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fractionation of mycobacterial antigens by vertical electrophoresis in the polyacrylamide gel. 19751443
development of mycobacterium lacticolum and its synthesis of exopolysaccharide under conditions of varying acidity of the medium.mycobacterium lacticolum 121 grows and synthesizes exopolysaccharide at the initial values of ph of the medium from 5.0 to 11.5. the accumulation of biomass is maximal (10 to 12 gram/litre) at ph 6.0 to 11.5; the rate of growth is highest at ph 8.0 to 11.5. the largest amount of exopolysaccharide (2.0 to 2.4 gram/litre) is produced in the medium at ph 8.0 to 11.0; the rate of its production is highest at ph 9.0 to 11.0. the growth of mycobacterium lacticolum 121 and the biosynthesis of polysacch ...19751632
antibacterial product of peritoneal exudate cell cultures from guinea pigs infected with mycobacteria, listeriae, and rickettsiae.in an in vitro model of cellular immunity, the antibacterial product of immunologically mediated mononuclear cell activation was studied from guinea pigs infected with listeriae and rickettsiae and compared with the product previously described from animals infected with mycobacteria. we found that this product, active against gram-positive bacilli, appeared to be identical in the three different infections with regard to its heat stability, its chromatographic adsorption and elution pattern, i ...197715946
osteomyelitis caused by mycobacterium fortuitum.a case of osteomylitis of the foot and ankle bones with subsequent complications is presented. antibiotic therapy was unsuccessful and a below-knee amputation was performed. a comparison of the various mycobacteria species and their role as etiologic agents in osteomyelitis follows.197715948
subunit composition and some properties of palmityl-coa-acp-transacylase of mycobacterium smegmatis. 197718217
immunosuppressant activity of the ansamycins.the immunosuppressive effect of four analogues of rifampin and two streptovaracins on cell-mediated immunity has been determined. tuberculin hypersensitivity in the footpads of immunized mice was inhibited by three of the rifampin analogues and by both streptovaracins. the observed in vivo immunosuppressive activity of the compounds tested was not correlated with their in vitro activity against mycobacterial growth but was associated with their toxicity in mice. these data indicate that some of ...19764011
bacteriological examination of sputum (author's transl).the aa., emphasizing the importance of ascertain the bronchial source of microorganisms recoverable from sputum, recommend for this purpose the use of properly collected sputum specimens and the application of washing treatment for mucopurulent materials. the aim of the present study has been to verify the effectiveness of mechanical apparatus to homogenize sputum without affecting the viability of resident microorganisms and the usefulness of prior microscopical examination to establish the rat ...197613741
study of the nature of the associated microflora in the prolonged substrateless cultivation of beet plants.the purpose of the present investigation was to study variations in the population density of microorganisms, their qualitative and quantitative composition during substrate-free cultivation of beats. the results obtained show that the microbial number in the nutrient solution increased by the time of intensive growth of beats and decreased by the time of harvesting. the number of root microorganisms was much greater than the total number of microorganisms in the nutrient solution. oligonitrophi ...197717774
microbiological assay of ethambutol. 197714917
graft-versus-host reaction-like phenomenon induced by bcg in mice lethally irradiated and transferred with syngeneic bone marrow cells. 197716697
aids for in vitro mycobacterium lepraemurium investigations: estimation of oxidation-reduction potentials and po2 with 2, 6 dichlorophenol indophenol.the partial success in cultivating a "host-dependent" microbe provided the incentive to develop methods which may aid the growth of the organism. the oxidation-reduction potential (orp) of nc-5, an aerobic, cysteine containing medium which supports the limited in vitro growth of mycobacterium lepraemurium, is measurable with the redox dye, 2, 6 dichlorophenol indophenol. both cysteine and autoclaved glucose can be used to adjust to orp. glucose autoclaved in phosphate buffer but not in aqueous s ...197717575
metabolism of triacylglycerol in mycobacterium smegmatis.mycobacterium smegmatis cells incorporated 1-14coleic acid into triacylglycerols (tg) from the medium more rapidly than shorter chain fatty acids, caprilic and butyric acids. this incorporation was inhibited more strongly by 10(-3) m n-ethylmaleimide than by 10(-3) m kcn. 14ctg in the bacterial cells was utilized when the cells were in poor nutritional conditions, such as phosphate buffer (ph 7.0) containing oleic acid. accumulation of tg was observed in the cells at late stages of growth. digly ...197612154
of mice and men in bone marrow transplantation. 197717189
