeylanicum. it produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (vocs) with antimicrobial activity that can be used as mycofumigants. the genus currently comprises five species. here we describe the isolation and characterization of a new species of muscodor on the basis of five endophytic fungal strains from leaves of actinidia chinensis, pseudotaxus chienii and an unid ...201020943189
gold kiwifruit ( actinidia chinensis 'hort16a') for immune support.kiwifruit is a good source of several vitamins and minerals and dietary fibre, and contains a number of phytochemicals; so kiwifruit potentially provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. consumption of green kiwifruit can have positive effects on cardiovascular health through antioxidant activity, inhibition of platelet aggregation and lowered tag levels, and gut health through improving laxation, aiding digestion and promoting a healthy gut microflora. the importance of nutrition on immu ...201121349229
the ectopic expression of a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor increases pectin methyl esterification and limits fungal diseases in wheat.cell wall pectin methyl esterification can influence plant resistance because highly methyl esterified pectin can be less susceptible to the hydrolysis by pectic enzymes such as fungal endopolygalacturonases (pgs). pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl esterified form and here is de-methyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (pme). the activity of pme is controlled by specific protein inhibitors called pmeis, consequently an increased inhibition of pme by pmei might modify th ...201121585271
supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (actinidia chinensis var.'hort 16a':) effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection.abstract: background: the health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products. methods: we carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, dna stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. our ...201121586177
kiwifruit extracts inhibit cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cells isolated from il10 gene deficient mice.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract involving an inappropriate immune response to commensal microorganisms in a genetically susceptible host. this study examined the effects of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) or green kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa) using in vitro models of ibd. these models comprised primary macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells isolated from c57bl/5j and interleukin- ...201121600571
effects of kiwifruit extracts on colonic gene and protein expression levels in il-10 gene-deficient mice.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a collective term for conditions characterised by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving an inappropriate immune response to commensal micro-organisms in a genetically susceptible host. previously, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) or green kiwifruit (a. deliciosa) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity using in vitro models of ibd. the present study examined whether these kiwifruit extracts ...201122152591
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Draft Genomes Comparison Reveal Strain-Specific Features Involved in Adaptation and Virulence to Actinidia Species.A recent re-emerging bacterial canker disease incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is causing severe economic losses to Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa cultivations in southern Europe, New Zealand, Chile and South Korea. Little is known about the genetic features of this pathovar. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from two Psa strains causing outbreaks of bacterial canker on the A. deliciosa cv. Hayward in Japan (J-Psa, type-strain of the pathovar) and in Italy ...201122132095
Enhancing ascorbate in fruits and tubers through over-expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase.Ascorbate, or vitamin C, is obtained by humans mostly from plant sources. Various approaches have been made to increase ascorbate in plants by transgenic means. Most of these attempts have involved leaf material from model plants, with little success reported using genes from the generally accepted l-galactose pathway of ascorbate biosynthesis. We focused on increasing ascorbate in commercially significant edible plant organs using a gene, GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase (GGP or VTC2), that we had ...201122129455
metabolomic analysis reveals differences in urinary excretion of kiwifruit-derived metabolites in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.the interleukin-10-deficient (il-10(-/-)) mouse, a model of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), develops intestinal inflammation unless raised in germ-free conditions. the metabolic effects of consuming extracts from the fruits of yellow (actinidia chinensis) or green-fleshed (a. deliciosa) kiwifruit that displayed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were investigated in il-10(-/-) mice by metabolomic analysis of urine samples. kiwifruit-derived metabolites were detected at significantly higher le ...201121957058
genomic analysis of the kiwifruit pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae provides insight into the origins of an emergent plant disease.the origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. most crops were domesticated centuries--even millennia--ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by p. syringae pv. actinidiae (psa) first recorded in the 1980s. based on snp analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that psa is comprised of distinct clade ...201323935484
transcriptome analysis of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) bark in response to armoured scale insect (hemiberlesia lataniae) feeding.the kiwifruit cultivar actinidia chinensis 'hort16a' is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest hemiberlesia lataniae (hemiptera: diaspididae). a cdna microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ests) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the a. chinensis 'hort16a' canes in response to a controlled infestation of h. lataniae. after 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. after 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcri ...201526571404
