[unsaponifiable fractions of the avocado and soy bean in gyneocology].the experimental work of robert on the action of the unsaponifiable fractions of the avocado pear and soya bean on inflammatory granulomata of the rat gives rise to the supposition that these have a selective action on inflamed connective tissue by a process of katabolism of collagen through proteolytic enzymes. we have used this anti-inflammatory and collagenolytic action in gynaecology, with favourable results particularly in post-inflammatory and post-infective conditions as well as scarring ...1977558245
a comparison of the properties in vitro of biphenyl 2- and 4-hydroxylase in the mesocarp from avocado pear (persea americana) and syrian-hamster hepatic tissue. 19751132558
3-oxoacyl-[acp] reductase from oilseed rape (brassica napus).3-oxoacyl-[acp] reductase (e.c., alternatively known as beta-ketoacyl-[acp] reductase), a component of fatty acid synthetase has been purified from seeds of rape by ammonium sulphate fractionation, procion red h-e3b chromatography, fplc gel filtration and high performance hydroxyapatite chromatography. the purified enzyme appears on sds-page as a number of 20-30 kda components and has a strong tendency to exist in a dimeric form, particularly when dithiothreitol is not present to reduc ...19921562581
endafs, a novel family e endoglucanase gene from fibrobacter succinogenes ar1.the complete nucleotide sequence of endafs, an endoglucanase gene isolated from the ruminal anaerobe fibrobacter succinogenes ar1, was determined. endafs encodes two overlapping open reading frames (orf1 and orf2), and it was proposed that a -1 ribosomal frameshift was required to allow contiguous synthesis of a 453-amino-acid endoglucanase. a proline- and threonine-rich region at the c terminus of orf1 and rare codons for arginine and threonine were coincident with the proposed frameshift site. ...19911708767
suspected avocado (persea americana) poisoning in goats.a herd of 15 cameroon goats was suspected of having been poisoned by eating leaves of the fuerte variety of avocado pear (persea americana). two of the affected goats were examined clinically, while necropsies were carried out on 3 of the 4 that had died. the most significant clinical findings were tachycardia, hyperpnoea and evidence of lung oedema. at necropsy severe lung oedema, hydrothorax and hydropericardium were present. severe myocardial degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis were the major ...19911770497
a dictyostelium discoideum cellulase is a member of a spore germination-specific gene family.a member of the 270 spore germination-specific gene family in dictyostelium discoideum is shown to encode a cellulase (endo-(1,4)-beta-d-glucanase, ec activity. the 270-6 deduced protein shows 38% identity and 58% similarity to an avocado (persea americana) cellulase. during spore germination in dictyostelium extracellular cellulase activity starts to accumulate coincident with the appearance of the 270-6 gene transcript. amoebae transformed by a vector containing the 270-6 mrna sequenc ...19911869562
a shared internal threonine-glutamic acid-threonine-proline repeat defines a family of dictyostelium discoideum spore germination specific proteins.a cdna denoted prk270 hybridizes to two mrna species in rna blots. the mrnas specific to this clone are not expressed during vegetative growth and multicellular development. they are, however, found predominantly during early stages of spore germination, suggesting that their synthesis is rapidly and coordinately turned on during germination. two different cdnas named 270-6 and 270-11 were isolated, representing the two mrnas. dna blot analysis shows that 270 is a multigene family. four genes we ...19901976383
avocado (persea americana) poisoning of horses. 19912025211
dictyostelium discoideum gene family contains a long internal amino acid repeat.two different cdna clones denoted pto270-6 and pto270-11 represent two mrnas that are developmentally regulated during spore germination in dictyostelium discoideum. the respective mrnas are found only during early germination and are not present in other stages of growth or multicellular development. four different genomic clones that hybridize to sequences that are common to both of the 270 cdna clones were isolated from dictyostelium libraries and sequenced. two are the genes for the two cdna ...19912049872
cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (persea americana mill) leaves.six of 21 goats feeding on fresh avocado (persea americana) leaves from pruned trees, showed clinical signs of cardiac distress. some sheep subsequently dosed experimentally at different dosage rates with the same and other avocado varieties, showed clinical signs of respiratory or cardiac distress and myocardial lesions at autopsy.19912051443
studies on the cytochrome p-450 of avocado (persea [corrected] americana) mesocarp microsomal fraction.1. because of the low concentration of cytochrome p-450 in avocado fruit, microsomal fractions were prepared using polyethylene glycol aggregation and low-speed centrifugation, thus avoiding the need for high-speed centrifugation of large volumes of post-mitochondrial supernatant. recoveries of cytochrome p-450 by this means (0.29 nmol/g tissue) were similar to those after the usual high-speed centrifugation preparation (0.26 nmol/g). the cytochrome p-450 content of tulip bulb (0.30 nmol/g) was ...19902238705
3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase from avocado (persea americana) fruit mesocarp.the nadph-linked 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) (acp) reductase (ec, also known as 'beta-ketoacyl-acp reductase', has been purified from the mesocarp of mature avocado pears (persea americana). the enzyme is inactivated by low ionic strength and low temperature. on sds/page under reducing conditions, purified 3-oxoacyl-acp reductase migrated as a single polypeptide giving a molecular mass of 28 kda. gel-filtration chromatography gave an apparent native molecular mass of 130 kda, sug ...19902244875
sequence analysis of the clostridium stercorarium celz gene encoding a thermoactive cellulase (avicelase i): identification of catalytic and cellulose-binding domains.the nucleotide sequence of the celz gene coding for a thermostable endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (avicelase i) of clostridium stercorarium was determined. the structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 2958 bp which encodes a preprotein of 986 amino acids with an mr of 109,000. the signal peptide cleavage site was identified by comparison with the n-terminal amino acid sequence of avicelase i purified from c. stercorarium culture supernatants. the recombinant protein expressed in escherichia ...19902250652
