suspected cycad (cycas revoluta) intoxication in dogs.three dogs which ingested part of the stem of a japanese cycad (cycas revoluta) vomited repeatedly within hours after ingestion, showed marked depression, severely congested mucous membranes, increased thirst and profuse salivation. subsequent hematological and blood chemical investigation revealed elevated serum concentrations of alanine transaminase, an initial mild lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and a leucocytosis. the dogs recovered uneventfully.19911770498
comparative study on the evolution of chloroplast ribosomal 5s rna of a living fossil plant, cycas revoluta thumb.the complete nucleotide sequence of cycas revoluta thunb chloroplast 5 s rrna was determined. it consists of 122 nucleotides. this is the only known 5 s rrna sequence in gymnospermae. it is highly homologous with chloroplast 5 s rrna of higher plants (92-97%), but less homologous (about 54%) with those of lower plants. there is however 67% homology between cycas and a procaryote a. nidulans. the chloroplast 5 s rrnas of angiospermae are nearly identical with each other (95-97%). s. oligorhize an ...19883136036
[natural carcinogens: toxicity and carcinogenicity of cyasin: induction of tumors by cycasin in the seeds of cycas revoluta]. 19724672762
[natural carcinogens: present use of cycas revoluta on amami oshima island]. 19724672764
presence of aromatase inhibitors in cycads.cycads, the most primitive of the living gymnosperms, have been used and continue to be used for food and medicinal purposes by many cultures, although toxins must be removed before ingestion. in our quest to identify tropical plants that contain inhibitors of the cytochrome p-450 aromatase and thus may be efficacious in treating estrogen-dependent tumors, we have screened extracts from 5 species of cycad folia encompassing 3 genera: cycas cairnsiana f. muell., cycas revoluta thunb., cycas rumph ...19958569233
the origin and evolution of green algal and plant actins.the viridiplantae are subdivided into two groups: the chlorophyta, which includes the chlorophyceae, trebouxiophyceae, ulvophyceae, and prasinophyceae; and the streptophyta, which includes the charophyceae and all land plants. within the streptophyta, the actin genes of the angiosperms diverge nearly simultaneously from each other before the separation of monocots and dicots. previous evolutionary analyses have provided limited insights into the gene duplications that have produced these complex ...199910028293
[features of cyanobacterial-bacterial complexes of microsymbionts of plant syncyanoses].the morphology and ultrastructure of associative microsymbiont complexes (amc) isolated from the ferns azolla pinnata and azolla sp. and the apogeotropic roots of the cycad cycas revoluta were studied. the composition of the amc obtained includes the cyanobionts (symbiotic cyanobacteria) and satellite bacteria (sb). it was found that two types of cyanobacteria that substantially differ in their morphological organization are likely present as cyanobionts in the coralloids of c. revoluta. the iso ...200111338829
the lectin from leaves of japanese cycad, cycas revoluta thunb. (gymnosperm) is a member of the jacalin-related family.a novel lectin was isolated from leaves of the japanese cycad, cycas revoluta thunb. (gymnosperm), and its characteristics including amino acid composition, molecular mass, carbohydrate binding specificity and partial amino acid sequences were examined. the inhibition analysis of hemagglutinating activity with various sugars showed that the lectin has a carbohydrate-binding specificity similar to those of mannose recognizing, jacalin-related lectins. partial amino acid sequences of the lysylendo ...200212199712
azoxyglycoside content and beta-glycosidase activities in leaves of various cycads.azoxyglycoside contents in leaves of 32 cycad species belonging to 10 cycad genera and the seeds of 4 encephalartos species were analyzed by hplc with a ymc-pa03 amide column. azoxyglycosides were detected in mature leaves of 14 cycad species including 2 bowenia, 2 lepidozamia, 1 microcycas, and 1 stangeria species, but not in mature leaves of 18 other cycad species; 2 of 3 ceratozamia, 1 of 3 cycas, 3 of 3 dioon, 10 of 11 encephalartos, 1 of 3 macrozamia and 1 of 3 zamia species analyzed. the r ...200415561189