the first complete chloroplast genome sequences in actinidiaceae: genome structure and comparative analysis.actinidia chinensis is an important economic plant belonging to the basal lineage of the asterids. availability of a complete actinidia chloroplast genome sequence is crucial to understanding phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms and facilitates kiwifruit genetic improvement. we report here the complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast genomes for actinidia chinensis and a. chinensis var deliciosa obtained through de novo assembly of illumina paired-end reads prod ...201526046631
draft genome sequences of five pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in france.pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of actinidia deliciosa and actinidia chinensis. p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in new zealand, australia, france and spain. four lineages were previously identified within the p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of p. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in france. the whole genomes of str ...201627237113
an r2r3 myb transcription factor determines red petal colour in an actinidia (kiwifruit) hybrid colour in kiwifruit results from the presence of anthocyanin pigments. their expression, however, is complex, and varies among genotypes, species, tissues and environments. an understanding of the biosynthesis, physiology and genetics of the anthocyanins involved, and the control of their expression in different tissues, is required. a complex, the mbw complex, consisting of r2r3-myb and bhlh transcription factors together with a wd-repeat protein, activates anthocyanin 3-o-galactosyltransfe ...201323324587
a complex inoculant of n2-fixing, p- and k-solubilizing bacteria from a purple soil improves the growth of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) information is available if plant growth promoting bacteria (pgpb) can promote the growth of fruit crops through improvements in soil fertility. this study aimed to evaluate the capacity of pgpb, identified by phenotypic and 16s rrna sequencing from a vegetable purple soil in chongqing, china, to increase soil nitrogen (n), phosphorus (p), and potassium (k) availability and growth of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis). in doing so, three out of 17 bacterial isolates with a high capacity of ...201627445991
comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection and differentiation of cherry leaf roll virus strains for quarantine purposes.some strains of cherry leaf roll virus (clrv) are considered as quarantine pests in new zealand. clrv was detected in seven plant host species: actinidia chinensis, hydrangea macrophylla, malus domestica, plantago major, ribes rubrum, rubus idaeus and rumex sp. collected from new zealand between 2005 and 2012. biological, serological and molecular techniques were compared for the detection and differentiation of clrv isolates. the biological analysis revealed differences in symptomatology and di ...201627129669
characterization of the complete genome of a novel citrivirus infecting actinidia chinensis.a ssrna virus from kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) was identified as a member of the family betaflexiviridae. it was mechanically transmitted to the herbaceous indicators nicotiana benthamiana, n. clevelandii, n. glutinosa and n. occidentalis. the complete genome was comprised of three orfs and a 3'poly (a) tail. phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome indicated it was a novel member of the genus citrivirus (family betaflexiviridae). the complete nucleotide sequence differed from that of citrus le ...201323494225
activity of an atypical arabidopsis thaliana pectin arabidopsis thaliana pectin methylesterase that was not predicted to contain any signaling sequence was produced in e. coli and purified using a his tag added at its n-terminus. the enzyme demethylesterified citrus pectin with a km of 0.86 mg/ml. the enzyme did not require salt for activity and was found to be relatively temperature-sensitive. the precipitation of enzyme-treated pectin by cacl2 suggested that the enzyme had a blockwise mode of pectin demethylesterification. a purified kiwi (a ...200918936961
detection and characterisation of two novel vitiviruses infecting actinidia.two co-infecting novel vitiviruses from actinidia chinensis were identified from mechanically inoculated nicotiana occidentalis. both virus genomes were sequenced and share 64% nucleotide identity. their overall structure is typical of vitiviruses, with five open reading frames (orfs) and a polyadenylated 3' end. open reading frame 4 (orf4) encodes the coat protein, the most conserved gene of the vitiviruses, in which they share 75% amino acid identity, 61-68% with grapevine virus b, 55-59% with ...201222274622
draft genome sequences of pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae icmp 19971 and icmp 19972, two strains isolated from actinidia chinensis with symptoms of summer canker in south korea.pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae is the causal agent of summer canker in kiwifruit plants in south korea. we report here the draft genome sequences of two p. carotovorum subsp. actinidiae strains, icmp 19971 and icmp 19972, which were originally isolated from actinidia chinensis with symptoms of summer canker. these genome sequences will aid in the identification of genetic traits associated with their unusual capacity to cause canker and help understanding of the threat these exotic ...201728385839
[agrobacterium-mediated transformation of ljamp2 gene into 'red sun' kiwifruit and its molecular identification].bacterial canker caused by pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is one of the most important diseases of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) and leads to considerable yield losses. in order to obtain transgenic plants with resistance for 'red sun' kiwifruit to canker disease, a non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein gene (ljamp2) from motherwort (leonurus japonicus) was introduced into 'red sun' kiwifruit through agrobacterium-mediated transformation. after two days of co-cult ...201425212010
