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[folk medicine, experience therapy, a component of modern therapeutics?].empirical medicine has three main supporting pillars: physical treatment, dietetics and phytotherapy. in this area of medicine, a number of therapeutical methods have been evolved which stand up to investigations employing scientific criteria, and which, in consequence, have become officially recognized by medical science. examples are: diet rich in bulkage, digitalis, products of papaver somniferum (poppy) and salicylates. the acceptance of phytotherapeutic agents into the drug armamentarium of ...1976964878
[treatment of primary chronic polyarthritis in special cases].empirical medicine has three main supporting pillars: physical treatment, dietetics and phytotherapy. in this area of medicine, a number of therapeutical methods have been evolved which stand up to investigations employing scientific criteria, and which, in consequence, have become officially recognized by medical science. examples are: diet rich in bulkage, digitalis, products of papaver somniferum (poppy) and salicylates. the acceptance of phytotherapeutic agents into the drug armamentarium of ...1976964883
anticarcinogenic effects of some indian plant products.the anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. the effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(b[a]p) and on the induction of hepatomas in wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'medab) were investigated. among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (cuminum cyminum linn) and basil leaves (ocimum sanctum linn) signific ...19921473788
transformation of thebaine to oripavine, codeine, and morphine by rat liver, kidney, and brain microsomes.thebaine, an intermediate of morphine biosynthesis in the poppy plant, papaver somniferum, was transformed to oripavine, codeine, and morphine by rat liver, kidney, and brain microsomes in the presence of an nadph-generating system. the formation of morphine, codeine, and oripavine was identified by a specific ria, hplc, and gcms. thebaine also gave rise to four other compounds, which for the moment are unidentified. nadh dramatically increased the formation of both codeine and morphine when use ...19883422490
presence and formation of codeine and morphine in the rat.endogenous codeine and morphine were identified in rat brain by immunological determination following hplc. to demonstrate occurrence of a biosynthetic pathway to morphine in mammals similar to that used by the poppy plant, (+)-salutaridine, (-)-thebaine, and (-)-codeine were administered to rats intravenously. these compounds, which are intermediates in the synthesis of morphine in papaver somniferum, caused a marked increase in the codeine and morphine levels in rat tissues. this provides evid ...19863459191
[suspected opium poisoning in two young dogs].two young dogs which played in a domestic garden in which the opium poppy (papaver somniferum) grew as wild flowers, developed euphoric as well as other nervous signs, reminiscent of opium poisoning. no medicinal treatment was given. the one dog recovered in one day while the other one took one to two weeks to recover.19863795223
expression in escherichia coli and partial characterization of two tyrosine/dopa decarboxylases from opium poppy.two tyrosine/dopa decarboxylases (tydc1 and tydc2) from opium poppy (papaver somniferum) were heterologously expressed in escherichia coli and partially characterized. tydc1 and tydc2 are representative members of the two major isoform sub-classes of genes found in opium poppy which share less than 75% amino acid identity. although both enzymes exhibit a marginal preference in vitro for l-dopa over l-tyrosine, the apparent kms of both tydc1 and tydc2 in total protein extracts for either substrat ...19957766394
differential and tissue-specific expression of a gene family for tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase in opium poppy.two early and potential rate-limiting steps in the biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids, such as morphine and codeine, in opium poppy (papaver somniferum) involve decarboxylation of l-tyrosine and l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) to yield tyramine and dopamine, respectively. a dna fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using degenerate primers designed to two highly conserved domains found in other aromatic amino acid decarboxylases. a poppy seedling cdna library was screen ...19947929401
morphine: new aspects in the study of an ancient compound.morphine is the most widely used compound among narcotic analgesics and remains the gold standard when the effects of other analgetic drugs are compared. apart from its presence in the poppy plant papaver somniferum, morphine has been shown to be present in milk, cerebrospinal fluid and also in nervous tissue extracts. recent evidence suggests that biosynthetic pathways for morphine exist in animal and even human tissues such as liver, blood and brain. the most characteristic effect of morphine ...19948084213
sequence analysis of a papaver somniferum l. mitochondrial dna fragment promoting autonomous plasmid replication in saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces lactis.the minimal fragment of mitochondrial dna from papaver somniferum l. (poppy) able to promote autonomous plasmid replication in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae was sequenced. sequence analysis of the 917-bp mk4/8 dna fragment revealed a high at content, and the presence of two 12-bp sequences differing from the ars core consensus of s. cerevisiae only by a t and c insertion, respectively. the mitochondrial insert contains a further six 11-bp sequences with one mismatch to the s. cerevisiae cor ...19938252647
molecular analysis of a new member of the opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family.an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase dna fragment was generated from opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) genomic dna by the pcr using primers designed from conserved amino acid sequences of other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes. using this fragment as a probe, a genomic clone was isolated that encodes a new member of the opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family (tydc5). the predicted tydc5 amino acid sequence shares extensive identity with other opium pop ...19968587993
uncoupled defense gene expression and antimicrobial alkaloid accumulation in elicited opium poppy cell cultures.treatment of opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) cell cultures with autoclaved mycelial homogenates of botrytis sp. resulted in the accumulation of sanguinarine. elicitor treatment also caused a rapid and transient induction in the activity of tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (tydc, ec 4.1.1.25), which catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine and l-dopa to tyramine and dopamine, respectively, the first steps in sanguinarine biosynthesis. tydc genes were differentially expressed in response to elicitor ...19968754678