comparative analysis of carbohydrate-binding properties of two tandem repeat-type jacalin-related lectins, castanea crenata agglutinin and cycas revoluta leaf lectin.lectins belonging to the jacalin-related lectin family are distributed widely in the plant kingdom. recently, two mannose-specific lectins having tandem repeat-type structures were discovered in castanea crenata (angiosperm) and cycas revoluta (gymnosperm). the occurrence of such similar molecules in taxonomically less related plants suggests their importance in the plant body. to obtain clues to understand their physiological roles, we performed detailed analysis of their sugar-binding specific ...200515943812
cyanobacterial chemotaxis to extracts of host and nonhost plants.chemotaxis may be important when forming cyanobacterial symbioses. however, knowledge of cyanobacterial attraction towards plants and factors affecting chemotaxis is limited. chemo-attraction was observed in nostoc strains 8964:3 and pcc 73102 towards exudate or crushed extract of the natural hosts gunnera manicata, cycas revoluta and blasia pusilla, and the nonhost plants trifolium repens, arabidopsis thaliana and oryza sativa. as all tested plant extracts generated chemotaxis, the possibility ...200616466377
occurrence and localization of phycoerythrin in symbiotic nostoc of cycas revoluta and in the free-living isolated nostoc 7422.the phycobiliprotein phycoerythrin was localized in symbiotic and free-living nostoc of the cycad cycas using immunocytochemistry. in symbiotic nostoc, phycoerythrin was associated with the thylakoid membranes of vegetative cells and absent from heterocysts. similar cellular/subcellular localization was observed between symbiotic nostoc and the free-living cycas isolate nostoc 7422.198916666621
cloning and expression of a mannose-binding jacalin-related lectin from leaves of japanese cycad (cycas revoluta thunb.).cycad leaf lectin (crll), a mannose-recognizing jacalin-related lectin (mjrl), was first cloned as a gymnosperm lectin and expressed. the cdna sequence of crll (ddbj, accession no. ab198328), coding 291 amino acid residues, has a tandem repeat of about 150 amino acids divided into n- and c-terminal domains as japanese chestnut mjrl. sequence alignment showed deletion and insertion of the sequence, and its putative carbohydrate-binding sites showed some differences from other jrls. pcr analysis s ...200616960375
analysis of the sugar-binding specificity of mannose-binding-type jacalin-related lectins by frontal affinity chromatography--an approach to functional classification.the jacalin-related lectin (jrl) family comprises galactose-binding-type (gjrls) and mannose-binding-type (mjrls) lectins. although the documented occurrence of gjrls is confined to the family moraceae, mjrls are widespread in the plant kingdom. a detailed comparison of sugar-binding specificity was made by frontal affinity chromatography to corroborate the structure-function relationships of the extended mjrl subfamily. eight mjrls covering a broad taxonomic range were used: artocarpin from art ...200818266762
analysis of the soluble cell wall proteome of gymnosperms.we analyzed the cell wall proteome of lignifying suspension cell cultures (sccs) from four gymnosperms that differ in evolution degree. this analysis showed the presence of "peptide sequence tags" (psts) corresponding to glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase, xyloglucan-endotrans-glucosylase/hydrolase, chitinases, thaumatin-like proteins and proteins involved in lignin/lignan biosynthesis, such as dirigent-like proteins and peroxidases. surprisingly, and given the abundance of peroxidases in the ce ...200919157640
host response of ornamental palms to rotylenchulus reniformis.the responses of 20 species of ornamental palms and one cycad (cycas revoluta) to two populations of the reniform nematode, rotylenchulus reniformis, from southern florida were studied in two greenhouse experiments conducted in 1989-1991 and 1991-92. ornamental palms in pots were exposed to initial population densities of 400 and 1,500 r. reniformis/l00 cm(3) soil for 16 and 15 months, respectively. nematode reproduction occurred on acoelorrhaphe wrightii and washingtonia robusta, but not on the ...199419279956
the chitin-binding capability of cy-amp1 from cycad is essential to antifungal activity.antimicrobial peptides are important components of the host innate immune responses by exerting broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against pathogenic microbes. cy-amp1 found in the cycad (cycas revoluta) seeds has chitin-binding ability, and the chitin-binding domain was conserved in knottin-type and hevein-type antimicrobial peptides. the recombinant cy-amp1 was expressed in escherichia coli and purified to study the role of chitin-binding domain. the mutants of cy-amp1 lost chitin-binding ab ...200919466694