proteomic changes in actinidia chinensis shoot during systemic infection with a pandemic pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strain.a pandemic, very aggressive population of pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is currently causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit crops worldwide. upon leaf attack, this gram-negative bacterium systemically reaches the plant shoot in a week period. in this study, combined 2-de and nanolc-esi-lit-ms/ms procedures were used to describe major proteomic changes in actinidia chinensis shoot following bacterial inoculation in host leaf. a total of 117 differentially represented protein spots were ...201323099348
characterization of the complete genome of ribgrass mosaic virus isolated from plantago major l. from new zealand and actinidia spp. from china.the complete genomes of tobamovirus isolates from plantago major l. from new zealand (nz-439), plantago sp. from germany (kons 1105), actinidia chinensis (actinidia-ac) and a. deliciosa (actinidia-ad) from china were sequenced and compared to previously published tobamovirus genomes. their genome organization and phylogenetic analysis of the putative replicase component, replicase readthrough component, movement protein, coat protein and complete genome placed all four isolates in subgroup 3 of ...201222456910
two subclasses of differentially expressed tps1 genes and biochemically active tps1 proteins may contribute to sugar signalling in kiwifruit actinidia chinensis.trehalose metabolism and its intermediate trehalose-6-phosphate (t6p) are implicated in sensing and signalling sucrose availability. four class i trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (tps1) genes were identified in kiwifruit, three of which have both the tps and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (tpp) domain, while the fourth gene gives rise to a truncated transcript. the transcript with highest sequence homology to arabidopsis tps1, designated tps1.1a was the most highly abundant tps1 transcript in a ...201627992562
transgenic expression of pectin methylesterase inhibitors limits tobamovirus spread in tobacco and arabidopsis.plant infection by a virus is a complex process influenced by virus-encoded factors and host components which support replication and movement. critical factors for a successful tobamovirus infection are the viral movement protein (mp) and the host pectin methylesterase (pme), an important plant counterpart that cooperates with mp to sustain viral spread. the activity of pme is modulated by endogenous protein inhibitors (pectin methylesterase inhibitors, pmeis). pmeis are targeted to the extrace ...201424127644
three ft and multiple cen and bft genes regulate maturity, flowering, and vegetative phenology in kiwifruit.kiwifruit is a woody perennial horticultural crop, characterized by excessive vegetative vigor, prolonged juvenility, and low productivity. to understand the molecular factors controlling flowering and winter dormancy, here we identify and characterize the kiwifruit pebp (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) gene family. five cen-like and three bft-like genes are differentially expressed and act as functionally conserved floral repressors, while two mft-like genes have no impact on flowerin ...201728369532
identification and expression analysis of photoreceptor genes in kiwifruit leaves under natural daylength conditions and their relationship with other genes that regulate photoperiodic flowering.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (a. chev) a. chev.) is a dioecious vine highly dependent on pollination, which is limited by a lack of synchrony of flowering time between male and female plants. in many plant species, the regulation of the timing of flowering depends largely on seasonal cues such as photoperiod, which is detected by photoreceptors. in this report, we determined the full sequences of the phyb (acphyb) and phya (acphya) genes and a partial sequence of the cry2 (accry ...201728363189
actinidia chinensis planch root extract inhibits cholesterol metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma through upregulation of pcsk9.actinidia chinensis planch root extract (acroots) is a traditional chinese medicine with anti-tumor efficacy. to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this activity, we examined the effects of acroots on cholesterol metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc). mrna chip analysis was used to identify the metabolic genes regulated by acroots. the effects of acroots on cholesterol synthesis and uptake were evaluated by measuring intracellular cholesterol levels and 3,3'-dioctadecylindocarbocy ...201728178673
genomewide analysis of nbs-encoding genes in kiwi fruit (actinidia chinensis). 201627994200
high-capacity hollow porous dummy molecular imprinted polymers using ionic liquid as functional monomer for selective recognition of salicylic acid.the existence of strong intramolecular hydrogen bond in salicylic acid (sa) weakens its intermolecular hydrogen bonding with functional monomer, then it is a challenge work to fabricate molecularly imprinted polymers (mips) for sa recognition with high capacity and good selectivity. here, hollow porous dummy mips (hpdmips) were prepared using benzoic acid (ba) as dummy template, ionic liquid (i.e. 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) as functional monomer, and mcm-48 as sacrificial support. fac ...201727865542
physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.three varieties of golden kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) (gold3, gold9 and hort16a) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. all the kiwifruit starches showed b-type polymorph. compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starche ...201727855880
equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit for wheaten cereal reduces postprandial glycaemia without decreasing satiety.kiwifruit is a carbohydrate food of low glycaemic potency which could potentially be exchanged for starch-based foods in management of postprandial glycaemia. the effect of equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit varieties 'hayward' green (gr) and 'zesy002' (sungold; sg) for a starchy wheat-based breakfast cereal (wb) on the characteristics of the postprandial glycaemic response and satiety was therefore determined. a total of twenty non-diabetic subjects (mean age 36 years; mean bmi 24·5 ...201627752304
effect of putrescine treatment on chilling injury, fatty acid composition and antioxidant system in kiwifruit.we investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mm) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch. var. chinensis 'hongyang'). we achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mm putrescine. furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increase ...201627607076
comprehensive transcriptome profiling reveals long noncoding rna expression and alternative splicing regulation during fruit development and ripening in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).genomic and transcriptomic data on kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) in public databases are very limited despite its nutritional and economic value. previously, we have constructed and sequenced nine fruit rna-seq libraries of a. chinensis "hongyang" at immature, mature, and postharvest ripening stages of fruit development, and generated over 66.2 million paired-end and 24.4 million single-end reads. from this dataset, here we have identified 7051 long noncoding rnas (lncrnas), 29,327 alternative ...201627594858
preparation and sulfation of an α-glucan from actinidia chinensis roots and their potential this study, one homopolysaccharide (acpa1) with a molecular weight (mw) of 5.5×10(3)g/mol was prepared from the roots of actinidia chinensis. it was characterized as an α-d-glucan consisting of predominant 4-linked α-d-glcp residues branched at o-6. three sulfated derivatives of acpa1 (sa1, sa2 and sa3) with different degrees of sulfation (ds) were obtained by so3-pyridine procedure. moisture-preserving tests demonstrated that the sulfated derivatives with the highest ds values, sa1 and sa2, ...201627477244
actinidia chinensis planch root extract (acroots) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma progression by inhibiting ep3 expression.a wide range of studies has demonstrated the potent anticancer activity of chinese herbs. here, we evaluated the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of actinidia chinensis root extract (acroots) on hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc). hepg2 hcc cells were treated with various concentrations of acroots for 72 h and examined by mrna expression profiling, revealing alterations in cellular immunity, inflammation, proliferation, cell cycle, and metabolic signaling responses. further analysis of t ...201627475644
constituents from the roots of actinidia chinensis and their cytochrome p450 enzyme inhibitory activities.a newly discovered triterpenoid, (2α,3β)-2,3,23-trihydroxyurs-13(18)-en-28-oic acid (1), along with twelve known compounds (2 - 13), were isolated from the roots of actinidia chinensis planch (actinidiaceae). their chemical structures were determined by 1d- and 2d-nmr spectra and mass spectrometry (ms). the crude extracts and six main constituents (8 - 13) were tested for cytochrome p450 (cyps) enzyme inhibitory activity. the results showed that, except for compound 8, compounds 9 - 13 had diffe ...201627459094
extraction optimization of polyphenols from waste kiwi fruit seeds (actinidia chinensis planch.) and evaluation of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory fruit (actinidia chinensis planch.) seeds, present as a by-product in the food and pharmaceutical industries, remain underutilized. in this study the extraction conditions for the maximum recovery of total phenolic content (tpc) with high dpph scavenging capacities (dpphsc) were analyzed for kiwi fruit seed polyphenols (ksp) by response surface methodology. the optimal conditions for the highest yield of tpc (53.73 mg gae/g dw) with 63.25% dpphsc was found by using an extraction time of 79. ...201627347920
microarray analysis of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) bark following challenge by the sucking insect hemiberlesia lataniae (hemiptera: diaspididae).both commercial and experimental genotypes of kiwifruit (actinidia spp.) exhibit large differences in response to insect pests. an understanding of the vine's physiological response to insect feeding and its genetic basis will be important in assisting the development of varieties with acceptable levels of pest resistance. this experiment describes transcriptome changes observed in the bark of kiwifruit 2 and 7 days after the commencement of feeding by the armored scale insect pest, hemiberlesia ...201626981426
identification and validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative pcr data in kiwifruit.identification and validation of reference genes are required for the normalization of qpcr data. we studied the expression stability produced by eight primer pairs amplifying four common genes used as references for normalization. samples representing different tissues, organs and developmental stages in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (a. chev.) a. chev.) were used. a total of 117 kiwifruit samples were divided into five sample sets (mature leaves, axillary buds, stigmatic arms, ...201626897117
automated multiplug filtration cleanup for pesticide residue analyses in kiwi fruit (actinidia chinensis) and kiwi juice by gas chromatography-mass reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps, an automated multiplug filtration cleanup (m-pfc) method for quechers (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. it could control the volume and speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. in this study, m-pfc was based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (mwcnts) mixed with primary-secondary amines (psa) and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (mgso4) in a packed column for analysis of pesticide res ...201626809284
