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urea-hydrolyzing activity of a t-strain mycoplasma: ureaplasma urealyticum.the urea-hydrolyzing activity of a t-strain mycoplasma was studied in experiments using whole cells and cell-free enzyme preparations by measuring the release of 14co2 from 14curea. under the conditions used, the urea concentration optimum is approximately 5.6 x 10(-3) m urea. the activity is soluble and not membrane bound. it is stable at -70 c for several weeks but is more labile at higher temperatures. the ph optimum is between 5.0 and 6.0. the effect of several inhibitors on the activity was ...19761381
immunofluorescence, bacteriological and patho-morphological studies of the organs of respiration of children who died of acute pneumonia. 19751919
in vitro susceptibility studies with josamycin and erythromycin.the in vitro activity of josamycin and erythromycin against five bacterial species was compared. in general, erythromycin was slightly more active by weight than josamycin, although both agents had a similar range of activity.19764012
mycoplasma-like micro-organisms in malignant tumors and non-tumours dermatovenerological diseases. electron microscopic investigations (author's transl).in examination of the ultrastructure of excised tissue and other material from patients with various diseases, principally dermatovenerological affections and with malignant tumors, and in healthy control subjects, patterns suggesting mycoplasma were repeatedly found in certain diseases only. specific attempts to isolate mycoplasma from the material were made, in which previously patterns of a mycoplasma type had frequently been seen. it was possible to culture mycoplasma-like organisms in vitro ...19754729
associated seroconversions to respiratory viruses in volunteers with experimental influenza infection.serological examinations of 573 volunteers with mild experimental influenza infection and 86 volunteers of a control group hospitalized in a special clinic revealed a significant rise in the titre of antibodies (seroconversion) not only to influenza a or b viruses used for the experimental infection but in 23.3 to 29.8% of cases also to other respiratory viruses. based on a number of arguments, associated seroconversions are interpreted as due to mixed or sequential infections of different aetio ...19765868
cultivation of mycoplasmas in a modified tissue culture medium.a new medium, which contained a chemically defined tissue culture base ("medium 199"), was developed for the cultivation of mycoplasmas. when supplemented with albumin, glucose, serum, and yeast extract, the new medium adequately supported the growth of mycoplasma and acholeplasma species.19767199
detection of serum proteins in the electrophoretic patterns of total proteins of mycoplasma cells.the contamination of mycoplasma cell preparations by serum proteins originating from culture medium was studied. a. laidlawii and m. arthritidis cells were grown in the presence of 14c-aminoacids, and the cells were washed with 0-9% nac1 by threefold centrifugation. total proteins of the washed cells were analysed by sds gel electrophoresis. coomassie-stained electrophoretic patterns were compared with autoradiographs of the same gels. the stained electrophoretic pattern of washed a. laidlawii g ...197610333
reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase activity in membranes and cytoplasm of acholeplasma laidlawii and mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.the properties of the membrane-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nadh) oxidase of acholeplasma laidlawii were compared with those of the corresponding cytoplasmic activity of mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. the striking differences in ph optima, susceptibility to inhibitors and detergents, and heat inactivation between the nadh oxidase activity, with oxygen as an electron acceptor, and the nadh oxidoreductase activity, with dichlorophenol indophenol (dcpip) as an alternate elect ...197611208
microcalorimetric detection of growth of mycoplasmatales.a static ampoule microcalorimeter was used to study the growth of mycoplasmas, acholeplasmas and ureaplasmas. growth as indicated by thermograms was compared with the results of conventional methods, namely, terminal dilution counts, plate counts, turbidimetric measurements, glucose consumption and ph changes. removal of oxygen had little effect on mycoplasma growth. the microcalorimetric method is potentially useful for identifying and enumerating the members of the mycoplasmatales.197611273
thermoplasma acidophilum: intracellular ph and potassium concentration.thermoplasma acidophilum is a free-living thermophilic mycoplasma. although the organism lacks a cell wall, it can grow in medium as dilute as 66 mosm. the intracellular k+ concentration can be as low as 17 mm, but varies according to the osmolality of the culture medium. the internal ph can be measured by taking advantage of the fact that t. acidophilum undergoes lysis when the ph is adjusted to neutrality. thus, by appropriate analysis of titration curves, it is possible to conclude that the i ...197612804
recent advances in equine reproduction.mares rarely ovulate in winter; ovulation is induced by increase in daylight length. ova accumulate in the oviducts of unserved mares. during pregnancy, corpora lutea accumulate; all regress together at mid pregnancy. plasma progesterone levels rise and oestrogen levels fall towards the end of pregnancy. methods are available for early termination of pregnancy and for induction of parturition. pregnancy can be diagnosed efficiently by rectal examination, and by immunological assay of pregnant ma ...197713992