sequencing and expression of a cellodextrinase (ced1) gene from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens h17c cloned in escherichia coli.the nucleotide sequence of a 2.314 kb dna segment containing a gene (ced1) expressing cellodextrinase activity from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens h17c was determined. the b. fibrisolvens h17c gene was expressed from a weak internal promoter in escherichia coli and a putative consensus promoter sequence was identified upstream of a ribosome binding site and a gtg start codon. the complete amino acid sequence (547 residues) was deduced and homology was demonstrated with the clostridium thermocellum en ...19902250655
isolation and characterization of mutants of streptococcus mutans using selective removal of wild-type cells by agglutination with an agglutinin from persea americana.persea americana agglutinin (paa), a substance known to bind basic proteins and inhibit the sucrose-independent adherence of streptococcus mutants to saliva = coated hydroxyapatite (staat et al., 1980) was used to selectively enrich for mutants defective in a variety of cell surface associated virulence characteristics from cultures uab62 (ps14 riff, serotype c), uab66 (6715 strr spcr, serotype g) and uab77 (gs5, serotype c). following mutagenesis and growth for segregation and phenotypic expres ...19872442971
pathological changes in the mammary gland and biochemical changes in milk of the goat following oral dosing with leaf of the avocado (persea americana).two varieties of avocado leaves (persea americana var guatemalan and var mexican) were administered to lactating goats. the mexican variety was without effect. the guatemalan variety in doses exceeding 20 g fresh leaf per kg bodyweight, produced damage to the mammary gland with decreased milk production. the lesions were characterised by oedema and reddening, with clots in the large ducts. microscopically, there was widespread degeneration and necrosis of the secretory epithelium, the necrotic c ...19892775063
avocado (persea americana) intoxication in caged birds.avocados of 2 varieties were mashed and administered via feeding cannula to 8 canaries and 8 budgerigars. two control budgerigars were given water via feeding cannula. six budgerigars and 1 canary died within 24 to 47 hours after the first administration of avocado. deaths were associated with administration of both varieties of avocado. higher dose was associated with greater mortality. the 2 budgerigars given water were normal throughout the observation period. results indicated that avocados ...19892914792
lectin agglutination of thermophilic campylobacter species.agglutination tests with lectins indicated differences in the surface composition of strains of the thermophilic (optimum temperature 42 degrees c) campylobacter species c. coli, c. faecalis, c. hyointestinalis, c. jejuni and c. laridis. all strains examined were agglutinated by the protein-reactive agglutinins of mangifera indica (mango) and persea americana (avocado) and a large proportion was also agglutinated by the carbohydrate-reactive lectins of canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) and tritic ...19873439012
the effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.the effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive fe method. the corrected geometric mean fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, p less than 0.01). ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for t ...19873593665
studies of phytophthora citricola, isolated from persea americana. 19744437579
fatty acid biosynthesis by avocado pear. 19744474578
new antibacterial agent isolated from the avocado pear.a group of eight new long-chain aliphatic compounds recently isolated from the avocado and some derivatives thereof were tested for antibacterial activity on 13 different species of bacteria and a yeast. some of these compounds inhibited the growth of microorganisms. 1,2,4-trihydroxy-n-hepadeca-16-en was found to be the most active, inhibiting certain gram-positive bacteria at 4 mug/ml.19704985830
the utilization in vitro of different avocado fruit constituents by colletotrichum gloeosporioides. 19725042611
the interaction of brucella cell surface components with plant agglutinins.cells of all brucella species were agglutinated by the basic protein-reactive lectins of mangifera indica and persea americana. cells of non-smooth strains including b. ovis and b. canis but not smooth strains were also agglutinated by concanavalin a. these lectins also reacted in a similar pattern with lipopolysaccharide extracts of these organisms. the lectin from bandeiraea simplicifolia precipitated with the lipopolysaccharide antigens of smooth brucella organisms and with those of serologic ...19846208071
adherence of oral streptococci: evidence for nonspecific adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite is proposed that binding of oral streptococci to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite (sha) surfaces is a multifactorial process involving both specific and nonspecific receptors. in this context, specific binding is described as a high-affinity, saturable interaction between the cell and binding surface. conversely, nonspecific binding is considered to be a nonsaturable, generalized, low-affinity reaction. experimental differentiation of specific binding from nonspecific binding was achieved with a ...19846327530
toxicity of avocado (persea americana (guatamalan var)) leaves: review and preliminary report. 19846541397
the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols in microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.).the synthesis of triacylglycerols was investigated in microsomes (microsomal fractions) prepared from the developing cotyledons of sunflower (helianthus annuus). particular emphasis was placed on the mechanisms involved in controlling the c18- unsaturated-fatty-acid content of the oils. we have demonstrated that the microsomes were capable of: the transfer of oleate from acyl-coa to position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine for its subsequent desaturation and the return of the polyunsaturated product ...19846743281
the characteristics of some components of the fatty acid synthetase system in the plastids from the mesocarp of avocado (persea americana) fruit.preparations of nadh-specific and nadph-specific 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase enzymes (ec, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (ec and [acyl-carrier-protein] malonyltransferase (ec have been purified from preparations of avocado mesocarp plastids and characterised. the enzymes are quite similar in molecular and kinetic characteristics to analogous enzymes known in escherichia coli and euglena and are clearly components of a type-ii fatty acid synthe ...19827075600
