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seasonal variation of western white pine (pinus monticola d. don) foliage proteins.recently, a western white pine protein, pin m iii, was shown to be associated with overwintering and frost hardiness of western white pine foliage. to examine whether pin m iii is directly involved in frost hardiness by functioning as an antifreeze protein, work is underway to clone the gene encoding this protein and to assess the function of this gene in freezing tolerance by incorporating the gene in a test plant, such as tobacco. here, we examined in more detail, by sds-page and also by two d ...19968665095
mediterranean climate effects. i. conifer water use across a sierra nevada ecotone.xylem water potential of the midelevation conifers pinus jeffreyi, pinus lambertiana, abies concolor, and calocedrus decurrens, the higher elevation pinus monticola and abies magnifica, and co-occurring evergreen angiosperm shrubs, together with soil moisture under these plants, were monitored at three sites on the kern plateau in the southernmost sierra nevada range of california: site locations spanned the ecotone between the mid- and upper montane forests at elevations of 2230-2820 m. measure ...200111353716
mediterranean climate effects. ii. conifer growth phenology across a sierra nevada ecotone.growth and xylem water potential of the lower elevation conifers pinus jeffreyi and abies concolor and the higher elevation pinus monticola and abies magnifica were monitored in their montane mediterranean habitat of the southernmost sierra nevada mountains of california: measurements were made across the ecotone between the midmontane and upper montane forests and through light and heavy snowfall years. radial stem growth, averaging approximately 1.5 mm/yr, started 2 wk after snow melt, providi ...200111353717
family differences in height growth and photosynthetic traits in three conifers.we investigated variation in height growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf stable carbon isotope ratio among wind-pollinated progenies of douglas-fir (pseudotsuga menziesii (mirb.) franco var. glauca), ponderosa pine (pinus ponderosa dougl. ex laws.) and western white pine (pinus monticola dougl. ex d. don) from a small group of contiguous stands on the priest river experimental forest in northern idaho. photosynthetic variables differed between height classes in the pines, but ...200111470658
time-series analysis of delta13c from tree rings. i. time trends and autocorrelation.univariate time-series analyses were conducted on stable carbon isotope ratios obtained from tree-ring cellulose. we looked for the presence and structure of autocorrelation. significant autocorrelation violates the statistical independence assumption and biases hypothesis tests. its presence would indicate the existence of lagged physiological effects that persist for longer than the current year. we analyzed data from 28 trees (60-85 years old; mean = 73 years) of western white pine (pinus mon ...200111581016
responses of foliar delta13c, gas exchange and leaf morphology to reduced hydraulic conductivity in pinus monticola branches.we tested the hypothesis that branch hydraulic conductivity partly controls foliar stable carbon isotope ratio (delta13c) by its influence on stomatal conductance in pinus monticola dougl. notching and phloem-girdling treatments were applied to reduce branch conductivity over the course of a growing season. notching and phloem girdling reduced leaf-specific conductivity (lsc) by about 30 and 90%, respectively. the 90% reduction in lsc increased foliar delta13c by about 1 per thousand (p < 0.0001 ...200111600343
identification and characterization of rapd markers inferring genetic relationships among pine species.total genomic dnas were extracted from several populations of pine species and amplified using oligonucleotides of random sequences. polymorphism in random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers was high and sufficient in distinguishing each of the species. genetic relationships among eight pine species (pinus sylvestris, pinus strobus, pinus rigida, pinus resinosa, pinus nigra, pinus contorta, pinus monticola, and pinus banksiana) from different provenances were analyzed. the degree of band s ...200211908668
methyl jasmonate induces changes mimicking anatomical defenses in diverse members of the pinaceae.conifers have defenses such as the production of phenolic compounds and resins that can be induced by bark beetles and other invading organisms, but the signaling agents involved are unknown. the anatomical effects of methyl jasmonate (mj), a potent inducer of certain plant defenses, were compared with wounding of the bark of 12-15-year-old trees of five conifer species. wounding in all species resulted in tissue necrosis and wound periderm development immediately around the wound site. one cm f ...200312642238
characterization of pin m iii cdna in western white pine.maximum accumulation of pin m iii protein in western white pine (pinus monticola dougl. ex d. don) needles occurred during the winter months. to characterize pin m iii, an expression cdna library from poly(a)+ mrna of needles was immunoscreened and the full length cdna was cloned. an open reading frame of 486 bases encodes a protein of 161 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 18 kd and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.5. the deduced amino acid sequence had some similarities (37%) with ...200012651516
effect of white pine blister rust (cronartium ribicola) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine (pinus monticola).western white pine (pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western north america that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) was used to assess the genetic variation in northern idaho populations of western white pine (including rust-resistant breeding stock) in relation to blister rust. a total of ...200312671747
