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evidence that some frankia sp. strains are able to cross boundaries between alnus and elaeagnus host specificity groups.phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to prove the existence of frankia strains isolated from an elaeagnus sp. that are able to cross the inoculation barriers and infect alnus spp. also. repeated cycles of inoculation, nodulation, and reisolation were performed under axenic conditions. frankia wild-type strain ufi 13270257 and three of its coisolates did exhibit complete infectivity and effectiveness on elaeagnus spp. and hippophaë rhamnoides and variable infectivity on alnus spp. microscop ...19921352442
structure of the 5s rrna genes in birch (betula papyrifera) and alder (alnus incana).hybridization of a 5s rdna probe to southern transfers of birch (betula papyrifera) or alder (alnus incana) dna digested with bamh1 reveals similar triple-band "ladder-like" patterns. the sizes of sequenced 5s repeat units from both plants ranges only from 471 to 490 base pairs, suggesting that the complexity detected by southern analysis is not due to different size classes of 5s repeats as found in other species. within the intercistronic spacer region, conservation of large blocks of sequence ...19921618393
identification of frankia strains in nodules by hybridization of polymerase chain reaction products with strain-specific oligonucleotide probes.a set of oligonucleotides has been developed to study the competitivity of two frankia strains in the nodulation of the roots of two host plant species: alnus glutinosa and alnus incana. two 20 mer-oligonucleotides, complementary to highly conserved sequences inside the nifh gene, were used as primers for the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) system in order to amplify microsymbiont dna extracted from actinorhizae. pcr products were analyzed using two strain-specific 15-mer oligonucleotides identi ...19902334247
a comparison of the antigenic and allergenic components of birch and alder pollens in scandinavia and australia.allergens in birch (betula) pollens from b. pendula grown in australia and norway, b. davurica and b. populofolia and from alder (alnus incana) were identified by electroblotting, following separation by sds-page, transfer to nitrocellulose membranes and incubation with sera from birch pollen-allergic subjects. of 42 antigenic components detected by protein staining in the pollen extract from b. pendula grown in norway, 17 bound ige. the allergenic components included those already reported in t ...19882448244
dust from carpeted and smooth floors. ii. antigenic and allergenic content of dust vacuumed from carpeted and smooth floors in schools under routine cleaning schedules.dust samples were collected twice from smooth and carpeted floors in 10 norwegian schools. the content of antigens and allergens of alder (alnus incana), birch (betula verrucosa), timothy (phleum pratense), cat and dog dander, house dust mite (dermatophagoides farinae), mould (cladosporium herbarum), hen egg white and codfish (diii) were investigated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (cie), crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (crie), radio allergosorbent test (rast) inhibition and quantitative pr ...19892478043
dust from carpeted and smooth floors. i. comparative measurements of antigenic and allergenic proteins in dust vacuumed from carpeted and non-carpeted classrooms in norwegian schools.dust samples from fitted-carpets and linoleum floors in 12 schools in norway were collected by vacuum cleaning. the presence of antigens and allergens of alder (alnus incana), birch (betula verrucosa), timothy (phleum pratense), mould (cladosporium herbarum), house dust mite (dermatophagoides farinae), cat and dog dander, codfish, hen egg white and human dander were investigated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (cie), crossed radio-immunoelectrophoresis (crie) and radio-allergosorbent test (rast ...19892752322
immuno-electronmicroscopic identification and localization of the antigenic proteins of tree pollen grains.the localization of antigenic proteins on ultrathin sections of pollen grains represents an interesting approach to understanding the release mechanisms of these antigens when the pollen grains come in contact with various physiological fluids. using different rabbit antibodies we have demonstrated the locations of these antigens in the various structures of pollen grains. we further demonstrated the cross-reactivities between alder (alnus incana), birch (betula verrucosa) and hazel (corylus ave ...19883207183
comparative studies on tree pollen allergens. xiii. partial characterization of the alder (alnus incana) pollen extract by two-dimensional ief/sds-pag electrophoresis combined with electrophoretic transfer and immunoautoradiography.horizontal isoelectric focusing (ief) and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-d sds-page) combined with electrophoretic transfer (et) and immunoautoradiography (iar) were used to characterize the crude alder (alnus incana) pollen extract (ai crude) and fraction ai 34. ief resolved ai crude and ai 34 into 34 and 39 distinct protein bands, respectively, when stained with coomassie brilliant blue. the band patterns were similar and the majority of bands were ...19863514476
comparative studies on tree pollen allergens. viii. immunological properties of the alder (alnus incana) pollen extract.the immunological properties of the aqueous crude alder pollen extract (ai crude) and gel filtration fractions ai 3, ai 4 and ai 34 (pool of fractions ai 3 and ai 4) were examined by immuno- and radioimmuno-electrophoretic techniques, rast titration, rast inhibition and skin prick tests (spt). in cie, the ai crude extract and ai 34 displayed reference precipitate patterns consisting of 27 and 24 visible coomassie brilliant blue stained lines, respectively. the crie allergogram performed by incub ...19846437991
