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delayed conversion of squalene to sterols during development of pinus pinea seeds.during germination of seeds of the gymnosperm, pinus pinea, radioactivity from [2-14c]-mevalonate proceeded principally through the anaerobic reactions leading to squalene in the first 24 hr in both the haploid endosperm and the diploid embryo, and only with succeeding time (3-9 days) in both cases was label transferred to sterols in oxygen-requiring steps. the rates of turnover must be real and independent in the two tissues, since no consequential interchange of labelled lipids occurred betwee ...1977853880
biochemical changes in pinus pinea seeds. iii. the effect of growth substances and steroidal hormones on nucleic acids.the effects of exogenous growth factors (indolacetic acid, gibberellic acid and kinetin and steroidal hormones (estrone, estradiol and testosterone on the germination pattern of pinus pinea seeds were studied. nucleic acids metabolism during the stages before germination, has also been investigated. seeds sown in the presence of all these substances, showed a higher growth rate and a higher germination degree than their respective controls; kinetin and estradiol were the most active factors. th ...1976981778
biochemical changes in pinus pinea seeds. ii. the stimulation is isocitrate lyase and malate dehydrogenase activities by exogenous growth substances.treatment of intact pine seeds with plant hormones and steroid substances for several days, after an initial 24 hour immersion in different hormone solutions, resulted in a substantial increase in the specific activity of isocitrate lyase and malate dehydrogenase than the observed in the corresponding control solutions. fresh weights did not show any increase, because water uptake was reduced in presence of plant hormones (indolacetic acid, kinetine and giberellic acid). however, dry weights wer ...19751162160
isocitrate lyase activities in pinus pinea seeds.some features of cytoplasmic and glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase obtained from stratified and germinated p. pinea seeds, respectively, are described. both activities showed a different electrophoretic mobility on cellulose acetate and elution behaviour on sephadex g-200. cycloheximide inhibited the increase of both activities during the first days of germination. chloramphenicol did not show the same effect.19751162170
rapid biochemical test for seed germinability.sugar and aminoacids were investigated in sterile distilled water after pinus pinea seeds had been soaked in it during 24 hours at 37 degrees c. germination viability decreased with the ageing of the seeds and was accompanied by sugar and aminoacids increase in the exudate. the sugar content from seeds with loss of germinability was about 50 to 80 times greater than that from seeds with good germinability. paper chromatography showed that there was an increase in mono, di, oligosaccharides and a ...19751215622
in vivo effects of octanoate and oleate on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase during germination of pinus pinea seeds.during our investigation on the effect of some fatty acids on the germination of pinus pinea seeds (vincenzini et al., 1973), we noted a marked decrease of g6pdh activity when octanoate or oleate were added to the culture medium. in an attempt to provide biochemical information on the effect of free fatty acids on g6pdh activity, in vivo, during pinus pinea seeds germination, we tested different concentrations of octanoate and oleate added to the culture medium. moreover other enzymes of fundame ...19751218971
purification and characterization of wheat and pine small basic protein substrates for plant calcium-dependent protein kinase.a wheat basic protein (wbp) was purified to homogeneity from wheat germ by a protocol involving extraction, centrifugation, batchwise elution from carboxymethylcellulose (cm-52), acidification with trifluoroacetic acid, neutralization and hplc on a sp5pw cation exchange column. wbp is a 10 kda protein and is phosphorylated on serine residues by wheat germ ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (cdpk). [32p]phosphowbp exactly comigrates with wbp on sds-page. wbp does not inhibit either wheat germ cdpk o ...19921576154
[systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, pinus pinea].an in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. in vitro tests suggested a systemic ige allergic reaction. pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.19902256225
detergents as selective inhibitors and inactivators of enzymes.in order to study the detergent-enzyme interaction and to clarify whether such an interaction produces specific or non-specific effects, we investigated the action of natural and synthetic detergents on enzymatic systems of different levels of complexity (crystalline enzymes, crude homogenates, organ preparations, organisms in toto i.e. rats and germinating seeds). the enzyme-detergent interaction was examined both as a time-independent phenomenon (inhibition) and as a time-dependent phenomenon ...19852937071
occurrence of cyclic amp and related enzymes during germination of pinus pinea seeds.the occurrence of camp, adenylate cyclase and camp phosphodiesterase has been tested in pinus pinea seed during germination. the study has been carried out on dormant and imbibed seeds, seedlings, endospermic residues, roots and cotyledons. camp has been detected by the protein binding method and its occurrence has been verified by hplc detections. camp phosphodiesterase shows a very high activity at acidic ph, while being completely inactive at ph 7.4. at this ph value, well detectable levels o ...19873038780
isocitrate lyase from pinus pinea. characterization of its true substrate and the action of magnesium ions.we found that the mg-isocitrate complex is the true substrate for pine isocitrate lyase and that magnesium acts as a non-essential activator. both the non-activated and the activated enzyme forms are catalytically active. our model is consistent with the presence of two mg-binding sites with different affinities: an activator site with high affinity in addition to the catalytic site with lower affinity. this may result in a complex, fine regulation of isocitrate lyase activity by magnesium. the ...19883345764
purification and some properties of isocitrate lyase from pinus pinea. 19724200559