stable oil bodies sheltered by a unique caleosin in cycad megagametophytes.stable oil bodies of smaller sizes and higher thermostability were isolated from mature cycad (cycas revoluta) megagametophytes compared with those isolated from sesame seeds. immunological cross-recognition revealed that cycad oil bodies contained a major protein of 27 kda, tentatively identified as caleosin, while oleosin, the well-known structural protein, was apparently absent. mass spectrometric analysis showed that the putative cycad caleosin possessed a tryptic fragment of 15 residues mat ...200919635673
lc-ms/ms determination of the isomeric neurotoxins bmaa (beta-n-methylamino-l-alanine) and dab (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in cyanobacteria and seeds of cycas revoluta and lathyrus latifolius.since diverse taxa of cyanobacteria has been linked to biosynthesis of bmaa, a controversy has arisen about the detection of neurotoxic amino acids in cyanobacteria. in this context, a novel lc-ms/ms method was developed for the unambiguous determination of beta-n-methylamino-l-alanine (bmaa) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (dab) in cyanobacteria and selected plant seeds. both neurotoxic and non-proteinogenic amino acids were analyzed without derivatization considering the total concentration of the ...201019825383
phytochemical investigation of cycas circinalis and cycas revoluta leaflets: moderately active antibacterial biflavonoids.chemical examination of the methanolic extract of the leaflets of cycas circinalis l. led to the isolation of one new biflavonoid, (2 s, 2'' s)-2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydro-4',4'''-di- o-methylamentoflavone (tetrahydroisoginkgetin; 2), and 15 known compounds, 11 of which are reported for the first time from c. circinalis. chromatographic separation of the chloroform extract of c. revoluta thunb. leaflets afforded 12 compounds, seven of which are reported for the first time from this species. the isola ...201020072955
fungal planet description sheets: 69-91.novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from australia: bagadiella victoriae and bagadiella koalae on eucalyptus spp., catenulostroma eucalyptorum on eucalyptus laevopinea, cercospora eremochloae on eremochloa bimaculata, devriesia queenslandica on scaevola taccada, diaporthe musigena on musa sp., diaporthe acaciigena on acacia retinodes, leptoxyphium kurandae on eucalyptus sp., neofusicoccum grevilleae on grevillea aurea, phytophthora fluvialis from wate ...201122025808
Identification and characterization of a bactericidal and proapoptotic peptide from cycas revoluta seeds with DNA binding properties.Nowadays, novel pharmacies have been screened from plants. Among them are the peptides, which show multiple biotechnological activities. In this report, a small peptide (Ala-Trp-Lys-Leu-Phe-Asp-Asp-Gly-Val) with a molecular mass of 1,050?Da was purified from Cycas revoluta seeds by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. This peptide shows clear deleterious effects against human epidermoid cancer (Hep2) and colon carcinoma cells (HCT15). It caused inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and ...201221882228
crystal structures and inhibitor binding properties of plant class v chitinases: the cycad enzyme exhibits unique structural and functional features.a class v (glycoside hydrolase family 18) chitinase from the cycad cycas revoluta (crchia) is a plant chitinase that has been reported to possess efficient transglycosylation (tg) activity. we solved the crystal structure of crchia, and compared it with those of class v chitinases from nicotiana tabacum (ntchiv) and arabidopsis thaliana (atchic), which do not efficiently catalyze the tg reaction. all three chitinases had a similar (α/β)8 barrel fold with an (α + β) insertion domain. in the accep ...201525652217
non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of norway spruce (picea abies l. karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. in gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of gnetales and pinaceae, including norway spruce (picea abies). this study aims to trace the ndh ge ...201626732267
molecular evolution of the ap2 subfamily.the ap2 (apetala2)/erebp (ethylene responsive element binding protein) multigene family includes developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors. ap2/erebp genes are divided into two subfamilies: ap2 genes with two ap2 domains and erebp genes with a single ap2/erf (ethylene responsive element binding factor) domain. based on previous phylogenetic analyses, ap2 genes can be divided into two clades, ap2 and ant groups. to clarify the molecular evolution of the ap2 subfamily, we ...200616388920
