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nucleotide sequence of carnation ringspot dianthovirus rna-2.rna-2 of carnation ringspot virus (crsv), the type member of the dianthovirus group, has been cdna cloned and sequenced. crsv rna-2 is 1394 nucleotides in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a 304 amino acid polypeptide of 33.8k. amino acid sequence alignment of this polypeptide with the cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by rna-2 of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (rcnmv) australian (aus) and czechoslovakian (tpm-34) isolates indicates 59.6% and 55.7% sequence identity ...19921339467
mapping and sequence analysis of the capsid protein gene of cowpea mottle virus.twelve cdna clones were generated, covering approximately 95% of the cowpea mottle virus (cmev) genome from the 3' end to near the 5' end. the entire capsid protein sequence of 1,104 nucleotides was contained in two clones located near the 3' terminus. the codons represented 367 amino acids (m(r) 39,611). the postulated amino acid sequence of cmev capsid protein had 36% homology to turnip crinkle virus and 26% homology to carnation mottle virus in the arm and s domains, but western blots showed ...19921500274
occurrence of chloroplast ribosome recognition sites within conserved elements of the rna genomes of carlaviruses.the nucleotide sequences upstream from the carlavirus open reading frames were examined for direct sequence homology. blocks of homology were evident upstream from the 25 k orfs of potato virus s (pvs), potato virus m (pvm) and lily symptomless virus (lsv), and upstream from the coat protein initiation codons of pvs, pvm, lsv, carnation latent virus and helenium virus s. these blocks, which correspond to the 5'-terminal regions of the subgenomic rnas, were shown to contain potential ribosome rec ...19912013334
cell-free translation of carnation latent virus rna and analysis of virus-specific dsrna.carnation latent virus was shown to direct the synthesis of virus-specific polypeptides in both reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ in vitro translation systems. the l-(4,5-3h)-leucine-labeled products ranged in molecular mass from mr 190 to 33 kd. the 33 kd product, synthesized after only 15 min incubation, was the only major polypeptide that immunoprecipitated with antiserum to carlv. coat-protein synthesis does not occur as a result of proteolytic processing, but may arise as a result of trans ...19912058091
a comparison of the nucleotide sequence homologies between isolates of the andean and ordinary strains of potato virus s and their relationship to other carlaviruses.sequence homologies between the rnas of five isolates of the ordinary strain of potato virus s (pvso), four isolates of the andean strain (pvsa), potato virus m(pvm), and the type member of the carlavirus group, carnation latent virus (clv), were compared using cdna solution hybridization. a high degree of homology (90-100%) was detected between the majority of pvso and pvsa isolates, but lower levels of homology (less than 10%) were observed between pvs, pvm, and clv.19902270676
genome structure of tobacco necrosis virus strain a.an almost complete sequence of the rna genome of tobacco necrosis virus (tnv) strain a has been determined. the genome organization is very similar to that of carnation mottle virus (carmv) and turnip crinkle virus (tcv). the 5'-proximal open reading frame (orf) encodes a 23-kda protein and read-through of its amber codon into the second orf is presumably used for the translation of a 82-kda protein. the third large orf encodes the 30-kda coat protein. two small orfs are located upstream and one ...19902371773
the complete sequence of soybean chlorotic mottle virus dna and the identification of a novel promoter.the complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of soybean chlorotic mottle virus (soycmv) dna was determined and compared with those of three other caulimoviruses, cauliflower mosaic virus (camv), carnation etched ring virus and figwort mosaic virus. the double-stranded dna genome of soycmv (8,175 bp) contained nine open reading frames (orfs) and one large intergenic region. the primer binding sites, gene organization and size of orfs were similar to those of the other caulimoviruses, e ...19892602148
sequence and organization of barley yellow dwarf virus genomic rna.the nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of barley yellow dwarf virus, pav serotype was determined, except for the 5'-terminal base, and its genome organization deduced. the 5,677 nucleotide genome contains five large open reading frames (orfs). the genes for the coat protein (1) and the putative viral rna-dependent rna polymerase were identified. the latter shows a striking degree of similarity to that of carnation mottle virus (carmv). by comparison with corona- and retrovirus rnas, it is pr ...19883399386
the effect of gamma radiation on carnation mottle virus in crude dianthus barbatus sap. 19704107101
[influence of agar and electrolyte concentration on the immunodiffusion of tobacco mosaic nd carnation latent virus]. 19674385484
ultrastructure of carnation etched ring virus-infected saponaria vaccaria and dianthus caryophyllus. 19744843795
physical, chemical, and serological studies on carnation mottle virus. 19704991706
pseudomonas caryophylli in carnation. ii. histological studies of infected plants. 19665901781
effect of ribosome-inactivating proteins on virus-infected cells. inhibition of virus multiplication and of protein synthesis.hep-2 cells were infected with herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1) or with polio-virus i in the presence of plant proteins which inactivate ribosomes in cell-free systems, while exerting scarce effect on whole cells. ribosome-inactivating proteins used were gelonin, from seeds of gelonium multiflorum, an inhibitor from the seeds of momordica charantia, dianthin 32, from the leaves of dianthus caryophyllus (carnation), and pap-s, from the seeds of phytolacca americana (pokeweed). all proteins tested h ...19826284092
the complete nucleotide sequence of tobacco necrosis virus strain d.the complete sequence of the rna genome of tobacco necrosis virus strain d (tnv-d) consisting of 3759 nucleotides has been determined. the positive strand contains five open reading frames (orfs). the 5'-proximal orf encodes a 22k protein terminating with an amber codon which may be read through to produce a 82k protein (p82). two small centrally located orfs each encode two out-of-frame 7k proteins (p7a and p7b). the 3'-proximal orf encodes the 29k coat protein (cp), the n terminus of which has ...19911856691
an encapsidated, subgenomic messenger rna encodes the coat protein of carnation mottle virus.the translation strategy of carnation mottle virus (carmv) in vitro has been generally assumed to involve internal initiation events on full-length, genomic rna (4.3 kb). we suggest that this is, at least in part, incorrect. encapsidated rna, fractionated on denaturing sucrose gradients, or total rna from carmv-infected leaves, fractionated under non-denaturing conditions, was translated in an mrna-dependent rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system. evidence for subgenomic rnas which encode a polype ...19846525451