ferredoxin-nadp reductase from pinus pinea. 19684388777
[biochemical changes in pinus pinea seeds. i. pretreatments by high temperatures (author's transl)]. 19744438799
some molecular properties of pinus pinea ferredoxin. 19724667696
an investigation on free oses and holosides in pinus pinea seed. main changes occurring in seeds during cold stratification and germination. 19744829143
the fine structure of the mature resin canal cells of pinus pinea. 19655320627
role of phosphate and acid phosphatase during germination of pinus pinea seed. 19705424327
on the possible intracellular localization of isocitrate lyase from pinus pinea. 19715573273
[on ferredoxine-nadp reductase: localization in pinus pinea]. 19685726491
an anomalous wall thickening and its possible role in the uptake of stem-fed tritiated glucose by pinus pinea. 19655831050
[enzyme levels during germination and vegetative renewal in pinus pinea and pinus pinaster]. 19665943058
[changes in nucleic acid fractions during the germination of seeds of p. pinea. effect of growth factors].the application of indolacetic acid, gibberellic acid and kinetin increased the germination pattern of pinus pinea seeds. nucleic acid metabolism during germination has been investigated. seeds grown in the presence of all these substances, contained higher amounts of total nucleic acid than the controls. kinetin was the most active factor, increasing t-rna, dna-rna and r-rna levels in embryos and megagametophytes. on the other hand, gibberellic acid showed in the first stages of germination a s ...19826183718
germination inhibitors in embryos and endosperms from pinus pinea seeds.inhibitors from pinus pinea l. seed embryos and endosperms were separated using thin layer chromatography and a sephadex g-10 column. the inhibitory activity was resolved into several fractions. one of these behaved similarly to abscisic acid in thin layer chromatography and sephadex g-10 chromatography and in uv absorption and fluorescence spectra. in endosperm another potent inhibitor was detected, which showed a characteristic syndrome similar to that of phosphon d. these germination inhibito ...19806453107
isocitrate lyase: artifacts and multiple enzyme forms.multiple enzyme forms of isocitrate lyase from various sources have been frequently reported. protease action after cell rupture was sporadically claimed to explain the observed multiple enzyme forms. in this communication studies which are consistent with a protease action in vitro on isocitrate lyase of pinus pinea germinating seeds are reported. moreover, changes in deae-sephacel patterns, mainly related to the age of germination, were observed. differences regarding the heat stability of the ...19836614913
isocitrate lyase of conifers (pinus pinea).1. isocitrate lyase has been purified about 60 times from the conifer pinus pinea. a first characterization was made. 2. the high instability is an important feature of this enzyme from higher plants, this causes serious problems in the purification and characterization. 3. a substantial agreement with the data from the literature was found for what concerns ph dependence of vmax and pkm, the effect of bivalent cations and the requirement of mg2+. 4. kinetic studies gave evidence for a mechanism ...19827067906
on the stability of isocitrate lyase from pinus pinea.isocitrate lyase is a key catalyst of the glyoxylate cycle. a feature of the enzyme from higher plants is the high instability, that causes innumerable problems in working for characterization of the enzyme. the present communication demonstrates that the optimal conditions for the storage of isocitrate lyase from pinus pinea are: the use of a low temperature (possibly below -20 degrees c), the realization of a high endogenous protein concentration of the enzyme preparations, or, above all when ...19827129856
[d-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase in germinating seeds of pinus pinea].the purification grade of d-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase, the specific enzyme activity, the michaelis constant and the optimum ph are determined in extracts from embryos and endosperms of pinus pinea seeds germinated at different stages of germination. on the other hand the influence of levulinic acid, sodium cyanide, sodium malonate, sodium arsenite and sodium azide on the activity of d-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase has also been studied.19827146597
allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.a patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: pinus pinea). specific ige against this nut and another pine nut (p. cembra) was demonstrated by rast. cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by rast inhibition. besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.19968905003
visualization of the cytoskeleton within the secondary vascular system of hardwood species.a single fixation technique has been devised to demonstrate localization of alpha-tubulin (for microtubules) and f-actin (for microfilaments) within the secondary vascular system of hardwood trees by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using butyl-methylmethacrylate-embedded material. application of this technique to problems of cytomorphogenesis during secondary growth and its versatility are demonstrated with the hardwood species aesculus hippocastanum l., salix viminalis l., s. burjatica n ...19979316269
multisite inhibition of pinus pinea isocitrate lyase by phosphate.our results show that the phosphate ion is a nonlinear competitive inhibitor of pinus pinea isocitrate lyase. in addition, this compound induces a sigmoidal response of the enzyme, which usually exhibits standard michaelis-menten kinetics. this peculiar behavior of p. pinea isocitrate lyase could be explained by a dimer (two-site) model, in which phosphate binds cooperatively, but the affinity of the vacant site for substrate (the magnesium-isocitrate complex) remains the same. as a result, the ...200011080290
a comparative study of glutathione and ascorbate metabolism during germination of pinus pinea l. seeds.the ascorbate and glutathione systems have been studied during the first stages of germination in orthodox seeds of the gymnosperm pinus pinea l. (pine). the results indicate that remarkable changes in the content and redox balance of these metabolites occur in both the embryo and endosperm; even if with different patterns for the two redox pairs. dry seeds are devoid of the ascorbate reduced form (asc) and contain only dehydroascorbic acid (dha). by contrast, glutathione is present both in the ...200111479329
