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a comparative study of antigens of aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients and soil of ornamental plants in the immunodiffusion test.the strikingly frequent and constant presence of aspergillus fimigatus in the soil of potted ornamental plants kept in private houses and hospitals has been the reason for studying the antigens of the strains found from the diagnostic and epidemiological angles. culture-filtrate antigens of a. fumigatus strains isolated from the soil of 4 different ornamental plants, epiphyllum (epiphyllum truncatum), orange tree (citrus sinensis), alpine rose (azalea indica) and christmas flower (euphorbia pulc ...197883753
structures of new cyclic peptides in young unshiu (citrus unshiu marcov.), orange (citrus sinensis osbeck.) and amanatsu (citrus natsudaidai) peelings.four cyclic peptides were isolated from young unshiu (unripe fruit), orange and amanatsu peelings, and their structures were established on the basis of fab-ms (cid method) and 2d-nmr spectroscopic data, and by chemical evidence. they were each found to consist of seven or eight amino acids.19911368762
citrus peel oil extracts as mosquito larvae insecticides.susceptibility tests were carried out in culex quinquefasciatus larvae using peel oil extracts of bitter orange (citrus aurantium), orange (citrus sinensis) and lemon (citrus limon). larvae mortalities were observed indicating that the extracts may contain potentially useful insecticides.19921644035
persistence of omite residues on and in navel oranges and lemons and in laboratory-processed citrus pulp cattle feed. 19714332483
persistence of azodrin residues on and in valencia oranges and in laboratory-processed citrus pulp cattle feed. 19705474246
phototoxic and contact toxic reactions of the exocarp of sweet oranges: a common cause of cheilitis?irritant skin reactions were produced within 1 h after application of the exocarp of sweet oranges or alcoholic extracts therefrom. such reactions faded within 48 h. the exocarp, or extracts thereof, induced phototoxic reactions which were strongest at 72 h after exposure. the phototoxic reactions were only induced in natural blondes and only with some oranges. the in vivo phototoxic reactions were confirmed in vitro, causing a slight but clear photo-inhibition of candida albicans. only some ora ...19836861482
isolates of citrus exocortis viroid recovered by host and tissue selection.isolates of citrus exocortis viroid (cev) from a single sweet orange citrus source have been selected by sequential passage through the alternative hosts citron, gynura aurantiaca, a hybrid tomato lycopersicon esculentum x l. peruvianum, and from disorganized callus culture of the hybrid tomato. the distinctions in symptom expression, titre and electrophoretic mobility among the cev isolates, operationally termed cevc (citron), cevg (gynura), cevt (tomato) and cevcls (callus) are supported by ch ...19938245858
nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus: comparison of biologically diverse isolates collected in israel.the sequences of the coat protein genes of four seedling yellows (sy) and four non-sy (nsy) of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) isolates, which were collected in israel over a period of 30 years, were analyzed. pairwise comparisons showed extensive similarities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of six isolates designated the vt group. this group consists of three nsy isolates that cause a very mild ctv reaction on the sensitive combination of sweet orange (swo) grafted on sour orange (so), a ...19938279125
production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies in rabbits to 4s-limonene synthase from spearmint (mentha spicata).limonene synthase, a monoterpene cyclase from the oil glands of spearmint (mentha spicata) leaves that catalyzes the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-4s-limonene, was purified, and polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against the sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured protein. immunoblotting analysis revealed that the antibodies were very specific for denatured limonene synthase from all mentha species tested. however, no immunological cross-reactivity was observed with denatured ...19938442666
molecular characterization of salt-stress-associated protein in citrus: protein and cdna sequence homology to mammalian glutathione peroxidases.a gene encoding for a citrus salt-stress-associated protein (cit-sap) was cloned from citrus sinensis salt-treated cell suspension. the gene, designated csa, was isolated from a cdna expression library. the partial amino acid sequence of the protein, as well as that deduced from the nucleotide sequence of csa, revealed a considerable homology to mammalian glutathione peroxidase (gp), and to clone 6p229 from tobacco protoplasts. the increased expression of cit-sap in nacl-treated cultured citrus ...19938467085
characterization of seven basic endochitinases isolated from cell cultures of citrus sinensis (l.).seven endochitinases (ec 3.2.1.14) (relative molecular masses 23,000-28,000 and isoelectric points 10.3-10.4) were purified from nonembryogenic citrus sinensis l. osbeck cv. valencia callus tissue. the basic chitinase/lysozyme from this tissue (bclvc) exhibited lysozyme, chitinase and chitosanase activities and was determined to be a class iii chitinase. while bclvc acted as a lysozyme at ph 4.5 and low ionic strength (0.03) it acted as a chitinase/chitosanase at high ionic strengths (0.2) with ...19968931350
cdna cloning and expression of a class ii acidic chitinase from sweet orange.a citrus cdna encoding a class ii acidic chitinase was isolated from a nonembryogenic cell line of sweet orange using the tobacco cdna clone prob3. northern blot analysis revealed that the corresponding mrna is expressed in young, green bark but not in leaves, roots, or flavedo.19979116036
insecticidal properties of citrus oils against culex pipiens and musca domestica.peel oils of lemon, grapefruit and navel orange were tested for insecticidal activities against larvae and adults of culex pipiens and musca domestica. lemon peel oil was the most effective against larvae and adults of c. pipiens. grapefruit peel oil was more toxic to adults of m. domestica while lemon oil, was more toxic musca larvae. on the other hand, the orange peel oil was the least effective against larvae and adults of both species. the toxicity of oils applied to larval stages was extend ...19989707687
relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on penicillium digitatum and penicillium italicum.this study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on p. digitatum and p. italicum growth. the hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (citrus sinensis cvv. "washington navel", "sanguinello", "tarocco", "moro", "valencia late", and "ovale"), bitter (sour) orange (c. aurantium), mandarin (c. deliciosa cv. "avana"), grapefruit (c. paradisi cvv. "marsh seedless" and "red blush"), citrange (c. sinensis x poncirus trifoliata cvv. "carrizo" and "troyer"), and lemon (c ...19989761340