effect of ph and other conditions on immunosorbent electron microscopy of several plant viruses.the efficiency of trapping, using immunosorbent electron microscopy, of particles of cucumber mosaic virus, lily symptomless virus, potato virus y, and carnation mottle virus, depended markedly on the ph of the virus extract. varying the ph of the serum had a smaller, though still significant effect. with potato virus y, the optimal ph of the virus extract varied with the host plant. it appears that for each virus and host a specific testing procedure is required to find the optimal trapping con ...19826752161
distribution of viruslike particles in leaf cells of dianthus barbatus infected with carnation vein mottle virus. 19705432281
characterization of resistance to cymbidium ringspot virus in transgenic plants expressing a full-length viral replicase gene.transgenic nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing the replicase gene of cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus (cymrsv) were tested for the biological activity of the transgene. protoplasts from one resistant and three susceptible transgenic lines were transfected with in vitro synthesized defective interfering (di) rna, a small subviral molecule which requires only the virus replicase for replication. only protoplasts of susceptible transgenic lines were able to sustain the replication of di rna, wher ...19957676638
electrophoretic desorption of intact virus from immunoadsorbent.a technique and apparatus are described for obtaining electrophoretic elution of virus from immunoadsorbent matrices. the method was applied to a well-known and easily purifiable virus, carnation mottle virus (carmv). the technique was applicable even when the starting material was diluted and the virus recovered was indistinguishable from the original. our aim was to avoid more drastic procedures that could damage virus structure (e.g. chaotropic chemicals, detergents, acidic ph's) and develop ...19853892232
nucleotide sequence and genome organization of carnation mottle virus rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of carnation mottle genomic rna (4003 nucleotides) is presented. the sequence was determined for cloned cdna copies of viral rna containing over 99% of the sequence and was completed by direct sequence analysis of rna and cdna transcripts. the sequence contains two long open reading frames which together can account for observed translation products. one translation product would arise by suppression of an amber termination codon and the sequence raises the possi ...19853840587
sequence of figwort mosaic virus dna (caulimovirus group).the nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of figwort mosaic virus (fmv) was determined using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. the double-stranded dna genome (7743 base pairs) contained eight open reading frames (orfs), seven of which corresponded approximately in size and location to the orfs found in the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) and carnation etched ring virus (cerv). orfs i and v of fmv demonstrated the highest degrees of nucleotide and amino acid sequence ...19873671088
anti-cd30 immunotoxins with native and recombinant dianthin 30.immunotoxins were prepared with a ber-h2 (anti-cd30) monoclonal antibody and native or recombinant dianthin 30, a ribosome-inactivating protein from dianthus caryophyllus (carnation). both immunotoxins selectively inhibited protein synthesis by cd30+ cell lines d430b (lymphoblastoid, infected with epstein-barr virus), l428 and l540 (both from hodgkin's lymphoma). ic50 values (concentrations, as dianthin, causing 50% inhibition) ranged from 324 pm to 479 pm (immunotoxin with native dianthin 30) o ...19957882380
structure and assembly of turnip crinkle virus. iv. analysis of the coat protein gene and implications of the subunit primary structure.the structure of the turnip crinkle virus (tcv) coat protein and coat protein gene has been examined by cdna cloning, nucleotide sequencing and high-resolution mrna mapping. we have cloned a 1450-nucleotide cdna fragment, representing the 3' end of the tcv genome, using genomic rna polyadenylated in vitro as the reverse transcriptional template. nucleic acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of a 1053 nucleotide open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 38,131 mr, identified as th ...19873612806
the biosynthesis of phytoalexins in dianthus caryophyllus l. cell cultures: induction of benzoyl-coa:anthranilate n-benzoyltransferase activity.it has been shown that cell cultures of dianthus caryophyllus l. c.v. eleganz accumulate n-benzoyl-4-methoxyanthranilic acid, previously identified as the phytoalexin methoxydianthramide b, in response to treatment either with a crude elicitor isolated from the cell walls of phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea or with a commercial yeast extract. cell-free extracts from the induced cells efficiently catalyzed the n-benzoylation of anthranilate in the presence of benzoyl-coa. the partially puri ...19892817901
nucleotide sequence of the carlavirus associated with blueberry scorch and similar diseases.we have synthesized and mapped a library of cdna clones representing the rna genome of a strain of blueberry scorch carlavirus (bbscv) associated with a disease known locally, in new jersey, u.s.a., as sheep pen hill disease. the nucleotide sequence of that strain was determined to be 8514 residues, excluding the poly(a) tail. in addition, cdna clones representing the 3' terminus of another strain of the virus from the same field were synthesized, mapped and sequenced. the overall identity betwe ...19948151289
screening of the closterovirus genome by degenerate primer-mediated polymerase chain reaction.the genome of beet yellows virus (byv), the type representative of the closterovirus group, encodes a homologue of the cellular heat-shock protein (hsp) 70 family. a pair of degenerate primers targeted to motifs a and e, which are highly conserved in hsp70s, was synthesized. genomes of several definite and possible members of the closterovirus group were screened for the presence of the hsp70 gene with pcr using these degenerate primers. byv, citrus tristeza virus (ctv), beet yellow stunt virus ...19948207405
bean mild mosaic virus: genome and its translation products.viral rna from purified preparations of bean mild mosaic virus (bmmv) was resolved into two rnas of mol. wt 1.5 x 10(6) daltons (r1) and 0.76 x 10(6) daltons (r2). complementary dna hybridizations, infectivity tests, and in-vitro translation studies established that r2 is a subgenomic rna derived from r1. in-vitro translation studies showed that the genomic rna (r1) coded for two major proteins of mol. wt. 40.5 kd and 25.7 kd. of these, the 40.5 kd protein was shown to be the capsid protein that ...19892763470