myosin, microtubules, and microfilaments: co-operation between cytoskeletal components during cambial cell division and secondary vascular differentiation in trees.the immunolocalisation of unconventional myosin viii ('myosin') in the cells of the secondary vascular tissues of angiosperm (populus tremula l. x p. tremuloides michx. and aesculus hippocastanum l.) and gymnosperm (pinus pinea l.) trees is described for the first time and related to other cytoskeletal elements, as well as to callose. both myosin and callose are located at the cell plate in dividing cambial cells, whereas actin microfilaments are found alongside the cell plate; actin and tubulin ...200211925036
allergy to pine nut.background: food allergy is highly prevalent in our environment, especially among atopic patients. pinus pinea is common in our region and its fruit, the pine nut, is allergologically important. several cases have been reported in the literature that demonstrate the existence of common antigenic bands between pine nut and almond. in this study we try to assess this finding and the possible existence of common allergens by in vitro techniques.methods and results: we present a 10-year-old boy, pre ...200211958743
the distance to which wound effects influence the structure of secondary xylem of decapitated pinus pinea.decapitation of stems of annuals and trees for the study of vascular and fiber differentiation with or without hormonal application is a common procedure. there is controversy about whether wound effects play a role in such experiments, and to what distance from the point of decapitation. to examine this question, the distance from the point of decapitation at which apparent wound effects are obvious developmentally, was studied in decapitated 4-year-old pinus pinea plants. the wound effects jus ...200212024221
composition of gum turpentines of pines. xxiii. a report on three mediterranean species: pinus pinea (cultivated in california), p. halepensis (from israel) and p. brutia (from cyprus). 195514353749
hormonal changes throughout maturation and ageing in pinus pinea.phytohormones, which are responsible for certain age-related changes in plants, play a major role throughout maturation and ageing. previous results dealing with this topic allowed us to describe an ageing and vigour index in pinus radiata based on a ratio between different forms of cytokinins (cks). the aim of the present study was to extend the studies on the changes in the hormonal status throughout maturation and ageing to stone pine (pinus pinea l.). with this aim in mind, a number of cks w ...200415120119
reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants.the use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. the plant species tested were pinus pinea, cupressus arizonica and c. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2) pine bark with 15% of sewage sludge compost, (3) pine bark with 30% of sewage sludge compost, (4) coconut fibre, (5) ...200515364091
fatty acid composition of two tunisian pine seed oils.oils were extracted from fully ripen pinus pinea l. and pinus halepensis mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. for p. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. for p. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportion ...200515932286
fatty acids from seeds of pinus pinea l.: composition and population profiling.pinus pinea l. is widely disseminated all over the mediterranean basin. qualitatively, p. pinea fatty acid seed composition is identical and typical of the genus pinus. this composition is made of unsaturated oil with several unusual polymethylene-interrupted unsaturated fatty acids. linoleic acid is the major fatty acid followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. quantitatively, for all mediterranean populations, total amounts of fatty acids seem to be fairly constant and independent from th ...200516002105
screening for putative pgpr to improve establishment of the symbiosis lactarius deliciosus-pinus sp.a screening for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) was carried out in the mycorrhizosphere of wild populations of pinus pinea and p. pinaster, and in the mycosphere of associated lactarius deliciosus. a total of 720 bacteria were isolated, purified, and grouped by morphological criteria. fifty percent of the isolates were selected and tested for aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (acc) degradation, auxin and siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. thirty eight percent of the ...200516047098
higher plants as bioindicators of sulphur dioxide emissions in urban environments.the evaluation of certain vascular plants that grow in the city of madrid as biomonitors of so(2) air pollution in urban environments has been carried out. total concentration of sulphur in leaves of the chosen higher plants as well as other parameters in close relation to this contaminant (visible injury symptoms, chlorophyll a- and b-content and peroxidase activity) have been determined in order to study the spatial distribution and temporal changes in so(2) deposition. results obtained show t ...200516311823
enzymes of glyoxylate in conifers.the high level of lipids in seeds of some species of conifers suggested that the glyoxylate cycle might have a role in conifer seed metabolism.six species (pinus pinea, pinus pinaster, pinus canariensis, pinus strobus, abies alba, and cupressus sempervirens) were investigated for their lipid content and malate synthase and isocitrate lyase level. the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride fraction was also investigated. the correlation between lipid content of germinating seed with the prese ...196816656892
the effects of octanoate and oleate on isocitrate lyase activity during the germination of pinus pinea seeds.the changes of isocitrate lyase levels with respect to the catabolism of triglycerides have been studied during the germination of pinus pinea seeds. we studied the effects of octanoate, oleate, and inhibitors of protein synthesis on isocitrate lyase during germination. pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-p-dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were also assayed. octanoate and oleate inhibited the isocitrate lyase activity, similarly to cycloheximide, chloramphenicol, and acti ...197316658603