membrane-bound thioesterase activity in mycoplasmas.thioesterase activity was found in all mycoplasmas tested. activity was highest in acholeplasma species, whereas most of the sterol-requiring mycoplasma species showed little activity. the thioesterase activity of acholoplasma laidlawii is confined to the cell membrane. the enzyme could not be released from the membrane by either low- or high-ionic-strength solutions, with or without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nor solubilized by detergents. the enzyme has a general specificity for long-cha ...197714108
motility of mycoplasma pneumoniae.cell of mycoplasma pneumoniae fh gliding on a glass surface in liquid medium were examined by microscopic observation and quantitatively by microcinematography (30 frames per min). comparisons were made only within the individual experiments. the cells moved in an irregular pattern with numerous narrow bends and circles. they never changed their leading end. the average speed (without pauses) was relatively constant between o.2 and 0.5 mum/s. the maximum speed was about 1.5 to 2.0 mum/s. the mov ...197714925
effects of carbon dioxide, urea, and ammonia on growth of ureaplasma urealyticum (t-strain mycoplasma).by use of a simple device for continuous co2 gassing of ureaplasma urealyticum cultures growing in a liquid medium, we have been able to separate some of the effects of urea, co2, ammonia, and ph on growth. the co2 acted as a superior buffer in the ph range 5.7 to 6.8, which is optimal for ureaplasma growth. it was, therefore, possible to observe the effect of repeated additions of urea to the culture without alkalinization of the growth medium. we found that the repeated additions of urea did n ...197715979
localization of enzymes in ureaplasma urealyticum (t-strain mycoplasma).ureaplasma urealyticum cells were lysed by osmotic shock or by digitonin. the membrane fraction contained four to ten times as much protein as the cytoplasmic fraction. these values are in large excess of those reported for classical mycoplasmas, suggesting that the ureaplasma membrane fraction was heavily contaminated with proteins derived from the growth medium. the u. urealyticum urease activity was localized in the cytoplasmic fraction, whereas the adenosine triphosphatase activity was local ...197715980
morphology of ureaplasma urealyticum (t-mycoplasma) organisms and colonies.the morphology of ureaplasm urealyticum in broth cultures was studied by phase-contrast microscopy. most organisms appeared singly or in pairs. long filaments and long chains of cocci, common in classical mycoplasma cultures, were not observed. on solid medium, u. urealyticum produced "fried-egg" colonies which developed according to the scheme suggested by razin and oliver (j. gen. microbiol., 1961) for the morphogenesis of the classical mycoplasma colonies. the formation of the peripheral zone ...197715986
synthesis and biological activity of some vinyl-substituted 2-nitroimidazoles.in previous studies 1-methyl-2-nitro-1h-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde and 1-methyl-2-nitro-5-vinyl-1h-imidazole were found to posses interesting antimicrobial activities. we have now prepared some 2-nitro-1h-imidazoles in which the 5-vinyl chain bears selected functional groups (cho, coch3, no2) as well as nitrogen-condensation derivatives of the carbonyl functions. furthermore, 5-methyl-2-nitro-1-vinyl-1h-imidazole has been synthesized. all the compounds, and some intermediates, have been assayed ...197716132
dna polymerase of mitochondria is a gamma-polymerase.mitochondria isolated from rat liver cells or mycoplasma-free hela cells contain a single dna polymerase activity which is closely related to, or identical to, the dna polymerase gamma activity found in the homologous cell. in rat liver cells, about 16% of the total cytoplasmic gamma-polymerase activity is found associated with mitochondria and in hela cells about 20% of the total cellular gamma-polymerase is mitochondria associated. since mitochondria possess no unique dna polymerase activity, ...197716896
clinical manifestations due to or associated with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in adults. 197717904
etiology of acute pneumonia in young children. 197718702
hepatotoxicity of erythromycin estolate during pregnancy.women in the second half of pregnancy, who were infected with genital mycoplasmas and who gave written informed consent, were randomly assigned to receive capsules of identical appearance containing erythromycin estolate, clindamycin hydrochloride, or a placebo for 6 weeks. levels of serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (sgot) were determined before and during treatment by a fluorometric method. all pretreatment levels of sgot were normal (<41 units). participants who received erythromycin est ...197721610
problems related to the use of serum and trypsin in the growth of monkey kidney cells.a function of serum in the growth medium for primary monkey kidney cells has been shown to be inhibition of proteolytic enzymes. serum inactivates the residual trypsin remaining from enzymatic digestion of the kidneys and the proteolytic enzymes subsequently synthesized by the cells. freshly trypsinized cells could be grown to monolayers in the absence of serum provided that they were repeatedly washed to remove residual trypsin. in the absence of serum, cell growth ceased on the 4-5th day after ...197622471