cloning and heterologous expression of nadph-cytochrome p450 reductases from the papaveraceae.cytochrome p450 reductase was purified to homogeneity from cell suspension cultures of the opium poppy papaver somniferum, the enzyme was characterized (k(m) cytochrome c, 8.3 microm; k(m) nadph, 4.2 microm; ph optimum, 8.0; m(r), 80 kda), and the amino acid sequence of internal peptides was determined. partial cdna clones from p. somniferum and from eschscholzia californica (california poppy) were then generated using the polymerase chain reaction and were used as hybridization probes to isolat ...19979434750
expression patterns conferred by tyrosine/dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase promoters from opium poppy are conserved in transgenic tobacco.opium poppy (papaver somniferum) contains a large family of tyrosine/dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (tydc) genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acid amides. eight members from two distinct gene subfamilies have been isolated, tydc1, tydc4, tydc6, tydc8, and tydc9 in one group and tydc2, tydc3, and tydc7 in the other. the tydc8 and tydc9 genes were located 3.2 kb apart on one genomic clone, suggesting that the family is clust ...19989733527
medicinal plants and alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.the use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. in orthodox western medicine, contrasting with that in china and the far east for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of alzheimer's disease. an exception is gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergi ...199910411211
molecular cloning and functional expression of codeinone reductase: the penultimate enzyme in morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy papaver somniferum.the narcotic analgesic morphine is the major alkaloid of the opium poppy papaver somniferum. its biosynthetic precursor codeine is currently the most widely used and effective antitussive agent. along the morphine biosynthetic pathway in opium poppy, codeinone reductase catalyzes the nadph-dependent reduction of codeinone to codeine. in this study, we have isolated and characterized four cdnas encoding codeinone reductase isoforms and have functionally expressed them in escherichia coli. heterol ...199910417697
purification, characterization, and immunolocalization of hydroxycinnamoyl-coa: tyramine n-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase from opium poppy.a development-specific and elicitor-inducible acyltransferase [hydroxycinnamoyl-coa: tyramine n-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase (tht; ec 2.3.1.110)] that catalyzes the transfer of hydroxycinnamic acids from hydroxycinnamoyl-coa esters to hydroxyphenethylamines was purified 988-fold to apparent homogeneity from opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) cell-suspension cultures. the purification procedure, which resulted in a 6.8% yield, involved hydrophobic interaction and anion-exchange chromatograp ...199910467029
agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of opium poppy, papaver somniferum l., and california poppy, eschscholzia californica cham., root cultures.an efficient protocol for the establishment of transgenic opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) and california poppy (eschscholzia californica cham.) root cultures using a. grobacterium rhizogenes is reported. five strains of a. rhizogenes were tested for their ability to produce hairy roots on wounded opium poppy seedlings and california poppy embryogenic calli. three of the strains induced hairy root formation on both species, whereas two others either caused the growth of tumorigenic calli or p ...200010948228
rice salt promoter is activated in papaver somniferum and nicotiana tabacum transgenic cells in the absence of exogenous aba.with the aim of modifying secondary metabolism in opium poppy (papaver somniferum) and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) cells, gene transfer was performed using the sam1 gene from arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the salt promoter. this promoter is induced by aba in rice and in tobacco and we have shown that it is also induced in poppy cells (gus gene). putatively transformed poppy and tobacco cell lines with the sam1 gene were obtained. in the absence of exogenous inducer we noticed the exp ...200111118604
[guillain-barre syndrome as a result of poisoning with a mixture of "kompot"(polish heroin) and drugs].guillain-barré syndrome is the most common form of polineuropathy. it is suggested that some infectious, immune and allergic factors are involved in developing the syndrome. "kompot" or "polish heroine", a domestic product, is produced from poppy straw or juice of poppy head (papaver somniferum) and it is administered intravenously. "kompot" shows variable contents of heroine, 6-mam, 3-mam, morphine, acetylo-codeine and codeine as well as papaverine, thebaine and narcotine. the case history of a ...200111450369
isolation and partial characterization of norcoclaurine synthase, the first committed step in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, from opium poppy.norcoclaurine synthase (ncs) catalyzes the condensation of dopamine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (4-hpaa) to yield norcoclaurine, the common precursor to all benzylisoquinoline alkaloids produced in plants. in opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.), ncs activity was detected in germinating seeds, young seedlings, and all mature plant organs, especially stems and roots. however, the highest levels of activity were found in cell-suspension cultures treated with a fungal elicitor. ncs activity was ...200111722126
isoquinoline alkaloid production by transformed cultures of papaver somniferum.three clones of transformed cultures of opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) were established by infection with agrobacterium rhizogenes maff 03-01724. maff clone 1 being capable of forming somatic embryos was selected and its growth and isoquinoline alkaloid production was investigated. the illumination, temperature and nutrient medium composition greatly affected growth, cell morphology and alkaloid accumulation. the maff clone 1 cultured in root culture medium in the dark at 22 degrees c accum ...200111915285
[f. w. sertürner and the discovery of morphine. 200 years of pain therapy with opioids].since many centuries mankind has been aware of the poppy (papaver somniferum) and has known its product opium as an analgesic drug. until the beginning of the 19 (th) century its compounds were not known, making it almost impossible to apply the substance in exact doses. 1803/04, friedrich wilhelm sertürner (1783 - 1841) succeeded in isolating a crystalline substance from opium in the test tube, which he called morphium. in animals and in man he was able to prove that this new compound he had di ...200212015680
