[the fitting of an empirical, time-dependent direction component for vertical growth, represented by the example of the scotch pine (pinus silvestris l.)].the object of this work is to offer to model of sloboda, who demanded 5 conditions on a model for the growth of trees. one equation satisfying this conditions is considered. the fitting is demonstrated by an example.1979550996
the constitutents of conifer needles. vi. phenolic glycosides from pinus sylvestris. 1977860630
inheritance of glutamate-oxalate-transaminases (got) from needles and endosperms of pinus sylvestris. 19751184411
an account of the ticks of the northeastern of spain (acarina: ixodidae).the tick species commonly collected at the northeast of spain are reported in this paper. data on hosts, temperature and humidity requirements, vegetation relationships, altitudinal distribution, and seasonal activity are included. r. sanguineus is commonly collected in areas with mediterranean vegetation, esteppe, and semi-desertic esteppe, ranging from 190 to 1,000 meters above the sea level. r. sanguineus is related with sparse vegetal areas, and it is absent from areas with dense shrub or fo ...19921290375
a functional promoter shift of a chloroplast gene: a transcriptional fusion between a novel psba gene copy and the trnk (uuu) gene in pinus contorta.a comparative transcription analysis of the chloroplast trnk-psba-trnh region of the two pine species pinus contorta and pinus sylvestris is reported. the chloroplast genome of p. contorta has previously been shown to contain a duplicated psba gene copy integrated closely upstream of the split trnk gene. this rearrangement has resulted in the gene order psbai-trnk-psbaii-trnh, where psbaii is the ancestral psba gene copy. in p. sylvestris, a species which lacks the psba duplication, transcriptio ...19921302639
characterization of cdnas encoding cuzn-superoxide dismutases in scots pine.a scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) cdna library was screened with two heterologous cdna probes (p31 and t10) encoding cytosolic and chloroplastic superoxide dismutases (sod) from tomato. several positive clones for cytosolic and chloroplastic superoxide dismutases were isolated, subcloned, mapped and sequenced. one of the cdna clones (ps3) had a full-length open reading frame of 465 bp corresponding to 154 amino acid residues and showed approximately 85% homology with the amino acid sequences of ...19921371406
a single change of histidine to glutamine alters the substrate preference of a stilbene synthase.stilbene and chalcone synthases are related polyketide synthases which use the same substrates but form different products. the environment of the condensing active site cysteine is highly conserved, except for the positions -2 and -3. all chalcone synthases contain gln-gln and prefer 4-coumaroyl-coa as starter coa ester, while the two known stilbene synthases contain gln-his or his-gln (preference phenylpropionyl-coa and 4-coumaroyl-coa, respectively). we investigated whether the presence and/o ...19921400374
stilbene synthase from scots pine (pinus sylvestris).stilbene synthases are named according to their substrate preferences. by this definition, enzymes preferring cinnamoyl-coa are pinosylvin synthases, and proteins with a preference for phenylpropionyl-coa are dihydropinosylvin synthases. we investigated the assignment of a stilbene synthase cloned from scots pine (pinus sylvestris) as dihydropinosylvin synthase and the proposal of an additional pinosylvin synthase [1992, plant mol. biol. 18, 489-503]. the results show that the previous interpret ...19921426272
pine stilbene synthase cdna, a tool for probing environmental stress.stilbene synthase cdnas were isolated from a pine (pinus sylvestris) cdna library. poly(a)+rna required for the preparation was obtained from young seedlings challenged with botrytis cinerea. a full-length cdna encoding pinosylvin-forming stilbene synthase was sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequence was compared with sequences of resveratrol-forming stilbene synthases. the cdna coding for the key enzyme of pinosylvin formation is a valuable tool for detecting early effects of environmenta ...19921451785
[features of pine seedling growth under the effects of radiation].the growth of pinus sylvestris seedlings was delayed and polystem occurrence increased with chronic irradiation (a cumulative dose of external gamma-radiation was 6-8 gy in 1986 and 0.7 gy in 1990). the apical meristem activity was inhibited and central stem and main root died off under the effect of the radiation doses applied resulting in the development of plants of a specific floating form.19921496107
molecular analysis of chalcone and dihydropinosylvin synthase from scots pine (pinus sylvestris), and differential regulation of these and related enzyme activities in stressed plants.chalcone synthase (chs) and stilbene synthase (sts) are closely related polyketide synthases which are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes. scots pine (pinus sylvestris) is an interesting plant for a direct comparison of the enzymes. it not only contains the usual flavonoids, but also an unusual chalcone derivative (pinocembrin), and it synthesizes stilbenes of the pinosylvin type. we analysed a chs and a sts by molecular cloning and functional expression in escherichia c ...19921536925
response of epiphytic microflora from pinus sylvestris needles to alkaline deposition. 19921536997
isolation of functional rna from plant tissues rich in phenolic compounds.a method for the isolation of rna from different tissues of trees (seedlings, saplings, and adult trees) is described. using this procedure it is possible to remove large amounts of disturbing polyphenolic compounds from nucleic acids. the method involves an acetone treatment of the freeze-dried and powdered plant material, the use of high salt concentrations in the extraction buffer and an aqueous two-phase system. these steps were combined with the conventional phenol/chloroform extraction and ...19911719845
evolutionary conservation of the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins: cdnas encoding type i, ii and iii lhc i polypeptides from the gymnosperm scots pine.cdnas encoding three different lhc i polypeptides (type i, type ii and type iii) from the gymnosperm scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) were isolated and sequences. comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences with the corresponding tomato sequences showed that all three proteins were highly conserved although less so than the lhc ii proteins. the similarities between mature scots pine and tomato types i, ii and iii lhc i proteins were 80%, 87% and 85%, respectively. two of the five his residue ...19911896022
type i and type ii genes for the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein in the gymnosperm pinus sylvestris (scots pine): cdna cloning and sequence analysis.a cdna library was constructed from mrna prepared from light-treated seedlings of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) and cdnas for the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein lhc-ii were identified using a pea gene as the heterologous probe. three cdna clones were sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequences of two of the genes corresponded to type i and one to type ii lhc-ii proteins which were ca. 90% homologous to their angiosperm counterparts. the transit peptides of the scots pine prelhc-ii showed fea ...19902102816