morphological and physiological damage by surfactant-polluted seaspray on pinus pinea and pinus halepensis.this paper reports morphological and physiological damage caused by polluted seaspray to coastal pine forests in liguria (northern italy) and suggests the most reliable parameters for surfactant-pollution biomonitoring. concentrations of surfactants in surface seawater, seaspray, and that deposited on pinus halepensis and pinus pinea needles were determined in samples from five sites. decline of the pines in the western part of liguria was greater than in the east, and was associated with higher ...200515952519
contamination of pine nuts by fumonisin produced by strains of fusarium proliferatum isolated from pinus pinea.to test the ability of fusarium proliferatum strains isolated from pinus pinea to synthesize fumonisin b(1) (fb(1)) in pine nuts.200717209817
fumonisin production by gibberella fujikuroi strains from pinus species.fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. in this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of fusarium moniliforme sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of pinus pinea. p. pinea is an important and widely distributed pinus species in the mediterranean area where their pine nuts ...200314623387
gravitational stress on germinating pinus pinea seeds.in the germination of lipid-rich seeds, the glyoxylate cycle plays a control role in that, bypassing the two decarboxylative steps of the krebs cycle; it allows the net synthesis of carbohydrates from lipids. the activity of isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is an indicator of the state of seed germination: stage of germination, growth of embryo, activation and progress of protein synthesis, depletion of lipidic supplies. in order to investigate the effects of gravity on ...200314558475
strategies of heavy metal uptake by plants growing under industrial emissions.total concentrations of al, ba, ca, cr, cu, fe, k, mg, mn, pb and zn have been estimated in soil (a-horizon) and in leaves and stem samples of two mediterranean species (nerium oleander l. and pinus pinea l.) growing in an industrial area in spain (huelva). both species showed a different behaviour for the elements studied. bark and leaves of both species acted as excluders of al, ba, cr, fe and pb, n. oleander acted as indicator of cu and zn and, needles and bark of p. pinea behaved as accumula ...200717363057
anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.pine nuts are the seeds of pinus pinea. there are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. we describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. specific ige to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and rast but no ige to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. the patients had ige against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kda that could be considered as the main allergen. our patients were monosensitized to pine n ...200312911512
ecophysiology of seedlings of three mediterranean pine species in contrasting light regimes.seasonal dynamics of net photosynthesis (anet) in 2-year-old seedlings of pinus brutia ten., pinus pinea l. and pinus pinaster ait. were investigated. seedlings were grown in the field in two light regimes: sun (ambient light) and shade (25% of photosynthetically active radiation (par)). repeated measures analyses over a 12-month period showed that anet varied significantly among species and from season to season. maximum anet in sun-acclimated seedlings was low in winter (yet remained positive) ...200312511302
stomatal constraints may affect emission of oxygenated monoterpenoids from the foliage of pinus pinea.dependence of monoterpenoid emission and fractional composition on stomatal conductance (g(v)) was studied in mediterranean conifer pinus pinea, which primarily emits limonene and trans-beta-ocimene but also large fractions of oxygenated monoterpenoids linalool and 1,8-cineole. strong decreases in g(v) attributable to diurnal water stress were accompanied by a significant reduction in total monoterpenoid emission rate in midday. however, various monoterpenoids responded differently to the reduct ...200212428002
effects of inoculation with pgpr bacillus and pisolithus tinctorius on pinus pinea l. growth, bacterial rhizosphere colonization, and mycorrhizal infection.the effect of co-inoculation with pisolithus tinctorius and a pgpr belonging to the genus bacillus (bacillus licheniformis cect 5106 and bacillus pumilus cect 5105) in enhancing growth of pinus pinea plants and the changes that occurred in rhizosphere microbial communities and the degree of mycorrhization were evaluated. both bacterial strains of bacillus promote the growth of pinus pinea seedlings, but this biological effect does not imply a synergic effect with mycorrhizal infection. however, ...200112032619
226ra bioavailability to plants at the urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the urgeiriça mine (north of portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). to reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus globolus) and pines (pinus pinea). besides these plants, some shrubs (cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. the objective of this study is to determine the 226ra bioavailabi ...200111379070
effect of inoculation with putative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria isolated from pinus spp. on pinus pinea growth, mycorrhization and rhizosphere microbial communities.in this study, 10 putative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) were assayed for their ability to improve pinus pinea growth and mycorrhization.200818713291
anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. we present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific ige antibodies. in order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was ige mediated, specific ige against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and rast. immunoblotting ...200010780800
nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8s region of ribosomal dna in pinus pinea l.the nucleotide sequence of the first internal transcribed spacer (its1) belonging to different ribosomal rna genes from pinus pinea are reported. the analyzed its1 can be distinguished on the basis of their length, being one 2631 bp and the other 271 bp long. nucleotide comparison of these regions did not show appreciable sequence homology. the larger its1 contains five tandem arranged subrepeats with size ranging between 219 bp and 237 bp. the nucleotide sequence of the 5.8s and the its2 region ...19968722573