a triply cloned strain of xylella fastidiosa multiplies and induces symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis in sweet orangexylella fastidiosa isolate 8.1.b obtained from a sweet orange tree affected by citrus variegated chlorosis in the state of sao paulo, brazil, and shown in 1993 to be the causal agent of the disease, was cloned by repeated culture in liquid and on solid pw medium, yielding triply cloned strain 9a5c. the eighth and the 16th passages of strain 9a5c were mechanically inoculated into sweet orange plants. presence of x. fastidiosa in sweet orange leaves of shoots having grown after inoculation (first- ...199910398837
enhancing microbiological safety of fresh orange juice by fruit immersion in hot water and chemical sanitizers.trials were conducted with hot water and chemicals to sanitize valencia oranges contaminated by natural microflora or inoculated with escherichia coli. microbial loads and sensory quality of fresh juice extracted from surface-heated fruit were also evaluated. e. coli on fruit surfaces was reduced by either hot water or chemical treatments. an estimated 5-log reduction of e. coli was attained by immersing inoculated fruit in hot water at 80 degrees c for 1 min or 70 degrees c for 2 min. immersing ...199910419268
distribution of tgg repeat-related sequences in 'trovita' orange (citrus sinensis osbeck) chromosomesthe clone pas"c" is a sequence related to m13 phage minisatellite sequences isolated from bovine dna. it contains tgg repeats, and related sequences are abundant in the citrus genome. fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) signals detected using this clone as a probe showed that the tgg repeat-related sequences are found on all the citrus chromosomes, but are not found in citrus-specific cma+/dapi- heterochromatic regions located at the extreme ends of each chromosome. these data suggest that ...199910659794
role of furanocoumarin derivatives on grapefruit juice-mediated inhibition of human cyp3a activity.with juices of grapefruit and related fruits, possible relationships between contents of six different furanocoumarins and extents of inhibition of microsomal cyp3a activity have been studied in vitro. microsomal cyp3a-mediated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation was inhibited by the addition of a fruit juice (2.5%, v/v) from eight different grapefruit sources, two sweeties, three pomelos, and one sour orange, whereas no clear inhibition was observed with two sweet orange juices. the inhibitory com ...200010859150
incidence and epidemiology of citrus tristeza virus in the valencian community of spain.the first outbreak of citrus tristeza disease in spain caused by citrus tristeza virus (ctv) was recorded in 1957 in the valencian community (vc). in total c. 40 million trees, mainly of sweet orange and mandarin grafted on sour orange rootstocks, declined due to ctv. large-scale surveys in different municipalities of the vc indicated that the disease spread very fast. incidence increased from 11% in 1989 to 53% in 1998. toxoptera aurantii and aphis spiraecola (inefficient aphid vectors of ctv) ...200011137164
characterization of the low affinity transport system for no(3)(-) uptake by citrus roots.three-month old citrange troyer (hybrid of citrus sinensis x poncirus trifoliata) seedlings were grown hydroponically and, after a period of no(3)(-) starvation, plants were transferred to solutions enriched with k(15)no(3) (96% atoms 15n excess) to measure 15no(3)(-) uptake rates as a function of external 15no(3)(-) concentrations. two different no(3)(-) uptake systems were found. between 1 and 50 mm 15no(3)(-) in the uptake solution medium, the uptake rate increased linearly due to the low aff ...200011164581
polymorphism of the 5' terminal region of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) rna: incidence of three sequence types in isolates of different origin and pathogenicity.sequences of the 5' terminal region of the genomic rna from eight isolates of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) were previously classified into three types (i, ii and iii), with intragroup sequence identity higher than 88% and intergroup sequence identity as low as 44%. sequencing of an additional 58 cdna clones from 15 virus isolates showed that all sequences could be unequivocally assigned to one of the three types previously established. the relative frequency of each sequence type was assessed in ...200111266215
partial characterisation of citrus leaf blotch virus, a new virus from nagami kumquat.citrus leaf blotch virus (clbv) was purified from leaves of nagami kumquat sra-153 that showed bud union crease when propagated on troyer citrange. virions were filamentous particles (960 x 14 nm) containing a 42 kda protein and a single-stranded rna (ssrna) of about 9,000 nt (mr 3 x 10(6)). infected tissue contained three species of double-stranded rna (dsrna) of mr 6, 4.5 and 3.4 x 10(6). the nucleotide sequence of several complementary dna (cdna) clones showed significant similarities with re ...200111315643
assessment of the genetic diversity of xylella fastidiosa isolated from citrus in brazil by pcr-rflp of the 16s rdna and 16s-23s intergenic spacer and rep-pcr fingerprinting.the genetic diversity among twenty three strains of xylella fastidiosa, isolated from sweet orange citrus, was assessed by rflp analysis of the 16s rdna and 16s-23s intergenic spacer and by rep-pcr fingerprinting together with strains isolated from coffee, grapevine, plum and pear. the pcr products obtained by amplification of the 16s rdna and 16s-23s spacer region were digested with restriction enzymes and a low level of polymorphism was detected. in rep-pcr fingerprinting, a relationship betwe ...200111392484
cloning and sequence analysis of an infectious clone of citrus yellow mosaic virus that can infect sweet orange via agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.citrus yellow mosaic virus (cymv), a member of the family caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus, causes citrus mosaic disease, a disease that occurs commonly in india. the cymv genome has been cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. its dna genome is 7559 bp in length and contains six putative open reading frames (orfs), all on the plus-strand of the genome and each capable of encoding proteins with a molecular mass of greater than 10 kda. orf 3, the largest orf, encodes a putative po ...200111562547
pesticide applications of copper on perennial crops in california, 1993 to 1998.inorganic copper is used as a broad-spectrum fungicide and bacteriocide on a variety of agricultural crops. after application, the copper residue typically accumulates in the upper 15 cm of soil. data from the california pesticide use reports were used to estimate the augmentation of copper in the soil that resulted from pesticide applications for the six years from 1993 to 1998 on 12 crops that are grown without rotation. the estimated mean mg cu kg(-1) soil added to the upper 15 cm during the ...200111577894