comparative studies on tree pollen allergens. ii. isolation of alder (alnus incana) pollen allergens: purification and some characteristics of the major allergen pi 4.78.the aqueous extract of alder (alnus incana) pollen was found to consist of a protein mixture amounting to 3% of the dry pollen weight. separation by gel permeation chromatography on an aca-54 column resulted in 6 fractions designated chronologically to their relative elution volumes (ai 1 to ai 6). the immunological reactivity of these fractions was demonstrated in both ige and igg test systems. being both immunochemically and quantitatively dominant fraction ai 4 was selected for further purifi ...19827056588
comparative studies on tree pollen allergens. iv. evaluation of two commercially available allergen extracts of alder (alnus incana) and birch (betula verrucosa) pollen.two commercially available extracts of alder and birch pollen usually used in clinical allergy were evaluated and correlated to two corresponding reference extracts 's' produced at the authors' laboratory. the set of extracts produced by alk, denmark are referred to as 'a', while those produced by nyco, norway are referred to as 'n'. the results of the cie analysis demonstrated that, upon using the same antibodies, both the morphology and the intensity of the precipitates of the different extrac ...19827095873
carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.the carrier, an athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral british columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. this report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the carrier people. important medicinal plants include: abies lasiocarpa, alnus incana, arctostaphylos uva-ursi, artemisia frigida, fragaria virginiana, juniperus communis, picea glauca, pinus contorta, populus tremuloides, rubus ...19968735452
carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies.the antimicrobial properties of some traditional carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, candida albicans and aspergillus fumigatus. the results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of picea glauca and pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of these species. in addition ...19968771456
preseasonal intranasal immunotherapy in birch-alder allergic rhinitis. a double-blind study.a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to test the clinical efficacy and safety of local nasal immunotherapy (lnit) in powder form. twenty-two patients suffering from allergic rhinitis strictly associated with early spring symptoms, with positive skin prick tests and rast for birch-alder, all responders to a specific nasal provocation test (npt), received randomly active or placebo treatment for 4 months. immunotherapy consisted of administration of a set of capsules containing ...19968836333
induction of rhizobium meliloti nodc gene by alnus incana compounds.an expression of nodc promoter of r. meliloti 1021, cloned in front of the escherichia coli lacz gene, was used to study the presence of r. meliloti nodc gene-inducing compound(s) in extracts and exudates of a. incana seeds and roots. the regulatory gene nodd was expressed at comparable level in bacterial culture of r. meliloti with and without the studied plant extracts and exudates, whereas the nodc-lacz fusion expression was increased 4 times by seed exudates of grey alder and 2 times by seed ...19968914264
humus bacteria of norway spruce stands: plant growth promoting properties and birch, red fescue and alder colonizing capacity.we studied the potential of the humus layer of the norway spruce stands to supply beneficial rhizobacteria to birch (betula pendula), alder (alnus incana) and fescue grass (festuca rubra), representatives of pioneer vegetation after clear-cutting of the coniferous forest. axenically grown seedlings of these species were inoculated with the acid spruce humus, ph 3.7-5.3. actinorhizal propagules, capable of nodulating alder, were present in high density (10(3) g(-1)) in humus of long-term limed pl ...200010640667
nitrogenase activity in alnus incana root nodules. responses to o(2) and short-term n(2) deprivation.o(2) and host-microsymbiont interactions are key factors affecting the physiology of n(2)-fixing symbioses. to determine the relationship among nitrogenase activity of frankia-alnus incana root nodules, o(2) concentration, and short-term n(2) deprivation, intact nodulated roots were exposed to various o(2) pressures (po(2)) and ar:o(2) in a continuous flow-through system. nitrogenase activity (h(2) production) occurred at a maximal rate at 20% o(2). exposure to short-term n(2) deprivation in ar: ...200010677448
cavitation fatigue. embolism and refilling cycles can weaken the cavitation resistance of xylem.although cavitation and refilling cycles could be common in plants, it is unknown whether these cycles weaken the cavitation resistance of xylem. stem or petiole segments were tested for cavitation resistance before and after a controlled cavitation-refilling cycle. cavitation was induced by centrifugation, air drying of shoots, or soil drought. except for droughted plants, material was not significantly water stressed prior to collection. cavitation resistance was determined from "vulnerability ...200111161035
diversity and specificity of frankia strains in nodules of sympatric myrica gale, alnus incana, and shepherdia canadensis determined by rrs gene polymorphism.the identity of frankia strains from nodules of myrica gale, alnus incana subsp. rugosa, and shepherdia canadensis was determined for a natural stand on a lake shore sand dune in wisconsin, where the three actinorhizal plant species were growing in close proximity, and from two additional stands with m. gale as the sole actinorhizal component. unisolated strains were compared by their 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) restriction patterns using a direct pcr amplification protocol on nodules. phylogenetic ...200111319089