[changes in proteins and proteases during artificial aging in seeds of pinus pinea].changes in the germination-rate and the biochemical differences in soluble proteins and proteases in artificially aged pinus pinea seeds have been investigated. in the aged seeds, soluble proteins decrease during the germination process, parallel to increased levels of proteases activities in both endosperms and embryos. these changes might be involved in the loss of viability.19826755579
microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of pinus pinaster ait. and pinus pinea l. by gc-ms.two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (mae) and ultrasonic extraction (use)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 us environmental protection agency (epa) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) from pine trees. extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the iberian peninsula (pinus pinaster ait. and pinus pinea l.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two pahs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). in all cases, the clean ...200919064100
[changes in the albumin and globulin fractions in seeds of pinus pinea during artificial aging].the alterations on the electrophoretic patterns of albumin and globulin fractions in both embryo and endosperms of pinus pinea seeds during artificial ageing have been investigated. the results show that the electrophoretic patterns of aged seeds are drastically different from those of seeds with high germination capacity. these alterations were observed even when the quantitative analysis did not show any significant changes.19836675093
biochemical changes in pinus pinea seeds during storing.the changes in the germination-rate, the contents in germination-inhibitors and the biochemical differences in soluble proteins and nucleic acids in freshly harvested pinus pinea seeds stored for various periods of time, up to 24 months, and at two different temperatures (room temperature and 4 degrees c), have been investigated. the present results show that the maturation or after-ripening process of this type of seeds might be induced during the first 6 and 12 months of storage. however, seed ...19826179134
caulogenic induction in cotyledons of stone pine (pinus pinea): relationship between organogenic response and benzyladenine trends in selected families.adventitious bud formation in stone pine cotyledons cultured in the presence of benzyladenine (ba) has been proposed as a model for the study of in vitro shoot organogenesis in conifers. this is because of its advantageous characteristics including the requirement of only one plant growth regulator (ba), the synchronous fashion of its induction, and the homogeneity and low degree of differentiation of cotyledons. although optimal culture conditions have been developed and are currently in use, w ...200919232774
an isocitrate lyase of higher plants: analysis and comparison of some molecular properties.a new purification procedure for isocitrate lyase from pinus pinea is reported. the final preparation shows charge homogeneity and a purity degree higher than 95%. it is possible to remove catalase completely by exploiting the high hydrophobicity of isocitrate lyase. the enzyme has a mr of 264,000 and is likely composed of four subunits, each with a mr of 66,000. the binding of radioactively labeled oxalate revealed four catalytic sites per oligomer. these data suggest that isocitrate lyase subu ...19863947071
quantitative detection of lactarius deliciosus extraradical soil mycelium by real-time pcr and its application in the study of fungal persistence and interspecific competition.real-time pcr has been applied to quantify extraradical soil mycelium of the edible ectomycorrhizal fungus lactarius deliciosus in an interspecific competition experiment under greenhouse conditions. couples of pinus pinea seedlings inoculated with either l. deliciosus, rhizopogon roseolus, or non-inoculated (control) were transplanted into pots filled with two types of soil in all the possible combinations. total dna was extracted from soil samples at 3 and 6 months after transplantation to per ...200717055100
high tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in pinus pinea l. seeds.oleaginous seeds are among the functional foods most recognized for their tocopherols and triacylglycerols because of their role in lipid metabolism. in this paper, the tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in seeds of several pinus pinea l. populations around the mediterranean basin were investigated. lipids were extracted from fully ripen seeds with petroleum ether. the tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 15.34+/-3.75 ppm, 1,681. ...200919466628
allergenicity and cross-reactivity of pine pollen.pine pollen has long been considered a non-allergenic pollen. the large size of the grain and its low levels of proteins are the main reasons invoked to explain this low allergenicity. the aim of this study was to describe the main allergenic bands of pinus radiata (pr) and its cross-reactivity with other pine species, other conifers and grass pollen.200919573163
the use of compost in afforestation of mediterranean areas: effects on soil properties and young tree seedlings.in mediterranean frequently burnt areas, fire and erosion result in the decrease of soil fertility, so afforestation is a major concern. we carried out an in situ experiment of compost amendment to improve survival and growth of planted tree seedlings. one-year-tree seedlings of native species (quercus ilex, pinus halepensis and pinus pinea) were planted on a frequently burnt calcareous site. three rates of fresh co-composted sewage sludge and greenwastes (control without compost, 20 and 40 kg m ...200616762400
traffic pollution affects tree-ring width and isotopic composition of pinus pinea.this study presents new evidence that radiocarbon, combined with dendrochronological and stable isotopes analysis in tree rings and needles, can help to better understand the influence of pollution on trees. pinus pinea individuals, adjacent to main roads in the urban area of caserta (south italy) and exposed to large amounts of traffic exhaust since 1980, were sampled and the time-related trend in the growth residuals was estimated. we found a consistent decrease in the ring width starting from ...201019853888