the hybrid non-ethylene and ethylene ripening response in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is associated with differential regulation of mads-box transcription factors.ripening in tomato is predominantly controlled by ethylene, whilst in fruit such as grape, it is predominantly controlled by other hormones. the ripening response of many kiwifruit (actinidia) species is atypical. the majority of ripening-associated fruit starch hydrolysis, colour change and softening occurs in the apparent absence of ethylene production (phase 1 ripening) whilst phase 2 ripening requires autocatalytic ethylene production and is associated with further softening and an increase ...201526714876
kiwifruit information resource (kir): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics.the kiwifruit information resource (kir) is dedicated to maintain and integrate comprehensive datasets on genomics, functional genomics and transcriptomics of kiwifruit (actinidiaceae). kir serves as a central access point for existing/new genomic and genetic data. kir also provides researchers with a variety of visualization and analysis tools. current developments include the updated genome structure of actinidia chinensis cv. hongyang and its newest genome annotation, putative transcripts, ge ...201526656885
correction: gene expression profiling of development and anthocyanin accumulation in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) based on transcriptome sequencing. 201526376184
high-density interspecific genetic maps of kiwifruit and the identification of sex-specific markers.kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planchon) is an important specialty fruit crop that suffers from narrow genetic diversity stemming from recent global commercialization and limited cultivar improvement. here, we present high-density rad-seq-based genetic maps using an interspecific f1 cross between actinidia rufa 'mt570001' and a. chinensis 'guihai no4'. the a. rufa (maternal) map consists of 2,426 single-nucleotide polymorphism (snp) markers with a total length of 2,651 cm in 29 linkage groups (l ...201526370666
production of transgenic kiwifruit plants harboring the sbtcry1ac gene.the kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch.) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop that has a remarkably high vitamin c content and is popular throughout the world. however, kiwifruit plants are vulnerable to attack from pests, and effective pest control is urgently required. transgenic kiwifruit plants containing the synthetic chimeric gene sbtcry1ac that encodes the insecticidal protein btcrylac were obtained through an agrobacterium-mediated transformation of kiwifruit leaf ...201526345776
gene expression profiling of development and anthocyanin accumulation in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) based on transcriptome kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis planch. 'hongyang') is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin c and anthocyanins. in this study, we obtained transcriptome data of 'hongyang' from seven developmental stages using illumina sequencing. we mapped 39-54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abunda ...201526301713
2β, 3β, 23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-olic acid (tua) isolated from actinidia chinensis radix inhibits nci-h460 cell proliferation by decreasing nf-κb expression.a natural ursolic compound, 2β, 3β, 23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-olic acid (tua) was isolated from the root of actinidia chinensis planch (a. chinensis radix). since a large number of triterpenoid compound has marked anticancer effects toward various types of cancer cell lines in vitro, this study was carried out to investigate the anticancer effect of tua in non-small cell lung cancer cells (nsclccs) and the underlying apoptotic mechanism of tua was examined in nci-h460 cell lines. cell prolifer ...201526134000
in vitro characterisation of the fermentation profile and prebiotic capacity of gold-fleshed kiwifruit.a new actinidia chinensis gold-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar 'zesy002' was tested to investigate whether it could positively modulate the composition of the human colonic microbiota. digested zesy002 kiwifruit was added to in vitro ph-controlled anaerobic batch fermenters that were inoculated with representative human faecal microbiota. alterations to the gut microbial ecology were determined by 16s rrna gene sequencing and metabolic end products were measured using gas chromatography and liquid ch ...201526123782
functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit soc1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.the mads-domain transcription factor suppressor of overexpression of constans1 (soc1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species arabidopsis thaliana. in the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. in order to understand the re ...201525979999
corosolic acid inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration by targeting the vegfr2/src/fak pathway.inhibition of vegfr2 activity has been proposed as an important strategy for the clinical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc). in this study, we identified corosolic acid (ca), which exists in the root of actinidia chinensis, as having a significant anti-cancer effect on hcc cells. we found that ca inhibits vegfr2 kinase activity by directly interacting with the atp binding pocket. ca down-regulates the vegfr2/src/fak/cdc42 axis, subsequently decreasing f-actin formation and migratory ac ...201525978354
extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).gold kiwifruit pomace extracted using citric acid, water and enzyme (celluclast 1.5l) were studied in terms of pectin yield, protein, ash, non-starch polysaccharide, galacturonic acid (gala), neutral sugar composition, molar mass (mw), viscosity and degree of branching. water-extracted pectin was considered closest to its native form. enzyme extracted pectin showed the highest yield (∼ 4.5%w/w) as compared with the acid and water extraction methods (∼ 3.6-3.8%w/w). pectin obtained from different ...201525977029