potential bioindicator plant species for ambient ozone in forested mountain areas of central europe.from 1993 to 2000, trees, shrubs, forbs and vines were evaluated for symptoms of probable ozone injury in the vicinity of passive ozone samplers or active ozone monitors in forest condition assessment networks in mostly mountainous regions, principally the carpathian mountain range, in the central european countries czech republic, poland, romania, slovakia and ukraine. each country was visited at least twice during the time period. over the course of eight seasons, 29 species of native plants w ...200212166662
host-associated allozyme variation in tree cambium miners, phytobia spp. (diptera: agromyzidae).the larvae of the agromyzid flies that belong to the genus phytobia lioy feed by mining in the differentiating xylem just below the cambium of growing forest trees. the genus, which is apparently one of the most primitive groups in the agromyzidae, comprises over 50 currently recognized species. most of the species are mono- or oligophagous, and the host plants belong to numerous genera in about 60 families. thus, phytobia is an attractive candidate for studies on the evolution of insect-plant r ...200212399999
regulation of nodulation in the absence of n2 is different in actinorhizal plants with different infection pathways.root nodulation in actinorhizal plants, like discaria trinervis and alnus incana, is subject to feedback regulatory mechanisms that control infection by frankia and nodule development. nodule pattern in the root system is controlled by an autoregulatory process that is induced soon after inoculation with frankia. the final number of nodules, as well as nodule biomass in relation to plant biomass, are both modulated by a second mechanism which seems to be related to the n status of the plant. mat ...200312654876
laser-based micromanipulation for separation and identification of individual frankia vesicles.in studies of symbiotic efficiency it is of great importance to identify and separate individual frankia strains from a nodule. therefore, a new laser-based micromanipulation technique has been developed in which individual vesicles from root nodules of two frankia-alnus symbioses have been successfully cut loose and separated from clusters of vesicles in sterile conditions under light microscopy using a laser scalpel and optical tweezers. vesicles from the alnus incana-frankia avci1 symbiosis w ...200312855174
bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in central and eastern europe.sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in central and eastern europe. they include the forbs alchemilla sp., astrantia major, centuarea nigra, centauria scabiosa, impatiens parviflora, lapsana communis, rumex acetosa and senecio subalpinus; the shrubs corylus avellana, cornus sanguinea and sambucus racemosa; the trees alnus incana, pinus cembra and sorbus aucuparia; and the vines humulus lupulus and parthenocissus quinquefolia. sensitivity to ozo ...200415046838
new, rare or remarkable microfungi in the italian alps (carnic alps)--part i--ascomycotina.during our observations in the se part of the carnic alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. pyrenomycetes, loculoascomycetes and discomycetes. some species like botryosphaeria ribis grosenlucher & duggar on ribes alpinum l., dothiora pyrenophora (fr.) fr. on sorbus aucuparia l., gemmamyces piceae (borth.) casago. on picea excelsa (lam.) link, glomerella montana (sacc. ...200415756826
isolation of frankia strains from alder actinorhizal root nodules.a simple procedure, based on the rapid filtration and washing of frankia vesicle clusters, was devised for the isolation of frankia strains from alder actinorhizal root nodules. of 46 alnus incana subsp. rugosa nodules prepared, 42 yielded isolates. a simple medium containing mineral salts, casamino acids, and sodium pyruvate proved to be the most effective for isolation. in general, colonies appeared 6 to 20 days after inoculation. on the basis of hyphal morphology, two distinct types of franki ...198216346079
identification of frankia strains by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.fifteen frankia strains from five different plant species were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis to determine their relatedness by comparing the polypeptide patterns obtained. three major subgroups (a, c, and d) were found in the alnus-comptonia-myrica cross-inoculation group. an isolate from purshia tridentata had a unique protein pattern and represents a distinct group of frankiae. members of group a were isolated from root nodules of alnus incana subsp. rugosa an ...198416346488
transient responses of nitrogenase to acetylene and oxygen in actinorhizal nodules and cultured frankia.nitrogenase activity in root nodules of four species of actinorhizal plants showed varying declines in response to exposure to acetylene (10% v/v). gymnostoma papuanum (s. moore) l. johnson. and casuarina equisetifolia l. nodules showed a small decline (5-15%) with little or no recovery over 15 minutes. myrica gale l. nodules showed a sharp decline followed by a rapid return to peak activity. alnus incana ssp. rugosa (du roi) clausen. nodules usually showed varying degrees of decline followed by ...199016667301
activities, occurrence, and localization of hydrogenase in free-living and symbiotic frankia.symbiotic and free-living frankia were investigated for correlation between hydrogenase activities (in vivo/in vitro assays) and for occurrence and localization of hydrogenase protein by western blots and immuno-gold localization, respectively. freshly prepared nodule homogenates from the symbiosis between alnus incana and a local source of frankia did not show any detectable in vivo or in vitro hydrogenase uptake activity, as also has been shown earlier. however, a free-living frankia strain or ...199016667353