the gymnosperm pinus pinea contains both aox gene subfamilies, aox1 and aox2.the gymnosperm pinus pinea l. (stone pine) is a typical mediterranean pine used for nuts and timber production, and as an ornamental around the world. pine genomes are large in comparison to other species. the hypothesis that retrotransposons, such as gymny, made a large contribution to this alteration in genome size was recently confirmed. however, p. pinea is unique in other various aspects. p. pinea demonstrates a different pattern of gymny organization than other pinus subgenera. additionall ...200919863755
multielemental fractionation in pine nuts (pinus pinea) from different geographic origins by size-exclusion chromatography with uv and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.pine nuts (pinus pinea) from different geographical origin in spain and portugal have been investigated concerning total element content and metal-biomolecules size distribution patterns mn, zn, ni and cu. all the studied metals were at the highest concentration in pine nuts from faro and at the lowest from cataluña. the most abundant element in samples was mn at concentrations in the range of 26 microg g(-1) (cataluña) to 559 microg g(-1) (faro). zn was also present at high concentration in sam ...200616678835
assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution by aboveground plant parts.italian stone pine (pinus pinea l.) and oleander (nerium oleander l.) leaves, bark and wood samples were collected at different sites around an industrial area (huelva, sw spain) and compared with samples of the same species from a background site. samples were analysed with respect to the following pollutants: al, ba, cr, cu, fe and pb by icp-aes. the suitability of different plant parts as biomonitors of pollution was investigated. in pine samples from the polluted sites the ratio of concentra ...200616624374
chemical profiling of portuguese pinus pinea l. nuts.the first detailed chemical characterisation of portuguese pine nut (pinus pinea l.) is reported concerning proximate composition, fatty acid, mineral and vitamin contents.201020355145
cloning and characterization of a type-a response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious shoot formation in pinus pinea l.type-a response regulators play an important role in cytokinin-induced adventitious shoot formation, acting as negative regulators of cytokinin signal transduction. in this work, we obtained the full-length cdna clone of a type-a response regulator from the conifer pinus pinea, designated pipirr1. the derived peptide sequence showed all the characteristic motifs found in angiosperms. gene expression analysis showed that the gene was differentially expressed during adventitious shoot formation in ...201020399530
biomonitoring of chemical elements in an urban environment using arboreal and bush plant species.the aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using several bush and arboreal plant species, usually present as ornamental plants in street and parks, as environmental indicators of pollution. this is a research paper that evaluates the real possibility of using a fast and low-cost procedure to evaluate the pollution degree through data obtained from plant species growing within an urban environment.201120559747
analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pine needles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison of different extraction and clean-up procedures.three extraction methodologies (soxhlet, ultrasonic and pressurized liquid extraction) and several clean-up procedures (florisil, silica and alumina in cartridges or glass column format) were tested and compared to extract 16 us environmental protection agency (epa) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) from pinus pinea l. needles. quantification was done by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, by internal standard method using five deuterated pah surrogate standards. among the several e ...200616620846
the influence of pine volatile compounds on the olfactory response by neodiprion sertifer (geoffroy) females.females of the pine sawfly neodiprion sertifer (hymenoptera diprionidae) usually avoid pinus pinea trees as host plants. in contrast, this sawfly species is highly attracted by p. sylvestris and p. nigra trees. here, we investigated which pine volatiles might mediate this behavior by in situ sampling experiments and olfactometer laboratory tests. volatiles emitted from p. pinea, p. sylvestris, and p. nigra foliage were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (spme). analysis of these volatiles by ...201020809142
effects of agroforestry on phytoseiid mite communities (acari: phytoseiidae) in vineyards in the south of france.the abundance and diversity of phytoseiid mites were surveyed from april to september 2003 to 2005 in vineyards (grenache and syrah cultivars) co-planted with rows of sorbus domestica or pinus pinea and in monoculture plots of grapes in the south of france. densities of phytoseiid mites were different on the two tree species, with p. pinea a more suitable host than s. domestica. typhlodromus (typhlodromus) exhilaratus was the dominant species occurring on grapes and on co-planted rows of s. dome ...200717237967
repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito culex pipiens molestus (diptera: culicidae).the insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito culex pipiens molestus forskal were determined. extracts of foeniculum vulgare mill were the most toxic, followed by those of ferula hermonis boiss, citrus sinensis osbeck, pinus pinea l, laurus nobilis l and eucalyptus spp with lc50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. combination tests between the lc50 and ...200515662650
utility of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the intergenic spacer region of the rdna for characterizing gibberella fujikuroi isolates.in the present report, a total of thirty-one isolates of gibberella fujikuroi (sawada) wollenw. species complex of fusarium (section liseola) morphologically classified as f. moniliforme according to the taxonomy of nelson, toussoun and marasas (1983) were analyzed for their ability to produce fumonisin b1 and fumonisin b2 by an optimized liquid chromatographic method. they were isolated from three hosts (zea mays, musa sapientum and pinus pinea). the results indicate that m. sapientum is a pref ...200415612625