comparison of the effects of alclofenac, flurbiprofen, and prednisolone on acute inflammatory response in the rat.the fluid and cellular phases of the inflammatory response were measured using a technique employing subcutaneous implantation of polyurethane foam cubes impregnated with heat-killed mycobacterium tuberculosis. fluribiprofen and prednisolone were equipotent and were capable of almost completely suppressing fluid and cellular responses, while alclofenac was less potent at nontoxic dose levels. study of the patterns of cellular exudation by image analysing computer showed that alcofenac appears un ...197716574
binding of nucleotides to purified coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei.binding studies of various nucleotides to the purified coupling factor-latent atpase from mycobacterium phlei have been carried out using gel filtration, equilibrium dialysis, and ultrafiltration methods. the purified latent atpase binds 3 mol of adp per mol of the enzyme with an apparent dissociation constant of 68 mum. binding of nucleotides occurred in the decreasing order: adp, epsilon-atp, epsilon-adp, udp, adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (amp-p(nh)p), idp, and adenosine 5'-(alpha,beta-methyl ...197714131
synthesis and biological activity of some vinyl-substituted 2-nitroimidazoles.in previous studies 1-methyl-2-nitro-1h-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde and 1-methyl-2-nitro-5-vinyl-1h-imidazole were found to posses interesting antimicrobial activities. we have now prepared some 2-nitro-1h-imidazoles in which the 5-vinyl chain bears selected functional groups (cho, coch3, no2) as well as nitrogen-condensation derivatives of the carbonyl functions. furthermore, 5-methyl-2-nitro-1-vinyl-1h-imidazole has been synthesized. all the compounds, and some intermediates, have been assayed ...197716132
characterization of autolysins from mycobacterium smegmatis.this study demonstrates, for the first time, the autolytic enzymes associated with mycobacterial cell walls. based on the release of radioactivity and ninhydrin-reactive material from isolated cell walls, it was shown that maximum activity occurs during the late log phase of growth and at a buffer ph of about 8.0. chemical analyses of autolytic digests of isolated cell walls indicated that at least three autolysins are active under the conditions used. these are n-glycolylmuramic acid-l-alanine ...197714109
mycobactericidal activity of glutaraldehyde solutions.aqueous solutions of alkaline glutaraldehyde (buffered at ph 8.5) inactivated a standard suspension of mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv faster than the corresponding acid (ph 3.7 preparation. quantitative differences in the rate of inactivation of eight other species of mycobacterium were determined using a 1% solution of alkaline glutaraldehyde and inactivation of residual glutaraldehyde with 1% sodium bisulfite solution. variations in the rate of kill were observed between the various mycobact ...197611227
l-asparaginase--antileukemia agent.this paper describes the most recent development in the field of biosynthesis of l-asparaginase by means of various culture, purification by column chromatography, informations of the catabolite repression of l-asparaginase and its metabolism in mycobacteria. the separation, purification studies, idea about the effect of different ph on activity, quaternary structure and the effect of specific antibodies on catalytic activity of l-asparaginase is discussed. this material shows the role of l-aspa ...197719639
immunity to mycobacterium leprae infections in mice stimulated by m. leprae, bcg, and graft-versus-host reactions.infections of mice with mycobacterium leprae in one rear foot pad immunized them against a second infection in the other rear foot pad. purified bacilli harvested from the first infection also produced immuniy when injection into the foot pads of previously uninfected mice. injections of bcg afforded similar protection, but had no adjuvant effect on m. leprae. m. duvali, a cultivable mycobacterium that is reported to be more closely related antigenically to m. leprae than bcg is, provided much l ...197611189
neutral lipid biosynthesis in mycobacterium smegmatis.the biosynthesis of neutral lipids in mycobacterium smegmatis was studied using cell free extracts. maximum neutral lipid production was obtained when the reaction mixture (400 microliter) consisted of 0.25 m potassium phosphate buffer (ph 7.5), 0.125 mm oleoyl-coa, 3.75 mm sn-glycerol-3-p, 10 mm mgcl2 and 1.85 mg bovine serum albumin. no magnesium dependency for the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-p was observed. a slight stabilizing effect seemed to occur due to this ion. the enzyme phosphatidate p ...197720150
diseases of aquarium fish-1: the clinical approach. 197720689
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide -- independent formate dehydrogenase in mycobacterium phlei.formate dehydrogenase activity (ec 1.2.1.2) has been demonstrated in cell-free preparations of mycobacterium phlei by following the reduction of 2,6 dichlorophenolindophenol. thiazolyl blue tetrazolium, or equine cytochrome c. the reduction of equine cytochrome c was inhibited by 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-n-oxide. neither nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide nor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate were reduced by this formate dehydrogenase. the enzyme was constitutive and associated with ...197713920
n-(2-carboxyphenyl)-4-chloroanthranilic acid disodium salt: a novel anti-arthritic agent without anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. 197721247