[effect of a fungal elicitor on levels of sanguinarine and polyphenoloxidase activity in a suspension culture of papaver somniferum l].the opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) is still a source for isolation of codeine and morphine. cell cultures from this plant lose their ability to produce morphinans. their major alkaloid is sanguinarine. the elicitation of the opium poppy cell cultures by fungal preparation lead to a nine-fold increase in the content of sanguinarine. the specific activity of polyphenoloxidase (ppo) was three-times higher in the elicited compared to the nonelicited cells. two isoforms of ppo (mr 63 kda, 41 kda ...200212183905
[neurological syndromes associated with the ingestion of plants and fungi with a toxic component (ii). hallucinogenic fungi and plants, mycotoxins and medicinal herbs].a wide range of fungi and medicinal herbs, rich in hallucinogenic substances and widely used for mystic and medicinal purposes, can give rise to neurotoxic symptoms.200312766871
modulation of chelidonii herba on glycine-activated and glutamate-activated ion currents in rat periaqueductal gray neurons.chelidonii herba is classified as papaver somniferum l. aqueous extract from c. herba is traditionally used for disorders with symptoms like pain, bloating, abdominal cramp after meals.200314568185
(r,s)-reticuline 7-o-methyltransferase and (r,s)-norcoclaurine 6-o-methyltransferase of papaver somniferum - cdna cloning and characterization of methyl transfer enzymes of alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.s-adenosyl-l-methionine:(r,s)-reticuline 7-o-methyltransferase converts reticuline to laudanine in tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline biosynthesis in the opium poppy papaver somniferum. this enzyme activity has not yet been detected in plants. a proteomic analysis of p. somniferum latex identified a gel spot that contained a protein(s) whose partial amino acid sequences were homologous to those of plant o-methyltransferases. cdna was amplified from p. somniferum rna by reverse transcription pcr using ...200314675446
hairy root induction of papaver somniferum var. album, a difficult-to-transform plant, by a rhizogenes lba 9402.two strains of agrobacterium rhizogenes (15834, lba 9402) and one agrobacterium tumefaciens strain [gv 3101 (pmp90rk, p35sgus-2)] and four culture media were tested and compared for their ability to induce hairy root formation on wounded papaver somniferum l. hypocotyls. five weeks after the infection with a. rhizogenes lba 9402, hairy roots appeared on 80% of the hypocotyls maintained in the hormone-free liquid medium. six hairy-root cultures were established. transformation was confirmed by po ...200414740216
phylogenetic analysis of the downy mildew pathogen of oilseed poppy in tasmania, and its detection by pcr.downy mildew of oilseed poppy (papaver somniferum) has become a serious disease issue for the tasmanian poppy industry since its first record in 1996. previous reports have reported the pathogen as peronospora arborescens, which is differentiated from the related species p. cristata, also known to infect papaver spp., by conidium dimensions alone. this study investigated the taxonomic status of the downy mildew pathogen, using both morphological characters and molecular analysis of the internal ...200415119357
determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (papaver somniferum l.) by atr-ft-ir and ft-raman spectroscopy.fourier transform (ft) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite atr crystal and nir-ft-raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. most of the characteristic raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. but also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. raman spectra obtained by excitation with a nd ...200415457323
transformation of opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) with antisense berberine bridge enzyme gene (anti-bbe) via somatic embryogenesis results in an altered ratio of alkaloids in latex but not in roots.the berberine bridge enzyme cdna bbe from papaver somniferum l. was transformed in antisense orientation into seedling explants of the industrial elite line c048-6-14-64. in this way, 84 phenotypically normal to plants derived from embryogenic callus cultures were produced. the selfed progeny of these 84 plants yielded several t1 plants with an altered alkaloid profile. one of these plants t1-47, and its siblings t2-1.2 and t2-1.5 are the subject of the present work. the transformation of these ...200415672841
mammalian morphine: de novo formation of morphine in human cells.morphine, the major alkaloid of opium of papaver somniferum, is one of the strongest analgesic compounds known. "endogenous morphine" has been long isolated and authenticated by mass spectrometry in trace amounts from animal and human specific tissue or fluids. the most widely accepted explanation presently is that morphine detected in human and animal tissue is of exogenous sources (e.g. dietary origin).200515874902
virus-induced gene silencing is an effective tool for assaying gene function in the basal eudicot species papaver somniferum (opium poppy).virus-induced gene silencing (vigs) is an attractive method for assaying gene function in species that are resistant to conventional genetic approaches. however, vigs has been shown to be effective in only a few, closely related plant species. tobacco rattle virus (trv), a bipartite rna virus, has a wide host range and so in principle could serve as an efficient vector for vigs in a diverse array of plant species. here we show that a vector based on trv sequences is effective at silencing the en ...200516212610
endophytic colonisation of opium poppy, papaver somniferum, by an entomopathogenic beauveria bassiana strain.beauveria bassiana strain eabb 04/01-tip isolated from stem-borer larvae of timaspis papaveris (hymenoptera: cynipidae), a serious pest of opium poppy in spain, was shown to be able to become established endophytically in this pharmaceutical crop. microbiological, molecular and light and electron microscopic methods were used to study fungal colonisation and to describe its mode of penetration. after inoculation with a foliar spray of conidia, microbiological methods showed 100% of plants examin ...200616649082
purification and characterization of calmodulins from papaver somniferum and euphorbia lathyris.calmodulins (cam) were isolated and characterized from two well-known latex producing plants, papaver somniferum and euphorbia lathyris. the molecular weights of both were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 17,000 comparable to that of bovine brain cam. amino acid compositions also compared similarly with those of known cams, with regard to the presence of trimethyllysine and the ratio of phenylalanine to tyrosine. the cornish-bowden equation (sdeltan) ...198916666573