oxygen uptake and lung function in mice infected with streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza virus, or mycoplasma pulmonis.model systems of respiratory infection in mice were established with streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza virus, and mycoplasma pulmonis. the lt50 for s. pneumoniae was 2 1/2 days, for lethal influenza 6 days, and for m. pulmonis 5 days. morbidity in sublethal influenza infections reached a peak during days 5 to 10, with recovery indicated by the third week. the course of each pulmonary infection was followed by use of the animal's maximal ability to consume oxygen (vo2max by determining the weig ...197823401
induction of interferon in mice and cell cultures by mycoplasma pneumoniae.inoculation of mice and l and human embryonic lung (hel) cell cultures with mycoplasma pneumoniae failed to induce the production of interferon. m. pneumoniae multiplied in these cell cultures without a marked cytopathic effect. m. pneumoniae induced interferon in human peripheral blood leukocytes with maximum titres of 32 units/ml at 48 hours after infection.197723667
an investigation into the viability of broth cultures of the t1 strain of mycoplasma mycoides sub-species mycoides.the t1 broth vaccine against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia can only be stored for four weeks at +4 degrees c because after that time the titre of mycoplasma mycoides sub-species mycoides falls below the minimal vaccinating dose. an investigation into the death of these organisms during the stationary growth phase was made. the culture medium in which the vaccine was prepared was found to contain adequate nutrients. control of the ph by the addition of koh was shown to preserve the viability ...197824242
exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: exogenous or endogenous infection?six male patients with chronic bronchitis, who were known previously to have excreted streptococcus pneumoniae and/or haemophilus influenzae, both at the times of exacerbations and during remission, were studied for 43 to 52 months. sputum was examined fortnightly and at the time of exacerbations. strains of strep. pneumoniae were serotyped and those of haemophilus species were typed by antibiograms along with other supporting methods. sera collected before or at the time of an exacerbation and ...197825664
effect of osmotic potential, ph, and temperature on the growth of a helical, motile mycoplasma causing corn stunt disease.growth characteristics of corn stunt spiroplasma, a helical, motile mycoplasma, were studied over a range of osmolality, ph, and temperature in a simple medium containing 20% (v/v) agamma horse serum, 1.5% (w/v) pplo broth, and various concentrations of sucrose. the spiroplasma was able to grow in a wide spectrum of osmolalities from 360 to 1120 mosm. optimal growth was observed in media that contained 0.25-0.35 m sucrose. the organism became longer and thinner in media adjusted to 0.65 m sucros ...197825704
caseinolytic activity of human mycoplasmas. 197826478
effect of ammonium ion concentration and osmotic pressure on growth of ureaplasma urealyticum (t-strain mycoplasma).the effect of ammonium ion concentration and osmotic pressure on growth of ureaplasma urealyticum type viii was determined by using a well-buffered broth medium containing 10 mm urea. the addition of nh4cl to the medium at concentrations up to 10 mm did not affect growth; however, addition of larger quantities progressively decreased both the specific growth rate (mu) and the maximum yield of the culture, with concentrations of 80 mm completely inhibiting growth. addition of either 150 mm kcl or ...197826668
initiation and characterization of a diploid cell line from larval tissues of aedes dorsalis (meigen).mosquito cell cultures were initiated from the minced tissues of newly hatched aedes dorsalis (meigen) larvae. continuous cell division occurred only after an adaptive period of approximately 6 months. optimal growth of the cells required a relatively low ph of 6.5. karyological studies showed that the cells have remained diploid (2n = 6) for 60 serial passages and that the cultures are free of contaminating cells. the cultures also were shown to be free of bacteria (including mycoplasma), fungi ...197827445
immunochemical studies on a mycoplasma pneumoniae polysaccharide fraction: cross-reactions with type 23 and 32 antipneumococcal rabbit sera.lipid-free polysaccharide fraction 2 extracted from mycoplasma pneumoniae strain fh by prescott et al. (j. bacteriol. 91:2117-2115, 1966) was examined for its ability to cross-precipitate antibody from type-specific rabbit antipneumococcal sera types 1 to 34 inclusive. cross-precipitation in type-specific pneumococcal anti-type 23 and anti-type 32 sera was examined in detail and could be attributed to a rhamnose-galactose-rich component of crude m. pneumoniae polysaccharide fraction 2 recovered ...197827459
macrolide antibiotics m-4365 produced by micromonospora. iii. in vitro antimicrobial activity of antibiotic m-4365g2 (de-epoxy rosamicin).antibiotic m-4365g2 (de-epoxy rosamicin) produced by micromonospora capillata mcrl 0940 is a new basic 16-membered macrolide antibiotic with activity equal to or superior to erythromycin and josamycin against gram-positive bacteria. of interest are the high degree of activity against gram-negative bacilli and mycoplasmas, and striking inhibitory effects against indole-producing proteus spp. bactericidal activity of m-4365g2 is also to be noticed.197827495
morphological characteristics of acute respiratory tract diseases of mixed etiology in children.the analysis of 30 etiologically deciphered (by the direct coons method) autopsy observations of acute respiratory diseases in children under 8 is presented. monoinfections were established only in 6 cases. morphological examinations of respiratory organs in 24 cases of mixed acute respiratory diseases (associations of virus-bacteria and virus-mycoplasma pneumoniae-diplostreptococcus) revealed marked circulatory disorders and desquamative, dystrophic, and inflammatory processes in segmental bron ...197828114
adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum to human erythrocytes.pathogenic mycoplasmas adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the respiratory and genital tracts of infected animals. an experimental system suitable for the quantitative study of mycoplasma adherence has been developed by us. the system consists of human erythrocytes (rbc) and the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum, in which membrane lipids were labeled. the amount of mycoplasma cells attached to the rbc, which was determined according to radioactivity measurements, decreased on i ...197829007
the value of immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) for etiological diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections due to pneumococci and mycoplasma pneumoniae.immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) has been used to detect pneumococcal and mycoplasma pneumoniae antigen in 324 sputum samples from 224 patients. pneumococcal antigen was found in 30/37 samples from which pneumococci had earlier been isolated and in 72/243 specimens where they had not been found. of these 72 samples 69 were from patients treated with antibiotics. mycoplasma antigen was found in 9/57 sputum samples from which mycoplasma had been isolated and in 2/32 other samples from patients wit ...197830990
serological diagnosis of pneumococcal disease with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).antibody response to pneumococcal type-specific polysaccharide was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the test was shown to be up to 500 times more sensitive than indirect hemagglutination using chromic chloride-treated red blood cells. in 16/17 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia a significant antibody increase was seen as measured with elisa. only 6/23 patients with pneumonia caused by mycoplasma pneumoniae gave a pneumococcal antibody rise and in those cases the increas ...197830991
2nd conference of the international organization for mycoplasmology (iom) august 28--september 1, 1978 in freiburg i. br. 1. symposium: "molecular biology of mycoplasmas". abstracts. 197831747
the isolation of carbon dioxide-requiring (carboxyphillic) type 19 pneumococcus (streptococcus pneumoniae) from diseased guinea-pigs.type 19 pneumococcus was isolated only in anaerobic cultures from tissue fluids of guinea-pigs suffering from exudative pericarditis and pleuropneumonia. the organism was pathogenic to mice even after 40 subcultures. further study showed it to be carboxyphilic rather than anaerobic. the necessity of specifying various atmospheric conditions in the diagnostic bacteriological isolation routine is emphasized.197832435
eperythrozoon ovis. iii. the effect of infection on blood ph, concentrations of pyruvate, lactate and glucose in blood, haematology, and on concurrent and superimposed trypanosoma vivax infection in sheep.infections of sheep with eperythrozoon ovis has been shown to increase pyruvate and lactate concentrations in blood and to reduce blood ph over a period of 10-14 days post-inoculation. there was no effect on the concentration of blood glucose. however, if care is not taken to inhibit glycolysis, the concentration of blood glucose in samples of blood taken for analysis falls markedly. rapid destruction of erythrocytes started about 10 days post-inoculation and was progressive. superimposition of ...197833476
[value of the antibiogram for the treatment of urogenital ureaplasma infections].we have currently established the spectrum of sensitivity of the isolated strains to various antibiotics before prescribing the appropriate treatment. a microtechnic has been used. the most active antibiotics are: minocyclin, pristinamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracyclin, kanamycin, tobramycin, streptomycin, in this order.197834136
size and shape of mycoplasma virus mv-lg-l 172 dna.sedimentation of dna of mycoplasma virus mv-lg-l 172 in neutral and alkaline density gradients showed that the chromosome of this virus is most probably formed by a double-stranded circular dna molecule with a molecular weight of approx. 10(7) daltons. these results were confirmed by direct electron microscopy of the viral dna. gamma-irradiation of the virus caused in its dna single breaks on the average per each 66 ev of absorbed energy. virus survival depended exponentially on the irradiation ...197835941
the microbiology of serous and mucoid otitis media.one hundred forty-four serous and mucoid effusions were cultured for aerobic bacteria, mycoplasma pneumoniae, and virus. thirty percent of all effusions yielded an unequivocally positive culture for aerobic bacteria. although serous effusions were culture positive as often as mucoid effusions, haemophilus influenzae was isolated predominantly from serous effusions and staphylococcus epidermidis predominantly from mucoid samples. only one of 73 effusions yielded a viral isolate (herpesvirus homin ...197936591
active k+ transport in mycoplasms mycoides var. capri. relationships between k+ distribution, electrical potential and atpase activity.the addition of 5 . 10(-5) m or less of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to mycoplasma mycoides var. capri preferentially influences k+ influx rather than efflux and reduces by 30--40% the activity of the membrane-bound mg2+- atpase. adding valinomycin to metabolizing cells does not markedly affect k+ distribution but induces a rapid and complete loss of intracellular k+ in non-metabolizing cells. uncoupling agents such as dinitrophenol, carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, dissipate the k ...197936912