the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of red clover necrotic mosaic virus rna-1.the complete nucleotide sequence of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (rcnmv) rna-1 has been determined. rna-1 is 3889 nucleotides in length with a 5' terminal m7gpppa cap. the rna contains three large open reading frames (orfs): the 5' proximal orf, encoding a 27-kda polypeptide; the internal orf, coding for a 57-kda polypeptide; and the 3' terminal orf, encoding the 37-kda capsid protein. the sequence results confirm in vitro translation of 27-, 50-, and 37-kda products but do not account for t ...19892763465
[the submolecular structure of the carnation mottle virus].the model of the tertiary structure of the cmtv subunit was suggested and the mode of its packaging into the capsid was determined on the basis of electron microscopy small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray diffraction data. the i-ray diffraction data on the crystal of the native virion of carnation mottle virus were obtained on the automatic diffractometer supplied with two-dimensional detector.19892725538
a flower senescence-related mrna from carnation encodes a novel protein related to enzymes involved in phosphonate biosynthesis.we have isolated a cdna clone (psr132) representing a mrna which accumulates in senescing carnation flower petals in response to ethylene. in vitro translation of rna selected by hybridization with psr132 indicated the mrna encoded a polypeptide of approximately 36 kda. this was confirmed by dna sequence analysis, which predicted a peptide composed of 318 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 34.1 kda. comparison of the predicted peptide sequence of psr132 with other proteins compile ...19938393719
the genome structure of turnip crinkle virus.the nucleotide sequence of turnip crinkle virus (tcv) genomic rna has been determined from cdna clones representing most of the genome. segments were confirmed using dideoxynucleotide sequencing directly from viral rna, and the 3' terminal sequence was confirmed by chemical sequencing of end-labeled genomic rna. three open reading frames (orfs) have been identified by examination of the deduced amino acid sequences and by comparison with the orfs found in the genome of carnation mottle virus. or ...19892718381
complete nucleotide sequence of the cucumber necrosis virus genome.the complete nucleotide sequence of the cucumber necrosis virus (cnv) genome has been determined. the genome is 4701 nucleotides in length and contains five long open reading frames (orf). orf1 begins at the first aug codon at the 5' terminus and terminates at an amber codon. the predicted molecular weight of the polyprotein encoded by orf1 is 33 kilodaltons (kda). readthrough of the orf1 amber codon would yield a protein with a molecular weight of 92 kda. comparison of the amino acid sequence o ...19892705296
nucleotide sequence of the 7k gene of carnation latent virus. 19902103483
resistance to geminivirus infection by virus-induced expression of dianthin in transgenic plants.ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips) are naturally occurring plant toxins that exhibit antiviral activity against a diverse range of plant and animal viruses. here, the action of dianthin, a potent rip isolated from dianthus caryophyllus, has been exploited to engineer resistance to a plant dna virus, african cassava mosaic virus (acmv), in transgenic nicotiana benthamiana. to achieve this, dianthin has been expressed from the acmv virion-sense promoter that is transactivated by the product of ...19968659104
the 5'-terminal region of a tombusvirus genome determines the origin of multivesicular bodies.multivesicular bodies (mvb) are membranous cytoplasmic inclusions that are invariably associated with tombusvirus infections regardless of the virus species, the host, or the tissue examined. mvb are virus-induced structures since they are absent from tissues of healthy plants and are always present both in infected plants and protoplasts. mvb derive from peroxisomes in cells infected by a number of tombusviruses including cymbidium ringspot virus (cymrsv) and from mitochondria in cells infected ...19968760449
propionate catabolism in salmonella typhimurium lt2: two divergently transcribed units comprise the prp locus at 8.5 centisomes, prpr encodes a member of the sigma-54 family of activators, and the prpbcde genes constitute an operon.we present the initial genetic and biochemical characterization of the propionate (prp) locus at 8.5 centisomes of the salmonella typhimurium lt2 chromosome (t. a. hammelman et al., fems microbiol. lett. 137: 233-239, 1996). in this paper, we report the nucleotide sequences of two divergently transcribed transcriptional units. one unit is comprised of the prpr gene (1,626 bp) encoding a member of the sigma-54 family of transcriptional activators; the second unit contains an operon of four genes ...19979006051
a new class of anti-hiv agents: gap31, daps 30 and 32.three inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) have been isolated and purified to homogeneity from euphorbiaceae himalaya seeds (gelonium multiflorum) and carnation leaves (dianthus caryophyllus). these proteins, gap 31 (gelonium anti-hiv protein 31 kda) and daps 30 and 32 (dianthus anti-hiv proteins, 30 and 32 kda), inhibit hiv-1 infection and replication in a dose-dependent manner with little toxicity to target cells. the therapeutic indices of these compounds are in the order 10(4), s ...19911936243
characterization and expression of two members of the s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene family in carnation flower.s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (samdc; ec 4.1.4.50) is one of the key enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis, and the product of its catalytic reaction, decarboxylated s-adenosylmethionine (dcsam), serves as an aminopropyl donor in the biosynthesis of spermidine and spermine. in order to provide information on the structure and regulation of samdc, we have isolated and sequenced two different samdc cdna clones from carnation petals. the nucleotide sequences of csdc9 and csdc16 show 78.3% identity ...19979225849
an ethylene-responsive flower senescence-related gene from carnation encodes a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferases.carnation flower petal senescence is associated with the expression of specific senescence-related mrnas, several of which were previously cloned. the cdna clone psr8 represents a transcript which accumulates specifically in senescing flower petals in response to ethylene. here we report the structural characterization of this cdna. a second cdna clone was isolated based on shared sequence homology with psr8. this clone, psr8.4, exhibited an overlapping restriction endonuclease map with psr8 and ...19911863781