shellac formulations to reduce epiphytic survival of coliform bacteria on citrus fruit postharvest.survival of the coliform bacteria enterobacter aerogenes and escherichia coli was monitored in a neutral carboxymethylcellulose formulation and in shellac formulations with various ph and concentrations of ethanol and the preservative paraben; populations were subsequently measured from the surface of citrus fruit coated with these formulations. numbers of the two bacteria increased over 24 h from 10(6) cfu/ml to approximately 10(8) cfu/ml in the carboxymethylcellulose solution, but over this ti ...200111726155
laboratory evaluation of fungicides for the control of trichothecium roseum link. a new fruit rot pathogen of sweet orange. 19817198107
synergistic effect of fungicides on resistant strains of penicillium italicum and penicillium digitatum.in vitro and in vivo tests were carried out to study the inhibitory effect of mixtures of sodium orthophenylphenate, methyl-1-(butyl-carbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole ('benomyl') and sodium orthophenylphenate, 2-(4-thiazolil)-benzimidazole ('thiabendazole') on growth of strains of penicillium italicum and p. digitatum resistant to sodium orthophenylphenate, 'benomyl' and 'thiabendazole'. 'in vitro' tests showed a synergistic effect of the mixtures; 10 ppm of sodium orthophenylphenate and 10 ppm of the ...19883275313
in vitro cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants containing flavonoids.aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of citrus sinensis l. (osbeck), euphrasia officinalis l., glycyrrhiza glabra l., matricaria recutita l., rosa canina l. and ruta graveolens l. have been studied. the cytotoxicity of the drugs assayed was evaluated "in vitro" by means of the dye test using cells of the yoshida ascites sarcoma. the aqueous extract of citrus sinensis l. (osbeck); the petroleum ether extract of glycyrrhiza glabra l.; the ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of rosa c ...19968913055
characterization of yeast strains for wine production: effect of fermentation variables on quality of wine produced.sixteen yeast strains isolated from grapefruit (citrus paradis), orange (citrus sinensis) and pineapple (ananas comosus) were characterized using standard microbiological procedures. the species were identified as saccharomyces uvarum, s. cerevisiae, s. carlbergensis, and s. ellipsoideus. their abilities for wine production were tested by using sugar and ethanol tolerance tests. the best biochemically active strain, s. ellipsoideus, was used along with commercially available baker's yeast (s. ce ...200111732717
the diversification of citrus clementina hort. ex tan., a vegetatively propagated crop species.clementines, due to their high quality, are one of the most important cultivated citrus mandarins. as in the case of sweet orange and satsuma mandarins, genetic variability within this species is minimal when analyzed by molecular markers, because the existing varieties have not been obtained through hybridization, but through the selection of spontaneous mutations affecting traits of agronomic interest. this would explain, at least in part, the greater diversity for agronomic traits when compar ...200111697922
in vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of three plants used in the traditional medicine of india.in an attempt to search for new antimalarial drugs, we studied plants used by traditional healers of southwest india to treat malaria. aqueous and organic solvent extracts obtained from specific parts of the plants swertia chirata, carica papaya, and citrus sinensis were tested on malaria strain plasmodium falciparum fck 2 in vitro. the temperatures of extraction were the same as that used by the traditional healers in their plant preparations. visual evaluation of the antimalarial activity of t ...200111693874
diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.citrus variegated chlorosis (cvc) is caused by xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all citrus sinensis cultivars. the endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and cvc-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. the endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge). dominant isolates were characterized by fat ...200212324338
tylenchida associated with different crops in sennar state (sudan).a study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (tylenchida) found in sennar state (sudan). sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (mangifera indica; citrus limon; citrus aurantifolia; citrus paradisi; citrus sinensis, phoenix dactylifera, musa sapentium; cassia italica, cap ...200112425088
high-speed characterization and analysis of orange oils with tandem-column stop-flow gc and time-of-flight ms.high-speed gc with time-of-flight (tof) ms detection is used for the characterization and analysis of oils rendered from the peel of five diverse species of orange including bergemot orange, bitter orange, tangerine, mandarin orange, and sweet orange. with a user-defined signal-to-noise threshold of 100, 44 peaks were found and 36 compounds identified in the various oils. some major constituent components show large concentration ranges over the five species. a 14-m-long, 0. 18-mm-i.d. column en ...200212433099
evaluation of aroma differences between hand-squeezed juices from valencia late and navel oranges by quantitation of key odorants and flavor reconstitution experiments.twenty-five odor-active compounds were quantified in hand-squeezed juices of valencia late and navel oranges using stable isotope dilution assays. odor activity values (oavs, ratio of the concentration to odor thresholds) based on odor thresholds in water were calculated for the entire set of aroma compounds in both varieties. it was shown that due to their high oavs, the fruity-smelling esters ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, (s)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydro-3,6-d ...200111368609
in vitro anti-mycotic activity of some medicinal plants containing flavonoids.aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of citrus sinensis l. (osbeck), euphrasia officinalis l., glycyrrhiza glabra l., matricaria recutita l., rosa canina l. and ruta graveolens l. have been studied. the antimycotic activity was evaluated "in vitro" on strains of candida albicans isolated from clinical samples obtained in the course of acute vaginitis.200011213443
insecticidal properties of volatile extracts of orange peels.statistical studies using the randomised complete block design with four replicates showed that volatile extracts of two species of orange peel--citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and citrus aurantifolia (lime) had insecticidal activity against mosquito, cockroach and housefly. insecticidal activity was better after 60 min than at 30 min spraying of rooms. volatile extracts of c. sinensis showed greater insecticidal potency, while the cockroach was the most susceptible to the orange peels among the ...200111198181