recent advances in experimental leprosy.within the last 15 years we have learned to identify mycobacterium leprae, determine its viability, screen the efficacy of antileprosy drugs, and monitor the bacilli for drug sensitivity. we have evidence that subclinical infections occur frequently among contacts of patients with leprosy and that the different manifestations of leprosy reflect differences in resistance to m leprae. we are developing hypotheses about the mechanism of these differences. we have experimentally transmitted lepromat ...19768844
control mechanisms for fatty acid synthesis in mycobacterium smegmatis. 197721523
the occurrence of salmonellas, mycobacteria and pathogenic strains of escherichia coli in pig slurry.ninety-eight samples of pig slurry from 54 farms were examined for the presence of salmonellas, porcine enteropathogenic strains of haemolytic escherichia coli and mycobacteria. salmonellas were isolated from 12 farms (22%) and enteropathogenic e. coli from 13 farms (24%). pathogenic mycobacteria were not isolated. salmonellas were isolated from 7 of 16 farms (44%) stocked with 'minimal disease' pigs compared with only 5 of 38 farms (13%) stocked with conventionally reared pigs. conversely enter ...197610332
purification of plasma membrane from bcg-induced rabbit alveolar macrophages. 19767672
adjuvant and immunostimulating activities of water-soluble substances extracted from mycobacterium tuberculosis (var. hominis).water-soluble substances have been extracted from two strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis: the native hydrosoluble part (polysaccharide and peptidoglycan), a substance in which the polysaccharide moiety is less abundant than in the latter, the acetylated peptidoglycan and, finally a tetrasaccharide-heptapeptide. all four types of substances, when they were injected together with freund's incomplete adjuvant, exerted an adjuvant effect on the production of delayed-type hypersensiti ...19754166
studies on antituberculotic action of some phenothiazine derivatives in vitro.five phenothiazine derivatives (chlorpromazine, levomepromazine, diethazine, promethazine and chlorpromazine) sulphoxyde were tested for antimycobacterial activity. the growth of mycobacterium tuberculosis, m. bovis and m. butyricum was inhibited by chlorpromazine practically at identical concentrations. the minimum inhibitory concentrations for m. tuberculosis were: chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, 10 microgram/ml; diethazine and promethazine 20 microgram/ml, whilst chlorpromazine sulphoxyde ...197724964
effect of metal ions in the culture medium on the stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase activity of mycobacterium phlei.a particulate fraction prepared from mycobacterium phlei grown in a metal-deficient medium exhibited a greatly reduced activity of stearoyl-coa desaturase compared to that from normally grown cells. metal deficiency, however, had no effect on the fad-dependent nadph-cytochrome c reductase activity, which has been suggested to participate in the desaturation process. when the cells were grown in the deficient medium supplemented with both fe2+ and mg2+, the desaturase activity was restored to the ...19752587
current status of treatment of pneumonia.proper treatment of pneumonia is dependent upon a correct diagnosis. pneumonia may be due to infectious agents, allergic phenomena, or chemical causes. treatment regimens are outlined for the various types of pneumonia--pneumococcal, staphylococcal, fungal, and pneumonia due to gram-negative and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, to blastomyces dermatitidis, and to the parasite pneumocystis carinii. in discussing current concepts of treatment, several well-known methods are emphasized, as well as ...1975792
bacteriologic diagnosis of acute pneumonia. comparison of sputum, transtracheal aspirates, and lung aspirates. 1976521
conditions for production, and some characteristics, of mycobacterial growth inhibitory factor produced by spleen cells from mice immunized with viable cells of the attenuated h37ra strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis.mycobacterial growth inhibitory factor (mycoif), found in supernatant fluids of mouse spleen cell cultures that have been stimulated in vitro with homologous antigen, inhibited the intracellular multiplication of virulent tubercle bacilli within normal mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. antigenically stimulated h37ra-immunized mouse spleen cells required 72 h of incubation to produce supernatant fluids that would cause intracellular inhibition. supernatant fluids from 48-h mouse spleen cell ...1975330
effect of ph of the medium and other factors on the selection of isoniazid-resistant forms of m. tuberculosis. 19756956
purification and properties of a triacylglycerol lipase from mycobacterium phlei.in order to study the metabolism of triacylglycerol in mycobacteria, an intracellular particulate triacylglycerol lipase (ec 3.1.1.3) was purified 800-fold from stationary phase cells of mycobacterium phlei. extraction of whole cell suspensions with 5% triton x-100, followed by ion-exchange chromatography of the extract on two successive deae-cellulose columns produced a preparation which was nearly homogeneous by the criterion of analytical isoelectric focusing in acrylamide gels (one band, pi. ...197718200