adherence of mycoplasma gallisepticum to glass.attachment of washed mycoplasma gallisepticum cells to glass was quantified with organisms in which membrane lipids were labelled with 3h. siliconization of the test tubes decreased attachment, while centrifugation increased it. attachment increased with temperature, decreased with increasing ph and ionic strength of the attachment mixture, but was unaffected by ca2+, mg2+ and edta. this suggests that ionic bonds, but not salt bridges, participate in the attachment process. glycophorin, the majo ...197937284
adherence of erythrocytes to mycoplasma pneumoniae.the human pathogen mycoplasma pneumoniae adheres to a variety of cells, including erythrocytes. a hemadsorption technique was developed to quantitate adherence by photometric measurement of lysates of erythrocytes that attached to sheets of m. pneumoniae grown in cups of linbro plates. attachment of sheep erythrocytes (se) increased with higher ionic strength, was unaffected by minor ph variations (6 to 9), and was blocked by anti-m. pneumoniae antiserum, but was not inhibited by a variety of su ...197939034
adherence of mycoplasma pneumoniae to glass surfaces.attachment of m. pneumoniae to glass was quantitated in an experimental system enabling the settling down of [3h]palmitic acid-labeled cells onto glass cover slips. attachment of mycoplasmas suspended in buffer increased with temperature, decreased with higher ionic strength, and showed a maximum at about ph 5.5. the findings suggest a participation of ionic bonds in the attachment process. trypsin did not detach glass-bound mycoplasmas, and treatment of the cells with glutaraldehyde did not red ...197940883
pathogenicity of mycoplasmas for man, animals, plants and insects. xii international congress of microbiology, münchen, september 3-8, 1978. 197944606
pathogenesis of mycoplasma pneumoniae disease. 197944607
autoimmune reactions associated with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.patients with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection often develop various autoantibodies including cold agglutinins, cold antibodies reacting with lymphocytes, antibodies against various tissue antigens, for instance brain and lung and smooth muscle antibodies. various mechanisms that may be responsible for the induction of these autoimmune responses and the possible pathogenicity of these autoantibodies are discussed.197944608
pathogenicity of ureaplasmas for animals and man.since their original isolation from the genital tract of man, ureaplasmas, previously termed t-strain mycoplasmas, have been isolated from a variety of animal species. under experimental conditions they have been shown to cause mastitis in cattle, goats and mice, and observations made on naturally-occurring bovine pneumonia, as well as the results of experimental inoculation, suggest that ureaplasmas are responsible for a portion of bovine cuffing pneumonia. ureaplasmas have been isolated from t ...197944609
pathogenicity of the subspecies mycoides of mycoplasma mycoides for cattle, sheep and goats.recent work has shown that strains classified as m. mycoides subsp. mycoides may be separated into 2 types according to their growth rate and their behaviour in certain biochemical tests. the large colony (lc) types, most of which are from goats, are pathogenic for sheep and goats but apparently not for cattle. the small colony (sc) types include the classical contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (cbpp) strains from cattle and four strains from goats. these sc types are potentially pathogenic for c ...197944610
the pathogenicity of avian mycoplasmas.based on literature data and own experiences the author gives an outlook about pathogenicity of avian mycoplasmas. in chickens and turkeys m. gallisepticum and m. synoviae (in addition to it m. meleagridis exclusively in turkeys) are the most important mycoplasmas producing respiratory disease, inflamation of synovial membranes and other lesions. their pathogenic effect is very much influenced by dose of agent, route of entry of microorganism, age of birds, virulence and tropism of organism as w ...197944612
the pathogenicity of mycoplasmas for plants.many plant diseases belonging to the yellows group are believed to be caused by wall-free prokaryotes resembling mycoplasmas, which are spread by leafhopper vectors. im most cases the evidence for mycoplasma aetiology rests upon the finding by electron microscopy of mycoplasma-like bodies in phloem tissue of diseased plants, coupled in some cases with symptom remission following treatment of plants with tetracyclines. the only plant-pathogenic mycoplasmas which have so far been cultured are the ...197944613
pathogenicity of mycoplasmas for arthropods. 197944614
[method of obtaining biological masses of mycoplasma]. 197545966
letter: nitroblue-tetrazolium test. 197545995
a simple cytochemical technique for demonstration of dna in cells infected with mycoplasmas and viruses. 197546112
morphologic observations of mycoplasmas and neisseria gonorrhoeae in associated growth patterns.mycoplasma hominis and t-colony mycoplasmas were observed growing among or developing within gonococcal colonies on primary isolation plates streaked for detection of n. gonorrhoeae in urogenital specimens. the frequency of such association of mycoplasmas with gonococci was as high as 84% among patients screened for gonorrhea in several social hygiene clinics of the city of new york, department of health, bureau of venereal disease control. the individual morphology of both mycoplasmal and gonoc ...197546128