molecular characterization of cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes in phenotypically abnormal valencia orange (citrus sinensis) + meiwa kumquat (fortunella crassifolia) intergeneric somatic hybrids.organelle dna inheritance of four 10-year-old somatic hybrid trees between valencia orange [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] and meiwa kumquat (fortunella crassifolia swingle) was analyzed by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (caps) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps). five chloroplast (cp) and three mitochondrial (mt) universal primer pairs were amplified, but no polymorphisms were detected. when the polymerase chain reaction products were digested by 15 restriction enzymes, ...200312789447
the use of the pmi/mannose selection system to recover transgenic sweet orange plants (citrus sinensis l. osbeck).a new method for obtaining transgenic sweet orange plants was developed in which positive selection (positech) based on the escherichia coli phosphomannose-isomerase (pmi) gene as the selectable marker gene and mannose as the selective agent was used. epicotyl segments from in vitro-germinated plants of valencia, hamlin, natal and pera sweet oranges were inoculated with agrobacterium tumefaciens eha101-pnov2116 and subsequently selected on medium supplemented with different concentrations of man ...200312879258
chiral separation of diastereomeric flavanone-7-o-glycosides in citrus by capillary electrophoresis.the 2s- and 2r-diastereomers of major flavanone-7-o-glycosides found in sweet orange (citrus sinensis), mandarine (citrus deliciosa), grapefruit (citrus paradisi), lemon (citrus limon), and sour or bitter orange juice (citrus aurantium) were separated for the first time by chiral capillary electrophoresis (ce) employing various buffers with combined chiral selectors. native cyclodextrins (cds), neutral and charged cd derivatives were examined as chiral additives to the background electrolyte (bg ...200312900888
molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene encoding limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase in citrus.we isolated a cdna clone encoding limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase (limonoid gtase) from the albedo of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) and investigated the contribution to limonoid glucoside accumulation in fruit. the isolated cdna clone (citlgt) was 1732 bp in length encoding 511 deduced amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.5 kda. the products of in vitro translation from an expression vector had the limonoid gtase activity. southern blot analysis of genomic dna indicated th ...200010713266
distribution of aflatoxin in almonds. 2. distribution in almonds with heavy insect damage.the aflatoxin distribution function in individual insect-damaged neplus ultra almonds was determined and found to be the sum of two distributions. substantially all almonds exhibited a positive aflatoxin level between 0.02 ng/g (the detection level) and 0.3 ng/g, the precise form of this distribution depending on the lot studied. in addition, 1/1000 of the nuts showed contamination between 60 and 600 000 ng/g, independent of the lot. the latter distribution showed a smooth decrease with log conc ...200010691662
chlorophyll breakdown by chlorophyllase: isolation and functional expression of the chlase1 gene from ethylene-treated citrus fruit and its regulation during development.we report on the isolation, functional expression and characterization of a cdna encoding chlorophyllase, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in the chlorophyll breakdown pathway. the chlase1 cdna from valencia orange (citrus sinensis cv. valencia) was obtained by rt-pcr using degenerate primers based on the amino acid sequence of the previously purified protein. chlase1 encodes a protein of 329 amino acids, including a sequence domain characterizing serine-lipases and a putative chloroplast-di ...199910652137
native and introduced host plants of anastrepha fraterculus and ceratitis capitata (diptera: tephritidae) in northwestern argentina.wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the tucumán province (nw argentina) from january 1990 to december 1995 to determine their status as hosts of anastrepha fraterculus (wiedemann) and/or ceratitis capitata (wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in argentina. a total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. we determined the followin ...200314503581
the larvicidal activities of the peel oils of three citrus fruits against culex pipiens.the larviciddal action of three ethanol extracts of peel oils of lemon, grapefruit and navel orange were tested against the early 4th instar larvae of culex pipiens and the resulting pupae. the lc50 were 18.5, 20.3 and 26.5 and the slope functions were 2.9, 2.9 and 3.9 respectively. the action of the lemon extract extended to the pupae which resulted from larvae exposed to sublethal dose. some of the pupae were unable to escape from the larval exuviae.199910605488
differentiation of several geographical origins in single-strength valencia orange juices using quantitative comparison of carotenoid profiles.pure valencia orange (citrus sinensis) juices (64 samples) from spain, israel, belize, cuba, and florida, harvested during two seasons (1996-1997 and 1997-1998), were analyzed for their carotenoid profiles. the detection of saponified carotenoid pigments has been achieved and quantitated using a photodiode array detection monitored at 350, 430, and 486 nm. carotenoid pigments commonly found in the orange variety valencia have been separated on a polymeric c-30 column using a ternary gradient as ...199910552762
qtl analysis of citrus tristeza virus-citradia interaction.citrus tristeza virus (ctv) has caused the death of millions of trees grafted on sour orange ( citrus aurantium). however, this rootstock is very well adapted to the mediterranean, semi-arid conditions. the aim of the present research is to genetically analyze the accumulation of ctv in a progeny derived from the cross between c. aurantium and poncirus trifoliata, both resistant to ctv isolate t-346. graft propagation of 104 hybrids was done on healthy sweet orange as a rootstock. three months l ...200414614564
expressed sequence enrichment for candidate gene analysis of citrus tristeza virus resistance.several studies have reported markers linked to a putative resistance gene from poncirus trifoliata ( ctv-r) located at linkage group 4 that confers resistance against one of the most important citrus pathogens, citrus tristeza virus (ctv). to be successful in both marker-assisted selection and transformation experiments, its accurate mapping is needed. several factors may affect its localization, among them two are considered here: the definition of resistance and the genetic background of prog ...200414624336
genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns.about 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as yeasts. after the introduction of recombinant dna techniques, the transfer of dna between species ...200314644324
polymorphism of a specific region in gene p23 of citrus tristeza virus allows discrimination between mild and severe isolates.the pathogenicity determinants of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) are presently unknown, although transgenic mexican limes over-expressing ctv p23, an rna-binding protein involved in regulating the asymmetrical accumulation of viral rna strands, display typical ctv symptoms. here we compared the predominant sequence variants of gene p23 from 18 ctv isolates of different geographic origin and pathogenicity characteristics. phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed three groups of isolates: i) ...200314648289