root-specific expression of a western white pine pr10 gene is mediated by different promoter regions in transgenic tobacco.we report here the isolation and characterization of a novel pr10 gene, pmpr10-1.14, from western white pine (pinus monticola dougl. ex. d. don). the pmpr10-1.14 gene encodes a polypeptide exhibiting high similarity with other members of the pr10 family and corresponds to one of six isoforms immunodetected in the roots of western white pine. northern blot and western immunoblot analyses showed that expression of the pr10 gene family, including pmpr10-1.14, was detected in vegetative tissues cons ...200312825693
stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central cascades of oregon.mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. an increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten species. these predictions of sapwoo ...200312844251
isolation, genetic variation and expression of tir-nbs-lrr resistance gene analogs from western white pine ( pinus monticola dougl. ex. d. don.).western white pine ( pinus monticola dougl. ex. d. don., wwp) shows genetic variation in disease resistance to white pine blister rust ( cronartium ribicola). most plant disease resistance (r) genes encode proteins that belong to a superfamily with nucleotide-binding site domains (nbs) and c-terminal leucine-rich repeats (lrr). in this work a pcr strategy was used to clone r gene analogs (rgas) from wwp using oligonucleotide primers based on the conserved sequence motifs in the nbs domain of ang ...200314586641
dormancy termination of western white pine (pinus monticola dougl. ex d. don) seeds is associated with changes in abscisic acid metabolism.western white pine (pinus monticola) seeds exhibit deep dormancy at maturity and seed populations require several months of moist chilling to reach their uppermost germination capacities. abscisic acid (aba) and its metabolites, phaseic acid (pa), dihydrophaseic acid (dpa), 7'-hydroxy aba (7'oh aba) and aba-glucose ester (aba-ge), were quantified in western white pine seeds during dormancy breakage (moist chilling) and germination using an hplc-tandem mass spectrometry method with multiple react ...200414663585
analysis of bark proteins in blister rust-resistant and susceptible western white pine (pinus monticola).we compared bark proteins from four contrasting (blister rust-resistant versus susceptible) half-sib seedling pairs of western white pine (pinus monticola d. don). pooled proteins from resistant and susceptible groups (four trees per group) were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, silver stained, and analyzed with the aid of a laser scanner interfaced with a computerized gel documentation system. qualitative and quantitative protein differences were observed between resistant and s ...199714759906
microculture of western white pine (pinus monticola) by induction of shoots on bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees.we developed a protocol for the production of shoots from bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees of western white pine (pinus monticola dougl.). the best explant was a 2-mm-thick cross-sectional slice of the early winter bud. genotype of the donor tree was a significant factor affecting shoot production, but more than 80% of the genotypes tested produced shoots. of the media tested, bud slices from 1- to 3-year-old trees grew best in litvay's medium containing n(6)-benzyladenine in the range o ...199614871731
analysis of needle proteins and n-terminal amino acid sequences of two photosystem ii proteins of western white pine (pinus monticola d. don).a method is described for extracting needle proteins from mature western white pine (pinus monticola d. don) trees. extracted proteins were separated into 26 components by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the predominant protein component (32-39%) had a molecular weight of 57 kda. the second most predominant protein component (14-25%) had a molecular weight of 16 kda. the amino acid composition of the twenty-six protein components was determined and a few selected prote ...199314969938
a community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine.the endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. however, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. if this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fun ...200415220484
characterization, expression and evolution of two novel subfamilies of pinus monticola cdnas encoding pathogenesis-related (pr)-10 proteins.proteins of the pathogenesis-related (pr)-10 family are induced in many plants by phytopathogens and environmental stresses. a multi-gene family of pr10 proteins has previously been found in the genome of western white pine (pinus monticola dougl. ex d. don). we isolated two novel subfamilies of pr10 cdnas (pmpr10-2 and pmpr10-3) from p. monticola that are distinct from other pr10 genes (pmpr10-1.1-1.14) reported from the same species. the pmpr10 proteins are grouped in three subfamilies based o ...200415465700
water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine (pinus monticola dougl. ex d. don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging.dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (pinus monticola dougl. ex d. don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (mri). analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. furthermore, the non-invasive nature of mri allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition of a single seed with time-lapse chemical shift selective mri. during soaking of the dry seed, water penetrated through ...200415605241