methods for regeneration and transformation in eschscholzia californica: a model plant to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis.eschscholzia californica cham. (california poppy) is a plant species that accumulates pharmacologically active alkaloids biosynthetically related to the morphinan alkaloids of papaver somniferum. this, in combination with the relative ease with which it is propagated in vitro, makes it a key model for benzylisoquinoline biosynthesis. transformation techniques are an important tool for these studies and for metabolic engineering attempts. agrobacterium mediated transformation techniques for this ...200616673930
opium poppy (papaver somniferum).the genetic transformation of opium poppy, papaver somniferum, offers the opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in the regulation of benzylisoquinoline and morphinan alkaloid biosynthesis. the development of an efficient transformation protocol for opium poppy has allowed us to transform a range of genotypes from all around the world, including previously recalcitrant high-yielding commercial australian cultivars. the method involves agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of hypocotyl explan ...200617033080
molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis reveal the benzylisoquinoline binding site of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase salutaridine reductase.recently, the nadph-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (sdr) salutaridine reductase (e.c. 1.1.1.248) implicated in morphine biosynthesis was cloned from papaver somniferum. in this report, a homology model of the papaver bracteatum homolog was created based on the x-ray structure of human carbonyl reductase 1. the model shows the typical alpha/beta-folding pattern of sdrs, including the four additional helices alphaf'-1 to alphaf'-4 assumed to prevent the dimerization of the monomeric ...200717337529
molecular cloning and characterization of tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-n-methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.s-adenosyl-l-methionine:tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-n-methyltransferase (ec 2.1.1.122) catalyzes the conversion of (s)-stylopine to the quaternary ammonium alkaloid, (s)-cis-n-methylstylopine, as a key step in the biosynthesis of protopine and benzophenanthridine alkaloids in plants. a full-length cdna encoding a protein exhibiting 45 and 48% amino acid identity with coclaurine n-methyltransferase from papaver somniferum (opium poppy) and coptis japonica, respectively, was identified in an elic ...200717389594
detection of a true breeding homeotic gene mutant pps-1 with partially petaloid sepals in opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) and its genetic behavior.a spontaneous true breeding homeotic gene mutant pps-1 with distinct partial petaloid sepals was detected in the population of downy mildew (dm)-resistant elite accession i-14 during our studies for the identification of disease resistance sources in opium poppy. the trait was found to be stable and inherited truly in the subsequent generations. genetic studies were carried out through systematic reciprocal crosses with the parental wild-type genotype i-14, and segregation pattern of phenotypic ...200717621590
isolation and identification of unique marker compounds from the tasmanian poppy papaver somniferum n. implications for the identification of illicit heroin of tasmanian origin.tasmanian opium accounts for 25% of the world's legal supply of opium straw, and in 1998-99 sufficient numbers of flower pods (66,013) to manufacture ca 500 kg of heroin were stolen. whilst the heroin signature program has been developed to determine the origin of heroin from other key producers, no such signature currently exists for tasmanian derived heroin. tasmanian poppies contain a unique alkaloid, oripavine, which is the source of 'marker' impurities in illicit heroin produced from tasman ...200817765420
quantitative 1h nmr metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures.opium poppy (papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. the plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of oth ...200818211706
plant cell suspension culture rheology.the results of rheological measurements on 10 different plant cell suspension cultures are presented. nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) suspension cultures grown in serial batch subculture display high viscosity and power law rheology. this "undesirable" rheology is shown to be a result of elongated cell morphology. the rheology of papaver somniferum (poppy) cell suspensions is quite different; poppy suspensions behave as newtonian fluids and have relatively low viscosity (less than 15 cp) at fresh ce ...199318613057
plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics.opium poppy (papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. in contrast to the plant, cell cultures of opium poppy do not accumulate alkaloids constitutively but produce sanguinarine in response to treatment with certain fungal-derived elicitors. the induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis provides a model platform to characterize the regulation of benzylisoquinoline alkalo ...200918682378
spatiotemporal analysis of epiphytotics of downy mildew of oilseed poppy in tasmania, australia.downy mildew, caused by peronospora arborescens, has become the major disease affecting oilseed poppy (papaver somniferum) since its first record in tasmania in 1996. two field trials conducted in 2000 and 2001 studied the progression and spatial distribution of downy mildew epiphytotics. the logistic and exponential models best described the progression of disease incidence and severity, respectively. incidence and severity increased rapidly following canopy closure. in 2001, incidence increase ...200318943064
phylogenetic analysis of downy mildew pathogens of opium poppy and pcr-based in planta and seed detection of peronospora arborescens.abstract severe downy mildew diseases of opium poppy (papaver somniferum) can be caused by peronospora arborescens and p. cristata, but differentiating between the two pathogens is difficult because they share morphological features and a similar host range. in spain, where severe epidemics of downy mildew of opium poppy have occurred recently, the pathogen was identified as p. arborescens on the basis of morphological traits. in this current study, sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses of ...200718943506
dendryphion penicillatum and pleospora papaveracea, destructive seedborne pathogens and potential mycoherbicides for papaver somniferum.abstract dendryphion penicillatum and pleospora papaveracea were isolated from blighted papaver somniferum and papaver bracteatum plants grown in growth chambers and the field in beltsville, md. the etiology of the diseases was determined, and the fungi are being investigated as potential mycoherbicides to control the narcotic opium poppy plant. p. papaveracea is known to be a highly destructive seedborne pathogen of papaver somniferum, causing seedling blight, leaf blight, crown rot, and capsul ...200018944487