the microgeographical patterns of morphological and molecular variation of a mixed ploidy population in the species complex actinidia chinensis.polyploidy and hybridization are thought to have significant impacts on both the evolution and diversification of the genus actinidia, but the structure and patterns of morphology and molecular diversity relating to ploidy variation of wild actinidia plants remain much less understood. here, we examine the distribution of morphological variation and ploidy levels along geographic and environmental variables of a large mixed-ploidy population of the a. chinensis species complex. we then character ...201525658107
natural variation in monoterpene synthesis in kiwifruit: transcriptional regulation of terpene synthases by nac and ethylene-insensitive3-like transcription factors.two kiwifruit (actinidia) species with contrasting terpene profiles were compared to understand the regulation of fruit monoterpene production. high rates of terpinolene production in ripe actinidia arguta fruit were correlated with increasing gene and protein expression of a. arguta terpene synthase1 (aatps1) and correlated with an increase in transcript levels of the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (dxs). actinidia chinensis terpene sy ...201525649633
kiwi fruit (actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic this study, electronic nose (en) combined with a 433 mhz surface acoustic wave resonator (sawr) was used to determine kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. en responses to kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (pca) and stochastic resonance (sr) methods. sawr frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. kiwi fruit ...201525551334
purification, antioxidant and immunological activities of polysaccharides from actinidia chinensis roots.two water-soluble polysaccharides (acps1 and acps2) were isolated from the roots of actinidia chinensis by deae-52 cellulose and sephacryl s300 chromatography. preliminary structural characterization was conducted by physicochemical property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir), and scanning electron microscopy (sem) analysis. acps1, with an average molecular weight of 5.58 × 10(5) da, was mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose and galactose in an approximate molar ra ...201525316423
the impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'hort16a' kiwifruit.fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. in this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'hort16a' (actinidia chinensis planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. cold storage (1.5°c) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl h ...201525236191
high-temperature inhibition of biosynthesis and transportation of anthocyanins results in the poor red coloration in red-fleshed actinidia plants, the role of anthocyanins trafficking in response to high temperature has been rarely studied, and therefore poorly understood. red-fleshed kiwifruit has stimulated the world kiwifruit industry owing to its appealing color. however, fruit in warmer climates have been found to have poor flesh coloration, and the factors responsible for this response remain elusive. partial correlation and regression analysis confirmed that accumulative temperatures above 25 °c (t25) was one of the domin ...201525143057
crystal structure of kiwellin, a major cell-wall protein from kiwifruit.kiwellin is a cysteine-rich, cell wall-associated protein with no known structural homologues. it is one of the most abundant proteins in kiwifruit (actinidia spp.), and has been shown to be recognised by ige of some patients allergic to kiwifruit. cleavage of kiwellin into an n-terminal 4 kda peptide called kissper and a core domain called kith is mediated by actinidin in vitro, and isolation of the kissper peptide from green-fleshed kiwifruit extracts suggested it may result from in vivo proce ...201425093947
rapid detection and characterization of major phenolic compounds in radix actinidia chinensis planch by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.radix actinidia chinensis planch is a traditional chinese herb, and its decotion had been widely used clinically to treat several types of cancer. in our study, the phenolic compounds constituting the major water soluble components of radix a. chinensis were profiled and characterized by ultraperformance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. a total of 50 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, 29 catechin ...201424975212
structure characterization and anti-tyrosinase mechanism of polymeric proanthocyanidins fractionated from kiwifruit provide information on the structure, activity, and structure-activity relationship of kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) pericarp proanthocyanidins (pas), they were separated into three fractions. these fractions were further identified by maldi-tof ms and hplc-esi-ms methods. spectra results revealed that they are complex mixtures of b-type propelargonidins, procyanidins, procyanidins gallate, and prodelphinidins. enzymatic activity analysis showed that these compounds strongly inhibit the act ...201424939165
programmed cell death in kiwifruit stigmatic arms and its relationship to the effective pollination period and the progamic phase.kiwifruit is a crop with a highly successful reproductive performance, which is impaired by the short effective pollination period of female flowers. this study investigates whether the degenerative processes observed in both pollinated and non-pollinated flowers after anthesis may be considered to be programmed cell death (pcd).201424782437
[effect of actinidia chinensis planch polysaccharide on the growth and apoptosis, and p-p38 expression in human gastric cancer sgc-7901 cells].to investigate the effect of actinidia chinensis planch polysaccharide (acps) on the growth and apoptosis of human gastric cancer sgc-7901 cells, and to explore the effect of sgc-7901 cells on p-p38 expression.201424758086