enzymatic synthesis of 2-o-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl-methyl-alpha-d-mannopyranoside by a cell-free particulate system of mycobacterium smegmatis.a cell-free particulate enzyme preparation of mycobacterium smegmatis atcc 607 catalyzed the transfer of labeled mannose from gdp14c mannose to methyl-alpha-d-mannopyranoside (an exogenously added acceptor) to form a product that was characterized to be 2-o-alpha-d14c mannopyranosyl-methyl-alpha-d-mannopyranoside. this transmannosylase activity was specific for both the sugar nucleotide donor and methyl monosaccharide acceptor. the reaction was stimulated by the addition of various metal ions an ...19766051
nitrogen fixation by hydrogen-utilizing bacteria.seventeen strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, isolated from different habitats on hydrogen and carbon dioxide as well as on other substrates, morphologically resembled each other. all strains, including mycobacterium flavum 301, grew autotrophically with hydrogen. the isolate strain 6 was sensitive to oxygen when dependent on n2 as nitrogen source, a consequence of the sensitivity of its nitrogenase towards oxygen. at the same time, strain 6 was sensitive to hydrogen when growing autotrophicall ...19765978
steroid transforming enzymes from microorganisms. iv. purification and cofactor requirement of the 4-ene-3-oxosteroid-5alpha-reductase from mycobacterium smegmatis. 197718639
control mechanisms in the synthesis of saturated fatty acids. 197720038
chemical modification of streptovaricin c. ii the intramolecular aldol condensation of 19-o-acetonyl-damavaricin c and its analogs. 19766412
purification and properties of l-asparaginase from mycobacterium phlei.1. l-asparaginase from m. phlei was purified about 170-fold with an 11% yield. the purification procedure consisted of: fractionation with ammonium sulphate; adsorption of contaminating proteins on calcium phosphate gel; chromatography on sephadex g-150 and deae-cellulose. the specific activity of the final preparation was 32.6 i.u./mg protein. 2. molecular weight of the enzyme as determined by sephadex g-100 filtration amounted to 126 000. optimum ph was 8.8-9.2. the enzyme did not hydrolyse l- ...19767091
phagocyte lysosomes: interactions with infectious agents, phagosomes, and experimental perturbations in function. 197720833
studies on the mechanism of action of the flavoenzyme lactate oxidase. proton uptake and release during the binding of transition state analogs. 197719476
enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions with the flavin analogues 5-deazariboflavin, 5-deazariboflavin 5'-phosphte, and 5-deazariboflavin 5'-diphosphate, 5' leads to 5'-adenosine ester.the ability of 5-deazaisoalloxazines to substitute for the isoalloxazine (flavin) coenzyme has been examined with several flavoenzymes. without exception, the deazaflavin is recognized at the active site and undergoes a redox change in the presence of the specific enzyme substrate. thus, deazariboflavin is reduced catalytically by nadh in the presence of the beneckea harveyi nad(p)h:(flavin) oxidoreductase, the reaction proceeding to an equilibrium with an equilibrium constant near unity. this i ...19763207
acetyl-coa-dependent elongation of fatty acids in mycobacterium smegmatis.an enzyme system of mycobacterium smegmatis catalyzing the elongation of medium-chain fatty acids with acetyl-coa was obtained free from de novo fatty acid synthetase by ammonium sulfate fractionation. the system was resolved by gel filtration and deae-cellulose chromatography into three fractions, all of which were required for reconstitution of the elongation activity. the three fractions were highly purified enoyl-coa hydratase, highly purified 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase, and a fraction ...197721175
fatty acid synthesizing enzyme activity of cultured mycobacterium lepraemurium.in comparing the specific activity of enzymes pertaining to the biosynthesis of fatty acids in crude extracts of cultivated m. lepraemurium and m. smegmatis, it was found that: 1. the activity of acetyl coa carboxylase of the former organism was undetectable and that of de novo fatty acid synthetase was too weak to measure exactly, under the condition used, whereas both activities of the latter organism were comparable to those already reported by other authors. 2. the activity of acetyl coa dep ...197720408
interferon and cytotoxic factor (cytotoxin) released in the blood of mice infected with mycobacterium bovis bcg. i. enhanced production of interferon and appearance of cytotoxin stimulated by capsular polysaccharide of klebsiella pneumoniae or bacterial lipopolysaccharide.interferon production stimulated by the active substance (neutral fraction) of the capsular polysaccharide of klebsiella pneumoniae (neutral cps-k) in bcg-infected mice was compared with that by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps). prior infection with bcg increased the responsiveness of mice to the lethal effect of neutral cps-k as well as to that of lps. associated with this, bcg-infected mice showed a markedly enhanced ability to produce interferon after stimulation not only by lps but also by ...197941163
[the 54th annual meeting symposium. problems of the disease due to mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli (author's transl)]. 197942822