evaluation of infection processes and resulting disease caused by dendryphion penicillatum and pleospora papaveracea on papaver somniferum.abstract two pathogenic fungi of opium poppy, pleospora papaveracea and dendryphion penicillatum, were isolated from field material in beltsville, md. the processes of infection by these two fungi were studied to determine the optimal environmental conditions for infection. both fungi formed appressoria capable of penetrating directly through the plant epidermal layer. of the two fungi, p. papaveracea was more aggressive, causing more rapid necrosis. appressorial formation by p. papaveracea occu ...200018944488
nep1 protein from fusarium oxysporum enhances biological control of opium poppy by pleospora papaveracea.abstract the fungus pleospora papaveracea and nep1, a phytotoxic protein from fusarium oxysporum, were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on opium poppy (papaver somniferum). four treatments consisting of a control, p. papaveracea conidia, nep1 (5 mug/ml), and p. papaveracea conidia plus nep1 (5 mug/ml) were used in detached-leaf and whole-plant studies. conidia of p. papaveracea remained viable for 38 days when stored at 20 or 4 degrees c. nep1 was stable in the presence of conidia for 38 ...200018944501
a nested-polymerase chain reaction protocol for detection and population biology studies of peronospora arborescens, the downy mildew pathogen of opium poppy, using herbarium specimens and asymptomatic, fresh plant tissues.a sensitive nested-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) protocol was developed using either of two primer pairs that improves the in planta detection of peronospora arborescens dna. the new protocol represented an increase in sensitivity of 100- to 1,000-fold of detection of the oomycete in opium poppy tissue compared with the detection limit of single pcr using the same primer pairs. the new protocol allowed amplification of 5 to 0.5 fg of peronospora arborescens dna mixed with papaver somniferum dn ...200919055437
substrate specificity in phospholipid transformations by plant phospholipase d isoenzymes.phospholipase d (pld) catalyzes the hydrolysis and transesterification of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. in many plants, several isoforms of pld have been identified without knowing their functional differences. in this paper, the specificities of two pld isoenzymes from white cabbage (brassica oleracea var. capitata) and two ones from opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.), which were recombinantly produced in escherichia coli, were compared in the hydrolysis of phosphol ...200919251290
rnai suppression of the morphine biosynthetic gene salat and evidence of association of pathway enzymes.papaver somniferum l. was transformed with an rnai construct designed to reduce transcript levels of the gene encoding the morphine biosynthetic enzyme, salutaridinol 7-o-acetyltransferase (salat). rna interference of salat led to accumulation of the intermediate compounds, salutaridine and salutaridinol, in a ratio ranging from 2:1 to 56:1. along the morphine biosynthetic pathway, salutaridine is stereospecifically reduced by salutaridine reductase (salr) to salutaridinol, which is subsequently ...200919359021
[opium and opioids: a brief history.].in addition to their major influence on human behavior, opium and opioids have been used for a long time as sedative and analgesic drugs. as from the 19th century, with the isolation of opium alkaloids and easy parenteral administration of these substances, there has been increased interest in the judicious medical use of opioids and in the analysis of social consequences of their abuse, which has justified a historical review of opium and opioids.200519471817
systemic protection of papaver somniferum l. against iraella luteipes (hymenoptera: cynipidae) by an endophytic strain of beauveria bassiana (ascomycota: hypocreales).the poppy stem gall wasp, iraella luteipes (thompson) (hymenoptera: cynipidae), is one of the main pests of the opium poppy, papaver somniferum l., an economically important pharmaceutical crop cultivated worldwide. in a previous study, we obtained from i. luteipes larvae a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana (ascomycota: hypocreales) that can become established endophytically in opium poppy plants. a field experiment was conducted to study the ability of this b. bassiana st ...200919508781
cyp719b1 is salutaridine synthase, the c-c phenol-coupling enzyme of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.morphine is a powerful analgesic natural product produced by the opium poppy papaver somniferum. although formal syntheses of this alkaloid have been reported, the morphine molecule contains five stereocenters and a c-c phenol linkage that to date render a total synthesis of morphine commercially unfeasible. the c-c phenol-coupling reaction along the biosynthetic pathway to morphine in opium poppy is catalyzed by the cytochrome p450-dependent oxygenase salutaridine synthase. we report herein on ...200919567876
plant remains from an early iron age well at hajndl, slovenia.the archaeobotanical samples analysed derive from a well-preserved well dated to the early iron age (hallstatt) according to pottery found in the sampled layers and on a radiocarbon dating (720-520 cal b.c.) of the wooden construction of the well. cultivated plants (panicum miliaceum, linum usitatissimum, papaver somniferum and camelina sativa) were recorded in relatively small numbers whereas primary cereals are lacking. together with quite a large number of accompanied weeds they suggest agric ...200920102084
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy papaver somniferum.the opium poppy papaver somniferum is the source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. salutaridine reductase (salr; ec 1.1.1.248) reduces the c-7 keto group of salutaridine to the c-7 (s)-hydroxyl group of salutaridinol in the biosynthetic pathway that leads to morphine in the opium poppy plant. p. somniferum salr was overproduced in escherichia coli and purified using cobalt-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. hexagonal crystals belonging to space group p6(4)22 or p6(2)22 we ...201020124713
radiolabeling, biodistribution and gamma scintigraphy of noscapine hydrochloride in normal and polycystic ovary induced rats.abstract:201020420718
aflp studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew-susceptible genotypes of opium poppy.downy mildew (dm) caused by peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. the establishment of dm-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the in this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers for dm-resistance in opium poppy. three opium poppy genotypes (inbred over about 10 years): pps-1 (dm-resistant), jawahar-16 (dm-susc ...201020505242
radiolabeling of morphine with (131)i and its biodistribution in rats.this study was conducted to determine the possible radiopharmaceutical potential of morphin labeled with (131)i. morphine was extracted from dry capsules of the opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.), purified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. the purified compound was labeled with (131)i. male albino wistar rats (18) were used for receptor blockage and unblockage biodistribution studies. tissue distribution studi ...201020707720