[isolation and structural studies of glucans from phytophthora parasitica].several polysaccharides have been isolated from the cell walls of phytophthora parasitica, a phytopathogenic fungus of carnation. the crude polysaccharides were fractionated by successive chromatographies on deae-cellulose, sephadex g-25, concanavalin-a-sepharose and sephadex g-200 columns. the neutral polysaccharides consist of a mixture of beta(1----3, 1----6)-d-glucans whose relative molecular masses varied from 9000 to about 200 000. all these polysaccharides have a main chain of beta(1----3 ...19846745270
nucleotide sequence of cdna coding for dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from dianthus caryophyllus.rabbit antibodies raised against dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) leaves, were used to identify a full length dianthin precursor cdna clone from a lambda gt11 expression library. n-terminal amino acid sequencing of purified dianthin 30 and dianthin 32 confirmed that the clone encoded dianthin 30. the cdna was 1153 basepairs in length and encoded a precursor protein of 293 amino acid residues. the first 23 n-terminal amino acids of the precursor ...19911840496
nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of carnation latent virus.the sequence of 1,313 nucleotides of the 3'-terminal region of carnation latent virus rna, determined from cdna clones, was found to contain two major overlapping open-reading frames encoding proteins with relative molecular weights of 33.9 and 11.6 kd. the 33.9-kd protein, which is similar in size to the capsid protein, and the 3'-coterminal 11.6-kd protein show extensive homology with corresponding regions in other carlaviruses. comparison of amino acid sequences of carnation latent virus coat ...19911713905
type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins depurinate plant 25s rrna without species specificity.four different type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips) with rna n-glycosidase activity were tested for their ability to attack the large rrna of plant ribosomes derived from tobacco plants, as well as from the plant species from which the particular rip had been isolated. incubation of tobacco ribosomes with rips isolated from either phytolacca americana l. (pokeweed), dianthus barbatus l. (carnation), spinacia oleracea l. (spinach) or chenopodium amaranthicolor coste and reyn. (chenopodium ...19921620614
the light gene of drosophila melanogaster encodes a homologue of vps41, a yeast gene involved in cellular-protein trafficking.mutations in a number of genes affect eye colour in drosophila melanogaster; some of these "eye-colour" genes have been shown to be involved in various aspects of cellular transport processes. in addition, combinations of viable mutant alleles of some of these genes, such as carnation (car) combined with either light (lt) or deep-orange (dor) mutants, show lethal interactions. recently, dor was shown to be homologous to the yeast gene pep3 (vps18), which is known to be involved in intracellular ...19989644832
mutational analysis of genes determining antagonism of alcaligenes sp. strain mfa1 against the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.alcaligenes sp. strain mfa1 inhibits microconidial germination and germination-tube elongation of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and reduces the severity of fusarium wilt of carnation, presumably as a result of its production of a siderophore (g.y. yuen and m.n. schroth. 1986. phytopathology, 76:171-176). derivative strains of mfa1, deficient in antagonism against f. oxysporum and in iron-limited growth, were obtained by tn5 mutagenesis. the presence of a single tn5 insertion in the genomic dn ...19921327482
clinical and biochemical assessment of a modified evaporated milk for infant feeding.a clinical and biochemical evaluation has been made of a new milk formula, modified carnation milk (mcm), based on cows' milk but with the mineral content and concentration of caloric nutrients altered to make it correspond more closely to human milk. mcm produced higher plasma calcium and magnesium concentrations in 6-day-old infants than those produced by unmodified evaporated and dried milks, achieving concentrations closer to those of breast milk. plasma free amino acid concentrations in mcm ...1977848994
membrane targeting sequences in tombusvirus infections.infection of nicotiana benthamiana cells with cymbidium ringspot (cymrsv) and carnation italian ringspot (cirv) viruses results in the formation of conspicuous membranous bodies [multivesicular bodies (mvbs)], which develop from modified peroxisomes or mitochondria, respectively. the organelle targeting signal is located in the proteins of 33 kda (cymrsv) or 36 kda (cirv) encoded by orf 1, which contain an n-terminal hydrophilic portion followed by two predicted hydrophobic transmembrane segment ...19989878622
translation in vitro of carnation mottle virus rna. regulatory function of the 3'-region. 1978726253
in vivo detection, rna-binding properties and characterization of the rna-binding domain of the p7 putative movement protein from carnation mottle carmovirus (carmv).biochemical and structural characterization studies on the p7 putative movement protein from a spanish isolate of carnation mottle carmovirus (carmv) have been conducted. the carmv p7 gene was fused to a sequence coding for a six-histidine tag and expressed in bacteria, allowing the purification of carmv p7 and the production of a specific antiserum. this antiserum led to the immunological identification of carmv p7 in infected leaf tissue from the experimental host chenopodium quinoa. putative ...199910069961
association of sire dystocia transmitting ability with progeny linear type traits in holsteins.data on 13 traits of 11,260 progeny of 775 sires in the carnation genetics linear type appraisal program were analyzed to determine the association between sire dystocia transmitting ability and progeny linear type traits. mean linear type scores ranged from 25.0 to 29.8 on a scale of 1 to 50. parity, stage of lactation, and interactions of evaluator by parity and evaluator by stage were sources of variation for most traits. first quartile (easy) and fourth quartile (most difficult) sires groupe ...19854044968
in vitro evidence for rna binding properties of the coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus and their comparison to related and unrelated viruses.the rna binding properties of the prunus necrotic ringspot virus (pnrsv) coat protein (cp) were demonstrated by northwestern and dot-blot analyses. the capability to bind pnrsv rna 4 was compared with viruses representing three different interactions prevailing in the assembly and architecture of virions. the results showed that cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and pnrsv cps, which stabilise their virions mainly through rna-protein interactions bound pnrsv rna 4 even at very high salt concentrations. ...199910365170