acetylene, not ethylene, inactivates the uptake hydrogenase of actinorhizal nodules during acetylene reduction assays.acetylene reduction assays were shown to inactivate uptake hydrogenase activity to different extents in one casuarina and two alnus symbioses. inactivation was found to be caused by c(2)h(2) and not by c(2)h(4). acetylene completely inactivated the hydrogenase activity of intact root systems of alnus incana inoculated with frankia strain avcl1 in 90 minutes, as shown by a drop in the relative efficiency of nitrogenase from 1.0 to 0.73. the hydrogenase of frankia preparations (containing vesicles ...199016667724
effects of phosphorus and nitrogen on nodulation are seen already at the stage of early cortical cell divisions in alnus incana.the present work aimed to study early stages of nodulation in a chronological sequence and to study phosphorus and nitrogen effects on early stages of nodulation in alnus incana infected by frankia. a method was developed to quantify early nodulation stages in intact root systems in the root hair-infected actinorhizal plant a. incana. plant tissue responses were followed every 2 d until 14 d after inoculation. cortical cell divisions were already seen 2 d after inoculation with frankia. cortical ...200616735402
revisiting ectomycorrhizal fungi of the genus alnus: differential host specificity, diversity and determinants of the fungal community.actinorhizal plants, including those of the genus alnus (alders; betulaceae), and their nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts rely on mycorrhizal fungi for phosphorus and other mineral nutrients. to date, alders are known to associate with only 20-30 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi which are highly host-specific. this study aimed to determine the species richness and the relative importance of host species, soil and site variables on the community composition of alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal f ...200919320837
the effect of fire frequency on local cembra pine populations.it has been predicted that global climate change will lead to increasing drought in the alps during the 21st century, as well as an increased fire risk, fires being currently rare in these mountains. herein we describe fire frequency reconstruction using high-resolution analyses of macroscopic sedimentary charcoal, pollen, and plant macrofossils. sediments were sampled from a subalpine pond within the dry western french alps. results show that the early-holocene expansion of pinus cembra (7200 c ...200919323231
effects of a warmer climate on seed germination in the subarctic.in a future warmer subarctic climate, the soil temperatures experienced by dispersed seeds are likely to increase during summer but may decrease during winter due to expected changes in snow depth, duration and quality. because little is known about the dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of subarctic species, how warming may influence the timing and level of germination in these species was examined.200919443459
solar ultraviolet radiation alters alder and birch litter chemistry that in turn affects decomposers and soil respiration.solar ultraviolet (uv)-a and uv-b radiation were excluded from branches of grey alder (alnus incana) and white birch (betula pubescens) trees in a field experiment. leaf litter collected from these trees was used in microcosm experiments under laboratory conditions. the aim was to evaluate the effects of the different uv treatments on litter chemical quality (phenolic compounds, c, n and lignin) and the subsequent effects of these changes on soil fauna and decomposition processes. we measured th ...200919597848
diminished exoproteome of frankia spp. in culture and symbiosis.frankia species are the most geographically widespread gram-positive plant symbionts, carrying out n(2) fixation in root nodules of trees and woody shrubs called actinorhizal plants. taking advantage of the sequencing of three frankia genomes, proteomics techniques were used to investigate the population of extracellular proteins (the exoproteome) from frankia, some of which potentially mediate host-microbe interactions. initial two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electroph ...200919749056
[abundance of larvae and nymphs of the taiga tick ixodes persuicatus (acari: ixodidae) on small mammals in the cut-over lands of the middle taiga subzone of karelia].data of long-term investigations (1998-2004) on the abundance of the taiga tick larvae and nymphs in the cut-over lands of different age in the middle taiga subzone of karelia (62 degrees 04's; 33 degrees 55'w) are presented. the investigation was carried out on three model cut-over lands of different age: 1) "young" cut-over land; age of cut-over in the beginning of investigation is 7 years; betula-deschampsia cespitosa-agrostis tenuis; 2) "middle" cut-over land; age of cut-over is 12 years; sa ...200919807045
ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in lithuania.continuous ozone concentration measurements at rural sites in lithuania have been performed since 1982. long-term ozone data show an increasing trend 0.4 ppb y(-1) in annual mean concentrations during the period 1982-2008, although ozone peak values show an insignificant tendency to decrease. several studies were performed to evaluate the ozone effect on the main plant species of lithuanian forests. a strong positive correlation was found between values for the accumulated doses over a threshold ...200920175442
seasonal fluctuations in leaf phenolic composition under uv manipulations reflect contrasting strategies of alder and birch trees.seasonal variation in leaf phenolic composition may be important for acclimation of plants to seasonal changes in their biotic and abiotic environment. for a realistic assessment of how plants respond to solar uv-b (280-315 nm) and uv-a (315-400 nm) radiation, seasonal variation in both environment and plant responses needs to be taken into account. this also has implications for studies concerning stratospheric ozone depletion and resulting increased uv-b radiation, as other environmental varia ...201020626643