involvement of lipoxygenase in elicitor-stimulated sanguinarine accumulation in papaver somniferum suspension cultures.the involvement of lipoxygenase (lox, ec 1.13.11.12) in elicitor-induced opium poppy defense response was investigated. papaver somniferum l. suspension cultures were treated with abiotic elicitor methyl jasmonate (mj), fungal elicitor (botrytis cinerea homogenate) and phenidone (specific inhibitor of lox) to determine the involvement of this enzyme in production of sanguinarine, the major secondary metabolite of opium poppy cultures. p. somniferum suspension cultures responded to elicitor treat ...201020829053
integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures.papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. in response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. the transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep tran ...201021083930
organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in british columbia, canada.abstract: plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in british columbia included arctium lappa (burdock), artemisia sp. (wormwood), chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and c. ambrosioides (epazote), cirsium arvense (canada thistle), juniperus spp. (juniper), mentha piperita (peppermint), nicotiana sp. (tobacco), papaver somniferum (opium poppy), rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), symphytum officinale (comfrey), taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), th ...201121756341
traditional ecologies of the opium poppy and oral history in rural turkey.cultivated in the eastern mediterranean region for millennia, the opium poppy (papaver somniferum) was profoundly significant in the economies, ecologies, cultures, and diets of the peoples of many towns and villages of rural anatolia. when the united states compelled turkey to eradicate cultivation of the plant in the early 1970s in order to diminish the flow of heroin into america, farmers were obliged to deal with not only changes in their incomes but also profound changes in their relationsh ...201121954490
transient expression of cor gene in papaver somniferum.papaver somniferum is the commercial source of morphine and codeine. the isolation of effective genes involved in the morphine biosynthesis of p. somniferum is very important in the production of specific metabolites achieved using metabolic engi-neering techniques. in this pathway, the key enzyme cor is involved in the conversion of codeinone to codeine and morphinone to morphine.201123678433
[comparison of sanguinarine production in suspension cultures of the papaveraceae plants].intact plants of the papaveraceae family are producers of a whole range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, which are used in pharmaceutical industry. in vitro cultures derived from plants of the papaveraceae do not have the ability to produce such a broad spectrum of alkaloids, only the biosynthetic pathway leading to sanguinarine is active. this study deals with the preparation of in vitro cultures of papaver somniferum, eschscholtzia californica, chelidonium majus and macleaya cordata. their san ...201223387855
proceedings: methylating and demethylating enzymes in papaver somniferum latex. 20144156708
[study on the mineral nutrition of papaver somniferum l. 3. effect of n (nitrogen) and p (phosphorus) feeding]. 20165084369
triglyceride composition of papaver somniferum seed oil. 19911263455
[psychotropic drugs. iv. the morphinan alkaloid content of papaver somniferum and papaver bracteatum]. 20124080747
[cultivation of medicinal plants. ii. studies on the time of harvest of papaver somniferum l. with respect of opium alkaloids]. 20154477499
a microbial biomanufacturing platform for natural and semisynthetic opioids.opiates and related molecules are medically essential, but their production via field cultivation of opium poppy papaver somniferum leads to supply inefficiencies and insecurity. as an alternative production strategy, we developed baker's yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial host for the transformation of opiates. yeast strains engineered to express heterologous genes from p. somniferum and bacterium pseudomonas putida m10 convert thebaine to codeine, morphine, hydromorphone, hydrocodon ...201425151135
cytochrome p450 3a enzymes catalyze the o6-demethylation of thebaine, a key step in endogenous mammalian morphine biosynthesis.morphine, first characterized in opium from the poppy papaver somniferum, is one of the strongest known analgesics. endogenous morphine has been identified in several mammalian cells and tissues. the synthetic pathway of morphine in the opium poppy has been elucidated. the presence of common intermediates in plants and mammals suggests that biosynthesis occurs through similar pathways (beginning with the amino acid l-tyrosine), and the pathway has been completely delineated in plants. some of th ...201526157146
genes encoding norcoclaurine synthase occur as tandem fusions in the papaveraceae.norcoclaurine synthase (ncs) catalyzes the enantioselective pictet-spengler condensation of dopamine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde as the first step in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (bia) biosynthesis. ncs orthologs in available transcriptome databases were screened for variants that might improve the low yield of bias in engineered microorganisms. databases for 21 bia-producing species from four plant families yielded 33 assembled contigs with homology to characterized ncs genes. predicted tran ...201627991536
the in vitro anti-acne activity of two unani drugs.acne is the most common disorder treated by dermatologists. as many as 80-90% of all adolescents have some type of acne and 30% of them require medical treatment. it is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit characterized by the formation of open and closed comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts.201325161328
decreased cell wall digestibility in canola transformed with chimeric tyrosine decarboxylase genes from opium poppytyrosine decarboxylase (tydc) is a common plant enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of numerous secondary metabolites, including hydroxycinnamic acid amides. although a definite function has not yet been determined, amides have been proposed to form a physical barrier against pathogens because they are usually found as integral cell wall components. canola (brassica napus) was independently transformed with chimeric genes (35s::tydc1 and 35s::tydc2) under the transcriptional control of the cauli ...199910398700