identification and characterization of cdna clones encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-coa:tyramine n-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from tobacco.the sequences of three cdna clones that include the complete coding region of hydroxycinnamoyl-coa:tyramine n-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (tht) from tobacco are reported. the three cdnas were isolated by antibody screening of a cdna expression library produced from poly(a)+rna purified from tobacco leaves (nicotiana tabacum cv. bottom special), previously infiltrated with an incompatible strain of ralstonia solanacearum. the identity of these clones was confirmed by the detection of tht activity ...199910469131
interactions between tombusviruses and satellite rnas of tomato bushy stunt virus: a defect in sat rna b1 replication maps to orf1 of a helper virus.the biological properties of two recently described satellite rnas of tomato bushy stunt virus (tbsv) were analyzed in natural and experimental hosts. full-length cdna clones were constructed for sat rnas b1(822 nt) and b10 (612 nt) and used in inoculations with satellite-free transcripts of different tombusviruses. in all virus-host combinations tested, tbsv sat rna b10 drastically reduced the accumulation of viral genomic rna and attenuated symptoms. in contrast, sat rna b1 caused a less marke ...199910489347
phylogenetic relationships reveal recombination among isolates of cauliflower mosaic virus.isolates of cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) differ in host range and symptomatology. knowledge of their sequence relationships should assist in identifying nucleotide sequences responsible for isolate-specific characters. complete nucleotide sequences of the dnas of eight isolates of camv were aligned and the aligned sequences were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships by maximum likelihood, bootstrapped parsimony, and distance methods. isolates found in north america clustered separately f ...19947807539
expression of a plant virus non-structural protein in saccharomyces cerevisiae causes membrane proliferation and altered mitochondrial morphology.carnation italian ringspot tombusvirus encodes a protein, referred to as 36k, that possesses a mitochondrial targeting signal and two transmembrane segments which are thought to anchor this protein to the outer membrane of the mitochondrial envelope of infected plant cells. to determine the topology of the virus protein inserted in the cell membrane, as well as the sequence requirements for targeting and insertion, an in vivo system was set up in which this could be analysed in the absence of pr ...200010640568
bioavailability of ethanol is reduced in several commonly used liquid diets.liquid diets are often used as a vehicle for chronically treating laboratory animals with ethanol. however, a recent report suggested that one or more components of these diets may bind ethanol which could result in a decrease in the bioavailability of ethanol. consequently, we compared the blood ethanol concentration vs. time curves obtained following the intragastric (i.g.) administration of ethanol dissolved in water or in one of three liquid diets (bioserv ain-76, sustacal, or carnation slen ...19947945988
the genomic sequence of cardamine chlorotic fleck carmovirus.the complete genomic sequence of cardamine chlorotic fleck carmovirus (ccfv) has been determined. the genome is a positive-sense ssrna molecule 4041 nucleotides in length, and has 47 to 64% sequence identity with turnip crinkle, carnation mottle and melon necrotic spot carmoviruses. ccfv and these other carmoviruses have four similar open reading frames (orfs), and ccfv has large regions of amino acid identity in all of these orfs with a european isolate of turnip crinkle virus. ccfv, which repl ...19938376969
the complete nucleotide sequence of the maize chlorotic mottle virus genome.the complete nucleotide sequence of the maize chlorotic mottle virus (mcmv) genome has been determined to be 4437 nucleotides. the viral genome has four long open reading frames (orfs) which could encode polypeptides of 31.6, 50, 8.9 and 25.1 kd. if the termination codons, for the polypeptides encoded by the 50 and 8.9 kd orfs are suppressed, readthrough products of 111 and 32.7 kd result. the 31.6 and 50 kd orfs overlap for nearly the entire length of the 31.6 kd orf. striking amino acid homolo ...19892726455
molecular cloning, induction and taxonomic distribution of caffeoyl-coa 3-o-methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in disease resistance.trans-caffeoyl-coa 3-o-methyltransferase is involved in the reinforcement of the plant cell wall under conditions that trigger the disease resistance response (pakusch, a.-e., kneusel, r.e., and matern, u. (1989) arch. biochem. biophys. 271, 488-494). partial amino acid sequences of the enzyme from cultured parsley cells that had been treated with a crude elicitor were identified (pakusch, a.-e., matern, u., and schiltz, e. (1991) plant physiol. 95, 137-143), and corresponding degenerated oligon ...19911894629
molecular characterization of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases. consensus sequence, comparison with related enzymes and the role of conserved histidine residues.a heterologous cdna probe from petunia hybrida was used to isolate flavanone-3 beta-hydroxylase-encoding cdna clones from carnation (dianthus caryophyllus), china aster (callistephus chinensis) and stock (matthiola incana). the deduced protein sequences together with the known sequences of the enzyme from p. hybrida, barley (hordeum vulgare) and snapdragon (antirrhinum majus) enabled the determination of a consensus sequence which revealed an overall 84% similarity (53% identity) of flavanone 3 ...19938223617
expression and activity of pre-dianthin 30 and dianthin 30.dianthin 30 is a ribosome inactivating protein (rip 1) found in different tissues of the carnation (dianthus caryophyllus). recently we have isolated and sequenced a cdna clone from a lambda gt11 expression library [legname et al. (1991) biochim. biophys. acta 1090, 119-122]. here we describe specific pcr amplifications of either the full length pre-dianthin 30 or dianthin 30, the mature polypeptide lacking the 23 amino acid signal peptide. in vitro expression of both proteins in reticulocyte ly ...19938507195
the orf1 products of tombusviruses play a crucial role in lethal necrosis of virus-infected plants.hybrids of cymbidium ringspot (cymrsv) and carnation italian ringspot (cirv) tombusviruses were used to identify viral symptom determinants responsible for the generalized necrosis in tombusvirus-infected plants. surprisingly, symptoms of nicotiana benthamiana infected with cymrsv/cirv hybrids were distinctly different. it was demonstrated that not all chimeras expressing wild-type (wt) levels of p19 protein caused systemic necrosis as both parents cymrsv and cirv did. we showed here that hybrid ...200011069981