ultrastructure of lipopolysaccharide isolated from thermoplasma acidophilum.the fine structure of lipopolysaccharide isolated from thermoplasma acidophilum was examined by electron microscopy. negative staining of the lipopolysaccharide revealed long, ribbon-like structures with some branching. the average width of the lipopolysaccharide ribbons was 5 nm. treatment of the lipopolysaccharide with 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in the dissociation of the ribbon-like structures to spherical- and vesicular-shaped particles and some short, rodlike structures. results s ...197546226
antigenic and enzymatic changes in infected and transformed human diploid cells.human diploid fibroblasts, wi-38, were infected with various agents and the levels of lysosomal enzymes determined by immunochemical quantitation. esterase levels were raised by mumps virus and toxoplasma gondii infection. the concentration of beta-d-glucuronidase was reduced by these same agents. beta-d-n-acetyl glucosaminidase was greatly increased in cultures infected with t. gondii and decreased by mycoplasma infection. two cultures transformed by sv40 showed reduced levels of esterase compa ...197546837
histamine release from human leukocytes when stimulated by mycoplasma salivarium.incubated mixtures of mycoplasma salivarium and nonsensitized mixed leukocytes released histamine. spectrophotofluorometric detection of histamine occurred at physiological temperature and ph independent of complement and specific antiserum.197546845
a virological and epidemiological study of patients with acute hearing loss.virological and epidemiological data were examined in thirty-nine patients with acute hearing loss. the hearing loss was unilateral in thirty-one patients and bilateral in eight. there was a history of upper-respiratory-tract infection before onset of deafness in ten of the patients. cases were more common in the autumn, with nineteen of the cases occurring in the 3 months from september to november. about half of the patients were 20-40 years old and half 46-73 years old; only one patient w ...197546953
investigation into the relationship of m ulcerans to m. buruli and other mycobacteria.the main characteristics of mycoplasma ulcerans are its remarkably distinct drug sensitivity pattern and its rather poor enzymatic activity. m. microti is clearly distinguishable from m. bovis and m. tuberculosis. some of the m. buruli strains appear to be identical with m. ulcerans, whereas others show similarity either to m. microti or to m. tuberculosis. it seems that m. buruli is not a legitimate species.197547730
isolation of genital mycoplasmas from blood obtained shortly after vaginal delivery.blood obtained from three hundred and twenty-seven women within a few minutes of vaginal delivery was cultured for genital mycoplasmas (mycoplasma hominis and t mycoplasmas). twenty-six (8%) of the women had genital mycoplasmas isolated from their blood. ten women had blood-cultures which contained m. hominis. fifteen women had blood-cultures which contained t mycoplasmas. both m. hominis and t mycoplasmas were isolated from the blood of one woman. only one of two hundred and seventy-three blood ...197547945
doxycycline treatment and human infertility.the role of mycoplasmas in infertility was studied in 120 couples. during the twelve months of the study 27 couples (22-5%) conceived. t mycoplasmas were isolated from 63% of these couples, and mycoplasma hominis from 18%, compared with 56% and 13%, respectively, in those who did not conceive. 88, with primary infertility of unascertained cause, took part in a controlled trial with doxycycline. the couples in the trial were allocated randomly to three groups: 30 received doxycycline, 28 received ...197547949
turkey syndrome 65, oedema syndrome and mycoplasma meleagridis.comparisons of liver histology and serum protein characteristics from cases of oedema syndrome and from poults with mycoplasma meleagridis induced ascites revealed that the two conditions, though presenting grossly similar post mortem appearances, are different entities. serum albumin concentrations, but not total serum protein levels, were markedly reduced in poults with m meleagridis induced ascites and in those with turkey syndrome 65. poults which were infected with m meleagridis but which f ...197548271
t-mycoplasmas: a study of the morphology, ultrastructure and mode of division of some human strains.the morphology of 10 strains of t-mycoplasma was studied in wet preparations of viable cells by darkfield, phase-contrast and interference microscopy, and in fixed preparations by various techniques of electron microscopy. mycoplasma-like artefacts in the horse-serum component of the medium were eliminated by filtration. all 10 strains were similar. individual cells were spherical, 0-25-1-0 mum in size, with a bounding trilaminar membrane, 10 nm thick and containing 7-5-12-5-nm particles, and a ...197549431
[the differenziation of swine-mycoplasma by acrylamide-gel-electrophoresis (author's transl)].the strains of swine mycoplasma (tab. 1) were grown aerobically in whittlestone's medium containing swine serum for 4-5 days at 37 degrees c. after centrifugation and washing they were freeze-dried and extracted with a phenol-acetic acid-water solution (4:2:1) (1 ml/5 mg mycoplasma dru weight) at 4 degrees c over 48 h. after centrifugation 2 volumes of the supernatant were mixed with 1 volume of a 40% sucrose solution in 35% acetic acid. 0,15 or 0,2 ml of which were added to the acrylamide-gel ( ...197549991
the skin-reactive antigens of mycoplasma pneumoniae.guinea pigs experimentally infected with mycoplasma pneumoniae or immunized with the orgnaism in combination with freund's complete adjuvant developed a delayed hypersensitive skin reaction following on intradermal injection of the m. pneumoniae antigen. the amount of protein necessary to produce the delayed skin reaction was as low as 0.01 mug. when the sonicated whole cells were extracted with aqueous acetone, the delayed skin reactivity was found mostly in the acetone insoluble (lipid-deplete ...197550469