production of cytokinin-like substances by mycorrhizal fungi of pine (pinus sylvestris l.) in cultures with and without metabolites of actinomycetes.studies on the effect of post culture liquids of actinomycetes on cytokinin-like substances production by mycorrhizal fungi have revealed that actinomycete metabolites inhibited or stimulated the synthesis of these compounds. the results of chromatographic analyses suggest, that substances stimulating the soybean callus are likely to be: riboside 6 (gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino) purine and riboside zeatin. using gas chromatography it was confirmed that both substances are produced by rhizopog ...19852412406
production of organic acids by bacteria isolated from soil, rhizosphere and mycorrhizosphere of pine (pinus sylvestris l.).the bacteria studied released into the medium ten to eleven organic acids. soil organisms excreted mainly pyruvic and alpha-ketoglutaric acids, while strains from the root zone--gluconic acid and unidentified uronic acid (y2). mean indices of total production of the organic acids by bacteria were in the following order: rhizosphere less than soil less than mycorrizosphere. bacteria from the root zone released into the medium very large amounts of pyruvic, gluconic, and uronic (y2) acids--in some ...19852421547
free amino acids production by ectomycorrhizal fungi of pine (pinus sylvestris l.).studies on free amino acids production by five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (amanita muscaria, suillus granulatus, suillus luteus, suillus bovinus and rhizopogon luteolus) show that all the fungi produced mainly: glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, ornithine, arginine and an unidentified ninhydrin-positive compound x3. both the quality and quantity of amino acids released was different in the fungal species studied. the predominant amino acids in post-culture liquids in general did not exceed 1. ...19852579530
isolation and characterization of hot particles from chernobyl fallout in southwestern finland.three types of activity composition have been found in airborne hot particles that were transported long distances from the chernobyl accident. their characterization is based on the analysis of single particles isolated from pinus sylvestris needles. the average activity of the particles was 130 bq at the time of the accident. the most common type of particle contains the radioactive species 141ce, 144ce, 95zr and 95nb; the second type includes 103ru and 106ru along with the previous isotopes; ...19892584032
electrophoretic analysis of genetic linkage in scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.).eighty megagametophytes from each of 24 scots pines (pinus sylvestris l.) were subjected to horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. the trees were from crosses among widely separated provenances, and each was polymorphic for 8 to 14 loci. evidence for linkage among 275 two-locus combinations was tested using chi-square analysis. data from different trees were pooled to calculate map distances for the species. nineteen of the twenty-nine loci tested were linked in one of six groups; the groups var ...19873450273
vitamin d and its metabolites in the pollen of pine. part 5: steroid hormones in the pollen of pine species.unconjugated vitamin d and its metabolites were investigated in the pollen of pinus nigra ar. and pinus sylvestris l. by tlc, hplc and competitive radiochemical determination of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-ohd3). it was found that vitamin d (d2, d3) was present in the pollen in amounts about 2 micrograms/10 g and 25-ohd3, 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [24,25-(oh)2d3] and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(oh)2d3] between 0.1 and 3 micrograms/10 g of pollen, dependent on pollen species and m ...19873671475
a photographic system for measuring shoot elongation in tree seedlings and relation to solar radiation and automatic system has been developed to measure the variations in the rate of shoot elongation of tree seedlings. a camera equipped with 50 mm macro-objective lens, with automatic flash and winder is attached to a motor-operated rotatable stand. the camera is connected to an intervalometer enabling exposures of various seedlings placed around the stand to be taken in sequence at a given time interval. the time interval between the exposures of each seedling is adjustable between 5 min and one ...19854007579
production of b-group vitamins by bacteria isolated from soil, rhizosphere, and mycorrhizosphere of pine (pinus sylvestris l.).studies on the production of b vitamins by soil, rhizosphere, and mycorrhizosphere bacteria have revealed that such ability is common among these organisms. thiamin, nicotinic and folic acids were produced by the greatest number of bacteria. bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere and mycorrhizosphere produced more riboflavin than those originating from the soil distant from roots. in general the soil strains produced higher amounts of vitamins (except riboflavin) than the root-zone isolates. two ...19854050173
defensive use by an insect of a plant resin.larvae of the sawfly neodiprion sertifer (hymenoptera: diprionidae), when disturbed, discharge an oily oral effluent essentially identical chemically to the terpenoid resin of its host plant (pinus sylvestris). the resin is sequestered by the larva upon feeding, and stored in two compressible diverticular pouches of the foregut. the fluid is effectively deterrent to predators. the defensive use by an insect of a plant resin provides an instance of secondary utilization by a herbivore of the prot ...19744207808
bacterial degradation of lignified wood cell walls in anaerobic aquatic habitats.test blocks of beech (fagus sylvatica) and scots pine (pinus sylvestris) were buried in fresh, brackish, and seawater anaerobic muds for periods ranging between 1 and 18 months. at appropriate time intervals the test blocks were recovered and examined for changes in weight and for bacterial attack of lignified wood cell walls. only small weight losses occurred. scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that there was extensive superficial bacterial erosion of beech wood cell walls. the decay ...19836639026
[the genetic effect in pinus sylvestris l. populations of the eastern urals radioactive trace from the control area of the accident at the chernobyl atomic electric power station and from the region of the nuclear device tests at the semipalatinsk proving grounds].the method of isoenzyme electrophoresis was used for comparative evaluation of genetical effects in populations of pinus sylvestris l. growing in kyshtym region (east urals), the chernobyl accident zone and in the region of semipalatinsk nuclear tests (altai). it was shown that mutation frequencies for allozyme loci are ranged as follows: ural > altai > chernobyl.19957489105
heterozygosity and fitness: no association in scots pine.the association of six quantitative traits related to fitness with heterozygosity at 12 allozyme loci has been examined in three populations of scots pine, pinus sylvestris. because of several characteristics of this organism and of this extensive data set, it appeared that this study would show a positive association between heterozygosity and these traits if indeed heterozygotes had higher values for these quantitative traits. using several different statistical techniques including analysis o ...19957498752