two carbohydrate recognizing domains from cycas revoluta leaf lectin show the distinct sugar-binding specificity-a unique mannooligosaccharide recognition by n-terminal domain.cycas revoluta leaf lectin (crll) of mannose-recognizing jacalin-related lectin (mjrl) has two tandem repeated carbohydrate recognition domains, and shows the characteristic sugar-binding specificity toward high mannose-glycans, compared with other mjrls. we expressed the n-terminal domain and c-terminal domain (crll-n and crll-c) separately, to determine the fine sugar-binding specificity of each domain, using frontal affinity chromatography, glycan array and equilibrium dialysis. the specifici ...201626867733
astonishing 35s rdna diversity in the gymnosperm species cycas revoluta all eukaryotes, the highly repeated 35s ribosomal dna (rdna) sequences encoding 18s-5.8s-26s ribosomal rna (rrna) typically show high levels of intragenomic uniformity due to homogenisation processes, leading to concerted evolution of 35s rdna repeats. here, we compared 35s rdna divergence in several seed plants using next generation sequencing and a range of molecular and cytogenetic approaches. most species showed similar 35s rdna homogeneity indicating concerted evolution. however, cycas r ...201626637996
[determination of flavonoids in cycas revoluta leaves by chemiluminescence-flow injection analysis method].to detect flavonoids from cycas revoluta leaves by means of chemiluminescence-flow injection analysis (cl-fia).201526495646
modulation of the transglycosylation activity of plant family gh18 chitinase by removing or introducing a tryptophan side chain.transglycosylation (tg) activity of a family gh18 chitinase from the cycad, cycas revoluta, (crchia) was modulated by removing or introducing a tryptophan side chain. the removal from subsite +3 through mutation of trp168 to alanine suppressed tg activity, while introduction into subsite +1 through mutation of gly77 to tryptophan (crchia-g77w) enhanced tg activity. the crystal structures of an inactive double mutant of crchia (crchia-g77w/e119q) with one or two n-acetylglucosamine residues occup ...201526216755
the complete chloroplast genome sequence of taxus chinensis var. mairei (taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.taxus chinensis var. mairei (taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local china. this plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. we have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of t. chinensis var. mairei. the t. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trni-cau, trnq-uug). among the 113 single copy genes ...201424583178
effect of methanolic extract of vernonia amygdalina (common bitter leaf) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to cycasin.this study investigated the effect of a methanolic extract of vernonia amygdalina (va) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status of the colon of rats maintained on a normal diet containing 5% cycas revoluta (cycads). fifty male wistar albino rats were randomly assigned into five groups of ten experimental animals in a study that lasted for six weeks. one control group was maintained on a normal diet only while another group was fed a normal diet containing 5% cycads. the other three groups we ...201324505988
two new dihydroamentoflavone glycosides from cycas revoluta.phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of cycas revoluta thunb. leaflets afforded five compounds including two new dihydroamentoflavone glucosides, (2s)-i-(2,3)-dihydro-i-7-o-β-d-glucopyranosylamentoflavone (1) and (2s)-i-(2,3)-dihydro-i-7,ii-7-di-o-β-d-glucopyranosylamentoflavone (2), in addition to the known compounds prunin (3), vitexin-2″-rhamnoside (4) and protocatechuic acid (5). compounds (3) and (4) being reported for the first time in this plant. the structures of thes ...201424404954
plant poisoning in domestic animals: epidemiological data from an italian survey (2000-2011).an italian epidemiological study based on the human poison control centre of milan (centro antiveleni di milano (cav)) data related to domestic animal poisoning by exposure to plants, was carried out in collaboration with the veterinary toxicology section of the university of milan. it encompasses a 12-year period, from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2011. calls related to toxic plants accounted for 5.7 per cent of total inquiries (2150) received by cav. the dog was the most commonly poison ...201323716536
epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in europe.this review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in european countries. poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. in europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by datura stramonium (jimson weed), senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), quercus spp. (oak), taxus baccata (european yew), nerium oleander (oleander), pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern ...201323570777
boomeranging in structural defense: phytophagous insect uses cycad trichomes to defend against entomophagy.plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. trichomes were removed from cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of guam to reveal aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. the quotient of predated/tot ...201222990448
comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.there are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for nad synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid n-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (n-methylnicotinic acid) formation. in the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)c]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. all species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of n ...201222983143
the mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in ginkgo biloba l.the pollination drop (pd) is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. although accumulating evidence shows that the pd plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of pd withdrawal is still unclear. here, we carefully observed the pd withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of pd withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms.201222548734
genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria in cycas revoluta (cycadaceae).the diversity of cyanobacterial species within the coralloid roots of an individual and populations of cycas revoluta was investigated based on 16s rrna gene sequences. sixty-six coralloid roots were collected from nine natural populations of cycads on kyushu and the ryukyu islands, covering the entire distribution range of the species. approximately 400 bp of the 5'-end of 16s rrna genes was amplified, and each was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. most coralloid roots harb ...201222537413
efficacy of five volatile oils and their mixtures against the soft scale insect, saissetia coffeae (walker) (hemiptera: coccidae) infesting the sago palm, cycas revoluta in alexandria, egypt.five tested plant volatile oils and their mixtures were evaluated for controlling the coccid, saissetia coffeae (walker) on growing sago palms cycas revoluta in antoniades public gardens, alexandria, egypt. the tested volatile oils at concentration rates of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (v/v) were: camphor 20%, dill 20%, rose 30%, peppermint 20% and clove 30% (v/v). their mixtures were : camphor/peppermint, camphor/rose at a rate of 1:1, camphor/rose/peppermint at 1:1:2 rate and camphor/rose/dill at 2:1:1 rat ...201021539257
transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by a class v chitinase from cycad, cycas revoluta: a study involving site-directed mutagenesis, hplc, and real-time esi-ms.class v chitinase from cycad, cycas revoluta, (crchi-a) is the first plant chitinase that has been found to possess transglycosylation activity. to identify the structural determinants that bring about transglycosylation activity, we mutated two aromatic residues, phe166 and trp197, which are likely located in the acceptor binding site, and the mutated enzymes (f166a, w197a) were characterized. when the time-courses of the enzymatic reaction toward chitin oligosaccharides were monitored by hplc, ...201019879383
[research on systematic evolution of ginkgo biloba based on chemical composition of wood].in the present article, the authors mensurated the infrared spectra of 22 conifer and broadleaf trees such as ginkgo biloba l., cycas revoluta thunb., populus tomentosa carr and so on using ftir, analyzed the difference of a number of absorb peaks in fingerprint area, the characteristic absorb peak position of cellulose and lignin of these trees and their alternation regulations of relative intensity, then discussed the evolutional issue of ginkgo biloba. the results show that ginkgo biloba is d ...200919810520