[establishment of high frequency regeneration via leaf explants of 'red sun' kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis)].a high efficient in vitro regeneration protocol was developed from leaf explants of the female 'red sun' kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) and the multiplication coefficient and rooting rate of adventitious buds were also optimized. this method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. the results show that the adventitious buds developing directly from explants tissue were noticed after 30 d of culture. the maximum regeneration frequency of adventitious bu ...201324701825
an extremely rare trigger of kounis syndrome: actinidia chinensis. 201424456873
dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (ge). in this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on ge and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (spi), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as t ...201424431326
meiotic chromosome pairing behaviour of natural tetraploids and induced autotetraploids of actinidia chinensis.non-preferential chromosome pairing was identified in tetraploid actinidia chinensis and a higher mean multivalent frequency in pollen mother cells was found in colchine-induced tetraploids of a. chinensis compared with naturally occurring tetraploids. diploid and tetraploid actinidia chinensis are used for the development of kiwifruit cultivars. diploid germplasm can be exploited in a tetraploid breeding programme via unreduced (2n) gametes and chemical-induced chromosome doubling of diploid cu ...201424306317
a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic bioavailability study of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c.kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin c and also contain numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, which may influence the bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin c. the aim of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin c using a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic study design. nine non-smoking males (aged 18-35 years) received either a chewable tablet (200 mg vitamin c) or the equivalent dose from gold kiwifruit (actinidia ch ...201324284610
preparation of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction and analysis of salicylic acid in actinidia chinensis.compounds with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds (e.g., salicylic acid) have weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between them and functional monomers in the imprinting process. consequently, the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymers (mips) have no specific adsorption ability. here, the first magnetic dummy mips (mdmips) based on benzonic acid as dummy template are successfully developed and evaluated with respect to the applications in selective enrichment and analysis of ...201424258403
draft genome of the kiwifruit actinidia chinensis.the kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin c content. here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. the assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 mb and contains 39,040 genes. comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-g ...201324136039
a randomized steady-state bioavailability study of synthetic versus natural (kiwifruit-derived) vitamin c.whether vitamin c from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. we have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin c in a genetically vitamin c-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic activity of the whole fruit. to determine if these results are translatable to humans, we carried out a randomized human study comparing the bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit wit ...201324067392
biochemical and structural characterisation of dehydroquinate synthase from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia of the novel aspects of kiwifruit is the presence of a high level of quinic acid which contributes to the flavour of the fruit. quinic acid metabolism intersects with the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of primary and secondary aromatic metabolites. the gene encoding the enzyme which catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway, dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), from the new zealand kiwifruit actinidia chinensis was identified, cloned and expressed. a ...201323916589
kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' (green kiwifruit) and actinidia chinensis 'hort 16a', zespri(®) (gold kiwifruit). compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins c, e, k, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting i ...201323746068
total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ripe green and golden kiwifruit.three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (actinidia deliciosa l.) and golden (actinidia chinensis l.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. the aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. the pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 m hcl ...201328239098
diversity and relative levels of actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like allergens in 15 varieties of kiwifruit (actinidia).in the last 30 years the incidence of kiwifruit allergy has increased with the three major allergenic proteins being identified as actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like protein (tlp). we report wide variation in the levels of actinidin and tlp in 15 kiwifruit varieties from the four most widely cultivated actinidia species. acidic and basic isoforms of actinidin were identified in actinidia deliciosa 'hayward' and actinidia arguta 'hortgem tahi', while only a basic isoform of actinidin was ide ...201323289429
meiotic chromosome pairing in actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., aaaa), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., aabb, aabbcc). allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub- ...201223196697
chinese medicine formula "weikang keli" induces autophagic cell death on human gastric cancer cell line sgc-7901.weikang keli (constitutes of root of codonopsis pilosula, rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, rhizoma curcumae aeruginosae, rhizoma pinelliae, actinidia chinensis planch, and rhodiola rosea) is a well known chinese herbal formula for gastric cancer therapy in clinical treatment. however, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved are still not fully understood. in this study, we found that weikang keli could induce patterns of autophagy in sgc-7901 cells, including intracellular vacuole formatio ...201323141426