coaction of blue light and light absorbed by phytochrome in control of glutamine synthetase gene expression in scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings.the level of plastidic glutamine synthetase (gs; ec in the cotyledonary whorl of the scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedling was previously reported to be regulated by light. in the present paper we report on the control by light of the gs transcript level. a full-length gs cdna clone of scots pine was isolated (pgs1), sequenced and employed to measure gs transcript levels. using dichromatic light treatments it was found that the transcript level is regulated by phytochrome. the stron ...19947506600
polymorphic simple sequence repeat regions in chloroplast genomes: applications to the population genetics of pines.simple sequence repeats (ssrs), consisting of tandemly repeated multiple copies of mono-, di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide motifs, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and are frequently used as genetic markers, taking advantage of their length polymorphism. we have examined the polymorphism of such sequences in the chloroplast genomes of plants, by using a pcr-based assay. genbank searches identified the presence of several (da)n.(dt)n mononucleotide stretches in chloroplast genomes. a chloroplast ...19957644491
molecular and enzymatic characterization of two stilbene synthases from eastern white pine (pinus strobus). a single arg/his difference determines the activity and the ph dependence of the enzymes.pinus strobus (eastern white pine) contains stilbenes biosynthetically derived from cinnamoyl-coa (pinosylvin) or dihydrocinnamoyl-coa (dihydropinosylvin). we screened a p. strobus cdna library with a stilbene synthase (sts) probe from pinus sylvestris. the eight isolated cdnas represented two closely related sts genes with five amino acid differences in the proteins. the enzyme properties were investigated after heterologous expression in escherichia coli. both proteins preferred cinnamoyl-coa ...19957698342
pinus sylvestris l. needles contain extracellular cuzn superoxide dismutase.four new isoforms of superoxide dismutase (sod; superoxide: superoxide oxidoreductase, ec were identified in extracellular washing fluid from scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) needles. the isoforms had an apparent molecular mass of 33 kda. no neutral carbohydrates were present in the enzymes. the enzymatic activities were inhibited by 3 mm nacn. one of the putative extracellular sod isoforms was purified and nh2-terminal-sequenced. the sequence contained the domain kavavl. the domains ...19947764316
molecular characterization of a novel, nuclear-encoded, nad(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in plastids of the gymnosperm pinus sylvestris l.angiosperms and algae possess two distinct glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) enzymes, an nad(+)-dependent tetramer involved in cytosolic glycolysis and an nadp(+)-dependent enzyme of the calvin cycle in chloroplasts. we have found that the gymnosperm pinus sylvestris possesses, in addition to these, a nuclear-encoded, plastid-specific, nad(+)-dependent gapdh, designated gapcp, which has not previously been described from any plant. several independent full-size cdnas for this enzy ...19947811973
[the cytogenetic effect in the cells of the needles of the common pine from irradiation resulting from the accident at the chernobyl atomic power station].the consequences of pinus sylvestris irradiation were studied since 1987-1990. the chromosome aberrations in needle cells and morphological changes are annually observed at the same level, that confirms the continuous character of mutagenesis and morphogenesis. it is concluded that the big pool of damages is caused by radiation, one part of them is realized in chromosome aberration during the first vegetation after irradiation. the other part of them is transferred by division during the initial ...19947827685
histological changes in pinus sylvestris l. in the proximal-zone around the chernobyl power september 1990, samples of wood and bark were collected from pinus sylvestris l. at three locations exposed to different levels of radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident at the chemobyl nuclear power plant (npp). cross-sections of wood from the most exposed location showed a distinct change in histology in the annual ring of 1986, a consequence of the accident on 26 april. the width of annual rings decreased after the accident, and the relative width of latewood in annual rings increased ...19947839122
characterization of cdnas corresponding to two lhca4 alleles from scots pine (pinus sylvestris). 19947846172
characterization of a lhcb5 cdna from scots pine (pinus sylvestris). 19947846173
expression of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in dark-grown pine seedlings.pine seedlings are able to accumulate chlorophylls and develop green plastids in a light-independent manner. in this work, we have characterized ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (ec; fd-gogat), a key enzyme in nitrogen interconversion during this process. fd-gogat has been purified about 170-fold from cotyledons of maritime pine (pinus pinaster). as occurs in angiosperms, the native enzyme is a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 163-168 kda that is confined to t ...19957865781
isolation and purification of mitochondrial mn-superoxide dismutase from the gymnosperm pinus sylvestris l.manganese superoxide dismutase (mn-sod; ec was purified from germinating seeds of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) 3 days after the start of imbibition. the purification schedule included (nh4)2so4 fractionation, anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies and chromatofocusing. purified mn-sod had an apparent specific activity of 4,130 mccord-fridovich units (mg protein)-1. the molecular mass of the holoenzyme was estimated to be 91 kda by size-exclusion chromatography, ...19947981961
construction of genetic maps for some eurasian coniferous species using allozyme an analysis of allozyme genes in three pine and one spruce species distributed in eurasia, 45 of 87 loci were mapped. four linkage groups in pinus sylvestris and picea abies, three in pinus pallasiana, and two in pinus pumila were determined. the order and the locations of homologous genes in the linkage groups in the different species were similar. the data suggest that during the separate development of the pinus and picea genera that has lasted for millions of years, there was not any larg ...19947993376
production of tremorgenic mycotoxins by isolates of aspergillus fumigatus from sawmills in hundred and six strains of a. fumigatus were isolated from 21 sawmills in sweden, and 73 of these strains were examined for production of fumitremorgen b and verruculogen (tremorgenic mycotoxins) on yes-medium using thin layer chromatography (tlc). twenty-three strains (32%) were tremorgen producers and 50 strains (68%) were non-producers. tremorgenic mycotoxins were detected in conidia of seven a. fumigatus strains. the amount of toxin varied between 0.6-8.0 microgram/10(8) conidia (mean va ...19938008045