[action of soluble carbohydrates from avocado (persea gratissima gaertner) fruit on utilization of calcium in the rat].ethanolic extract containing soluble sugars was prepared from avocados (variety americana) coming from madagascar. in this extract, thin layer and paper chromatography showed the presence of a ketoheptose, the mannoheptulose, in amount of 0.1 g/ml extract or 1.1 g/100 g fresh pulp. physiological experiments were performed with avocado extract and comparatively with a sample of commercial mannoheptulose. six-month-old rats were given by stomach tube 10 mm cacl2 solution (+ 45ca) containing a carb ...19807224495
lectin-like activity from persea extract from the seeds of persea americana possessed an erythro-agglutinating activity. the agglutinin was devoid of specificity for carbohydrates, but interacted readily with basic proteins or basic polyamino acids. the interaction between the agglutinin and egg-white lysozyme was not inhibited by chaotropic salts, but was sensitive to relatively low concentrations of urea. an affinity chromatographic procedure was developed in an effort to purify the agglutinin. products from the chromatogr ...19807353211
cardiomyopathy in ostriches (struthio camelus) due to avocado (persea americana var. guatemalensis) intoxication.nine out of 120 ostriches died from congestive heart failure within 96 h of ingesting avocado leaves and immature fruit in an avocado orchard containing hass and fuerte cultivars. foliage and immature fruit from both cultivars dosed to ostriches (n = 4) and domestic hens (n = 8) resulted in severe cardiomyopathy in all the ostriches. in the hens, which had received a lower dose, milder lesions occurred. macroscopically the intoxication in ostriches resulted in a severe anasarca of the neck and v ...19947595917
isolation and characterization of genes expressed uniquely during appressorium formation by colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia induced by the host surface wax.appressorium formation in germinating colletotrichum gloeosporioides is induced by the surface wax of the host, the avocado fruit. to elucidate the mechanism by which differentiation of appressorium formation is induced, the fungal genes specifically activated by this host signal were sought. from a cdna library of the transcripts present in appressorium-forming conidia, the clones representing nongerminating conidia were removed by hybridization with cdnas synthesized from the nongerminating co ...19957770033
[in vitro effect against giardia of 14 plant extracts].to investigate antigiardiasic activity in plants used in mexico as antidiarrheics and/or antiparasitics.19947839013
allergy to latex, avocado pear, and banana: evidence for a 30 kd antigen in immunoblotting.allergens of natural latex, latex gloves, avocado pear, and banana extracts were investigated by an immunoblotting technique in sera of patients experiencing associated latex and fruit allergies. extracts were separated by sodium dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroblotted onto nitrocellulose. after incubation with patients' sera, ige antibodies were revealed by a goat anti-human ige alkaline-phosphatase conjugate. seventeen serum samples from patients with well-documen ...19957852672
acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase from avocado (persea americana) plastids and spinach (spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts.preparations of acetyl-coa carboxylase [acetyl-coa-carbon-dioxide ligase (adp-forming), ec] have been obtained from the plastids of avocado (persea americana) fruit mesocarp and from spinach (spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts. both preparations required bovine serum albumin, hco3-, citrate and glycerol for stabilization. the molecular weight of the avocado enzyme was about 6.5 x 10(5) on the basis of 1 mol of biotin/mol of enzyme, the behaviour of both enzymes on gel filtration being in ac ...19806146308
purification of pectate lyase produced by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its inhibition by epicatechin: a possible factor involved in the resistance of unripe avocado fruits to anthracnose.pectate lyase (pl) from colletotrichum gloeosporioides was purified to apparent homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction chromatography followed by isoelectric focusing. the purified preparation showed one band corresponding to 40 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. the isoelectric point of the enzyme was 7.9, and the optimum ph for activity was 8.9. the purified pl efficiently macerated unripe avocado fruit wedges. in vitro translation of mrna from an induced fungal culture revealed ...19948012046
cytochrome p-450-catalysed monoterpenoid oxidation in catmint (nepeta racemosa) and avocado (persea americana); evidence for related enzymes with different activities.a cytochrome p-450 present in ripening avocado (persea americana) fruit mesocarp (cyp71a1) had previously been shown to metabolize the monoterpenoids nerol and geraniol (hallahan et al. (1992) plant physiol. 98, 1290-1297). using dna encoding cyp71a1 as a hybridization probe, we have shown by southern analysis that a related gene is present in the catmint, nepeta racemosa. rna blot analysis, together with western analysis of catmint leaf polypeptides using avocado cyt p-450 antiserum, showed tha ...19947918588
putative avocado toxicity in two dogs.two dogs were seen at the university veterinary teaching hospital, nairobi, kenya, both having histories of dyspnoea, progressively enlarging abdomens, anasarca, ascites, pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary oedema. one of the dogs had a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and proteinuria. histopathological examination of the myocardium revealed some damage to myocytes and a mononuclear cellular infil ...19947898892
isolation of a ripening and wound-induced cdna from cucumis melo l. encoding a protein with homology to the ethylene-forming enzyme.a cdna clone (pmel1) was isolated from a climacteric melon fruit cdna library using the tomato ethylene-forming-enzyme (efe) cdna, ptom13, as a probe. northern analysis of rna isolated from wounded leaf and fruit tissue and from preclimacteric and climacteric pericarp tissue was used to determine the pattern of pmel1 rna expression. pmel1 hybridized to a 1.3-kb transcript in climacteric fruit and wounded leaf tissue but was undetectable in preclimacteric fruit and unwounded leaves. maximal expre ...19938444161
activation of arylamines to mutagenic product(s) by two in vitro plant systems.plant activation of three isomers of phenylenediamine o- m- and p-phenylenediamine, has been studied. two in vitro plant systems have been used: persea americana s117 with mixed-function oxidase (mfo) and peroxidase activities, and zea mays s9 which contains only peroxidase activity. as genetic endpoint, the classical salmonella tester strains. ta98 and ta100, their derivatives with high o-acetyltransferase levels (yg1024 and yg1029, respectively) and ta98/1.8-dnp6, deficient in this enzyme, hav ...19979434842