genetic and phenotypic analyses of a papaver somniferum t-dna insertional mutant with altered alkaloid composition.the in vitro shoot culture of a t-dna insertional mutant of papaver somniferum l. established by the infection of agrobacterium rhizogenes maff03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. to develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into its genetic background, we have transplanted this mutant to soil, and analyzed its alkaloid content along with the manner of inheritance of t-dna insertion loci among its selfed progenies. in the transplanted t0 prima ...201224288085
transformation of opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) with agrobacterium rhizogenes maff 03-01724.transformed cultures of opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) were established by infecting hypocotyl segments with agrobacterium rhizogenes maff 03-01724. undifferentiated calli formed on the infected site grew satisfactorily on phytohormone-free solid medium in the dark and produced opine, mikimopine, which could not be detected in a normal culture. numerous adventitious shoots developed from transformed calli during subculture. the transformed shoots separated individually were cultured on phyt ...199224213545
virus-induced gene silencing (vigs) in cysticapnos vesicaria, a zygomorphic-flowered papaveraceae (ranunculales, basal eudicots).studies of evolutionary diversification in the basal eudicot family papaveraceae, such as the transition from actinomorphy to zygomorphy, are hampered by the lack of comparative functional studies. so far, gene silencing methods are only available in the actinomorphic species eschscholzia californica and papaver somniferum. this study addresses the amenability of cysticapnos vesicaria, a derived fumitory with zygomorphic flowers, to virus-induced gene silencing (vigs), and describes vegetative a ...201222307568
the hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp iraella luteipes (hymenoptera; cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) plants and protects them against this pest. the goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by b. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. using a species-specific nested pcr p ...201424551242
in-planta detection and monitorization of endophytic colonization by a beauveria bassiana strain using a new-developed nested and quantitative pcr-based assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy.beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-tip obtained from larvae of the opium poppy stem gall iraella luteipes endophytically colonizes opium poppy plants and protect it against this pest. development of a specific, rapid and sensitive technique that allows accurately determining the process and factors leading to the establishment of this strain in opium poppy plants would be essential to achieve its efficient control in a large field scale. for that purpose in the present study, species-specific prime ...201323851123
improved sanguinarine production via biotic and abiotic elicitations and precursor feeding in cell suspensions of latex-less variety of papaver somniferum with their gene expression studies and upscaling in bioreactor.elicitors play an important role in challenging the plant defense system through plant-environment interaction and thus altering the secondary metabolite production. culture filtrates of four endophytic fungi, namely, chaetomium globosum, aspergillus niveoglaucus, paecilomyces lilacinus, and trichoderma harzianum were tested on embryogenic cell suspensions of latex-less papaver somniferum in dose-dependent kinetics. besides this, abiotic elicitors salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon di ...201424677097
microbe associated molecular patterns from rhizosphere bacteria trigger germination and papaver somniferum metabolism under greenhouse conditions.ten pgpr from different backgrounds were assayed on papaver somniferum var. madrigal to evaluate their potential as biotic elicitors to increase alkaloid content under the rationale that some microbe associated molecular patterns (mamps) are able to trigger plant metabolism. first, the 10 strains and their culture media at two different concentrations were tested for their ability to trigger seed germination. then, the best three strains were tested for their ability to increase seedling growth ...201424296249
identification of a secretory phospholipase a2 from papaver somniferum l. that transforms membrane phospholipids.the full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase a2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (papaver somniferum l.). the cdna of poppy phospholipase a2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the n-terminus. pspla2 contains a pla2 signature domain (pa2c), including the ca(2+)-binding loop (ygkycgxxxxgc) and the catalytic site motif (daccxxhdxc) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate resid ...201627473012
antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of monofloral bee pollen.the main aim of this study was to determine antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity of monofloral bee pollen samples to pathogenic bacteria. these samples were collected in different localities in slovakia. the antioxidant properties of examined plant species were different and decreasing in the following order: brassica napus subsp. napus l > papaver somniferum l. > helianthus annuus l. the antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested by using the agar well diffusion me ...201323305281
redesign of a dioxygenase in morphine biosynthesis.opium poppy (papaver somniferum) produces medicinally important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the analgesics codeine and morphine, in the morphinan pathway. we aligned three dioxygenases that were recently discovered in p. somniferum and subsequently identified the nonconserved regions. two of these enzymes, codeine o-demethylase (pscodm) and thebaine o-demethylase (pst6odm), are known to facilitate regioselective o-demethylation in morphinan biosynthesis. we systematically swapped the ...201222726681
two highly homologous phospholipase d isoenzymes from papaver somniferum l. with different transphosphatidylation potential.the genes of two phospholipase d (pld) isoenzymes, pld1 and pld2, from poppy seedlings (2829 and 2828 bp) were completely sequenced. the two genes have 96.9% identity in the encoding region and can be assigned to the alpha-type of plant plds. the corresponding amino acid sequences do not contain any signal sequences. one asn-glycosylation site, six and two phosphorylation sites for protein kinase c and tyrosine kinase, respectively, and two phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding motifs co ...200516257263
acc deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria protect papaver somniferum from downy mildew.the aim of this study was to determine whether acc (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase-containing bacterial treatments could enhance the tolerance of poppy (papaver somniferum l.) plants against biotic stress of downy mildew caused by peronospora sp.201728186676