gene expression of nitrite reductase in scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) as affected by light and nitrate.a partial cdna clone (psnir) encoding the c-terminal region of nitrite reductase was isolated from a lambda gt11 library of the gymnosperm pimus sylvestris (l.). nucleotide sequence analysis showed that psnir contains a reading frame encoding 105 amino acid residues. the amino acid sequence revealed a homology to nir of 63-68% to dicotyledoneous and of 57-59% to monocotyledoneous species. the protein region implicated to be involved in binding of the prosthetic group is highly conserved between ...19948049370
molecular characterization of a cdna clone encoding glutamine synthetase from a gymnosperm, pinus sylvestris.a full-length cdna clone (pgsp114) encoding glutamine synthetase was isolated from a lambda gt11 library of the gymnosperm pinus sylvestris. nucleotide sequence analysis showed that pgsp114 contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 357 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 39.5 kda. the derived amino acid sequence was more homologous to cytosolic (gs1) (78-82%) than to chloroplastic (gs2) (71-75%) glutamine synthetase in angiosperms. the lack of n-terminal presequenc ...19938102906
[segregation disturbance in chronically irradiated populations of pinus sylvestris l. growing in the area of the chernobyl nuclear power plant accident].segregation of polymorphic diallelic loci, which encode isozyme synthesis in seed endosperms of pinus sylvestris l. trees exposed to various levels of radiation after chernobyl' meltdown, was studied. it was shown that directional gametic selection, expressed as segregation distortion in heterozygotes, is observed in irradiated populations for a number of loci. the detected selection has one-locus character and distinctly influences the gene pool of the next generation.19948188039
investigations on the antibacterial effect of conifer needle oils on bacteria isolated from the feces of captive capercaillies (tetrao urogallus l., 1758).in winter, free-living capercaillies feed almost exclusively upon needles of various conifer species. an important part of the energy and protein requirements of captive capercaillies, however, is supplied by food rich in starch and proteins. the fecal flora of captive capercaillies is considerably different from the flora of free-living capercaillies. bacterial diseases are frequent in captivity. the aim of the present study is to determine whether the essential oils from conifer needles posses ...19938284950
disease resistance results from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant.although phytoalexins have long been inferred to be important in the defence of plants against fungal infection, there are few reports showing that they provide resistance to infection. several plants, including grapevine, synthesize the stilbene-type phytoalexin resveratrol when attacked by pathogens. stilbenes with fungicidal potential are formed in several unrelated plant species, such as peanut (arachis hypogaea), grapevine (vitis vinifera) and pine (pinus sylvestris). stilbene biosynthesis ...19938421520
[mutagenesis of enzyme loci, induced in megaspores of pinus sylvestris l. by ionizing radiation from the accident at the chernobyl atomic power plant].mutagenesis of alleles of 20-allozyme loci was studied using the electrophoresis methods in polyacrylamide gel in seeds of pinus sylvestris within the 30 km zone of the chernobyl nnp and the limits of contamination levels by cs-137 from 5 up to 600 cu/km (the absorbed doses being 0.5 to 10 gy). the frequency of emergence of corresponding mutations which change the synthesis of enzymes in endosperms within the zone constituted on the average 2.7-10 per gene as compared with 0.6-10 in control vers ...19938486256
[the dynamics of the radiation damage and recovery processes in coniferous stands in a 10-kilometer control zone of the accident at the chernobyl atomic electric power station].properties of morphogenesis, growth dynamics, anatomy and ultrastructure of wood and needle, reproductive processes in coniferous plants were studied under different level of radiation effect in the 10-km zone in 1986-1992. it was established that the full drying of pine forests began under absorbed dose 80-100 gy/year. threshold doses, after which repair processes were possible, reached to 10-12 gy/year for picea abies and 50 gy/year for pinus sylvestris. three maine stages are revealed in dyna ...19958563907
the genes encoding subunit 3 of nadh dehydrogenase and ribosomal protein s12 are co-transcribed and edited in pinus sylvestris (l.) mitochondria.the nucleotide sequence of the region encoding nadh dehydrogenase subunit 3 and ribosomal protein s12 from pinus sylvestris (l.) mitochondrial dna (mtdna) has been determined. a sequence comparison of this region with six individual cdna clones prepared by rt-pcr revealed 35 c-to-t differences, showing the occurrence of rna editing. all but one of these alterations in mrna sequence change codon identities to specify amino acid better conserved in evolution. most of these modifications take place ...19958575014
differential redox regulation by glutathione of glutathione reductase and cuzn-superoxide dismutase gene expression in pinus sylvestris l. needles.glutathione reductase (gr; ec and superoxide dismutase (sod; ec are two well-known enzymes involved in the scavenging of reactive oxygen intermediates. however, little is known about the regulation of gor and sod genes in plant cells. to obtain information about hypothetical redox regulatory mechanisms controlling gor and sod gene expression we artificially enhanced the levels of reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione (gsh and gssg) in pinus sylvestris l. needles. scots pin ...19968580767
inhibition of chitinolytic activities from tree species and associated fungi.effects of two inhibitors, allosamidin and (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino phenylcarbamate (pugnac), have been assessed on chitinolytic activities of two plants, pinus sylvestris l. and eucalyptus pilularis sm., and of seven fungi. pinus sylvestris and e. pilularis root endochitinase activities were inhibited by allosamidin. activities of p. sylvestris were more sensitive to inhibition than those of e. pilularis. the mechanism of inhibition varied with the plant species and the ...19968588878
microsatellite sequences in a conifer, pinus sylvestris.scots pine (pinus sylvestris) genomic libraries were constructed and screened with oligonucleotides probes (gt)10, (ct)10, and (at)10. eight microsatellites were identified from 6000 clones screened. the longest microsatellite stretch found, (ct)9(n)21(at)24, was amplified from bud and single pollen grain samples. in order to clarify the complex amplification pattern revealed, two pcr products were sequenced. the size differences were caused both by varying repeat numbers of the microsatellite s ...19958654918
transcription of four satellite dna subfamilies in diprion pini (hymenoptera, symphyta, diprionidae).four satellite dna subfamilies ps, pv, pv65 and ec, resulting from the evolution of a common ancestral motif, were isolated and characterized in the genomic dna of diprion pini, a phytophagous of pinus sylvestris. consensus sequences were 148-312 bp long. sequence analyses revealed that these satellite subfamilies have evolved from a 45-bp ancestral motif. the amounts of each satellite in the genome (0 - 10%) and the accessibility of the dna to restriction enzymes were sex dependent. the migrati ...19968706677