a plant class v chitinase from a cycad (cycas revoluta): biochemical characterization, cdna isolation, and posttranslational modification.chitinase-a (crchi-a) was purified from leaf rachises of cycas revoluta by several steps of column chromatography. it was found to be a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 40 kda and an isoelectric point of 5.6. crchi-a produced mainly (glcnac)(3) from the substrate (glcnac)(6) through a retaining mechanism. more interestingly, crchi-a exhibited transglycosylation activity, which has not been observed in plant chitinases investigated so far. a cdna encoding crchi-a was cloned by rapid amplific ...200919696236
paraphyly of organelle dnas in cycas sect. asiorientales due to ancient ancestral polymorphisms.this study addresses the apportionment of genetic diversity between cycas revoluta and c. taitungensis, species that constitute the section asiorientales and represent a unique, basal lineage of the laurasian genus cycas. fossil evidence indicates divergence of the section from the rest of cycas at least 30 million years ago. geographically, c. taitungensis is limited to taiwan whereas c. revoluta is found in the ryukyu archipelago and on mainland china.200919589178
efficacy of five volatile oils and their mixtures against the mealybug, icerya seychellarum seychellarum (westw.) infesting sago palm, cycas revoluta in alexandria, egypt.five tested plant volatile oils and their mixtures were evaluated for controlling the margarodid, icerya seychellarum seychellarum (westw.) on growing sago palms in antoniades public gardens, alexandria, egypt. the tested volatile oils at concentration rates of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % (v/v) were as follows: camphor 20%; dill 20%; rose 30%; peppermint 20% and clove 30% (v/v). their mixtures were camphor/peppermint; camphor/rose; at a rate of 1:1 camphor/rose/ peppermint at 1:1:2 and camphor/rose/dill at ...200920222604
effects of long-term exposure to elevated co(2) conditions in slow-growing plants using a (12)c-enriched co(2)-labelling technique.despite their relevancy, long-term studies analyzing elevated co(2) effect in plant production and carbon (c) management on slow-growing plants are scarce. a special chamber was designed to perform whole-plant above-ground gas-exchange measurements in two slow-growing plants (chamaerops humilis and cycas revoluta) exposed to ambient (ca. 400 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated (ca. 800 micromol mol(-1)) co(2) conditions over a long-term period (20 months). the ambient isotopic (13)c/(12)c composition ...200919072866
purification, characterization, and sequencing of antimicrobial peptides, cy-amp1, cy-amp2, and cy-amp3, from the cycad (cycas revoluta) seeds.novel antimicrobial peptides (amp), designated cy-amp1, cy-amp2, and cy-amp3, were purified from seeds of the cycad (cycas revoluta) by a cm cellulofine column, ion-exchange hplc on sp cosmogel, and reverse-phase hplc. they had molecular masses of 4583.2 da, 4568.9 da and 9275.8 da, respectively, by maldi-tof ms analysis. half of the amino acid residues of cy-amp1 and cy-amp2 were cysteine, glycine and proline, and their sequences were similar. the sequence of cy-amp3 showed high homology to var ...200818778743
is cycas revoluta (cycadaceae) wind- or insect-pollinated?among the cycadales (cycadaceae and zamiaceae), the zamiaceae are known to be insect-pollinated. in contrast, the cycadaceae are still considered wind-pollinated, although some doubt has been cast on several species, including cycas revoluta. using a large population of c. revoluta on yonaguni island (okinawa, japan), we performed exclusion experiments, documented insects from male and female cones, and analyzed the morphology of the apical part of the ovule to determine the pollination method o ...200721636454
estragole (4-allylanisole) is the primary compound in volatiles emitted from the male and female cones of cycas revoluta.the genus cycas (cycadaceae; gymnosperm) have circumstantially been considered to be wind-pollinated. the cones of cycas revoluta thunb., however, emit a strong unpleasant odor. the chemical profiles of floral scents often correlate with various pollination modes (pollinators). we collected and analyzed the volatiles emitted from male and female cones of c. revoluta native to iriomote and yonaguni islands, japan. the analyses indicated that estragole (4-allylanisole) dominated in the volatiles ( ...200616932996
effects of buffer properties on cyclodextrin glucanotransferase reactions and cyclodextrin production from raw sago (cycas revoluta) starch.results from the present study have shown that the ionic species of buffers, ph values and reaction temperature can affect the enzyme unit activities and product specificity of toruzyme (novo nordisk a/s bagsvaerd, denmark) cgtase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). applying a similar reaction environment (acetate buffer, ph 6.0; temperature, 60 degrees c), the cgtase was found to be capable of producing pre dominantly beta-cyclodextrin from either raw or gelatinized sago (cycas revoluta) starch. ...200515202937