heat inactivation of mycobacterium avium-mycobacterium intracellulare complex organisms in aqueous suspension.isolants from swine and from humans representing serotypes 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 of the mycobacterium avium-mycobacterium intracellulare complex were compared for heat tolerance in aqueous suspension. the most heat-resistant isolant found was a serovar 10 isolated from a human. this isolant was examined further to determine the rate of kill at various temperatures and ph's, the effect of meat protein and fat, and the effect of nitrite. kill rates were not significant at 60 degrees c or below. decim ...197944444
effect of polymethylpolysaccharides on the hydrolysis of palmitoyl coenzyme a by a thioesterase from mycobacterium smegmatis. 197940995
demonstration & purification of three fatty acid synthetases from mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv. 197943835
short-course chemotherapy in pulmonary tuberculosis. a controlled trial by the british thoracic and tuberculosis association.the results of short courses of chemotherapy using rifampicin plus isoniazid, supplemented for the first two months by streptomycin or ethambutol, in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis, have been studied. 174 patients with little or no cavitation received six months chemotherapy. 1 (0.6%) failed to convert to culture negative during treatment and 5 (3%) relapsed in the twelve months after the end of treatment. in 177 patients with similar disease, twelve months chemotherapy was ...197546047
[characteristics of the bacillus excretion in tuberculosis of the locomotor apparatus and of the peripheral lymph nodes]. 197944050
antigen-induced inhibition of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. iii. localization of an inhibitory site distinct from the major encephalitogenic determinant of myelin basic protein.defined peptide fragments were isolated from the n-terminal half of the myelin basic protein (bp) molecule and employed for antigen-induced inhibition of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae). guinea pigs pretreated with peptide 44-89, obtained by limited pepsin digestion and purified by column chromatography, were significantly protected against eae subsequently induced by sensitization with bp in complete fruend's adjuvant. peptide 1-20, derived by cyanogen bromide cleavage, did not in ...197546241
effect of immunomodulators on thymocyte suppressive activity in mice. 197828950
a staining method using acridine orange and auramine o for fungi and mycobacteria in bovine tissue.a rapid staining method using auramine o and acridine orange (aoao) is described for staining mycobacteria and fungi in paraffin sections of bovine tissues. one hundred seventy-seven tissue sections from specimens divided into two general groups on the basis of previous histopathology results were examined with a fluorscent microscope. group i, a total of 77 sections, were from 47 mycobacterial and 30 fungal granulomas. mycobacteria were found by the aoao procedure in 44 of the 47 tissues previo ...197546637
bacteriologic flora of aspiration-induced pulmonary infections.the role of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms in the genesis of pneumonia or lung abscess in patients with historical, clinical, and radiologic findings suggestive of aspiration was compared to their role in similar patients without these findings. bacterial specimens were obtained by transtracheal aspiration or thoracentesis. anaerobes were isolated in 100% of the patients who were aspiration-prone as contrasted with only 20% of those who were not. isolation of a single species or no growth ...197528705
virulence and resistance to superoxide, low ph and hydrogen peroxide among strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis.six strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis of different virulence in guinea-pigs were compared with regard to their resistance to low ph, to hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) at different ph values and to superoxide (o2-). low virulence was associated with susceptibility to h2o2 in native and isoniazid-resistant strains but not in laboratory-attenuated strain h37ra. h2o2 resistance was only partly related to catalase content. low virulence was not associated with susceptibility to an acid environment but ...197824084
inhibition by serum of encephalitogenic activity of myelin basic protein: nature of the serum factor responsible. 197546785
purification and properties of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from mycobacterium phlei atcc354.beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (ec 1.1.1.30) was purified 145-fold from mycobacterium phlei atcc354 by ammonium sulphate fractionation and deae-cellulose chromatography. the ph optima for oxidation and reduction reactions were 8.4 and 6.8 respectively. the purified enzyme was specific for nad, nadh, acetoacetate and d(-)-beta-hydroxybutyrate. km values for dl-beta-hydroxybutyrate and nad were 7.4 mm and 0.66 mm respectively. the enzyme was inactivated by mercurial thiol inhibitors and by hea ...197824083
i.c.m.r. conference on leprosy research. 197829989