the open reading frame 1-encoded ('36k') protein of carnation italian ringspot virus localizes to mitochondria.the localization of the 36 kda ('36k') protein encoded by open reading frame 1 of carnation italian ringspot virus was studied in infected cells and in cells transiently expressing the 36k protein fused to green fluorescent protein (gfp). subcellular fractionation demonstrated that the 36k protein accumulated in fractions containing mostly mitochondria. fluorescence microscopy of transiently transformed cells showed that the 36k-gfp fusion protein accumulated in structures which could be stained ...200111125155
characterization and chromosome location of the gene gstz1 encoding the human zeta class glutathione transferase and maleylacetoacetate isomerase.the zeta class of cytosolic glutathione-s-transferases (gsts) has recently been identified and spans a range of species from plants to humans. the cdna and protein of a human member of this class have been previously characterised in our laboratory. this cdna has also been described as maleylacetoacetate isomerase (maai), an enzyme of the phenylalanine catabolism pathway (fernandez-canon and penalva, 1998). the present study has determined the structure and chromosome location of the gene encodi ...19989925947
effect of liquid paraffin on antibody responses and local adverse reactions of bivalent oil adjuvanted vaccines containing newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus.effects of liquid paraffin on antibody responses and local adverse reactions after intramuscular injection of oil adjuvanted vaccines containing newcastle disease (nd) and infectious bronchitis (ib) virus were investigated in chickens. each vaccine was prepared with a liquid paraffin such as carnation, crystol 52 and lytol. these vaccines induced sustained antibody responses against nd and ib. among local adverse reactions, lytol induced granulomatous reactions and abscesses, but carnation and c ...200011193350
isolation of a ripening and wound-induced cdna from cucumis melo l. encoding a protein with homology to the ethylene-forming enzyme.a cdna clone (pmel1) was isolated from a climacteric melon fruit cdna library using the tomato ethylene-forming-enzyme (efe) cdna, ptom13, as a probe. northern analysis of rna isolated from wounded leaf and fruit tissue and from preclimacteric and climacteric pericarp tissue was used to determine the pattern of pmel1 rna expression. pmel1 hybridized to a 1.3-kb transcript in climacteric fruit and wounded leaf tissue but was undetectable in preclimacteric fruit and unwounded leaves. maximal expre ...19938444161
dianthins, ribosome-damaging proteins with anti-viral properties from dianthus caryophyllus l. (carnation).1. dianthin 30 and dianthin 32, two proteins isolated from the leaves of diathus caryophyllus (carnation), were purified to homogeneity by chromatography on cm-cellulose. 2. the mol.wt. of dianthin 30 is 29 500 and that of dianthin 32 is 31 700. both dianthins are glycoproteins containing mannose. 3. dianthins inhibit protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an id50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 9.15 ng/ml (dianthin 30) and 3.6 ng/ml (dianthin 32). they act by damag ...19817316958
the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of japanese iris necrotic ring virus, a new species in the genus carmovirus.the genome of japanese iris necrotic ring virus (jinrv) consists of a positive-sense ssrna of 4014 nucleotides with six major open reading frames (orfs). a 5'-non-coding region of 31 nucleotides precedes the first initiation codon. like carnation mottle virus (carmv), the 5'-proximal three orfs encode a 26 kda protein (p26) and two readthrough proteins, i.e. an 85 kda putative rna replicase (p85) and a 99 kda protein (p99). the central orf encodes a small 8 kda protein (p8). the 3'-proximal orf ...200010795530
the bmp1 gene is essential for pathogenicity in the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea.in magnaporthe grisea, a well-conserved mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase gene, pmk1, is essential for fungal pathogenesis. in this study, we tested whether the same map kinase is essential for plant infection in the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogen that employs infection mechanisms different from those of m. grisea. we used a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to isolate map kinase homologues from b. cinerea. the botrytis map kinase required for pathogenesis ...200010875333
an analysis of the complete sequence of a sugarcane bacilliform virus genome infectious to banana and rice.the genome of sugarcane bacilliform virus (scbv), a badnavirus, consists of a circular dsdna. the complete sequence of a cloned infective scbv genome is reported here. the genome is 7568 bp in size and possesses a number of features suggesting that scbv is a pararetrovirus. a trna(met)-binding site that may serve as a primer for minus-strand synthesis is present. the plus-strand of the scbv genome contains three open reading frames (orfs) which are capable of encoding proteins with calculated m( ...19938423447
differential induction of systemic resistance in arabidopsis by biocontrol bacteria.selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing bacteria are able to elicit induced systemic resistance (isr) in plants. to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this type of systemic resistance, an arabidopsis-based model system was developed in which pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani were used as challenging pathogens. in arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes columbia and landsberg erecta, colonization of the rhizosphere by p. fluorescens strain wcs417r induced syst ...19979245833
characterization and heterologous expression of hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-coa:anthranilate n-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase from elicited cell cultures of carnation, dianthus caryophyllus l.benzoyl-coa:anthranilate n-benzoyltransferase catalyzes the first committed reaction of phytoalexin biosynthesis in carnation (dianthus caryophyllus l.), and the product n-benzoylanthranilate is the precursor of several sets of dianthramides. the transferase activity is constitutively expressed in suspension-cultured carnation cells and can be rapidly induced by the addition of yeast extract. the enzyme was purified to homogeneity from yeast-induced carnation cells and shown to consist of a sing ...19979426598
isolation and characterization of inositol sphingophospholipids from phytophthora parasitica dastur.several inositol sphingophospholipids (ispl) were isolated from mycelia of phytophthora parasitica dastur, a phytopathogenic fungus of carnation. the ispl structures were determined by fast atom bombardment. all ispl consisted of ceramides linked to inositol phosphate. we investigated the effect of growth conditions on the ispl produced in four different media that are commonly used for fungal cultures. we showed that p. parasitica dastur synthesized four major classes of compounds with molecula ...19979113622