[identification of mycoplasma isolated from the male urogenital tract]. 197550491
proceedings: krebs-henseleit urea cycle in cultured human diploid fibroblasts. 197550817
virus retrieval studies in human neoplasia.short- and long-term co-cultures of 49 cases of human osteosarcoma cells with bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of patients with different types of leukemia were studied. morphological changes were observed in 7 of 13 long-term co-cultures resembling those induced by rna tumor viruses. the changes were accompanied by appearance of cytoplasmic antigen as shown by fixed immunofluorescence test with sera from patients with osteosarcoma, leukemia, and of some apparently normal blood donors. abso ...197551629
use of electron microscopy for detection of viral and other microbial contaminants in bovine sera.a total of 25 lots of bovine serum samples were pelleted in beem capsules for thin sectioning and were examined by electron microscopy. these included 17 lots of fetal bovine serum pools and five lots of calf serum pools obtained from commercial sources, and three lots of adult bovine serum from local dairy farms. virus-like particles, 50 to 300 nm in diameter, were detected in 17 of 25 (68%) of the sera. five of 25 serum samples showed the presence of mycoplasma-like agents. incubation of bovin ...197551855
improved recognition and quantitation technique for oncornaviruses.a technique to recognize and quantitate oncornaviruses using perforated pointed beem capsules has been developed in our laboratory. virus samples that presented problems in counting, or those which could not be evaluated at all by negative staining, could be clearly defined and counted using the thin-sectioning beem capsule technique. perforation of the beem capsule allowed rapid infiltration of reagents into the tip of the virus pellet and made further manipulation and orientation unnecessary. ...197551856
cellular elements in the urine in health and in acute infectious diseases, especially with respect to the presence of haematuria. a study with application of millipore procedure and papanicolaou staining.the excretion of cellular per litre of urine amounted in healthy persons to, in round figures, one million epithelial cells (2.5 cells per visual field) in both sexes, one million leukocytes in males, one million erythrocytes in females and 0.5 million in males. the maximal excretion was calculated to be 5-6 million per litre. in acute infections the number of epithelial cells and leukocytes in the urine rose to more than the double. pathological microscopic haematuria, judged by exceeding of th ...197552190
canine mycoplasmas: serological studies of type and reference strains, with a proposal for the new species, mycoplasma opalescens.the type and reference strains of all mycoplasma species or "serogroups" presently known to occur in dogs were compared serologically. tests of growth inhibition and metabolism inhibition as well as indirect immunofluorescence tests did not disclose any cross reactions. examination by double immunodiffusion revealed at least one antigen specific for each strain tested. in addition, the common antigens were found within the glucose fermenting group and within the arginine metabolizing group of my ...197552279
effect of preparatory techniques on the gross morphology of mycoplasma hominis.a method is presented whereby cells of mycoplasma hominis can be prepared with minimal distortion for electron microscopy. after the addition of glutaraldehyde to broth cultures, incubation is continued for 1 h. the cells are then collected by centrifugation, washed in distilled water, and used for negative-contrast preparations.197552651
letter: mycoplasma pneumoiae in a tubo-ovarian abscess. 197552808
detection of mycoplasma contamination in cultured cells: comparison of biochemical, morphological, and microbiological techniques. 197552819
prostatitis: man's hidden infection.prostatitis exists when inflammation of prostatic glands and tissues results from infection or allergy. gram-positive and negative bacteria cause most prostatic infections, but infections may also be caused by fungi, mycoplasma, viruses, and other nonbacterial infecting agents. precise diagnostic localization of infection to prostatic glands is accomplished by obtaining divided urinary specimens and prostatic fluid and observing numbers of bacteria (or other infecting agents) present in each spe ...197552931
the practice laboratory: the interpretation of blood smears. 197553937
ultrastructural study of mycoplasma pneumoniae in organ culture.the ultrastructure of mycoplasma pneumoniae m129 was studied by using specialized staining methods for thin-section transmission electron microscopy. nucleic acid was shown in the cytoplasmic granules and fibrillar material in the nuclear region. the central filament of the highly structured tip contained basic protein. with one method of fixation, parallel filaments were seen in the central core. m. pneumoniae was enveloped in an extracellular mucoprotein layer that was especially concentrated ...197654354
mycoplasma t strains and perinatal death.in 23 out of 290 perinatal deaths in addis ababa, mycoplasma t strains were the only organisms responsible for congenital pneumonia and death. all but 2 of the infants were stillborn, 16 dying during the last six weeks of gestation. infections apparently occurred through intact fetal membranes.197654632
[method of isolation and cultivation of mycoplasma]. 197556518