molecular cloning of a pathogen/wound-inducible pr10 promoter from pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic arabidopsis plants.in pinus monticola (dougl. ex d. don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (pr10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. one of them, pmpr10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic arabidopsis plants. for functional analyses of the pmpr10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were translationally fused to the ss-glucuronidase (gus) rep ...200415609047
fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of pinus monticola.using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of pinus monticola, western white pine. we isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. in contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. the its region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. isolates were then assigned to the most closely related taxa in genbank. although 95% of the endophyt ...200616492396
co-occurring species differ in tree-ring delta(18)o trends.the stable oxygen isotope ratio (delta(18)o) of tree-ring cellulose is jointly determined by the delta(18)o of xylem water, the delta(18)o of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmosphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. atmospheric humidity and the delta(18)o of water vapor vary seasonally and annually, but if the canopy atmosphere is well mixed, atmospheric characteristics should be uniform among co-occurring trees. in contrast, xylem water ...200616651255
movement and distribution of radiophosphorus in crowns of healthy and pole blighted western white pines. (pinus monticola d. don.). 196016655365
origin and distribution of cr2, a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in natural populations of western white pine.abstract the distribution and frequency of the cr2 gene for resistance to white pine blister rust (cronartium ribicola) in western white pine (pinus monticola) was surveyed in natural populations of the host by inoculation of open-pollinated seedlings from 687 individual seed parents from throughout most of the species' range. because cr2 is dominant and results in a conspicuous hypersensitive reaction (hr) in pine needles, the phenotype can readily be detected in offspring of susceptible seed p ...200318943055
a class iv chitinase is up-regulated by fungal infection and abiotic stresses and associated with slow-canker-growth resistance to cronartium ribicola in western white pine (pinus monticola).abstract in the present study, in a candidate gene approach, a class iv chitinase gene (pmch4a) of pathogenesis-related family three was cloned and characterized in western white pine (pinus monticola). pmch4a chitinase expression in the different organs of healthy seedlings was below levels detectable by western immunoblot analysis using an antibody raised against pmch4a protein. however, a 27-kda isozyme of pmch4a accu mulated in both susceptible and slow-canker-growth (scg) resistant seedling ...200518943122
identification and characterization of random amplified polymorphic dna markers linked to a major gene (cr2) for resistance to cronartium ribicola in pinus monticola.abstract dna markers tightly linked to resistance (r) genes provide a very powerful tool for both marker-assisted selection in plant breeding and positional cloning of r genes. in the present study, a linkage of random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers to the single dominant gene (cr2) for resistance to white pine blister rust fungus (cronartium ribicola) was investigated in western white pine (pinus monticola). a mapping population of 128 individual megagametophytes was generated from se ...200618943421
the cc-nbs-lrr subfamily in pinus monticola: targeted identification, gene expression, and genetic linkage with resistance to cronartium ribicola.abstract to investigate disease resistance gene analogs (rgas) encoding coiled-coil-nucelotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeats (cc-nbs-lrr) proteins in western white pine, degenerate primers targeting the conserved motifs in the nbs domain were designed to amplify rgas from genomic dna and cdna. sixty-one distinct rgas were identified with identities to well-known r proteins of the cc-nbs-lrr subfamily. these rgas exhibited variation of putative amino acid sequences from 13% to 98%, representi ...200718943604
cloning and characterization of a putative antifungal peptide gene (pm-amp1) in pinus monticola.abstract we have been working on proteins that are involved in the defense response of western white pine (wwp) (pinus monitcola) to the blister rust fungus cronartium ribicola. our objective was to identify candidate genes that could be used for improving resistance of wwp to this rust pathogen. during proteomic analysis of bark proteins extracted from wwp trees exhibiting slow-canker-growth (scg) resistance, a 10.6-kda peptide, termed pm-amp1, was found to be enriched at the receding canker ma ...200618943919
identification and characterization of the wrky transcription factor family in pinus monticola.the wrky gene family represents an ancient and highly complex group of transcription factors involved in signal transduction pathways of numerous plant developmental processes and host defense response. up to now, most wrky proteins have been identified in a few angiosperm species. identification of wrky genes in a conifer species would facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary and function-adaptive process of this superfamily in plants. we performed pcr on genomic dna to clon ...200919132074
mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of quercus garryana.oak woodland regeneration and restoration requires that seedlings develop mycorrhizas, yet the need for this mutualistic association is often overlooked. in this study, we asked whether quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial inoculation or access to a mycorrhizal network of other ectomycorrhizal hosts. we also assessed the relationship between mycorrhizal infection and seedling growth in a nursery. further, we compared the mycorrhizal assemblage of oak ...200919139931
expression profiling of a complex thaumatin-like protein family in western white pine.the protein content in the plant apoplast is believed to change dramatically as a result of host defense response upon infection with various pathogens. in this study, six novel thaumatin-like proteins (tlps) were identified in western white pine (pinus monticola) needle apoplast by a proteomic strategy using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. sequent cdna cloning found that ten p. monticola tlp genes ...201019997927
species-diagnostic and species-specific dna sequences evenly distributed throughout pine and spruce chromosomes.genome organization in the family pinaceae is complex and largely unknown. the main purpose of the present study was to develop and physically map species-diagnostic and species-specific molecular markers in pine and spruce. five rapd (random amplified polymorphic dna) and one issr (inter-simple sequence repeat) species-diagnostic or species-specific markers for picea mariana, picea rubens, pinus strobus, or pinus monticola were identified, cloned, and sequenced. in situ hybridization of these s ...201020962883
identifying shared genetic structure patterns among pacific northwest forest taxa: insights from use of visualization tools and computer simulations.identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons.201021060824
genomic organization, induced expression and promoter activity of a resistance gene analog (pmtnl1) in western white pine (pinus monticola).cronartium ribicola causes white pine blister rust (wpbr) in subgenus strobus. various genetic and molecular approaches were used to detect white pine genes contributing to host resistance. the molecular role of the nbs-lrr family is highly related to plant immuno-activity against various pathogens and pests. in the present study, genomic organization of a resistance gene analog (rga), designated as pmtnl1, and its allelic variants were characterized in pinus monticola. pmtnl1 showed high identi ...201121279649
association of a novel pinus monticola chitinase gene (pmch4b) with quantitative resistance to cronartium ribicola.multiple families of pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins are believed to contribute to plant quantitative resistance to various pathogens. along with other host pr proteins, pr3 chitinase is one protein component participating in genetic resistance of western white pine (pinus monticola) to the white pine blister rust (wpbr) pathogen (cronartium ribicola). in the present study, we characterized a novel p. monticola class iv chitinase gene (pmch4b) and further analyzed its nucleotide variations in ...201121469933
antifungal activity of a pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide 1 (pm-amp1) and its accumulation in western white pine infected with cronartium ribicola.pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide 1 (pm-amp1) was expressed and purified from bacterial cell lysate and its identity and purity confirmed by western blot analysis using the pm-amp1 antibody. application of pm-amp1 resulted in visible hyphal growth inhibition of cronartium ribicola , phellinus sulphurascens , ophiostoma montium , and ophiostoma clavigerum 3-12 days post-treatment. pm-amp1 also inhibited spore germination of several other phytopathogenic fungi by 32%-84% 5-ádays post-treatment ...201121823970
eyeing emergence: modified treatments for terminating dormancy of conifer seeds.many seeds of coniferous species display a deep primary dormancy at maturity and require several weeks of pretreatment to produce seed populations that germinate in a vigorous and timely manner. facilitating an efficient transition from dormancy to germination by devising improved protocols for dormancy breakage is not only important to conifer seed research, aiding in the study of the dormancy process itself, but is also of interest and applicability to commercial forest nursery operations. in ...201121898249
orientation behavior of the predator laricobius nigrinus (coleoptera: derodontidae) to hemlock woolly adelgid and host tree odors in a multi-chambered olfactometer.we studied the adult ambulatory response of the predator, laricobius nigrinus fender (coleoptera: derodontidae), to odors from its prey, adelges tsugae annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid, and foliage of hemlock woolly adelgid, host hemlocks (tsuga spp.), and other conifers. both the predator and hemlock woolly adelgid are apparently native to western north america, but the predator is being released in the eastern united states, which has different hemlock species, for biological control of a l ...201122251687
a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from pinus monticola (pmamp1) confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in canola (brassica napus).canola (brassica napus), an agriculturally important oilseed crop, can be significantly affected by diseases such as sclerotinia stem rot, blackleg, and alternaria black spot resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides isolated from plants have emerged as a potential resource for protection of plants against phytopathogens. here we report the significance of an antimicrobial peptide, pmamp1, isolated from western white pine (pinus monticol ...201222351159
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