pine needles as passive bio-samplers to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers.eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) were determined in pine needles of three species (pinus halepensis, pinus pinea and pinus nigra) collected in the ne spain in an attempt to use this matrix for the biomonitoring of airborne pbdes. the method used was based in ultrasonic extraction followed by alumina and florisil clean-up and determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization. recoveries were between 99% and 138%, limits of detection betwe ...201121742367
appraisal on the wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils obtained from the cones and needles of pinus species by in vivo and in vitro experimental models.according to ethnobotanical data, pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in turkish folk medicine. essential oils from the cones and needles of five different pinus species (pinus brutia ten., pinus halepensis mill., pinus nigra arn., pinus pinea l. and pinus sylvestris l.) were evaluated for their in vivo wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.201122155393
different extraction approaches for the biomonitoring of pesticides in pine needles.an ultrasonic extraction (use) procedure followed by two alternative clean-up approaches using solid-phase extraction (spe) cartridges (envi 18 and florisil) and quechers extraction and clean-up methodology were tested and compared for the determination of20 pesticides in pinus pinea needles. the analysis and quantification were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) in selected ion storage (sis) mode, using triphenyl phosphate (tpp) as the internal standard. one sample mass ( ...201223393978
organogenic responses of pinus pinea cotyledons to hormonal treatments: ba metabolism and cytokinin content.isolated cotyledons from mature pinus pinea l. embryos were cultured in vitro in a factorial combination of 4.4, 10 and 44.4 microm n6-benzyladenine (ba) for 2, 4, 8, 16 and 35 days to optimize shoot regeneration. incubation of explants in 44.4 microm ba for 4 days, in place of the standard incubation in 4.4 microm ba for 35 days, reduced the entire culture period to 4 weeks. shortening the culture period had no significant effect on the caulogenic response or the number of buds formed per cotyl ...200515519980
influence of copper on root growth and morphology of pinus pinea l. and pinus pinaster ait. seedlings.we assessed the effects of cu on root growth and morphology of stone pine (pinus pinea l.) and maritime pine (pinus pinaster ait.) seedlings grown in culture solutions supplied with 0.012 (control), 0.1, 1 or 5 micro m cuso(4). the presence of 5 micro m cu in the nutrient solution completely inhibited root growth of both species within 3 days. in both species, taproot elongation was reduced in the presence of 1 micro m cu, although partial growth recovery occurred after 7 days of treatment. the ...199514965951
quantification of sterols and aliphatic alcohols in mediterranean stone pine (pinus pinea l.) populations.individual components of pinus pinea l. oil unsaponifiable matter isolated from seven mediterranean populations were identified and quantified. p. pinea oil unsaponifiable matter contained very high levels of phytosterols (>or=4298 mg kg-1 of total extracted lipids), of which beta-sitosterol was the most abundant (74%). aliphatic alcohol contents were 1365 mg kg-1 of total extracted lipids, of which octacosanol was the most abundant (41%). two alcohols (hexacosanol and octacosanol), which are us ...200717309279
[storage proteins from seeds of pinus pinea l].the mediterranean stone pine pinus pinea l. (gymnosperm, pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the mediterranean basin. seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kda, revealed by sds-page. the albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kda. glutelins, the least soluble frac ...200717531790
molecular characterization of hetrv8-ir1, a partitivirus of the invasive conifer pathogenic fungus heterobasidion irregulare.the heterobasidion annosum (fr.) bref. complex includes some of the most destructive conifer pathogenic fungi in the boreal forest region. h. irregulare, formerly known as the north american pine type of h. annosum, was introduced from north america into italy during the second world war and occurs as an invasive pathogen in pinus pinea stands together with the native european species h. annosum sensu stricto. we describe the complete nucleotide sequence of a new putative partitivirus from an it ...201323456423
combined use of total metal content and size fractionation of metal biomolecules to determine the provenance of pine nuts (pinus pinea).four essential elements (mn, ni, zn, and cu) and their molecular-size distribution patterns have been determined, for twenty four samples of pine nuts from eight areas in spain and portugal (huelva, cádiz, badajoz, cataluña, castilla, madrid, faro, and coimbra), by size-exclusion liquid chromatography (sec) coupled on-line to uv and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (icp-ms) detection. the variability observed in total element content and the size-exclusion profiles of elements in sa ...200717541567
identification of genes differentially expressed during adventitious shoot induction in pinus pinea cotyledons by subtractive hybridization and quantitative pcr.as part of a study aimed at understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in adventitious shoot bud formation in pine cotyledons, we conducted a transcriptome analysis to identify early-induced genes during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis in pinus pinea l. cotyledons cultured in the presence of benzyladenine. a subtractive cdna library with more than 700 clones was constructed. of these clones, 393 were sequenced, analyzed and grouped according to their putative ...200717938103
postfire regeneration in pinus pinea l. and pinus pinaster aiton in andalucia (spain).the objective of this study was to examine postfire regeneration of tree, shrub, and dwarf shrub species, in relation to levels of damage in four planted pine forests (pinus pinea, pinus pinaster) in andalusia. a prefire vegetation map was used for detailing species composition, vertical structure, and density and another for detailing the extent and intensity of fire damage. between 3 and 7 years after the fires, an inventory was made of the vegetation in each area, using the step-point method. ...200312447578