identification of nonprotein amino acids from cycad seeds as n-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives by positive chemical-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.nonprotein amino acids from nine species of cycad seeds were analyzed as n-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester (ecee) derivatives by positive chemical-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. based on the retention times and mass spectrometry analyses, 12 nonprotein amino acids were identified in these seeds. in addition to the excitatory and putative neurotoxin beta-n-methylamino-l-alanine (bmaa), the known neurotoxin beta-n-oxalylamino-l-alanine (boaa) was detected from the seeds of macrozamia ...19979409004
nonprotein amino acids from cycas revoluta.two nonprotein amino acids, cycasindene and cycasthioamide, along with eight known nonprotein amino acids, were isolated from the seeds of cycas revoluta thunb. the structures of cycasindene and cycasthioamide were elucidated as 3-[3'-amino-indenyl-2]-alanine (1) and n-[glycinyl-alaninyl-11-thio]-5-one-pipecolic acid (2) by chemical and spectral methods.19979190086
isolation of a symbiotic cyanobacterium, nostoc cycadae, and its nitrogen metabolism.nostoc cycadae isolated from the host cycas revoluta grew well in medium devoid of combined nitrogen but maximum growth was in medium containing nitrate (4.1 μg chlorophyll a ml(-1)). aerated coralloid roots in the dark produced more nh3 when treated with l-methionine-dl-sulphoximine (mso), an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. with cultured n. cycadae and freshly isolated n. cycadae, nh3 production was enhanced by adding a host-tissue extract in the light or in the dark, whereas it was decrease ...199424421016
characterization of a symbiotic, heterocystous, n2-fixing cyanobacterium fromcycas coralloid roots.a symbiotic, heterocystous, n2-fixing blue-green alga, isolated from the coralloid roots of a xerophytic plant,cycas revoluta, grew best in liquid medium supplemented with 4 mm no 3 (-) . morphologically, the isolated alga was identical to that of the natural endophyte but the cell size had decreased markedly. the alga was heterotrophic. intact coralloid roots had nearly 4 to 5 times more nitrogenase activity compared with natural- and laboratory-grown agla but nitrate reductase was inducible in ...199224425570
pathways of assimilation and transfer of fixed nitrogen in coralloid roots of cycad-nostoc symbioses.freshly detached coralloid roots of several cycad species were found to bleed spontaneously from xylem, permitting identification of products of nitrogen transfer from symbiotic organ to host. structural features relevant to the export of fixed n were described for macrozamia riedlei (fisch. ex gaud.) gardn. the principal species studied. citrulline (cit), glutamine (gln) and glutamic acid (glu), the latter usually in a lesser amount, were the principal translocated solutes in macrozamia (5 spp. ...198824220942
absence of the glutamine-synthetase-linked methylammonium (ammonium)-transport system in the cyanobiont of cycas-cyanobacterial symbiosis.using the ammonium analogue (14)ch3nh 3 (+) , ammonium transport was studied in the cyanobiont cells freshly isolated from the root nodules of cycas revoluta. an l-methionine-dl-sulphoximine (msx)-insensitive ammonium-transport system, which was dependent on membrane potential (δψ), was found in the cyanobiont. however, the cyanobiont was incapable of metabolizing exogenous (14)ch3nh 3 (+) or nh 4 (+) because of the absence of another ammonium-transport system responsible for the uptake of ammon ...198624232650
beta-d-glucosidase from seeds of japanese cycad, cycas revoluta thunb.: properties and substrate specificity.beta-d-glucosidase was purified from seeds of japanese cycad by dialysis, chromatography on cm-sepharose cl-6b, gel filtration on biogel p-200, and chromatofocusing. by chromatofocusing, beta-d-glucosidase was separated into four components whose isoelectric points were in a very narrow range (7.43-7.68). all these components were glycoproteins. the main component (pi = 7.59) was homogeneous on gel isoelectric focusing, and was crystallized from ammonium sulfate solution. the molecular weight of ...19853922962
intranuclear cytoplasmic canal system in the oosphere nucleus of cycas revoluta: an evidence of nucleocytoplasmic interaction. 19817321087
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