wood anatomical analysis of alnus incana and betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event.vessel chronologies in ring-porous species have been successfully employed in the past to extract the climate signal from tree rings. environmental signals recorded in vessels of ring-porous species have also been used in previous studies to reconstruct discrete events of drought, flooding and insect defoliation. however, very little is known about the ability of diffuse-porous species to record environmental signals in their xylem cells. moreover, time series of wood anatomical features have on ...201020639516
cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of cyp3a4.seventeen cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp3a4) through mechanism-based inactivation (mbi). the ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of cyp3a4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (dbf) in high pressure liquid chromatography (hplc) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of alnus incana, sarracenia purpur ...201121186373
potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?as a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. we have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. litter of alnus incana and betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possib ...201121735203
first evidence of established populations of the taiga tick ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae) in sweden.the tick species ixodes ricinus and i. persulcatus are of exceptional medical importance in the western and eastern parts, respectively, of the palaearctic region. in russia and finland the range of i. persulcatus has recently increased. in finland the first records of i. persulcatus are from 2004. the apparent expansion of its range in finland prompted us to investigate if i. persulcatus also occurs in sweden.201627370406
total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of alnus glutinosa (l.) gaertn., alnus incana (l.) moench and alnus viridis (chaix) dc. extracts.the objective of this study was to determine total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts from the leaves and barks of three alnus species. the phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using folin-ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. in addition, antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. the antimicrobial ...201424969264
introduction to distribution and ecology of sterile conks of inonotus obliquus.inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. this fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (betula spp). the dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. chaga are a folk remedy in russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of i. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (fagus spp.) in russ ...200823997626
tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (sorbus aucuparia l.) in urban forests in finland.recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. we sampled the number of rowan ...201525588119
dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (acari, phytoseiidae).pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites amblyseius swirskii, amblydromalus limonicus, and neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. in addition, a. swirskii and a. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. in all mite species, female body w ...201526014648
proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect eurasian beaver (castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the eurasian beaver, castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. data pertain to 198 indi ...201323504905
elucidation of antioxidant properties of wood bark derived saturated diarylheptanoids: a comprehensive (dft-supported) understanding.a series of diarylheptanoids, namely 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-heptan-3-one-5-o-d-xylopyranoside (oregonin), 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxyheptane-5-o-β-d-xylopyranoside and 1,7-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptane-3-one-5-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (platyphylloside), were isolated from the bark of alder family trees, a species widely spread over in europe. as antioxidants, these natural polyphenols have a promising potential in various fields of application, but their redox reactivity is insuf ...201424703933
the impact of a pulsing groundwater table on greenhouse gas emissions in riparian grey alder stands.floods control greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions in floodplains; however, there is a lack of data on the impact of short-term events on emissions. we studied the short-term effect of changing groundwater (gw) depth on the emission of (ghg) carbon dioxide (co2), methane (ch4), and nitrous oxide (n2o) in two riparian grey alder (alnus incana) stands of different age in kambja, southern estonia, using the opaque static chamber (five replicates in each site) and gas chromatography methods. the average ...201525124475
local and systemic effects of phosphorus and nitrogen on nodulation and nodule function in alnus incana.phosphorus (p) and nitrogen (n) effects on nodulation, nitrogenase activity and plant growth were studied in the root-hair-infected actinorhizal plant alnus incana (l.) moench. a split-root experiment, as well as a short-term experiment with entire root systems and a broader range of p concentrations, showed that p effects were specific on nodulation and not a general stimulation via a plant growth effect. these results indicate that nodule initiation and nodule growth have a high p demand. the ...200314585829