cytotoxic and insecticidal constituents of the unripe fruit of persea americana.unripe avocado fruit (persea americana) was subjected to a bioactivity-directed fractionation, as monitored via the brine shrimp lethality assay, to isolate three major bioactive constituents (1-3). compounds 1-3 all have a 1,2,4-triol moiety and a long aliphatic chain that terminates as either an alkane, alkene, or alkyne, respectively; 1 is new, while 2 and 3 have been described previously but not as cytotoxic or pesticidal agents. all have activity against six human tumor cell lines in cultur ...19989644064
[histopathology of anopheles gambiae s.l. giles, 1902 (diptera, culicidae) subjected to the larvicidal activity of the aqueous extract of persea americana miller, 1768 (lauraceae)].larvae of anopheles gambiae treated with an aqueous extract of persea americana suffer important damages of the midgut. the first epithelial cells to be affected are those at the posterior part of the midgut which become hypertrophic after only 30 min. after one hour most of the cells in this part lyse. the cytoplasmic material is then rejected towards the lumen gut, between the peritrophic membrane and the midgut epithelium. subsequently, an almost total cell degeneration is observed. cells of ...19989773205
streptococcus mutans adherence: presumptive evidence for protein-mediated attachment followed by glucan-dependent cellular accumulation.adherence of streptococcus mutans to smooth surfaces has been attributed to the production of sucrose-derived d-glucans. however, several studies indicate that the bacterium will adhere in the absence of sucrose. the present data confirmed that s. mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads in the absence of sucrose is described by the langmuir equation. the nature of the sucrose-independent adherence was studied with the persea americana agglutinin as a selective adherence inhibitor. ...19807380545
ph regulation of pectate lyase secretion modulates the attack of colletotrichum gloeosporioides on avocado fruits.growth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides in pectolytic enzyme-inducing medium (peim) increased the ph of the medium from 3. 8 to 6.5. pectate lyase (pl) secretion was detected when the ph reached 5.8, and the level of secretion increased up to ph 6.5. pl gene (pel) transcript production began at ph 5.0 and increased up to ph 5.7. pl secretion was never detected when the ph of the inducing medium was lower than 5.8 or when c. gloeosporioides hyphae were transferred from pl-secreting conditions at ...200010698767
[the in vitro action of plants on vibrio cholerae].natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. when cholerae cases appeared in peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. the following plants were tested: cichorium intybus, althaea officinalis, psorela glandulosa, geranium maculatum, punica granatum, malus sativa, cydonia oblonga, chenopodium ambrosoide ...19948018898
antifungal compounds from idioblast cells isolated from avocado fruits.(e,z,z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-5,12,15-triene was isolated from avocado, persea americana mill., idioblast cells. it inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides. full characterization is also reported for two additional compounds that have been described and partially characterized previously.200010872209
the persistence of engineered agrobacterium tumefaciens in agroinfected plants.several plant species, including tomato (lycopersicon esculentum), gynura aurantiaca, avocado (persea americana), and grapefruit (citrus paradisi) grafted on troyer citrange (poncirus trifoliata x c. sinensis) were "agro-infected" with agrobacterium tumefaciens strain lba-4404, carrying a mini-ti plasmid with a dimeric cdna of citrus exocortis viroid (cevd). extracts prepared from tissues of the agroinfected plants 38-90 days after inoculation were plated on selective media and found to contain ...19938274776
identification and cloning of prs a 1, a 32-kda endochitinase and major allergen of avocado, and its expression in the yeast pichia pastoris.avocado, the fruit of the tropical tree persea americana, is a source of allergens that can elicit diverse ige-mediated reactions including anaphylaxis in sensitized individuals. we characterized a 32-kda major avocado allergen, prs a 1, which is recognized by 15 out of 20 avocado- and/or latex-allergic patients. natural prs a 1 was purified, and its n-terminal and two tryptic peptide sequences were determined. we isolated the prs a 1 encoding cdna by pcr using degenerate primers and 5'-rapid am ...19989774427
steady-state kinetic mechanism of recombinant avocado acc oxidase: initial velocity and inhibitor studies.the gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates a wide range of biological processes, including fruit ripening. it is synthesized by the ascorbate-dependent oxidation of 1-aminocyclopropyl-1-carboxylate (acc), a reaction catalyzed by acc oxidase. recombinant avocado (persea americana) acc oxidase was expressed in escherichia coli and purified in milligram quantities, resulting in high levels of acc oxidase protein and enzyme activity. an optimized assay for the purified enzyme was developed that ta ...200010978157
plant activation of aromatic amines mediated by cytochromes p450 and flavin-containing know the mechanisms involved in the activation of promutagenic aromatic amines mediated by plants, we used persea americana s117 system (s117) for the activation of 2-aminofluorene (2-af) and m-phenylenediamine (m-pda) in ames assays. in these assays, the effect of the diphenylene iodonium (dpi), an inhibitor of flavin-containing monooxygenases (fmos), of the 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-abt), an inhibitor of cytochromes p450 (cyt-p450s) and of the methimazole, a high-affinity substrate for fmos, ...200011027970
liver injury suppressing compounds from avocado (persea americana).to evaluate the protective activity of fruits against liver injury, 22 different fruits were fed to rats with liver damage caused by d-galactosamine, a powerful liver toxin. as measured by changes in the levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (alt) and aspartate aminotransferase (ast), avocado showed extraordinarily potent liver injury suppressing activity. five active compounds were isolated and their structures determined. these were all fatty acid derivatives, of which three, namely, (2e,5 ...200111368579