metabolic profiling and outer pericarp water state in zespri,, and hayward kiwifruits.the metabolic profiling of aqueous extracts of zespri gold ( actinidia chinensis ) and (a controlled crossbreed from different species of actinidia deliciosa ) kiwifruits and the water state of the outer pericarp of entire fruits were monitored over the season by means of high-field nmr spectroscopy and t(2) relaxation time measurements, respectively, and compared with the corresponding ones of hayward kiwifruits previously investigated. a more complete assignment of the (1)h spectrum with ...201323083310
green and gold kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts potentiate pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via a gabaergic mechanism.kiwifruit is one of the most popular fruits worldwide, and it has various biological properties, including antioxidant, anti-allergic, and cardiovascular protective effects. the peel of kiwifruit, which is a by-product of processing, is a good source of flavonoids; however, its bioactivity has not been widely investigated. in this study, we evaluated the hypnotic effects of green (grpe, actinidia deliciosa) and gold (gope, actinidia chinensis) kiwifruit peel ethanol extracts and their solvent fr ...201323017407
antiangiogenic triterpenes isolated from chinese herbal medicine actinidia chinensis planch.actinidia chinensis planch. is a famous chinese herbal medicine to treat many diseases such as cancers. triterpenes, polyphenols and anthraquinones are normally considered as the main constituents for its effects. in this study, eleven known triterpenes were isolated from the root of actinidia chinensis., and were examined for its antiangiogenic activities. their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including ir, uv, hr-esi-ms, and 1d and 2d nmr techniques. the elev ...201322934692
evaluation of antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of three actinidia (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) extracts in vitro.the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin c content, and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from different kiwifruit varieties (actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, actinidia chinensis) were determined in this study. multiple scavenging activity assays including the hydroxyl radical, o(2) (-)·radical, dpph, and the abts(+) radical scavenging activity assays were used to identify the antioxidant activities of actinidia extracts. the cell viability of hepg2 and ht-29 c ...201222754311
the effect of 2n gametes on sex ratios in can sometimes lead to complications. in some crops, 2n gametes have been exploited by plant breeders to transfer genetic variation between taxa of different ploidy levels. however, their role and use in dioecious genera have received relatively little attention. in the dioecious genus actinidia (kiwifruit), seedling populations usually segregate equally for females and males as sex is determined by an xx female/xy male system. while fertilization involving 2n egg cells is not expected to aff ...201222739644
bioavailability of vitamin c from kiwifruit in non-smoking males: determination of 'healthy' and 'optimal' intakes.vitamin c is an essential nutrient in humans and must be obtained through the diet. the aim of this study was to determine vitamin c uptake in healthy volunteers after consuming kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis var. hort. 16a), and to determine the amount of fruit required to raise plasma vitamin c to 'healthy' (i.e. >50 µmol/l) and 'optimal' or saturating levels (i.e. >70 µmol/l). leucocyte and urinary vitamin c levels were also determined. a total of fifteen male university students with below a ...201225191543
fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, actinidia chinensis 'hort16a'.with the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, actinidia chinensi ...201122204446
consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin c concentration in healthy older the elderly, immunosenescence and malnourishment can contribute to increased risk and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (urti). gold kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis 'hort16a') contains nutrients important for immune function and mitigation of symptoms of infection, including vitamins c and e, folate, polyphenols and carotenoids. the objective of the present study was to evaluate whether regular consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces symptoms of urti in older people, and determine t ...201222172428
identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (e)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis).flowers of the kiwifruit species actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (fdp) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (gdp). the tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (e)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (e,e)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (e)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool ...201222162874
vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (actinidia chinensis) berries.indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. this inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'hort16a') exhibiting a pre-harvest 'shrivel' disorder in california, and normal development in new zealand. dye labelling and m ...201222155631
allergenic lipid transfer proteins from plant-derived foods do not immunologically and clinically behave homogeneously: the kiwifruit ltp as a allergy is increasingly common worldwide. tools for allergy diagnosis measuring ige improved much since allergenic molecules and microarrays started to be used. ige response toward allergens belonging to the same group of molecules has not been comprehensively explored using such approach yet.201122114713
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