plug-and-play benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic gene discovery in engineered yeast.benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (bia) metabolism has been the focus of a considerable research effort over the past half-century, primarily because of the pharmaceutical importance of several compounds produced by opium poppy (papaver somniferum). advancements in genomics technologies have substantially accelerated the rate of gene discovery over the past decade, such that most biosynthetic enzymes involved in the formation of the major alkaloids of opium poppy have now been isolated and partially c ...201627417928
engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast.noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of p. somniferum. here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. our work provides struct ...201627378283
psap2 an ap2/erf family transcription factor from papaver somniferum enhances abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.the ap2/erfs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. we isolated psap2 a novel ap2/erf from papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and aba treatment. psap2 showed specific binding with both dre and gcc box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. psap2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plan ...201526319514
wound induced tanscriptional regulation of benzylisoquinoline pathway and characterization of wound inducible pswrky transcription factor from papaver somniferum.wounding is required to be made in the walls of the green seed pod of opium poppy prior exudation of latex. to withstand this kind of trauma plants regulate expression of some metabolites through an induced transcript level. 167 unique wound-inducible ests were identified by a repetitive round of cdna subtraction after 5 hours of wounding in papaver somniferum seedlings. further repetitive reverse northern analysis of these ests revealed 80 transcripts showing more than two fold induction, valid ...201323382823
isolation and characterization of a cdna encoding (s)-cis-n-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase from opium poppy, a key enzyme in sanguinarine biosynthesis.sanguinarine is a benzo[c]phenenthridine alkaloid with potent antimicrobial properties found commonly in plants of the papaveraceae, including the roots of opium poppy (papaver somniferum). sanguinarine is formed from the central 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediate (s)-reticuline via the protoberberine alkaloid (s)-scoulerine, which undergoes five enzymatic oxidations and an n-methylation. the first four oxidations from (s)-scoulerine are catalyzed by cytochromes p450, whereas the final conversion ...201323313486
opium poppy mosaic virus, a new umbravirus isolated from papaver somniferum in new zealand.a novel virus, tentatively named "opium poppy mosaic virus" (opmv), was isolated from papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with leaf mosaic and mottling symptoms in auckland, new zealand, in 2006. the virus was mechanically transmitted to herbaceous plants of several species, in which it induced local and/or systemic symptoms. no virus particles were observed by electron microscopy in the diseased p. somniferum or any of the symptomatic herbaceous plants. the complete genomic sequence of 4230 nucleo ...201626514844
cloning and characterization of canadine synthase involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy is thought to occur via n-methylcanadine, which would be produced through 9-o-methylation of (s)-scoulerine, methylenedioxy bridge formation on (s)-tetrahydrocolumbamine, and n-methylation of (s)-canadine. only scoulerine 9-o-methyltransferase has been functionally characterized. we report the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome p450 (cyp719a21) from opium poppy that converts (s)-tetrahydrocolumbamine to (s)-canadine. recombinant cyp719a21 display ...201424316226
assortment of the plants in the medieval diet in czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds).the finds of remains of useful plants in archaeological objects were drawing attention already in the last century. however, it was not until after the world war ii, in relation with renovation of historical cores of the towns, when a separate branch of the botany--archaeobotany constituted. in the czech republic it was e. opravil who was the first to become engaged in a systematic archaeobotanical research at the beginning of the 60's. all the vegetal remains--fruits and seeds on the first plac ...200015828207
in vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the indian sub continent.twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, elaeocarpus spharicus, rheum emodi, indigofera tinctoria, picrorrhiza kurroa, bergenia ciliata, lavandula officinalis, valeriana wallichii, coleus forskohlii, gentiana kurroo, saussurea lappa, stevia rebaudiana, acorus calamus, pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, aloe vera, bacopa monnieri, salvia sclarea, glycyrrhiza glabra, swertia cordata, psoralea corylifolia, jurinea mollis, ocimum sanctum, paris polyphylla, and papaver somniferum, which are a ...201222593711
honeybees foraging response in genetically diversified opium poppy.studies were carried out on honeybees foraging on plant flowers. results showed significantly higher foraging response of honeybees (apis mellifera) in genetically divergent narcotic plant opium poppy (papaver somniferum). of the 18 mutants and two locally adapted cultivars of diverse genotypes screened, eight revealed significantly greater foraging response manifesting honeybee's preference towards specific plant morphotypes. the number of flower bloom did not correspond to number of foraging b ...200616150594
ethnopharmacological approach to the herbal medicines of the "antidotes" in nikolaos myrepsos׳ dynameron.this paper focuses on the plants quoted in the recipes of the first chapter entitled "about the antidotes" belonging to the first and largest section "element alpha" of nikolaos myrepsos׳ dynameron, a medieval medical manuscript. nikolaos myrepsos was a byzantine physician at the court of john iii doukas vatatzes at nicaea (13th century). he wrote in greek a rich collection of 2667 recipes, the richest number known in late byzantine era, conventionally known as dynameron and divided into 24 sect ...201525596353
biochemical evaluation of the decarboxylation and decarboxylation-deamination activities of plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylases.plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (aaad) enzymes are capable of catalyzing either decarboxylation or decarboxylation-deamination on various combinations of aromatic amino acid substrates. these two different activities result in the production of arylalkylamines and the formation of aromatic acetaldehydes, respectively. variations in product formation enable individual enzymes to play different physiological functions. despite these catalytic variations, arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthes ...201323204519
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