colletotrichum gloeosporioides pelb is an important virulence factor in avocado fruit-fungus interaction.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important pathogen of tropical and subtropical fruits. the c. gloeosporioides pelb gene was disrupted in the fungus via homologous recombination. three independent isolates, gd-14, gd-23, and gd-29, did not produce or secrete pectate lyase b (plb) and exhibited 25% lower pectate lyase (pl) and pectin lyase (pnl) activities and 15% higher polygalacturonase (pg) activity than the wild type. the plb mutants exhibited no growth reduction on glucose, na polypectat ...200111497471
identification of a hard surface contact-induced gene in colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia as a sterol glycosyl transferase, a novel fungal virulence factor.hard surface contact has been known to be necessary to induce infection structure (appressorium) formation in many phytopathogenic fungi. however, the molecular basis of this requirement is unknown. we have used a differential display approach to clone some of the genes induced in the conidia by hard surface contact. we report that one of the genes induced by hard-surface contact of the conidia of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, chip6, encodes a protein with homology to sterol glycosyl transfera ...200212000454
novel nitric oxide and superoxide generation inhibitors, persenone a and b, from avocado known, (2r)-(12z,15z)-2-hydroxy-4-oxoheneicosa-12,15-dien+ ++-1-yl acetate (1), and two novel compounds, persenone a (2) and b (3), have been isolated from avocado fruit (persea americana p. mill), as inhibitors of superoxide (o(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (no) generation in cell culture systems. they showed marked inhibitory activities toward no generation induced by lipopolysaccharide in combination with interferon-gamma in mouse macrophage raw 264.7 cells. their inhibitory potencies of no gen ...200010820058
expression of pectate lyase from colletotrichum gloesosporioides in c. magna promotes test the contribution of pectate lyase (pl) to promoting fungal pathogenicity, a pectate lyase gene (pel) from the avocado pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolate cg-14, was expressed in c. magna isolate l-2.5, a pathogen of cucurbits that causes minor symptoms in watermelon seedlings and avocado fruits. isolate l-2.5 was transformed with ppcph-1 containing hph-b as a selectable marker and the 4.1-kb genomic pel clone. southern hybridization, with the 4.1-kb genomic pel clone or 2.13 ...200010939261
chemical signals from avocado surface wax trigger germination and appressorium formation in colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the surface wax of the host, avocado (persea americana) fruit, induced germination and appressorium formation in the spores of colletotrichum gloeosporioides. waxes from nonhost plants did not induce appressorium formation in this fungus, and avocado wax did not induce appressorium formation in most colletotrichum species that infect other hosts. bioassays of the thin-layer chromatographic fractions of the avocado wax showed that the fatty alcohol fraction was the main appressorium-inducing comp ...199312231933
[neutralization of the hemorrhagic effect induced by bothrops asper (serpentes: viperidae) venom with tropical plant extracts].organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of costa rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake bothrops asper. a bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of bursera simaruba, clusia torresi ...199910883329
nonhost status of commercial persea americana 'hass' to anastrepha ludens, anastrepha obliqua, anastrepha serpentina, and anastrepha striata (diptera: tephritidae) in mexico.the objective of this study was to determine the host status in mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, persea americana (mill.), 'hass' to anastrepha ludens (loew), anastrepha obliqua (macquart), anastrepha serpentina (wiedemann), and anastrepha striata (schiner) (diptera: tephritidae). experiments in michoacán, mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (august-october 2001 and april-june 2002). they included choice ('ha ...200415154448
evaluation of phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of leaf extract of tapinanthus sessilifolius (p. beauv) van tiegh.leaf extracts of t. sessilifolius growing on five different host plants (psidium guajava, citrus lemon, vernonia amygdalina, persea americana and jatropa curcas) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity of the plant. powdered leaves of t. sessilifolius collected from each host plant was divided into two portions. one portion was used for aqueous infusion and the other portion was successively extracted with hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. infusion of aqueous extract of powdered leaves did no ...200415233306
study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of loranthus micranthus (linn.) sourced from five different host trees.the hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of loranthus micranthus (linn.) (loranthaceae), parasitic on persea americana, baphia nitda, kola acuminata, pentaclethra macrophylla, azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200 mg/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of loranthus micranthus (linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and ...200415507325
diurnal and seasonal variations in leaf hydraulic conductance in evergreen and deciduous trees.we studied changes in the hydraulic conductance of leaves (k(leaf)) between dawn and dusk during the growth period (july) and at midday at the beginning of autumn in four tree species. the main objectives of the study were to check the extent of diurnal and seasonal changes in k(leaf) and the relationships between k(leaf), irradiance and leaf gas exchange. two evergreen (aleurites moluccana and persea americana) and two deciduous trees (platanus orientalis and quercus rubra) were studied. leaf h ...200515687099
[study of the anti-icteric and hepatoprotective activity of persea gratissima gaertner (lauraceae) seeds ].the lyophilisat of persea gratissima gaertner almonds was administered in various quantities to eighty four rats divided in three groups of twenty eight. in the first group (negative reference group), each animal was forcefed with 5 ml of distilled water on a daily basis, in the second group (positive reference group), the rats were forcefed with 5 ml of distilled water per day, after they were intoxicated with 0,3 ml of carbon tetrachloride under cutaneous injection, in the third group (experim ...200115773170
vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta.the present study investigated the vasorelaxant action of the aqueous leaves extract of persea americana on isolated rat aorta. the results showed that the extract produced significant vasorelaxation and that the effect is dependent on the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (edrfs) as well as the release of prostanoid. the extract also reduced vasoconstriction probably by inhibiting ca2+ influx through calcium channels.200515990249
trypanocidal constituents in plants 5. evaluation of some mexican plants for their trypanocidal activity and active constituents in the seeds of persea americana.crude extracts of mexican medicinal plants were screened for trypanocidal activity against trypanosoma cruzi, which is the etiological agent for chagas' disease, one of the most serious protozoan diseases in latin america. there were 71 kinds of methanolic and other organic extracts from 65 plants, which were newly examined by a preliminary screening test to observe immobilization of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of t. cruzi in vitro. the meoh extract of seeds of persea americana (avocado) s ...200515997123
effect of ammonia production by colletotrichum gloeosporioides on pelb activation, pectate lyase secretion, and fruit pathogenicity.the accumulation of ammonia and associated tissue alkalinization predispose avocado fruit to attack by colletotrichum gloeosporioides. secretion of ammonia by c. gloeosporioides in the presence of kno3 was induced by decreasing the ph from 7.0 to 4.0. when the fungus was grown at ph 4.0 or 6.0 in the absence of a nitrogen source, ammonia did not accumulate, and neither pelb (encoding pectate lyase) transcription nor pectate lyase secretion was detected. under these nitrogen starvation conditions ...200616461646
behavior of listeria monocytogenes in avocado pulp and processed guacamole.the potential ability of listeria monocytogenes to grow or survive in avocado pulp (ap) and processed guacamole (pg) stored at 22, 4 to 7, and -18 degrees c was studied. both products were obtained from a factory in michoacan, mexico. pg consisted of ap mixed with dehydrated vegetables, antioxidants, and preservatives. populations of l monocytogenes in ap stored at 22 degrees c increased from 2 to 6 and 9 log cfu/g after 24 and 48 h, respectively. at 4 to 7 degrees c, the growth rate of l monocy ...200212430696
fat metabolism in higher plants: lxii. stearl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from spinach chloroplasts.stearyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (ec, present in the stroma fraction of spinach (spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts, rapidly desaturated enzymatically prepared stearyl-acyl carrier protein to oleic acid. no other substrates were desaturated. in addition to stearyl-acyl carrier protein, reduced ferredoxin was an essential component of the system. the electron donor systems were either ascorbate, dichlorophenolindophenol, photosystem i and light, or nadph and ferredoxin-nadp reducta ...197416658913
potentiating effect of pure oxygen on the enhancement of respiration by ethylene in plant storage organs: a comparative study.a number of fruits and bulky storage organs were studied with respect to the effect of pure o(2) on the extent and time-course of the respiratory rise induced by ethylene. in one group, of which potato (solanum tuberosum var. russet) and carrot (daucus carota) are examples, the response to ethylene in o(2) is much greater than in air. in a second group, of which avocado (persea americana mill. var. hass) and banana (musa cavendishii lambert var. valery) are examples, air and o(2) are equally eff ...198216662339
cyanide metabolism in relation to ethylene production in plant tissues.hcn is the putative product of c-1 and amino moieties of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) during its conversion to ethylene. in apple (malus sylvestrus mill.) slices or auxin-treated mungbean (vigna radiata l.) hypocotyls, which produced ethylene at high rates, the steady state concentration of hcn was found to be no higher than 0.2 micromolar, which was too low to inhibit respiration (reported ki for hcn to inhibit respiration was 10-20 micromolar). however, these tissues became cyan ...198816666329
evidence for a universal pathway of abscisic acid biosynthesis in higher plants from o incorporation patterns.previous labeling studies of abscisic acid (aba) with (18)o(2) have been mainly conducted with water-stressed leaves. in this study, (18)o incorporation into aba of stressed leaves of various species was compared with (18)o labeling of aba of turgid leaves and of fruit tissue in different stages of ripening. in stressed leaves of all six species investigated, avocado (persea americana), barley (hordeum vulgare), bean (phaseolus vulgaris), cocklebur (xanthium strumarium), spinach (spinacia olerac ...198916667222
defatted avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with cholesterol.the potential use of avocado as a fiber source was evaluated. the total dietary fiber content of fresh avocado fruit of the ettinger variety was 5.2 g/100 g. approximately 75% was insoluble, and 25% soluble. the water-holding capacity of dry defatted avocado pulp was similar to that of cellulose, and trypsin inhibitors were not detected. the dietary and metabolic consequences of the avocado pulp were studied in male rats fed normal and hypercholesterolemic diets. rats consumed semipurified diets ...200212097685
analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of persea americana mill (lauraceae).the aqueous extract of persea americana leaves produced a dose-dependent inhibition of both phases of formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and an elevation of pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. the extract also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. the results obtained indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.200212165331
ethnomedicines used in trinidad and tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.this paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in trinidad and tobago with thirty male and female respondents.200617040567
cardiovascular effects of persea americana mill (lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.the cardiovascular effects of persea americana mill (lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (pae) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. the effects of pae on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal wistar rats in vitro. the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examine ...200717497042
xylanase and xylosidase activities in avocado fruit.the activities of xylanase and xylosidase were demonstrated in mature avocado (persea americana mill.) fruits from different cultivars. when monitored on the day of harvest during the season at 1-month intervals, xylanase activity decreased and xylosidase activity increased between january and february and then remained stable until may. when monitored during the ripening process (january harvest), xylanase activity was constant, and xylosidase activity reached a peak at the climax of ethylene e ...199116668079
hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of persea americana leaf extracts.the effect of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ldl-chol), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (hdl-chol) in rats was investigated. albino rats were fed a diet containing 20% groundnut oil, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.25% cholic acid to induce hypercholesterolemia. they were then treated daily with aqueous or methanolic extract of p. americana leaf (10 mg/kg of body weight) for 8 weeks. there were ...200717651074
[genitalia of three species of heilipus germar (coleoptera: curculionidae) that damage avocado fruits (persea americana mill.) in mexico and costa rica].the male and female genitaliae of three species of the genus heilipus germar (h. lauri boheman, h. pittieri barber and h. trifasciatus fabricius) that damage avocado fruits (persea americana mill.) in mexico and costa rica are described and illustrated. the aedeagus, spiculum gastrale, styli of 8th sternite are different in each one of the three species studied and can be used for specific identification.200718246266
wound healing activity of persea americana (avocado) fruit: a preclinical study on rats.avocado (persea americana) oil is rich in nutrient waxes, proteins and minerals, as well as vitamins a, d and e. it is an excellent source of enrichment for dry, damaged or chapped skin. this study aimed to evaluate the wound-healing activity of fruit extract of persea americana in rats.200818376654
anticonvulsant effect of persea americana mill (lauraceae) (avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.various morphological parts of persea americana mill (lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in african traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. this study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (pae, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (ptz)-, picrotoxin (pct)- and bicuculline (bcl)-induced seizures in mice. phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as refe ...200616775810
multi-factor regulation of pectate lyase secretion by colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenic on avocado fruits.tissue alkalinization during colletotrichum gloeosporioides attack enhances the expression of pelb, which encodes pectate lyase (pl), and pl secretion, which is considered essential for full virulence. we studied the regulation of pl secretion by manipulation of c. gloeosporioides pelb. pelb was down-regulated by knocking out pac1, which encodes the pacc transcription factor that regulates gene products with ph-sensitive activities. we functionally characterized a pacc gene homologue, pac1, from ...200818705870
biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern united states.the redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus eichhoff (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern united states responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, persea borbonia (l.) spreng., trees. in 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of x. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in south carolina and georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at lea ...200818767737
[high-density lipoproteins (hdl) size and composition are modified in the rat by a diet supplemented with "hass" avocado (persea americana miller)].to determine the effects of dietary avocado on hdl structure and their associated enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (pon1).200717500188
the analysis of fruit protection mechanisms provided by reduced-pathogenicity mutants of colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtained by restriction enzyme mediated integration.abstract colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important postharvest pathogen that attacks ripe avocado fruit. two reduced-pathogenicity mutants, cg-m-142 and cg-m-1150, previously obtained by restriction enzyme mediated integration, were used for the sequential analysis of the induction of biocontrol in avocado fruit. plant biochemical indicators, such as h(+)-atpase activity and levels of reactive oxygen species, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, epicatechin, and an antifungal diene, were investigat ...200218944245
development of colletotrichum gloeosporioides restriction enzyme-mediated integration mutants as biocontrol agents against anthracnose disease in avocado fruits.abstract reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate cg-14 (teleomorph: glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi) transformation. following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. fuerte avocado fruits. fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative comp ...200118944387
expression of a ripening-related avocado (persea americana) cytochrome p450 in of the mrnas that accumulates during the ripening of avocado (persea americana mill. cv hass) has been previously identified as a cytochrome p450 (p450) monooxygenase and the corresponding gene designated cyp71a1. in this report we demonstrate that during ripening the accumulation of antigenically detected cyp71a1 gene product (cyp71a1) correlates with increases in total p450 and two p450-dependent enzyme activities: para-chloro-n-methylaniline demethylase, and trans-cinnamic acid hydroxylas ...199216653226
anti-helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.helicobacter pylori is the major etiological agent of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is linked to gastric carcinoma. treatment to eradicate the bacteria failed in many cases, mainly due to antibiotic resistance, hence the necessity of developing better therapeutic regimens. mexico has an enormous unexplored potential of medicinal plants. this work evaluates the in vitro anti-h. pylori activity of 53 plants used in mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders ...200919162157
survey of crop losses in response to phytoparasitic nematodes in the united states for 1994.previous reports of crop losses to plant-parasitic nematodes have relied on published results of survey data based on certain commodities, including tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and soybean. reports on crop-loss assessment by land-grant universities and many commodity groups generally are no longer available, with the exception of the university of georgia, the beltwide cotton conference, and selected groups concerned with soybean. the society of nematologists extension committee contacted extensio ...199919270925
chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.the present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of candida spp, cryptococcus neoformans and malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. in toxicity tests on artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed lc50 values of 2.37 ...200919448924
effects of persea americana mill (lauraceae) ["avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (llcpk1) and distal tubules (mdbk).extracts of persea americana mill (lauraceae) ("avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of p. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (pae) in stz-induced diabetic rats. oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of pae were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive cont ...200818389095
high levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding usda-aphis' phytosanitary risk assessment.between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected california avocado, persea americana mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. soon after mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 february 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (hemiptera: diaspididae) not believed to be present in california were detected on 'hass' avocados entering the state from mexico. initially, the california department of food and agricultur ...200919610397
host status of avocado ('hass') to ceratitis capitata, ceratitis rosa, and ceratitis cosyra (diptera: tephritidae) in south africa.ceratitis capitata (wiedemann), ceratitis rosa karsch, and ceratitis cosyra (walker) (diptera: tephritidae) are pests potentially associated with avocado (persea americana mill.) in south africa. the aim of the study was to determine the host status of 'hass' avocado to these tephritid pests over 4 yr. unpunctured harvested avocado was exposed to fruit flies in the laboratory under no-choice conditions for 24 h. in field studies, each species was exposed for 48 h under no-choice conditions to av ...200919736756
medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of tuberculosis and related ailments in uganda.tuberculosis (tb) remains one of the most difficult ailments to control in the world today. the emergence of drug resistant strains has made previously effective and affordable remedies less effective. this has made the search for new medicines from local traditional medicines urgent. the specific objectives of this study were to (1) identify plant species used in the treatment of tb, their methods of preparation and administration, (2) document tb recognition, and (3) document medicine processi ...201019799983
rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (hemiptera: diaspididae) on mexican 'hass' avocado.'hass' avocado, persea americana mill., fruit imported into california from mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (hemiptera: diaspididae), constituting several species. the paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armo ...200919886461
ph regulation of ammonia secretion by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its effect on appressorium formation and alkalinization via ammonia accumulation is key to colletotrichum spp. colonization. using macroarrays carrying c. gloeosporioides cdnas, we monitored gene expression during the alkalinization process. a set of genes involved in synthesis and catabolism of ammonia accumulation were identified. expression of nad(+)-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh2, encoding ammonia synthesis) and the ammonia exporter amet were induced at ph 4.0 to 4.5. conversely, ammonia uptake and transcript ac ...201020121452
ecology and behavior of pezothrips kellyanus (thysanoptera: thripidae) on citrus.the most common thrips species found in cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were pezothrips kellyanus (bagnall) (thysanoptera: thripidae), frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae), and thrips tabaci (lindeman) (thysanoptera: thripidae). only pezothrips kellyanus, kelly's citrus thrips (kct) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in cyprus. kct adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. the attractiv ...201020214367
evaluation of tropical plants containing tannin on in vitro methanogenesis and fermentation parameters using rumen fluid.methane (ch(4)) produced during ruminal fermentation represents a loss of 10-11% of gross energy intake. the use of browse species containing tannin as feed supplement for ruminants tends to increase in order to reduce ch(4) production. the present study was conducted to evaluate some tropical plants containing tannin as feed supplement (200 g kg(-1)) on in vitro ch(4) production and fermentation parameters.201020355068
expression of delta(12) fatty acid desaturase during the induced accumulation of the antifungal diene in avocado fruits.summary the preformed (z,z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene (afd) is the most active antifungal compound in avocado; it affects the quiescence of colletotrichum gloeosporioides in unripe fruit. one of the genes encoding delta(12) fatty acid desaturase (avfad12) was hypothesized to take part in the biosynthesis of afd, and its expression pattern and enzymatic activity were determined in relation to the content of afd. using avfad12-3 as a probe, high levels of expression were dete ...200420565631
acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of persea americana mill (lauraceae) in rats.the aqueous seed extract of persea americana mill (lauraceae) is used by herbalists in nigeria for the management of hypertension. as part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (ld(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. in the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per ...200920606779
antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (persea americana) of three cultivars.the epicarp and seed of persea americana mill. var. hass (lauraceae), persea americana mill. var. shepard, and persea americana mill. var fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four gram-positive bacteria, six gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined ...201020645772
dimethyl isotope labeling assisted de novo peptide, we explore a de novo sequencing strategy in which we combine lys-n protein digestion with differential isotopic dimethyl labeling to facilitate the (de novo) identification of multiply charged peptides in esi-ms, both under cid and etd conditions. for a large fraction of the lys-n generated peptides, all primary amines are present at the n-terminal lysine, enabling specific labeling of the n-terminus. differential derivatization of only the peptide n-terminus in combination with the simult ...201020850342
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