serological studies of bovine mycoplasmas. ii. determination of taxonomical relatedness by means of seven tests. 197656834
letter: search for microbes in arthritis. 197657384
improving the specificity and yield of the contagious bovine pleuropneumonia complement fixation test antigen.several methods for increasing yield and specificity of the contagious bovine pleuropneumonia complement fixation test antigen which is derived from mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides, strain v5, were examined. changes in culture conditions that increased the cell mass per unit volume of culture did not result in comparable increase in antigen yield. sixteen to 60-day-old cultures yielded more boiled cell antigen than younger cultures. some antigen in young cultures appeared to be masked, probab ...197657633
mycoplasma in tissue culture: overview of detection methods.mycoplasma contamination of tissue cultures is too costly, scientifically damaging and inappropriate, and perhaps, even medically hazardous to be ignored. prevention by continuous surveillance demands adequate mycoplasma testing procedures. despite a proliferation of indirect methods, the present consensus indicates that careful and extensive microbiological testing is still the cornerstone of any mycoplasma detection program. the finding of 'non-cultivable' or possible tissue-adapted micro-orga ...197657945
[demonstration of mycoplasma by direct fluorochromation with acridine derivatives (author's transl)].vital fluorochromation of mycoplasmas can be obtained with acridine derivatives. stained with acridine-orange und 9-aminoacridine chloride-1-hydrate mycoplasmas appear as yellow (green) fluorescing homogeneous spots or discs under the fluorescence microscope, the exact appearance depending on the concentration of the fluorochrome and the absorption by nucleic acids. non-specific supplements and undermixed bacteria have significantly different fluorescence. depending on the metachromasia of acrid ...197659662
[bidimensional immunoelectrophoretic study of the antigenic composition of the membrane in various mycoplasma strains].membrane antigenic composition of acheloplasma laidlawii pg9, a. granularum bts-39, and mycoplasma fermentans pg 18(g) was determined by means of bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis in the presence of sodium desoxycholate 0.5%. depending upon the mycoplasma species from which membranes were obtained, 7 to 15 antigens were evidenced. using sodium desoxycholate presents the advantage over non-ionic detergents to dissolve better the mycoplasmic membrane antigenic complexes. a comparative study of f ...197661061
complement-mediated killing of acholeplasma laidlawii by antibodies to various membrane components.mycoplasmas are useful models for biochemical studies of the mechanism of complement-mediated killing by antibodies to various membrane components. the purpose of this study was to determine the membrane antigens involved in immune killing of acholeplasma laidlawii. antibodies to a. laidlawii membrane total lipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids could be induced in rabbits after injection of reaggregates of the purified lipids with mycoplasma hominis protein as the carrier. killing of a. laidlaw ...197661175
[metabolism inhibition test for isolation of antibodies to mycoplasma pneumoniae]. 197661320
infection and intracranial arterial thrombosis. 197661548
[genital infections by viruses, mycoplasma and chlamydozoa (author's transl)]. 197661630
antigens common to hosts and parasites. 197662552
[identification of mycoplasma by the adsorption tests]. 197663605
differential response of chlamydial and ureaplasma-associated urethritis to sulphafurazole (sulfisoxazole) and aminocyclitols.91 men with non-gonococcal urethritis (n.g.u.) were randomly treated with either sulphafurazole (sulfisoxazole), 500 mg orally q.i.d. for 10 days, or an aminocyclitol (streptomycin or spectinomycin), 2 g intramuscularity for 1 to 3 doses at 12 h intervals. initial urethral cultures were positive for chlamydia trachomatis (c) in 36 (40%). ureaplasma urealyticum (u) was isolated from the urethra or urine from20 (95%) of 21 white men in a first episode of n.g.u. who had negative chlamydia cultures. ...197663748
the concentration of doxycycline in human prostate gland and its role in the treatment of prostatitis.the concentrations of doxycycline were measured in 36 enucleated, enlarged prostate glands. after administration of 200 mg of doxycycline intravenously significant tissue concentrations (mean value 1.79 mug/g) were rapidly obtained. the mean concentration of the drug 14 hours after a repeated oral dose of 100 mg was 1.56 mug/g. the ratios of tissue and serum concentrations were 0.610 and 0.568, respectively. as there are only a few antibiotics which penetrate into the prostate, the importance of ...197663989
characterization of membrane and cytoplasmic antigens of mycoplasma arginini by two-dimensional (crossed) immunoelectrophoresis.two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis was employed to electrophoretically identify membrane and cytoplasmic antigens of mycoplasma arginini g-230. five distinct cytoplasmic antigens were observed in soluble fractions prepared by digitonin lysis with electrophoretic mobilities (relative to bovine albumin) ranging from 0.36 to 0.86; four of these were common to other m. arginini strains: leonis and 23243. five membrane antigens were identified, two of which (0.4 and 0.2) were common to the other m ...197764457
in situ detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures by fluorescent hoechst 33258 stain. 197765285
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