molecular characterization of an isolate of citrus tristeza virus that causes severe symptoms in sweet orange.the complete sequence (19,249 nucleotides) of the genome of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) isolate sy568 was determined. the genome organization is identical to that of the previously determined ctv-t36 and ctv-vt isolates. sequence comparisons revealed that ctv-sy568, a severe stem-pitting isolate from california, has more than 87% overall sequence identity with ctv-vt, a seedling yellows isolate from israel. although sy568 has an overall sequence identity of 81% with ctv-t36, a quick decline isol ...199910541017
multiple species of defective rnas in plants infected with citrus tristeza virus.alemow (citrus macrophylla) and sweet orange (c. sinensis) plants infected, respectively, with several israeli and florida isolates of the citrus tristeza virus (ctv) were found to contain multiple species of rna molecules with features similar to defective-interfering rnas. northern blot hybridizations of dsrnas extracted from serial passages of the israeli vt isolate (ctv-vt) and from different plants infected with a single source of inoculum showed considerable variation both in the presence ...19958525626
interspecific somatic hybrid of ichang papeda with valencia orange.protoplasts from the leaf of ichang papeda (citrus ichangensis swingle) were fused with the protoplasts of embryogenic suspension culture of valencia orange (citrus sinensis osbeck) in vitro by polyethylene glycol (peg)-induced fusion. the regenerated embryoids were malformed and were transferred onto shoot induction medium. the shoots were then grafted on 15-day-old seedlings of trifoliate orange in vitro. chromosome counts of the young leaves showed that the parents were diploids, 2n = 2x = 18 ...19938199318
brevipalpus californicus, b. obovatus, b. phoenicis, and b. lewisi (acari: tenuipalpidae): a review of their biology, feeding injury and economic importance.the genus brevipalpus includes most of the economically important species of tenuipalpidae. many brevipalpus species reproduce by theletokous parthenogenesis while other species reproduce by male fertilization of female eggs. previous researchers have determined that brevipalpus californicus (banks), b. obovatus donnadieu, and b. phoenicis (geijskes) females were haploid with two chromosomes. the life cycle and developmental times for these three species are reviewed. longevity of each brevipalp ...200314756411
induction of apoptosis by citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (hl-60) cells.limonene is a primary component of citrus essential oils (eos) and has been reported to induce apoptosis on tumor cells. little is known about induction of apoptosis by citrus eos. in this study, we examined induction of apoptosis by citrus aurantium var. dulcis (sweet orange) eo, citrus paradisi (grapefruit) eo and citrus limon (lemon) eo. these eos induced apoptosis in hl-60 cells and the apoptosis activities were related to the limonene content of the eos. moreover, sweet orange eo and grapef ...200314758720
dissipation of herbicide residues in the soil of a citrus orchard (citrus sinensis l. osbeck) after the ninth consecutive annual application. 19957579939
production of intergeneric somatic hybrids between round kumquat (fortunella japonica swingle) and 'morita navel' orange (citrus sinensis osbeck).intergeneric somatic hybrids between embryogenic callus-derived protoplasts of round kumquat (fortunella japonica swingle) and 'morita navel' orange (citrus sinensis osbeck) were produced by electrofusion. among the eight different fusion strains obtained, six showed normal morphology, whereas the remaining two showed malformation. all the regenerated plants were intermediate in leaf morphology and had thick and round leaves, which are typical characteristics of polyploids. ploidy analyses by fl ...200414997338
cellulolytic enzymes associated with the fruit rots of citrus sinensis caused by aspergillus aculeatus and botryodiplodia theobromae.botryodiplodia theobromae and aspergillus aculeatus were inoculated in carboxymethylcellulose (cmc) medium and on filter papers. hydrolysis of the cmc medium and degradation of the filter papers were observed, indicating the production of c1 and cx cellulases by the two rot pathogens. the c1 and cx enzymes were also detected in filtrates of rotted orange fruits obtained by infection with the two pathogens. the cellulases could not induce rot development on their own. however, when they were adde ...19836624142
changes in the levels of polymethoxyflavones and flavanones as part of the defense mechanism of citrus sinensis (cv. valencia late) fruits against phytophthora citrophthora.phytophthora citrophthora causes serious losses in citrus fruits through brown rot lesion. the effect of infection with p. citrophthora on citrus sinensis (cv. valencia late) fruits was studied, with particular reference to the levels of the flavanones hesperidin and isonaringin and the polymethoxyflavones sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, and heptamethoxyflavone, because flavonoids are most probably involved as natural defense or resistance mechanisms in this genus. changes in the levels of th ...200415053528
citrus fruits. part ii. chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. b. technology.in part ii of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. the literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice ...19836380950
interaction between endophytic bacteria from citrus plants and the phytopathogenic bacteria xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of citrus-variegated chlorosis.to isolate endophytic bacteria and xylella fastidiosa and also to evaluate whether the bacterial endophyte community contributes to citrus-variegated chlorosis (cvc) status in sweet orange (citrus sinensis [l.] osbeck cv. pera).200415189288
citrus fruits--varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. part ii. chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. a. chemistry.in part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. the literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juic ...19836354594
the salt-stress signal transduction pathway that activates the gpx1 promoter is mediated by intracellular h2o2, different from the pathway induced by extracellular h2o2.several genes encoding putative glutathione peroxidase have been isolated from a variety of plants, all of which show the highest homology to the phospholipid hydroperoxide isoform. several observations suggest that the proteins are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. previous studies on the regulation of gpx1, the citrus sinensis gene encoding phospholipid hydroperoxide isoform, led to the conclusion that salt-induced expression of gpx1 transcript and its encoded protein is mediate ...200415247370