high-level expression of pinus sylvestris glutamine synthetase in escherichia coli. production of polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant protein and expression studies in pine a previous work we reported the molecular characterization of a glutamine synthetase (gs; ec complementary dna from a woody plant (cantón et al. (1993) plant mol. biol. 22, 819-828). the isolated cdna (pgsp114) encoding a scots pine (pinus sylvestris) cytosolic subunit, has been subcloned into the expression vector pet3c to overproduce the gs polypeptide in escherichia coli cells. the recombinant gs protein showed the same molecular size as a native scots pine gs subunit. antibodies ...19968814291
[the genetic sequelae for plant populations of radioactive environmental pollution in connection with the chernobyl accident].populations of arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh., and pinus sylvestris l., growing within 30 km of chernobyl and bryansk region have been analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations on arabidopsis and frequency of chlorophyll mutations and chromosome aberrations by pine. on pine also have been analyzed rate of mutations at enzyme loci in endosperms of seeds. dose dependence of the value genetic damage on level of radioactive pollution was observed.19968925027
molecular cloning of ozone-inducible protein from pinus sylvestris l. with high sequence similarity to vertebrate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase.we have isolated a pinus sylvestris cdna encoding a globular protein of 474 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 52,995 da. the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41.9% identity and 13.6% similarity to mammalian cytosolic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase (hmgs). treatment of scots pine seedlings with ozone resulted in a transient increase of a 1.95 kb transcript, whereas a 1.2 kb mrna decreased transiently, indicating a possible influence of ozone on isoprenoid biosynthesis.19979061017
the chlb gene encoding a subunit of light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase is edited in chloroplasts of conifers.chlb is one of three chloroplast genes shown so far to be required for light-independent chlorophyll synthesis. it occurs in some algae, lower plants, and gymnosperms, but not in angiosperms. we have demonstrated, for the first time in conifer chloroplasts, the presence of two internal c to u editing sites in this transcript. in the chlb transcript of pinus sylvestris, the editing of the second position in a ccg codon leads to an amino-acid substitution from proline to leucine. editing of a near ...19979108142
biotransformation of the fungal toxin fomannoxin by conifer cell cultures.fomannoxin [(+/-)-5-formyl-2-isopropenyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofurane] is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite, which is produced by the forest pathogenic basidiomycete heterobasidion annosum during the infection process. fomannoxin shows growth-inhibiting effects on callus and suspension cultures of conifer cells. by investigating the interaction of the phytotoxin with pinus sylvestris cells a detoxification of fomannoxin was detected, presumably as a defense reaction of the plant cells. undifferentiate ...19979377489
indole-3-acetic acid controls cambial growth in scots pine by positional signalingthe vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem in plants and is responsible for wood formation in forest trees. in this study we used a microscale mass-spectrometry technique coupled with cryosectioning to visualize the radial concentration gradient of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) across the cambial meristem and the differentiating derivatives in scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) trees that had different rates of cambial growth. this approach allowed us to investigate the relat ...19989576780
gene structure, expression in escherichia coli and biochemical properties of the nad+ -dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from pinus sylvestris chloroplasts.photosynthetic eukaryotes typically possess two distinct glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases, an nad+ -specific enzyme in the cytosol (gapc: ec and an nadp+ -dependent enzyme in the chloroplast (gapab: ec the gymnosperm pinus sylvestris is an exception in that it is known to express a gene encoding a transit peptide-bearing gapc-like subunit that is imported into chloroplasts (gapcp), but the enzymatic properties of this novel gapdh have not been described from any sou ...19989583948
plant polyketide synthases: a chalcone synthase-type enzyme which performs a condensation reaction with methylmalonyl-coa in the biosynthesis of c-methylated chalcones.heterologous screening of a cdna library from pinusstrobus seedlings identified clones for two chalcone synthase (chs) related proteins (pstrchs1 and pstrchs2, 87.6% identity). heterologous expression in escherichia coli showed that pstrchs1 performed the typical chs reaction, that it used starter coa-esters from the phenylpropanoid pathway, and that it performed three condensation reactions with malonyl-coa, followed by the ring closure to the chalcone. pstrchs2 was completely inactive with the ...19989622493
active oxygen scavengers during cold acclimation of scots pine seedlings in relation to freezing tolerance.freezing injury of plants may be caused by the deleterious reactions of active oxygen species, and free-radical scavenging systems may be important in the alleviation of freezing stress. to test the feasibility of this hypothesis, enzymes and metabolites that cooperatively scavenge o2 and h2o2 were analyzed in scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings during a stepwise cold acclimation procedure. elevated levels of enzymatic scavengers such as ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monode ...19989698428
characterization of microsatellite loci in pinus sylvestris l. 19989734086
memory effects in the action of ozone on conifers.conifers are known to possess relative ozone tolerance in short-term experiments. a scenario for ozone damage of conifers is now derived from the first exposure experiments in which both the initial biochemical response phase and delayed visible symptom development were studied. a number of early biochemical ozone responses could be detected in norway spruce (picea abies [l.] karst.) and scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.). the stress metabolite catechin persisted over several months. in the year f ...19989756691
gene-pool variation in caledonian and european scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) revealed by chloroplast simple-sequence repeats.we have used polymorphic chloroplast simple-sequence repeats to analyse levels of genetic variation within and between seven native scottish and eight mainland european populations of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.). diversity levels for the scottish populations based on haplotype frequency were far in excess of those previously obtained using monoterpenes and isozymes and confirmed lower levels of genetic variation within the derelict population at glen falloch. the diversity levels were highe ...19989787466