kaempferide triglycoside: a possible factor of resistance of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.a kaempferide triglycoside has been found as a constitutive component in an uninfected carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) of the cultivar novada. the chemical structure has been determined mainly by the use of spectroscopic methods, including 2d nmr experiments. it showed a strong activity in restricting fungal parasite development, which could contribute to the known ability of carnation cv. novada to resist to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi infection.200111314958
elicitin produced by an isolate of phytophthora parasitica pathogenic to tobacco.elicitin was prepared from a phytophthora parasitica culture isolated from tobacco in australia. the protein with elicitor activity was purified and sequenced. this protein, which contains 98 amino acid residues, shows full homology with an elicitin produced by a completely unrelated isolate from carnation, indicating conservation of elicitin sequence within a single species.19957766061
a role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in drosophila.deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in drosophila. here, we demonstrate that deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. a second component of this complex is carnation, a homolog of sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. retinal cells devoid of deep orange function complete ...199910549280
use of highly conserved motifs in plant virus rna polymerases as the tags for specific detection of carmovirus-related rna-dependent rna polymerase genes.two highly degenerate primers for sequence-specific amplification and cloning of a 510-nucleotide-long segment of rna-dependent rna-polymerase (rdrp) genes were selected and synthesized on the basis of available plant carmovirus-like viral rdrp sequences. these primers were shown to be efficient in pcr screening of different rdrp genes including those of carmoviruses, dianthoviruses, and tombusviruses. in particular, they were used for amplification, cloning, and sequencing of an rdrp gene fragm ...19957871745
the mouse organellar biogenesis mutant buff results from a mutation in vps33a, a homologue of yeast vps33 and drosophila carnation.in the mouse, more than 16 loci are associated with mutant phenotypes that include defective pigmentation, aberrant targeting of lysosomal enzymes, prolonged bleeding, and immunodeficiency, the result of defective biogenesis of cytoplasmic organelles: melanosomes, lysosomes, and various storage granules. many of these mouse mutants are homologous to the human hermansky-pudlak syndrome (hps), chediak-higashi syndrome, and griscelli syndrome. we have mapped and positionally cloned one of these mou ...200312538872
evaluation of possible alternatives to double-strength skim milk used to saturate drag swabs for salmonella detection.the drag-swab salmonella screening technique was evaluated using less expensive alternatives to double-strength skim milk (2 x sm) as a saturating medium for drag swabs. ten pre-determined salmonella-positive poultry houses were studied. in the first phase, salmonella screening efficiency of drag swabs impregnated with 2 x sm and commercially available canned carnation evaporated skim milk (cesm) were compared. results showed cesm to be a less efficient alternative. in the second phase of the st ...19947980278
the atomic structure of carnation mottle virus capsid protein.the structure of the carnation mottle virus (cmtv) capsid protein has been determined at 3.2 a resolution by the method of molecular replacement. three-dimensional data were collected from a small number of crystals (sp.g. i23, a = 382.6 a) using the synchrotron radiation with an image plate as detector. the coordinates of tomato bushy stunt virus (tbsv) were used as a searching model. refinement of the coordinates of 7,479 non-hydrogen atoms performed by the program xplor, has led to an r-facto ...19948307192
functional and positional difference and classification of the fungiform papillae on the rabbit tongue seen in microvascular cast specimens by means of scanning electron microscope.the relationships between the functional and morphological characteristics, the positional difference and classification seen in microvascular cast specimens (mvcs) of the fungiform papillae (fup) on the anterodorsal surface and both sides of the intermolar eminence (ime) of the rabbit tongue were examined and compared by means of scanning electron microscopy (sem). the small fungiform papillae (s-fup), scattered sporadically among the numerous small filiform papillae (sfp), were found to be dis ...200011125801
toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of c.i. pigment red 23 (cas no. 6471-49-4) in f344 rats and b6c3f1 mice (feed studies).c.i. pigment red 23 is a bluish red commercial dye used as a coloring agent in paints, inks, rubber, plastics, lacquers, and paper. toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by feeding groups of rats and mice diets containing c.i. pigment red 23 (greater than 96% pure) for 17 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. genetic toxicology studies were conducted in salmonella typhimurium and in chinese hamster ovary cells. 17-day studies: groups of five rats and five mice of each sex were fed diets c ...199212621519
regulatory and associated political issues with respect to bt transgenic maize in the european union.legislation at the national level in europe as well as that developed by the european union (eu) generally permits release and commercialization of genetically modified organisms (gmos). however, only 10 plant/event combinations were registered as of 2002: three maize events (bt176, mon810, and bt11), with the other seven divided among carnation (3), oil-seed rape (2), tobacco (1), and raddiccio (1). of these, only one maize event (bt176) has been registered as a legal variety, and this was in s ...200312788278
angioarchitectural comparison of the fungiform papillae of the cat and rabbit using scanning electron microscopic specimens.the functional and morphological characteristics of the fungiform papillae (fup) on the anterior dorsal surface of the cat and rabbit tongues were studied and compared using a scanning electron microscope (sem), because the comparison of the functional and morphological relationship of fup in microvascular cast specimens (mvcs) between these tongues is as yet not clear. in both species, fup were found to be distributed sporadically among the numerous filiform papillae (fip). in the cat, in parti ...19979229074
serological relations between potato paracrinkle virus, potato virus s and carnation latent virus. 195613385442
the mechanism of inhibition of infection with tobacco mosaic virus by an inhibitor from carnation sap. 196113780000
serological relationship of chrysanthemum virus b to carnation latent virus and potato viruses m and s. 196213913907