diversity of citrus tristeza virus isolates indicated by dsrna analysis.one major dsrna of molecular weight (mw) 13.3 x 10(6) and two others (mw 1.9 x 10(6) and 0.8 x 10(6] were routinely detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in extracts from sweet orange (citrus sinensis) or citron (citrus medica) infected with each of 66 isolates of citrus tristeza virus (ctv). several additional dsrna were also commonly detected, usually as weakly stained bands in reproducible positions in gels, but some were very prominent, e.g., a dsrna of mw 1.7 x 10(6) associated wit ...19873692724
genetic transformation of mature citrus plants.most woody fruit species have long juvenile periods that drastically prolong the time required to analyze mature traits. evaluation of characteristics related to fruits is a requisite to release any new variety into the market. because of a decline in regenerative and transformation potential, genetic transformation procedures usually employ juvenile material as the source of plant tissue, therefore resulting in the production of juvenile plants. direct transformation of mature material could en ...200515310921
expression of green fluorescent protein in xylella fastidiosa is affected by passage through host plants.xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen, causes pierce's disease of grapevine in north america. in south america the pathogen causes citrus variegated chlorosis, which is widespread in brazil. we have introduced into xylella fastidiosa a mini-tn5 transposon that encodes a green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene optimized for expression in bacteria. the mini-tn5 derivative was inserted into different sites of the genome in independent transconjugants as determined by southern bl ...200415386107
impact of genetically modified enterobacter cloacae on indigenous endophytic community of citrus sinensis seedlings.enterobacter cloacae (strain pr2/7), a genetically modified endophyte (gme) in citrus plants, carrying different plasmids (pec3.0/18, pcele, pegla and pgfp), was inoculated into citrus sinensis seedlings under greenhouse conditions. the impact of this on the indigenous bacterial endophytic community was studied by analyses of 2 different morphologic groups. the germination rates of inoculated seeds were evaluated in greenhouse, and plasmid stability under in vitro conditions. results demonstrate ...200415459643
characterization of an ethylene-induced esterase gene isolated from citrus sinensis by competitive hybridization.a simple new method, competitive hybridization, for identification of differentially regulated genes was used to isolate novel genes induced by ethylene in citrus (citrus sinensis [l.] osbeck cv. shamouti) leaves. one of the isolated genes, an ethylene-induced esterase gene (eie), was further characterized. the deduced protein sequence of this gene shows a similarity to those of several plant alpha/beta hydrolase gene family members, which are known to be involved in secondary metabolism. northe ...200112060305
cover crops and natural vegetation mulch effect achieved by mechanical management with lateral rotary mower in weed population dynamics in citrus.the aim of this study was to obtain information on practical weed management in order to reduce the use of herbicides thereby contributing to the sustainable development of citrus crop. the experiment was carried out under field conditions at the experimental area of the department of vegetal production at the college of agriculture "luiz de queiroz," piracicaba, sp, brazil, during the season 2002-2003. influence of mulches produced by four types of vegetations on the dynamic population of weeds ...200515656179
repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito culex pipiens molestus (diptera: culicidae).the insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito culex pipiens molestus forskal were determined. extracts of foeniculum vulgare mill were the most toxic, followed by those of ferula hermonis boiss, citrus sinensis osbeck, pinus pinea l, laurus nobilis l and eucalyptus spp with lc50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. combination tests between the lc50 and ...200515662650
oral ethanol self-administration in free-feeding rhesus monkeys.the ability of a conditioning procedure to establish oral ethanol self-administration in free-feeding rhesus monkeys was assessed. the conditioning procedure required the monkey to drink an ethanol solution in order to have access to a sweet orange-flavored solution. following an average of 14 sessions under these conditions, the orange solution was no longer delivered and ethanol solution alone was made available in the sessions. during both the conditioning and the ethanol self-administration ...19883064639
establishment of a genetically marked insect-derived symbiont in multiple host plants.alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans, originally isolated from the cibarial region of the foregut of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (homalodisca coagulata), was transformed using the himar1 transposition system to express egfp. seedlings of six potential host plants were inoculated with transformed bacteria and 2 weeks later samples were taken 5 cm away and analyzed by quantitative real-time pcr using primers designed to amplify the gene insert. the largest colony of 3,591,427 cells/2 c ...200515723145
quantitative fluorometric analysis of plant and microbial chitosanases.a quantitative fluorometric assay for chitosanase activity in bacterial and plant tissues was developed. the assay can be conducted with either finely milled preparations of chitosan in suspension or dissolved chitosan; activity is based on measurements of glucosamine (glcn) or oligomers of glcn. glcn is detected fluorometrically after reaction with fluorescamine with detection in the nanomole range. fluorescence measurements of chitosanase activity and radioassay of chitinase in commercial prep ...19921514694
evaluation of the genetic structure of xylella fastidiosa populations from different citrus sinensis varieties.xylella fastidiosa was isolated from sweet orange plants (citrus sinensis) grown in two orchards in the northwest region of the brazilian state of são paulo. one orchard was part of a germ plasm field plot used for studies of citrus variegated chlorosis resistance, while the other was an orchard of c. sinensis cv. pêra clones. these two collections of strains were genotypically characterized by using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) markers. the ...200212147466
sampling methods as abundance indices for adult diaprepes abbreviatus (coleoptera: curculionidae) in citrus.beat sampling and two type of traps, cup traps and tedders traps, were evaluated as sampling methods to detect and estimate population densities of adult diaprepes abbreviatus l. weevils newly colonizing young citrus trees. the study was conducted over a 65-wk period across a 0.25-ha area of 80 citrus trees [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] (1.2-1.5 m tall). beat samples were taken weekly to determine the number of trees infested and number of new adult weevils per tree. sixteen of the 80 trees stud ...200212216831