chlorophyll synthesis in dark-grown pine primary needlesthe pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of pinus jeffreyi l. and pinus sylvestris l. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. the state of protochlorophyllide a and of chlorophylls during dark growth were analyzed by in situ 77 k fluorescence spectroscopy. both measurements unambiguously demonstrated that pine primary needles are able to synthesize chlorophyll in the dark. norflurazon strongly inhibited both carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis. needles of plants treat ...19989847090
properties of aflp markers in inheritance and genetic diversity studies of pinus sylvestris lwe analysed the properties of aflp markers in pinus sylvestris. using primers with three selective nucleotides, the aflp protocol produced large numbers of amplified bands and could only be used with a restricted number of primer combinations. replacement of the ecori +3 primer by an ecori +4 primer halved the number of bands, facilitating analysis. the inheritance of all but about 8.4% of the amplified bands has been confirmed to be mendelian. we compared band patterns among selected p. sylvest ...199910336699
[genetic effects in populations of plants growing in the zone of kyshtym and chernobyl accidents].studies to analyze the genetic processes in natural populations of plants were started on the territory of the east-ural radioactive trace (eurt) in 1962 and in the zone of the chernobyl accident in may 1986. the main directions of the genetic studies in both radioactive areas were similar: 1) study of the mutation process intensity depending on the dose and dose rate and analysis of dose-effect relationships for different genetic changes (point mutations, chromosome aberrations in mitosis and m ...199910347610
tolerance and biodegradation of m-toluate by scots pine, a mycorrhizal fungus and fluorescent pseudomonads individually and under associative conditions.the tolerance to, and degradation of m-toluate by scots pine (pinus sylvestris), a symbiotic mycorrhizal fungus (suillus bovinus) and pseudomonas fluorescens strains, with or without m-toluate-degrading capacity, was determined individually and in all symbiotic/associative plant-microbe combinations. fungal survival on medium with m-toluate was increased in co-culture with the degradative bacterial strains on agar plates (up to 0.02%, w/v). when fungi were grown in mycorrhizal association with s ...199910347877
models to assess the risk of snow and wind damage in pine, spruce, and birch forests in sweden./ each year damage to forests caused by snow and wind causes high economic losses. in sweden, approximately 4 million m3 are damaged annually by snow and wind, roughly corresponding to a value of us$150 million, and in europe, the damage amounts to hundreds of millions of us dollars each year. to help to reduce these losses, tools for risk assessment within forest management have been developed. predictions were developed of the risk of damage from snow and wind to scots pine (pinus sylvestris l ...199910384030
biomonitoring of airborne inorganic and organic pollutants by means of pine tree barks. i. temporal and spatial variations.scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) bark samples were collected at two field sites (neuglobsow, rösa) and in different years between 1987 and 1996 in the east of germany. the barks were analyzed with respect to the following inorganic and organic substances: al, as, b, ca, cd, ce, cr, cu, fe, hg, mo, nh4+, ni, no3-, po4(3)-, pb, sr, so4(2)-, ti, v, w, zr, zn, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-hch) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt). in addition to bark ...199910474260
phytochrome types in picea and pinus. expression patterns of phya-related types.knowledge of the genes in gymnosperms encoding the apoproteins of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome is currently scanty as for gymnosperm nuclear protein coding sequences in general. here we report two complete cdna-derived sequences which code for two different types of gymnosperm phytochrome. one sequence stems from norway spruce (picea abies) and the other from scots pine (pinus sylvestris). more detailed studies have shown that both types of phytochrome gene are present in norway spruce. f ...199910480390
microbial activities related to c and n cycling and microbial community structure in the rhizospheres of pinus sylvestris, picea abies and betula pendula seedlings in an organic and mineral soil.the aim of this study was to determine whether scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.), norway spruce (picea abies (l.) karst.) and silver birch (betula pendula roth) seedlings have a selective influence on the soil microbial community structure and activity and whether this varies in different soils. seedlings of pine, spruce and birch were planted into pots of two soil types: an organic soil and a mineral soil. pots without seedlings were also included. after one growing season, microbial biomass c ( ...199910508943
air-pollutant dispersal patterns and vegetation damage in the vicinity of three aluminium smelters in norway.dispersal patterns for fluoride and damage to vegetation was studied near three aluminium smelters in norway. leaf samples from three broad-leaved species (betula pubescens ehrh., salix caprea l. and sorbus aucuparia l.) were collected and leaf injury and the plants overall vitality were evaluated systematically in areas with different distance and direction from the emission sources. both dispersal patterns and the distribution of damages were mainly determined by the predominant wind direction ...199910535145
rapid expansion of microsatellite sequences in pines.microsatellite persistence time and evolutionary change was studied among five species of pines, which included a pair of closely related species (pinus sylvestris and pinus resinosa) in the subgenus pinus, their relative pinus radiata, and another closely related species pair (pinus strobus and pinus lambertiana) in the subgenus strobus. the effective population sizes of these species are known to have ranged from the very small bottlenecks of p. resinosa to vast populations of p. sylvestris. t ...200010677848
[cytogenetic characteristics of seed progeny of trees under condition of antropogenic contamination in voronezh town].it has been shown that in seed progeny of quercus robur l., pinus sylvestris l. and betula pendula roth. some cytogenetical characteristics vary under conditions of contamination. such changes may be common or specific type. thus, the frequency of pathological mitosis increases under such conditions in all the investigated species of trees. inhibition of mitosis was found in the progeny of the pine, and variability in the number of nucleoli was detected in the pine and oak. however, in some case ...200010752126
chemometrics: an important tool for the modern chemist, an example from wood-processing chemistrythis study briefly outlines the idea of principal component analysis and cross-correlation calculations (applied chemometrics) and presents an illustrative example from wood-processing chemistry. the applicability of chemometric data analysis was demonstrated by investigating the various structural changes that take place in dissolved and degraded lignin ("kraft lignin") during laboratory-scale kraft pulping of scots pine (pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (betula pendula). the structural data ...200010761150