polyol dehydrogenases in mycobacteria (author's transl).contrary to the the tubercle bacilli (h37ra, bcg), mycobacterium phlei, grown on sauton medium, formed the nad+ dependent dehydrogenases that catalyse the oxidation of ribitol, sorbitol and mannitol. these enzymes were separated by chromatography on deae-cellulose and sephadex g-200. in the present work we have principally studied the ribitol dehydrogenase. all the experiments for induction of the ribitol dehydrogenase in h37ra or bcg were negative; whereas after the adaptation of m. phlei to ri ...197829546
comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppd for testing cattle. 2. south-eastern england.a tuberculin testing trial was carried out in eight counties of south-eastern england to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of weybridge human ppd with that of rotterdam bovine ppd. the matching of these two tuberculins for potency in naturally infected cattle had already been established, the bovine ppd being approximately one-and-a-half times more potent than the human ppd per unit of weight. in 1110 cattle in 25 herds with histories of long-standing freedom from tuberculosis and ...197547751
comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppf for testing cattle. 3. national trial in great britain.a field trial on a country-wide basis was undertaken to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of single and comparative tuberculin tests in cattle using either weybridge human or weybridge bovine ppd. the tests were made on 10,305 cattle in 179 herds distributed throughout all regions of england, scotland and wales. results showed that a comparative tuberculin test using avian ppd with either human or bovine ppd had a much higher efficiency than a single injection of mammalian tubercul ...197547752
symposium on recent progress on immunology of leprosy and chronic mycobacterial infections. 197829988
a possible relationship between delayed hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity. 197547728
hypersensitivity to mineral oil in the domestic fowl.domestic fowl were found to be hypersensitive to a second injection of highly purified mineral oil if they had been primed 3 weeks previously with oil in the presence of mycobacteria. this response did not appear to be related to impurities originally present in the oil or introduced into it during sterilization, and did not follow priming with mycobacteria in vegetable oil or in saline. the reaction at the challenge site was prolonged and developed a characteristic histology identical to that f ...197548503
comparison of the specificty of human and bovine tuberculin ppd for testing cattle. 1--republic of ireland.a tuberculin testing trial in cattle was carried out in the republic of ireland to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of a human purified protein derivative (ppd) tuberculin (weybridge) with that of a bovine ppd (rotterdam), and to determine whether discrimination between specific and non-specific reactions to mammalian tuberculin is better with doses of tuberculins smaller than those traditonally used for testing cattle. tests were carried out in 510 cattle, 395 of which were shown ...197547750
further characterization of mycobacterium ulcerans toxin.mycobacterium ulcerans produces an exotoxin in culture which, when inoculated into guinea pig skin, causes inflammation, necrosis, edema, and other histopathological changes resembling those in infections of humans. the toxin was resistant to heat and to alkalies and was moderately acid labile. toxic activity was destroyed by pronase, phospholipase, lipase, amylase, and glucosidase but not by trypsin, collagenase, cellulase, lysozyme, hyaluronidase, or neuraminidase. toxic activity was resistant ...197830694
in vitro cultivation of leprosy bacilli in hyaluronic acid-based medium. 2. progress and developing concept of the role of hyaluronic acid suggested by culture and armadillo infection studies.progress is summarized relating to the verification, identification of m. leprae and understanding of the process of adaptation the pathogen passes through before in vitro growth takes place. it is recognized that hyaluronic acid apparently does not serve as a source of energy but the possibility is presented that it plays a role in the reconstruction of m. leprae cell walls made "leaky" by constant intracellular life. this apparently occurs, in culture, initially by the development of coccoid f ...197832143
alteration of mycobacterium phlei membrane structure by freezing and thawing: reversal by heating. 197549172
cell-mediated immunity in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: cross reactivity between myelin basic protein and mycobacteria antigens.guinea pigs injected with freund's incomplete adjuvant emulsified with guinea pig spinal cord, purified guinea pig myelin basic protein, or human myelin basic protein showed dermal reactivity to both of the basic proteins as well as to mycobacteria antigens. animals receiving only mycobacteria antigens expressed dermal reactivity to the sensitizing antigen in addition to basic protein. this cross reactivity may help explain the role of mycobacteria in inducing and protecting against eae, and may ...197548264
investigation into the relationship of m ulcerans to m. buruli and other mycobacteria.the main characteristics of mycoplasma ulcerans are its remarkably distinct drug sensitivity pattern and its rather poor enzymatic activity. m. microti is clearly distinguishable from m. bovis and m. tuberculosis. some of the m. buruli strains appear to be identical with m. ulcerans, whereas others show similarity either to m. microti or to m. tuberculosis. it seems that m. buruli is not a legitimate species.197547730