recent similarity in distribution ranges does not mean a similar postglacial history: a phylogeographical study of the boreal tree species alnus incana based on microsatellite and chloroplast dna variation.we reconstructed the historical pattern of postglacial biogeographic range expansion of the boreal tree species alnus incana in europe. to assess population genetic structure and diversity, we performed a combined analysis of nuclear microsatellite loci and chloroplast dna sequences (65 populations, 1004 individuals). analysis of haplotype and microsatellite diversity revealed that southeastern refugial populations situated in the carpathians and the balkan peninsula did not spread north and can ...201626831816
performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions.canadian oil sands tailings are predominately sodic residues contaminated by hydrocarbons such as naphthenic acids. these conditions are harsh for plant development. in this study, we evaluated the effect of inoculating roots of alnus viridis ssp. crispa and alnus incana ssp. rugosa with ectomycorrhizal fungi in the presence of tailings compounds. seedlings were inoculated with 7 different strains of paxillus involutus and alpova diplophloeus and were grown under different treatments of nacl, na ...201627170470
nitrogen isotope fractionation during n uptake via arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi into grey alder.arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) and ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungi affect plant nitrogen (n) dynamics. plant n isotope patterns have been used to characterise the contribution of ecm fungi to plant n uptake. by quantifying and comparing the effects of an am and an ecm fungus on growth, n uptake and isotopic composition of one host plant grown at different relative n supply levels, the aim of this study was to improve the mechanistic understanding of natural (15)n abundance patterns in mycorrhizal plant ...201627639038
absence of net long-term successional facilitation by alder in a boreal alaska floodplain.long-term experiments provide a way to test presumed causes of successional or environmentally driven vegetation changes. early-successional nitrogen (n)-fixing plants are widely thought to facilitate productivity and vegetation development on n-poor sites, thus accounting for observed vegetation patterns later in succession. we tested this facilitative impact on vegetation development in a 23-yr field experiment on an interior alaska (usa) floodplain. on three replicate early-successional silt ...201627870053
biomass production and nitrogen utilization by alnus incana when grown on n2 or nh 4 (+) made available at the same rate.a single clone of alnus incana (l.) moench was grown in a controlled-environment chamber. the plants were either inoculated with frankia and fixed atmospheric nitrogen or were left uninoculated but received ammonium at the same rate as the first group fixed their nitrogen. nitrogen fixation was calculated from frequenct measurements of acetylene reduction and hydrogen evolution. the diurnal variation of acetylene reduction was also taken into account. the relative efficiency of nitrogenase could ...198624240309
nonglandular leaf trichomes as short-term inducible defense of the grey alder, alnus incana (l.), against the chrysomelid beetle, agelastica alni l.the grey alder compensates leaf area losses due to insect grazing by continuously producing new leaves throughout the vegetative period. different degrees of defoliation were attained experimentally by a controlled release of the oligophagous beetle agelastica alni on arbitrarily selected trees from a homogenous population of young alders. the reduction in leaf area per tree significantly influenced the density of leaf trichomes, assessed 10-30 days later, on newly sprouting leaves only. cross-c ...199128313838
primary metabolism in n2-fixing alnus incana-frankia symbiotic root nodules studied with 15n and 31p nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.the primary nitrogen metabolism of the n2-fixing root nodule symbiosis alnus incana (l.)- frankia was investigated by 31p and 15n nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy. perfusion of root nodules in a pulse-chase approach with 15n- or 14n-labeled nh4+ revealed the presence of the amino acids alanine (ala), gamma-amino butyric acid, glutamine (gln), glutamic acid (glu), citrulline (cit) and arginine (arg). labeling kinetics of the gln amide-n and alpha-amino acids suggested that the glutam ...200415179512
[action of phytoncides of alnus incana, of juniperus, and of iceland moss on protozoa]. 201424544116
anti-adipogenic activities of alnus incana and populus balsamifera bark extracts, part i: sites and mechanisms of action.obesity is an epidemic in most developed countries and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. in the course of a screening project of medicinal plants used by the eastern james bay cree of canada and having potential for the treatment of diabetes, we have identified several products that inhibit adipogenesis, suggesting potential antiobesity activities. the inhibitory activity of two of these, the extract of the inner bark of the deciduous trees alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder) and po ...201020301057
anti-adipogenic activities of alnus incana and populus balsamifera bark extracts, part ii: bioassay-guided identification of actives salicortin and oregonin.among modern day metabolic diseases, obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and novel therapeutic support strategies are urgently needed. adipocytes are interesting targets in this context. using ethnobotanical and bioassay screening techniques, we have identified two boreal forest plants used by the james bay cree that potently inhibit adipogenesis, namely alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder) and populus balsamifera (balsam poplar). the mode of action of this inhibitory activit ...201020301058
antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity of alnus incana (l.) ssp. incana moench and a. viridis (chaix) dc ssp. viridis extracts.antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of leaves, bark, and cone extracts of alnus incana (l.) moench ssp. incana and endemic species a. viridis (chaix) dc ssp. viridis were evaluated. all extracts were found to be strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavengers, exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentration (ic(50)) values of 3.3-18.9 microg/ml, and also showed activity in inhibition of lipid peroxidation with ic(50) values ranging from 38.5 to 157.4 microg/ml. a. incana an ...201020438323
defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. to fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (alnus incana (l.) moench) and downy birch (betula pube ...201222761707
the β-richness of two detritivore caddisflies affects fine organic matter export.we used stream networks as a model system to test whether the ecosystem function, upstream production, and export of fine organic particles, an important subsidy to downstream habitats, would vary between two stream networks with identical detritivore species but different spatial distributions (i.e. high or low β-richness). our experiment employed artificial stream networks with two simulated tributaries. we used two species of detritivorous caddisflies, lepidostoma sp. and pycnopsyche guttifer ...201323247687
the effect of limited availability of n or water on c allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in alnus incana and salix viminalis.the effect of limited nitrogen (n) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, alnus incana l. and salix viminalis l., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of n and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited n supply and (iii) limited water supply. plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. computer-controlled irrigation and ...201323963409
expression and molecular properties of a new laccase of the white rot fungus phlebia radiata grown on wood.laccases are phenol-oxidizing, multicopper enzymes produced by fungi, plants, insects and bacteria. fungal laccases are involved in ecologically important processes such as decomposition of lignocellulose (wood and plant material). in this work, in order to find out the role of fungal laccases upon wood colonisation and lignin decay, we describe expression of laccase-encoding genes in the white rot basidiomycete phlebia radiata 79, when the fungus grows on its natural substrates, that is on soft ...200616927090
abundance of alnus incana ssp. rugosa in adirondack mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen.the purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the adirondack mountain region of new york state and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the adirondack region. the adirondack park agency's digital gis database of wetland types was used to dete ...200312667762
density fluctuations of the leafminer phyllonorycter strigulatella (lepidoptera: gracillariidae) in the impact zone of a power plant.populations of a tiny moth phyllonorycter strigulatella, whose larvae develop in leaves of alnus incana, were monitored around a coal fired power plant (annually emitting 11-29 kt of so2) near apatity, northwestern russia, during 1991-2001. the periodicity in density fluctuation was not affected by pollution; the peak densities of the leafminer in both polluted and clean localities were observed in 1993 and 1999. densities of p. strigulatella showed no correlation with pollution between the outb ...200312475055
nitrogen and phosphorus variation in shallow groundwater and assimilation in plants in complex riparian buffer zones.the study of purification efficiency and nutrient assimilation in plants was made in two riparian buffer zones with a complex of wet meadow and grey alder (alnus incana) stand. in the less polluted porijõgi test site, the 31 m wide buffer zone removed 40% of total nitrogen (total-n) and 78% of total phosphorus (total-p), while a heavily polluted 51 m wide buffer zone in viiratsi retained 85% of total-n and 84% of total-p. the input of nutrients and purification efficiency displayed a significant ...200111804159
nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast 23s rrna gene from alder (alnus incana). 19921536933
acetylene reduction, h2 evolution and (15)n 2 fixation in the alnus incana-frankia symbiosis.acetylene reduction, (15)n2 reduction and h2 evolution were measured in root systems of intact plants of grey alder (alnus incana (l.) moench) in symbiosis with frankia. the ratios of c2h2: (15)n2 were compared with c2h2:n2 ratios calculated from c2h2 reduction and h2 evolution, and with c2h2:n2 ratios calculated from accumulated c2h4 production and nitrogen content. it was possible to calculate c2h2:n2 ratios from c2h2 reduction and h2 evolution because this source of frankia did not show any h ...198624240308
ammonium effects on function and structure of nitrogen-fixing root nodules of alnus incana (l.) moench.cloned plants of alnus incana (l.) moench were inoculated and grown without combined nitrogen for seven weeks. the effects of ammonium on the function and structure of the root nodules were studied by adding 20 mm nh4cl (20 mm kcl=control) for four days. nitrogenase activity decreased to ca. 50% after one day and to less than 10% after two days in ammonium treated plants, but was unaffected in control plants. the results were similar at photon flux densities of 200 and 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1). at th ...198224272578
frankia populations in soil and root nodules of sympatrically grown alnus taxa.the genetic diversity of frankia populations in soil and in root nodules of sympatrically grown alnus taxa was evaluated by rep-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and nifh gene sequence analyses. rep-pcr analyses of uncultured frankia populations in root nodules of 12 alnus taxa (n=10 nodules each) growing sympatrically in the morton arboretum near chicago revealed identical patterns for nodules from each alnus taxon, including replicate trees of the same host taxon, and low diversity overall with ...201120838787