soil organic matter mobilization by root order to study the different soil organic matter mobilisation by agrarian (zea mais: cultivars paolo and sandek) and forest (picea abies karst. and pinus sylvestris l.) root exudates, three different soils (dystric spodic cambisol--s1, haplic luvisol--s2 and calcaric cambisol--s3) have been considered. treating the soils with water (control) or plant root exudates, soil organic matter extracts were obtained. the extracts were characterised by hormone-like activities and gas chromatographic/ma ...200010834364
antimicrobial effects of finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. the tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (aspergillus niger, bacillus subtilis, candida albicans, escherichia coli, micrococcus luteus, pseu ...200010857921
effects of pinus sylvestris root growth and mycorrhizosphere development on bacterial carbon source utilization and hydrocarbon oxidation in forest and petroleum-contaminated soils.the hypothesis that pinus sylvestris l. root and mycorrhizosphere development positively influences bacterial community-linked carbon source utilization, and drives a concomitant reduction in mineral oil levels in a petroleum hydrocarbon- (phc-) contaminated soil was confirmed in a forest ecosystem-based phytoremediation simulation. seedlings were grown for 9 months in large petri dish microcosms containing either forest humus or humus amended with cores of phc-contaminated soil. except for incr ...200010872081
detection of intracellular bacteria in the buds of scotch pine (pinus sylvestris l.) by in situ hybridization.bacterial isolates were obtained from pine (pinus sylvestris l.) tissue cultures and identified as methylobacterium extorquens and pseudomonas synxantha. the existence of bacteria in pine buds was investigated by 16s rrna in situ hybridization. bacteria inhabited the buds of every tree examined, primarily colonizing the cells of scale primordia and resin ducts.200010877808
[a source of high frequency variations in the tracheid size in annual tree rings of conifers].statistical analysis of high-frequency variations in the radial dimensions of tracheids was carried out using precise measurements of five radial rows in each annual tree ring for several coniferous species: larix gmelinii, l. leptolepis, l. sibirica, picea abies, pinus sylvestris, p. rigida, and p. densiflora. more than 25 tree rings with a varying number of cells and width were measured for each species. high-frequency variations in radial dimensions were found to have a regular (cyclic) chara ...200010881427
chlorinated hydrocarbons in scots pine needles in northern britainconcentrations of 4 chlorinated hydrocarbons, c2h3cl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane), ccl4 (tetrachloromethane), c2hcl3 (trichloroethene) and c2cl4 (tetrachloroethene) have been measured in needles of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) growing close to two industrial sites and in a rural area in northern britain. pentane extracts of pine needles sampled over 14 months were analysed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. geometric mean concentrations were not significantly different amo ...199910903112
patterns of variation at a mitochondrial sequence-tagged-site locus provides new insights into the postglacial history of european pinus sylvestris populations.due to their maternal mode of inheritance, mitochondrial markers can be regarded as almost 'ideal' tools in evolutionary studies of conifer populations. in the present study, polymorphism was analysed at one mitochondrial intron (nad 1, exon b/c) in 23 native european pinus sylvestris populations. in a preliminary screening for variation using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach, two length variants were identified. by fully sequencing the 2.5 kb region, ...200010972760
coevolutionary toxicity as suggested by differential coniferyl alcohol inhibition of ceratocystis species growth.coevolution has been shown to lower the toxicity of predator venoms to usual preys, in contrast to higher toxicity to non-prey similar species (heatwole and powell, 1998. resistance of eels (gymnothorax) to the venom of sea kraits (laticauda colubrina): a test of coevolution. toxicon 36, 619-625). in an attempt to examine whether such coevolutionary discrepancies also occur in plant host-parasite interactions, two strains of ceratocystis grown on artificial medium, c. fimbriata, parasite of the ...200110978737
effects of experimental conditions on mycorrhizal relationships between pinus sylvestris and lactarius deliciosus and unprecedented fruit-body formation of the saffron milk cap under controlled soilless conditions.the mycorrhizal relationships between pines and two edible species of lactarius sect. dapetes were investigated by optimizing the experimental conditions of mycelial growth and of mycorrhizal colonization of pine seedlings. in vitro mycelial growth of lactarius deliciosus and l. sanguifluus was improved on a buffered medium containing glucose, amino acids, and vitamins. two methods of mycorrhization of pines with lactarius deliciosus were tested. the mycorrhizal colonization was rapid and intens ...200011006839
gene induction of stilbene biosynthesis in scots pine in response to ozone treatment, wounding, and fungal infection.the s-adenosyl-l-methionine:pinosylvin-o-methyltransferase (pmt) gene was sequenced from scots pine (pinus sylvestris). the open reading frame is arranged in two exons spaced by one 102-bp intron. promoter regulatory elements such as two "caat" boxes and one "tata" box were identified. several cis-regulatory elements were recognized: stress-responsive elements (myb-responsive elements) as well as g, h, and gc boxes. moreover, elicitor-responsive elements (w boxes) and a sequence resembling the s ...200011027734
bacterial endobionts in the big non-mycorrhizal roots of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.).subsurface bacterial growth occurred in an n-free medium inoculated with interior tissues of big non-mycorrhizal roots (7 to 8 mm diameter) of 15-20 years-old scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) growing on sand dunes at the baltic sea of poland. the bacteria were not n2 fixers as determined by the acetylene reduction method. light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed massive bacterial clusters residing in the cortical cells underlying epidermis and parenchyma. the bac ...200011061192
scots pine expresses short-root-specific peroxidases during development.nine short-root-specific proteins from scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) detected and isolated as individual spots by 2d-page were identified. the similar peptide mass maps obtained for all nine polypeptide spots together with lectin-blotting results suggest that they represent forms of the same modified protein. n-terminal sequence analysis of two of the peptides showed high similarity to peroxidases. rt-pcr with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to determined peptide sequences and conserved ...200111121106