effect of infection with trichinella spiralis and bcg on thymic histology.the histology of mouse thymic tissue was examined following infection with trichinella spiralis and/or bcg. icr/cd-1 mice were orally infected with 200 t. spiralis 56 days preceding intravenous administration of 4x10-6 viable bcg. following assessment of delayed hypersensitive foot pad reactions to bcg, the mice were bled and sacrificed. the thymus was removed from each animal, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin and cut in 4 mum sections. examination of serial sections ...197549304
the immunological aspects of malignant disease. 197549889
macrophage requirement for production of guinea pig migration inhibitory factor (mif) in vitro.methods devised for generation and assay of migration inhibitory factor (mif) on a reduced scale have permitted the performance of experiments which demonstrate that glass bead column-purified guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes do not produce mif or proliferate in response to antigen. evidence that the macrophage is the essential cellular element eliminated by the purification procedure is demonstrated by the restoration of both lymphocyte responses upon addition of 5% macrophages to the purified ...197547355
sensitivity studies in bacteriologic diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis.the identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms is insensitive. this in vitro investigation compares the sensitivity of ziehl-neelsen and fluorochrome staining techniques after two and ten hours of incubation with standard culture techniques. the culture methods were persistently more sensitive than the stain techniques. both stain techniques were of equal sensitivity. ten hours incubation reduces the sensitivity of the staining techniques but does not alter the sensitivity of the cul ...197549969
sulphone resistance in leprosy. a review of one hundred proven clinical cases.an account is given of the first hundred consecutive proven cases of sulphone resistance in leprosy, detected in malaysia between 1963 and 1974. proof of resistance was clinical in eighty patients and was obtained by drug-sensitivity testing in mice in ninety-six patients; 76 cases were proved both clinically and experimentally, and there was no discrepancy between the two methods. sulphone resistance was confined to patients with lepromatous-type leprosy--i.e., patients with a large bacterial p ...197549662
[the bacteriological diagnosis of pneumonia by transtracheal puncture. value in medical intensive care (author's transl)].seventy five patients referred with a diagnosis of pneumonia underwent transtracheal puncture. in 76% of cases this examination led to discovery of an organism in infected patients. in 50% of cases, the bacteriological diagnosis was sufficiently accurately oriented by direct examination to permit rapid and effective treatment. there was virtually perfect agreement with the results of blood cultures when the latter were positive. the organisms most often responsible were gram positive and above a ...197942881
non-specific induction of increased resistance in mice to trypanosoma congolense and trypanosoma brucei by immunostimulants.administration of the immunostimulants corynebacterium parvum, bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) or bordetella pertussis prior to, or at the same time as, challenge with trypanosoma congolense significantly increased survival times in mice, both of trypano-susceptible (a/j) and trypano-resistant (c57bl) strains. the increased survival time was associated with significant alterations in parasitaemia, which included lengthening of the pre-patent period, a delay in the time taken to reach the first pe ...197944360
letter: false-positive acid-fast smears. 197549831
[conditions for ethionamide activity and the formation of resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis]. 197941236
the effect of toxoplasma cell fractions and mycobacterial immunostimulants against virulent toxoplasma gondii in mice.toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were disrupted in a ribi cell fractionator and separated into cell walls and protoplasm by differential centrifugation. these products were used alone or combined with a mycobacterial glycolipid (p3) and injected either as oil-in-water emulsions or incorporated in freund's incomplete adjuvant. mice were vaccinated by intravenous or intradermal routes and challenged intraperitoneally with a highly virulent strain of toxoplasma gondii. a local granuloma formation was ...197944793
activation of macrophages assessed by in vivo and in vitro tests. 197944641
hairy cell leukemia: differences in phagocytic capacity of cells in vitro.hairy cells from eight patients with hairy cell leukemia were evaluated with both light and transmission electron microscopy for their capacity to phagocytose zymosan, latex, staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. in two patients, there was no phagocytosis of any of these substances; cells from three patients phagocytosed only latex; two, all except pseudomonas; and one, all 4 substances. hairy cells became relatively smooth while in culture with staphylococcus, but no surface change ...197937638