meteorological factors and air pollution in lithuanian forests: possible effects on tree condition.this study investigates changes in tree condition and environmental factors in lithuania during the active growing season in 1991-2001. the average crown defoliation and the proportion of healthy trees of pinus sylvestris, picea abies, betula sp., fraxinus excelsior, alnus incana, alnus glutinosa, populus tremula, and quercus robur, meteorological (average temperature, amount of precipitation, hydrothermal coefficient) and air pollution data (acidity of precipitation, concentrations of so2, no2 ...200516005769
effect of aba on freezing resistance of betula papyrifera and alnus incana woody plant cell suspensions.treatment of birch (betula papyrifera marsh) and alder (alnus incana (l.) moench) cell suspension cultures with aba increased the freezing resistance of the cells. after 7 days of treatment with 10(-5) m aba, birch cells grown at 23 and 4 degrees c attained an lt(50) of -16.9 and -14.1 degrees c, respectively, whereas control cells had an lt(50) of -9.1 degrees c. in alder cell suspensions, treatment with 10(-5) m aba at 23 degrees c induced a small increase in freezing resistance from -7.3 to - ...199214969988
in-planta sporulation phenotype: a major life history trait to understand the evolution of alnus-infective frankia strains.two major types of frankia strains are usually recognized, based on the ability to sporulate in-planta: spore-positive (sp+) and spore-negative (sp-). we carried out a study of sp+ and sp- frankia strains based on nodules collected on alnus glutinosa, alnus incana and alnus viridis. the nodules were phenotyped using improved histology methods, and endophytic frankia strain genotype was determined using a multilocus sequence analysis approach. an additional sampling was done to assess the relatio ...201525335453
the skin prick test - european standards.skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in ige-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. this manuscript reviews the available evidence including medline and embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. the recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extract ...201323369181
molecular diversity of frankia in root nodules of alnus incana grown with inoculum from polluted urban soils.abstract the establishment and growth of trees can be compromised by soil contamination which can reduce populations of key microbial symbionts. we describe the colonisation of grey alder (alnus incana) by frankia from 10 urban soils with varying degrees of organic and inorganic pollution. principal components analysis (pca) of soil chemical profiles showed a separation of remediated and unremediated soils. a. incana seedlings were used as trap plants to capture the microsymbiont from soil. afte ...200419712365
nitrogenase activity and amounts of nitrogenase proteins in a frankia-alnus incana symbiosis subjected to darkness.effects of prolonged darkness on nitrogenase activity in vivo, nitrogenase activity in vitro, and the amounts of nitrogenase proteins were studied in symbiotic frankia. plants of alnus incana (l.) moench in symbiosis with a local source of frankia were grown for 9 to 10 weeks in an 18/6 hour light/darkness cycle. after 12 hours of a light period, the plants were exposed to darkness for up to 40 hours. nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction activity) of intact plants was measured repeatedly. f ...199116668058
nitrogen uptake and turnover in riparian woody vegetation.the nutrient balance of streams and adjacent riparian ecosystems may be modified by the elimination of anadromous fish runs and perhaps by forest fertilization. to better understand nitrogen (n) dynamics within stream and riparian ecosystems we fertilized two streams and their adjacent riparian corridors in central idaho. on each stream two nitrogen doses were applied to a swathe approximately 35 m wide centered on the stream. the fertilizer n was enriched in 15n to 18 per thousand. this enrichm ...200415133732
anti-mycobacterial triterpenes from the canadian medicinal plant alnus incana.alnus incana, commonly known as the gray or speckled alder, is a medicinal plant used by some canadian first nations to treat symptoms associated with tuberculosis. the aim of this study was to assess the anti-mycobacterial activity of an alnus incana bark extract and to identify the active constituents of the extract.201525725435
genomospecies identification and phylogenomic relevance of aflp analysis of isolated and non-isolated strains of frankia spp.amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) was tested as an alternative to the dna-dna hybridization technique (ddh) to delineate genomospecies and the phylogenetic structure within the genus frankia. forty frankia strains, including representatives of seven ddh genomospecies, were typed in order to infer current genome mispairing (cgm) and evolutionary genomic distance (egd). the constructed phylogeny revealed the presence of three main clusters corresponding to the previously identified hos ...201121310572
gene transfer by electroporation in betulaceae protoplasts: alnus incana.the escherichia coli β-glucuronidase gene (gus) was introduced into alnus incana (l.) moench protoplasts by electroporation. level of gus transient gene expression was increased by increasing dna concentrations of pbi 221 plasmid and was affected by the amplitude and duration of the applied electric pulse as well as by the presence of polyethylene glycol (peg) in the electroporation medium. an optimal level of gus activity was obtained after electroporation with a capacitive discharge of 500 v/c ...198824240246
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