citrus huanglongbing in são paulo state, brazil: pcr detection of the 'candidatus' liberibacter species associated with the disease.symptoms of huanglongbing (hlb), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in asia and africa, have been noticed in march 2004 in the araraquara region of são paulo state, brazil. hlb has not been reported previously from america. the causal hlb bacteria, candidatus liberibacter africanus in africa and candidatus liberibacter asiaticus in asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus leaves by pcr amplification of their 16s rdna with previously described primers. when this technique was applied t ...200515797817
transcription analysis of pils and xpsel genes from xylella fastidiosa.xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited phytopathogen responsible for diseases in several plants such as citrus and coffee. analysis of the bacterial genome revealed some putative pathogenicity-related genes that could help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of plant-pathogen interactions. in the present work, the transcription of three genes of the bacterium, grown in defined and rich media and also in media containing host plant extracts (sweet orange, 'ponkan' and coffee) was analyzed by rt- ...200515803391
a set of primers for analyzing chloroplast dna diversity in citrus and related genera.chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpssr) markers in citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of citrus and closely related genera. fourteen cpssr primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) and arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the citrus chloroplast genome (cpdna) and recoded with the prefix spcc (ssr primers for citrus chloroplast). eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of citrus, ...200515805086
effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus.ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and methicillin-sensitive s. aureus (mssa). synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. the mrsa test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common beta-l ...200515812867
protoplast transformation and regeneration of transgenic valencia sweet orange plants containing a juice quality-related pectin methylesterase gene.valencia orange [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] is the leading commercial citrus species in the world for processed juice products; however, the presence of thermostable pectin methylesterase (tspme) reduces its juice quality. a long-term strategy of this work is to eliminate or greatly reduce tspme activity in valencia orange. previous work resulted in the isolation of a putative tspme gene, cspme4, associated with a thermostable protein fraction of valencia orange juice. to begin research design ...200515875190
dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.the vascularization of the pedicel in marisol clementine (citrus clementina hort. ex tanaka) has been characterized in relation to fruit growth. phloem and xylem formation occurred during the first half of the period of fruit growth. phloem cross-sectional area reached its maximum value by the end of fruitlet abscission, 78 d after anthesis (daa), shortly after the rate of accumulation of dry matter in fruitlets reached its maximum value. secondary xylem formation occurred until day 93, well aft ...200212451031
chloride absorption in salt-sensitive carrizo citrange and salt-tolerant cleopatra mandarin citrus rootstocks is linked to water use.in this work, seedlings of two citrus rootstocks, the salt-tolerant cleopatra mandarin (citrus reshni hort. ex tan.) and the salt-sensitive carrizo citrange (citrus sinensis [l.] osb. x poncirus trifoliata [l.] raf.) were used to study the relationship between chloride and water uptake. the results indicated that net chloride uptake rates in both genotypes were alike and decreased linearly with the time of salinity exposure, although they were more rapidly reduced in the tolerant genotype. in ea ...200312554725
juice components of a new pigmented citrus hybrid citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck x citrus clementina hort. ex tan.fruit juice of a new pigmented citrus hybrid named omo-31 and those of its parents clementine cv. oroval (citrus clementina hort. ex tan.) and moro orange [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] were analyzed during fruit maturation to determine juice yield, total soluble solids (tss), total acidity (ta), tss/ta ratio (classical parameters of quality), and potential health beneficial components, such as vitamin c, flavanones, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids. results showed that juice yield, ta, tss, and ...200312617593
sodium sulphite yields improved dna of higher stability for pcr detection of citrus yellow mosaic virus from citrus leaves.citrus yellow mosaic virus (cymv), a non-enveloped bacilliform dna virus causes a severe mosaic disease in sweet oranges in india. cymv is weakly immunogenic, thus serodiagnosis is not a preferred method for its detection. as an alternative a rapid and reliable detection protocol by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed. however, high levels of polyphenolics and tannins in citrus leaves generally interfered with obtaining good quality dna, and thus affected the reliable detection of viru ...200312951224
[effects of high temperature stress on net photosynthetic rate and photosystem ii activity in citrus].table adc-225-mk3 co2 gas analyzer and pam-2000 portable fluorescence measurement system were used to measure the net photosynthetic rate (pn), initial fluorescence (fo), maximal photochemical efficiency of ps ii (fv/fm) and electron transport rate (etr) of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) and navel orange (c. sinensis osbeck) leaves. the results showed that exposure of citrus plants to high temperature (38-40 degrees c) led to a lowering of pn, fv/fm, and etr, whereas fo increased. after ...200312973985
leaf volatile compounds of seven citrus somatic tetraploid hybrids sharing willow leaf mandarin (citrus deliciosa ten.) as their common parent.volatile compounds were extracted by a pentane/ether (1:1) mixture from the leaves of seven citrus somatic tetraploid hybrids sharing mandarin as their common parent and having lime, eurêka lemon, lac lemon, sweet orange, grapefruit, kumquat, or poncirus as the other parent. extracts were examined by gc-ms and compared with those of their respective parents. all hybrids were like their mandarin parent, and unlike their nonmandarin parents, in being unable to synthesize monoterpene aldehydes and ...200313129309
rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. there is evidence that x. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. however, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. we have previou ...200616266765