toxic potentials of ten herbs commonly used for aphrodisiac effect in turkey.sexual dysfunction is a serious problem worldwide. in turkey, herbal products are used by some people suffering from sexual dysfunction. despite their therapeutic advantages, some constituents of herbs are potentially toxic and pose health risks because they can be bought from the market without a prescription. therefore, we aimed to determine the safety of herbs possessing aphrodisiac effects, chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance in turkey.201526281312
rhodamine b removal with activated carbons obtained from lignocellulosic waste.by-products from the wax production process from carnauba palm (leaves), from the extraction of oil from macauba seeds (endocarp) and from pine nut production (shell) have been assessed for activated carbon production, using h3po4 or cacl2 for their chemical activation. the resulting activated charcoals have been thoroughly characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron scanning microscopy and n2 adsorption behavior. subsequently, their adsorp ...201525770964
early physiological responses of pinus pinea l. seedlings infected by heterobasidion sp.pl. in an ozone-enriched atmospheric environment.the presence of the american root-rot disease fungus heterobasidion irregulare garbel. & otrosina was detected in italian coastal pine forests (pinus pinea l.) in addition to the common native species heterobasidion annosum (fries) brefeld. high levels of tropospheric ozone (o3) as an atmospheric pollutant are usually experienced in mediterranean pine forests. to explore the effect of interaction between the two heterobasidion species and ozone pollution on p. pinea, an open-top chamber (otc) ex ...201525725363
genetically depauperate but widespread: the case of an emblematic mediterranean pine.genetic variation is generally considered a prerequisite for adaptation to new environmental conditions. thus the discovery of genetically depauperate but geographically widespread species is unexpected. we used 12 paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellites to estimate population genetic variation across the full range of an emblematic circum-mediterranean conifer, stone pine (pinus pinea l.). the same chloroplast dna haplotype is fixed in nearly all of the 34 investigated populations. suc ...200817983461
speciation of manganese binding to biomolecules in pine nuts (pinus pinea) by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detectors followed by identification by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.advances in analytical methodology for speciation of manganese in pine nuts are presented in this work. the approach is based on the use of orthogonal chromatographic systems, namely size-exclusion chromatography (sec) of the extracts and strong anion exchange (iec) of the fractions collected by the first column. in both columns, manganese elution is first monitored by a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (icp-ms) instrument equipped with an octopole reaction cell and an ult ...200818763246
[lactate as competitive inhibitor of pinus pinea isocitrate lyase].we studied the effect of l-lactate on both the cleavage and the condensation reactions of pinus pinea isocitrate lyase. this compound is a competitive of pinus pinea isocitrate lyase towards both isocitrate and glyoxylate, whereas is a mixed type inhibitor towards succinate. assuming that l-lactate acts as a glyoxylate analogue, our finding agrees with an uni-bi ordered mechanism of isocitrate lyase, with glyoxylate first substrate to enter the active site in the condensation reaction. results a ...19958564580
field persistence of the edible ectomycorrhizal fungus lactarius deliciosus: effects of inoculation strain, initial colonization level, and site characteristics.pinus pinea plants were inoculated with different strains of the edible ectomycorrhizal fungus lactarius deliciosus. the inoculated plants were established in six experimental plantations in two sites located in the mediterranean area to determine the effect of the initial colonization level and the inoculated strain on fungal persistence in the field. ectomycorrhizal root colonization was determined at transplantation time and monitored at different times from uprooted plants. extraradical soil ...200919153778
evaluation of the physical, mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboard manufactured from waste stone pine (pinus pinea l.) cones.the objective of this study was to investigate some physical/mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboard containing particles of waste stone pine cone at various usage ratios using urea-formaldehyde resin. some physical (thickness swelling, water absorption), mechanical (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond strength) properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboards were evaluated. the addition of cone particle improved water resistance of the panels ...201019733063
levels and sources of pahs in selected sites from portugal: biomonitoring with pinus pinea and pinus pinaster needles.pine needle samples from two pine species (pinus pinaster ait. and pinus pinea l.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs). the values obtained for the sum of all pahs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, p. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than p. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, re ...201020107982
sensitivity to zinc of mediterranean woody species important for restoration.heavy metals have increased in natural woodlands and shrublands over the last several decades as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. however, our knowledge of the effects of these elements on woody species is scarce. in this study, we examined the responses of six mediterranean woody species to increasing levels of zinc in hydroponic culture and discussed the possible implications for the restoration of contaminated sites. the species used, pinus pinea l., pinus pinaster ait., pinus halep ...201020189221
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