the electrical impedance spectroscopy of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) shoots in relation to cold acclimation.electrical impedance spectroscopy (eis) was applied to stems of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) in a provenance field trial during frost hardening to find an eis parameter for assessing frost hardiness (fh) without a controlled freezing test. the fh of stems and needles assessed by controlled freezing tests was compared with the equivalent circuit eis parameters of a distributed model of stems (not exposed to controlled freezing treatment) and with dry matter (dm) content of stems. significant ...200011141183
strategies of a bark beetle, pityogenes bidentatus, in an olfactory landscape.volatiles from leaves or bark of nonhost birch (betula pendula) and norway spruce (picea abies) dramatically reduced the attraction of the bark beetle, pityogenes bidentatus (coleoptera: scolytidae), to their aggregation pheromone components (cis-verbenol and grandisol) in the field. in addition, odors from both the needles and bark of the host scots pine (pinus sylvestris) similarly inhibited attraction. monoterpenes of pine and spruce (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, terpinolene, and 3-carene) as w ...200011151671
developmental regulation of indole-3-acetic acid turnover in scots pine seedlings.indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) homeostasis was investigated during seed germination and early seedling growth in scots pine (pinus sylvestris). iaa-ester conjugates were initially hydrolyzed in the seed to yield a peak of free iaa prior to initiation of root elongation. developmental regulation of iaa synthesis was observed, with tryptophan-dependent synthesis being initiated around 4 d and tryptophan-independent synthesis occurring around 7 d after imbibition. induction of catabolism to yield 2-oxi ...200111154354
aging in pinus sylvestris l. seeds: changes in viability and lipids.aging of scots pine seeds (pinus sylvestris l.) leads to changes in seed quality, such as loss of germinability, delayed growth and abnormality in developing seedlings. the knowledge of biochemical changes responsible for these aging processes is plentiful in some seeds, which are of world-wide interest, but for pine seeds these studies are rare. the aim of the present study, was to analyse pine seeds of varying ages in order to identify biochemical changes occurring in aged pine seeds, and to s ...200011171242
molecular cloning and functional expression of a stress-induced multifunctional o-methyltransferase with pinosylvin methyltransferase activity from scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.).formation of pinosylvin (ps) and pinosylvin 3-o-monomethyl ether (psm), as well as the activities of stilbene synthase (sts) and s-adenosyl-1-methionine (sam):pinosylvin o-methyltransferase (pmt), were induced strongly in needles of scots pine seedlings upon ozone treatment, as well as in cell suspension cultures of scots pine upon fungal elicitation. a sam-dependent pmt protein was purified and partially characterised. a cdna encoding pmt was isolated from an ozone-induced scots pine cdna libra ...200011202436
the glutathione status of mature scots pines during the third season of uv-b radiation exposure.impacts of uv-b radiation on the glutathione level were studied in mature scots pine needles (pinus sylvestris l.) during the third season of a uv-b field experiment. studies were made on 4-week-old (july) to 14-week-old (september) current-year needles and 3-year-old needles which had their third uv-b-exposure season in progress. depending on the season and the year (1996-98), the supplemental uv-b dose varied from 0.92 to 5.09 kj m-2 day-1 uv-bbe compared to 0.47-2.44 kj m-2 day-1 uv-bbe under ...200111202738
[humus functioning types in evergreen coniferous forests of the french inner alps].three humus forms that are widespread in the inner alps, a dysmull below pinus sylvestris, an oligomull below abies alba and a mor below pinus cembra, were studied by following mineral nitrogen production and uptake and by a characterization of the pedofauna. due to the production and uptake of nitrogen, mainly as nitrates and also due to the dominance of lumbricids versus arthropods, the oligomull was the sole humus form that functioned as a mull. nevertheless relatively weak mineral nitrogen p ...200111212503
[radiation-population monitoring of pinus sylvestris l. in the zone of the chernobyl power plant].cytogenetic and genetic effects in populations of pinus sylvestris l. suffered wiak, average, strong and sublethal radiation damage after the chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. the absorbed dozes for trees in these plantings were from 0.1 up to 20 gy. it was shown that the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds of a crop of 1993, are comparable with effects marked at once after accident in 1986. in 1997 and in 1998 the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in ...200011252237
nitrogen forms in bark, wood and foliage of nitrogen-fertilized pinus sylvestris.cycling of soluble non-protein n compounds is thought to be indicative of the n-nutritional status of trees. we determined the major n forms in bark, wood and foliage and estimated the dependence of prevalent n forms on n availability in pinus sylvestris l. trees from northern sweden. trees subjected to severe n limitation and trees that had been fertilized with an average 64 kg n ha(-1) year(-1) for 25 years were analyzed. bark and wood samples were collected by tangentially cryo-sectioning the ...200111260825
genetic variation within and between populations of pinus sylvestris l. (scots pine) for susceptibility to melampsora pinitorqua rostr. (pine twist rust).the genetic variability of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) for twist rust susceptibility and the consequences for genetic improvement of the species were evaluated after artificial inoculation of 1-year-old seedlings in greenhouse tests. wind-pollinated progenies, factorial and incomplete diallel mating designs were used to compare two natural populations of scots pine (haguenau, france, and taborz, poland) and their hybrids (haguenau x taborz). families from taborz were significantly (p < 0.00 ...200111298813
function and dynamics of auxin and carbohydrates during earlywood/latewood transition in scots temperate regions the annual pattern of wood development is characterized by the formation of radially narrow and thick walled latewood cells. this takes place at the later part of the growing season when cambial cell division declines. to gain new insight into the regulation of this process, micro-analytical techniques were used to visualize the distribution of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa), soluble carbohydrates, and activities of sucrose (suc)-metabolizing enzymes across the cambial region ti ...200111299382
carbon assimilation and nitrogen in needles of fertilized and unfertilized field-grown scots pine at natural and elevated concentrations of co2.effects of elevated co2 concentration ([co2]) on carbon assimilation and needle biochemistry of fertilized and unfertilized 25-30-year-old scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) trees were studied in a branch bag experiment set up in a naturally regenerated stand. in each tree, one branch was enclosed in a bag supplied with ambient [co2] (360 micromol mol(-1)), a second branch was enclosed in a bag supplied with elevated [co2] (680 micromol(-1)) and a control branch was left unbagged. the co2 treatmen ...200011303578
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