factors influencing agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of valencia sweet orange (citrus sinensis) containing the pta29-barnase gene.valencia sweet orange (citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck) calluses were used as explants to develop a new transformation system for citrus mediated by agrobacterium tumefaciens. factors affecting agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency included mode of pre-cultivation, temperature of cocultivation and presence of acetosyringone (as). the highest transformation efficiency was obtained with a 4-day pre-cultivation period in liquid medium. transformation efficiency was higher when cocultivation ...200314597430
engineering a genetic transformation system for colletotrichum acutatum, the causal fungus of lime anthracnose and postbloom fruit drop of citrus.postbloom fruit drop (pfd) of citrus is caused by colletotrichum acutatum. pfd isolates infect flower petals, induce abscission of small fruit and can cause severe yield loss on most citrus cultivars. isolates from key lime anthracnose (kla) cause that disease on the mexican lime, but also cause pfd on sweet orange. both pfd and kla isolates exhibited resistance to the common selection agents including hygromycin, bialaphos, benomyl and geneticin/g418. a genetic transformation system was develop ...200212127485
accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during maturation in citrus fruit.the relationship between carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during fruit maturation was investigated in three citrus varieties, satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.), valencia orange (citrus sinensis osbeck), and lisbon lemon (citrus limon burm.f.). we cloned the cdnas for phytoene synthase (citpsy), phytoene desaturase (citpds), zeta-carotene (car) desaturase (citzds), carotenoid isomerase (citcrtiso), lycopene beta-cyclase (citlcyb), beta-ring hydroxyl ...200414739348
a rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(n) method for evaluation of synephrine in citrus aurantium l. samples.immature bitter orange fruit and its extracts have been introduced into the market as an alternative to ephedra in weight loss products. however, the safety of the immature bitter orange fruit and its extracts is a debated argument due to the presence of synephrine, a constituent known as a sympathomimetic agent. in this paper, we describe the development of a new, rapid, and simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method devoted to the quantitative determin ...200516366666
quantitative real-time pcr for detection and identification of candidatus liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing.citrus huanglongbing (hlb, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. different forms of the disease are caused by different candidatus liberobacter species, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), ca. l. africanus (laf) and ca. l. americanus (lam). the pathogen is transmitted by psyllid insects and by budding with contaminated plant materials. the vector psyllid diaphorina citri can transmit both las and lam. establishment of this vector into florida, reports of lam and las in ...200616414133
[chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (citrus sinensis), tangerine (citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in venezuela].the purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in venezuela. chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (dpph) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (citrus sinensis), tangerine (citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (citru ...200516454058
[a preliminary study on bioactivity of orange and tangerine peel extracts against aphis and mites].an assay was made on the bioactivity of the extracts of tangerine peel from cinocitrus tangerina, orange peel from citrus sinensis and mixed tangerine peel from cinocitrus sp. against aphis semia phis heraclei, aphis craccivora, uroleucon gobonis and myzus persicae using residual film or topical method, and against mites tetranychus viennensis and t. trancatus using slide-dip or immersion method. test results show that these extracts have strong bioactivity against aphids and mites. the correcte ...19957576134
fatty acid methyl ester profiles for characterization of glomalean fungi and their endomycorrhizae.arbuscule-forming fungi in the order glomales form obligate endomycorrhizal associations with plants that make them difficult to quantify, and taxonomy of the group is only beginning to be objectively understood. fatty acid methyl ester (fame) profiles were analyzed to assess the diversity and quantity of fatty acids in 53 isolates of 24 glomalean species. spores and endomycorrhizal roots of sudan grass (sorghum sudanense) and the citrus rootstock carrizo citrange (poncirus trifoliata x citrus s ...199516534923
differentially expressed proteins in the interaction of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri with leaf extract of the host plant.the present study reports the expression of proteins of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in response to different growth conditions. the bacterium was cultured in the basal medium mm1 and in the presence of leaf extracts from a susceptible host plant (sweet orange) as well as a resistant (ponkan) and a nonhost plant (passion fruit). the protein profiles were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de). twelve differential spots (induced, up- and down-regulated and repressed) were obse ...200111990505
a simple method for in vivo expression studies of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.a major problem in studying bacterial plant pathogens is obtaining the microorganism directly from the plant tissue to perform in vivo expression (protein or mrna) analyses. here we report an easy and fast protocol to isolate xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri directly from the host plant, in sufficient amounts to perform protein fingerprinting by 2-d gel electrophoresis as well as rna expression assays. the protein profile obtained was very similar to that of x. axonopodis pv. citri grown in the ...200314669917
presence and identification of polyamines in xylem and phloem exudates of plants.polyamines were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (benzoylation) and by thin layer chromatography (dansylation) in xylem exudates from stems of sunflowers (helianthus annuus [l.]), mung bean (vigna radiata [l.] wilczek), grapevine (vitis vinifera [l.] cv grenache), and orange (citrus sinensis [l.] osbeck, cv valencia), as well as in phloem sap (using elution into edta) of sunflower and mung bean plants. putrescine was the major polyamine detected, ranging in concentrations of ...198616665153
carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf p accumulation in a split-root va mycorrhizal symbiosis.translocation of (14)c-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (+ +), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to p accumulation in leaves of the host plant. carrizo citrange seedlings (poncirus trifoliata [l.] raf. x citrus sinensis [l.] osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus intraradices schenck and smith. plants were exposed to (14) co(2) for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. three to 4% of recently labeled photosyntha ...198816665934
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