influence of immune status on virus-derived transplantable hepatoma in chickens.the transplantable mc-29 virus-derived hepatoma is a suitable model for studying the influence of immune status on virus-derived hepatomas in chickens. it was found that both humoral and cellular immunologic reactions have a role in the pathogenesis of virus-derived hepatomas and that virus-derived hepatomas can be influenced by nonspecific immunostimulation. the lymphoid system was profoundly altered in hepatoma-bearing chickens; this cannot be neglected when studying correlations between immun ...197938344
[drug resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis]. 197546313
treatment of tuberculosis. 197546687
the specificity of cellular immune responses in guinea pigs. i. t cells specific for 2,4-dinitrophenyl-o-tyrosyl residues.guinea pigs immunized with the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp) coupled directly to mycobacterium tuberculosis of strain h37ra (dnp-h37) show a variety of cell-mediated immune responses to dnp coupled to protein carriers. the cells responsible for this specific response are thought to be t lymphocytes for the following reasons: guinea pigs immunized with dnp-h37 displayed delayed hypersensitivity reactions to several dnp-proteins and contact sensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene. peritoneal exudate ...197546912
composition of antigens of various mycobacterial species detected with a mycobacterium tuberculosis reference serum.immunoelectrophoresis with a reference antiserum to mycobacterium tuberculosis permitted the identification of antigens shared by 12 species of mycobacteria. no antigens unique for m. tuberculosis were found.197550026
editorial: bovine tuberculosis and badgers. 197550520
experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice: immunologic response to mouse spinal cord and myelin basic proteins.it was confirmed that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis eae, could be induced in sjl/j mice with mouse spinal cord homogenate. it was shown that induction of eae in mice was critically dependent on the concentration of pertussis vaccine. the encephalitogen present in mouse brain was the basic protein of myelin. the smaller form of the mouse and rat basic proteins induced eae; thus the mouse like the rat responds to determinants other than the "tryptophan region," which induced eae in gui ...197547366
[oxido-reductive reactions in the transformation of hydrocortisone and prednisolone by adsorbed cells of mycobacterium globiforme, strain 193]. 197942048
cultivation of mouse bone marrow cells: cytochemical studies of the granulocyte colony feeder cells. 197550449
class, amounts, and affinities of anti-dinitrophenyl antibodies in chickens. ii. production of a restricted population of high affinity 7s antibodies by injection of antigen emulsified in adjuvant.the response of chickens given a single intramuscular injection of maximally coupled dinitrophenylated-gamma-bovine beta-globulin in either freund's complete (fca) or incomplete (fia) adjuvants was characterized by an initial synthesis of 7s and 17s antibodies followed by the exclusive and persistent production of 7s antibodies. the 17s antibodies were not detected either 3 to 4 weeks after a single injection or after an intravenous boost 16 months later. injections of low doses of antigen in fc ...197550372
induction of allergic encephalomyelitis using hydrosoluble adjuvant and the tryptophan region of myelin basic protein.experimental allergic encephalomyelitis has been induced in guinea pigs using the encephalitogenic tryptophan peptide as antigen and a hydrosoluble adjuvant extracted from mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. hominis, strain h37ra. the maximum response was observed using 100mug of adjuvant per animal. this is a quantity of adjuvant substantially higher than was necessary to induce disease utilizing the whole myelin basic protein as antigen.197552609
short-course chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. 197547233
a selective inhibitor of the elicitation of immune-mediated reactions.6-chloro-17 alpha-hydroxypregna-1,4,6-triene-3,20-dione (chp), a steroid having a progestin-type structure yet not having progestational activity, was found to exhibit moderate anti-inflammatory activity in a number of conventional tests for corticoid potency (e.g., thymolytic, granuloma, carrageenin edema). chp was essentially equipotent, however, with cortisol in models of inflammation mediated via delayed hypersensitivity such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, adjuvant-induced arthr ...197545926
antimycobacterial activity of lecithin-cholesterol liposomes in the presence of phospholipase a2.tubercle bacilli were preincubated with lecithin-cholesterol liposomes to be subsequently exposed to phospholipase a2. after further incubation in the environment of acidic buffer, viable units in the final mixture were enumerated by inoculating the serial dilutions of an aliquot onto kirchner agar medium containing horse serum in 5%. another aliquot was used for lipid analyses to confirm hydrolysis of lecithin. in addition to this bactericidal type of experiments, bacteriostatic tests were also ...197832413
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