functional angioarchitectural comparison of the fungiform papillae of rat, rabbit, cat in scanning electron microscopic specimens.the aim of this study was to compare the functional angioarchitectural fungiform papillae (fup) of three kinds of mammalia, rat, rabbit and cat, with microvascular cast specimens (mvcs) utilizing the corrosive resin cast method in scanning electron microscopy (sem). fup distributed geometrically on the dorsal surface of the tongues of the three mammals with different eating habits were of various kinds of form based on their functional and microvascular structure. the basic form of the capillary ...200011035641
antisense expression of carnation cdna encoding acc synthase or acc oxidase enhances polyamine content and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.the amount of polyamines (such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) increased under environmental stress conditions. we used transgenic technology in an attempt to evaluate their potential for mitigating the adverse effects of several abiotic stresses in plants. because there is a metabolic competition for s-adenosylmethionine as a precursor between polyamine (pa) and ethylene biosyntheses, it was expected that the antisense-expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes could result in an increa ...200212018842
self-cleaving circular rna associated with rice yellow mottle virus is the smallest viroid-like rna.we report the sequence, structural features, and self-cleaving activity of the small circular rna (sc-rna) associated with rice yellow mottle sobemovirus (rymv). at 220 nucleotides, the rymv sc-rna represents the smallest naturally occurring viroid-like rna currently documented in the literature. it is similar to other circular satellite rnas (sat-rnas) and viroids in being g-c-rich with a high level of self-complementarity. the predicted native structure is essentially a rod with one branched t ...19989499801
strawberry vein banding virus--definitive member of the genus caulimovirus.the complete dna sequence (7876 nucleotides) of strawberry vein banding virus (svbv) has been determined. seven open reading frames are detected that potentially code for proteins of calculated weight 37.8; 18.3; 16.6; 56.0; 81.1; 59.0 and 12.6 kda, respectively. their position on the viral genome is the same as that of the corresponding proteins on the cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) genome. phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of this protein shows a closer relationship of sv ...19989654684
structural studies of the extracellular beta-d-glucans from phytophthora parasitica dastur.several extracellular glucans have been isolated from phytophthora parasitica dastur, a phytopathogenic fungus of the carnation. these polysaccharides consist of a mixture of (1-->3)(1-->6)-beta-d-glucans whose molecular masses varied from 1 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(6) da. all of these polysaccharides have a main chain of beta-(1-->3)-linked d-glucose residues substituted with mono-, di- and oligo-saccharidic chains attached through (1-->6) linkages.199810209868
insecticide resistance in field populations of frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) in murcia (south-east spain).thirty-nine field populations of frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) were collected from different crops (sweet pepper, tomato, lettuce, artichoke, melon, cucumber, carnation, broad bean, peach and plum) in murcia (south-east spain). all populations were reared separately in the laboratory to obtain enough individuals for bioassays. female thrips were bioassayed, using a standard topical application method, against methiocarb, methamidophos, acrinathrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin and formetanat ...200212233190
pelargonium necrotic spot virus: a new member of the genus tombusvirus.a virus isolate from pelargonium spp., provisionally designated upev (unknown pelargonium virus), had isometric particles 31-33 nm in diameter, with a granular surface structure similar to that of viruses in three genera of family tombusviridae. immunoelectron microscopy proved that upev was serologically distinct from all examined morphologically similar members of the family tombusviridae. the induced cytopathology was characterized by large cytoplasmic virion aggregates and the formation of m ...200415290378
mitochondrial targeting and membrane anchoring of a viral replicase in plant and yeast cells.replication of the carnation italian ringspot virus genomic rna in plant cells occurs in multivesicular bodies which develop from the mitochondrial outer membrane during infection. orf1 in the viral genome encodes a 36-kda protein, while orf2 codes for the 95-kda replicase by readthrough of the orf1 stop codon. we have shown previously that the n-terminal part of orf1 contains the information leading to vesiculation of mitochondria and that the 36-kda protein localizes to mitochondria. using inf ...200212239325
[not available]. 194915401081
expression of tombusvirus open reading frames 1 and 2 is sufficient for the replication of defective interfering, but not satellite, rna.yeast cells co-expressing the replication proteins p36 and p95 of carnation italian ringspot virus (cirv) support the rna-dependent replication of several defective interfering (di) rnas derived from either the genome of cirv or the related cymbidium ringspot virus (cymrsv), but not the replication of a satellite rna (sat rna) originally associated with cymrsv. di, but not sat rna, was replicated in yeast cells co-expressing both di and sat rna. using transgenic nicotiana benthamiana plants cons ...200415448375
replication of carnation italian ringspot virus defective interfering rna in saccharomyces cerevisiae.two plasmids from which the sequences coding for the 36- and 95-kda proteins of carnation italian ringspot virus (cirv) could be transcribed in vivo in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the adh1 promoter and terminator were constructed. the two proteins, which constitute the viral replicase, were correctly translated and integrated into membranes of the yeast cells. an additional plasmid was introduced in yeasts expressing the cirv replicase, from which a defective interfer ...200312525646
molecular variability of twenty-one geographically distinct isolates of carnation mottle virus (carmv) and phylogenetic relationships within the tombusviridae family.the complete nucleotide sequence of a spanish isolate of carnation mottle carmovirus (carmv) has been determined. phylogenetic analyses were carried out with the replicase, coat protein (cp) and the putative movement proteins (p7 and p9) of carmv with the homologous proteins of representative members of the different genera included within the family tombusviridae. these analyses revealed that phylogenetic trees obtained depended on the protein analyzed, and that the best correlation with taxono ...200111722023
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