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the effect of microbial mycolytic agents on trichophyton rubrum.chitinolytic microorganisms isolated from forest soil and from healthy gypsy moth larvae (porthetria dispar (l.) were screened for their ability to lyse trichophyton rubrum mycelia. a few of these isolates were mycolytic on both autoclaved and on actively growing, intact, t. rubrum mycelia. supernatants from these isolates, utilizing live t. rubrum as the sole carbon source, showed the same mycolytic ability. assays of the supernatants for enzymatic activity revealed exocellular, stable enzymes ...19751677
the microbial metabolism of acetophenone. metabolism of acetophenone and some chloroacetophenones by an arthrobacter species.1. an organism that utilizes acetophenone as sole source of carbon and energy was isolated in pure culture and tentatively identified as an arthrobacter sp. 2. cell-free extracts of the acetophenone-grown organism contained an enzyme, acetophenone oxygenase, that catalysed an nadph-dependent consumption of o(2) in the presence of the growth substrate; approx. 1mol of o(2) and 1mol of nadph were consumed per mol of acetophenone oxidized. 3. cell-free extracts also contained an enzyme capable of t ...19754061
properties of an inducible extracellular neuraminidase from an arthrobacter isolate.the elective isolation of a soil microorganism, tentatively assigned to the genus arthrobacter, which produced an extracellular neuraminidase is described. the secretion of neuraminidase from washed cells in minimal medium required the presence of sialo-containing glycoproteins, whereas free n-acetyl-neuraminic asid of n-acetylmannosamine were poor inducers. no enzyme could be dected in the induction fitrated of cells, in the absence of inducer or in the culture filtrate of cells grown in a comp ...197714924
properties of the hexulose phosphate synthase of methylotrophic yeasts and bacteria.properties of hexulose phosphate synthase (hps) were studied in extracts of the methanol assimilating yeast candida methylica and the bacterium arthrobacter globiformis b-175 assimilating methylated amines. hps is an inducible enzyme which is localized in the soluble fraction of the cells. the effect of the ph of the reaction mixture, temperature, metal ions, and the concentration of substrates on the activity of hps was studied. properties of the enzyme were different in the yeast and the bacte ...197716201
the catabolism of l-tyrosine by an arthrobacter sp.an arthrobacter sp. metabolizes l-tyrosine by a pathway involving 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate as a key intermediate. p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate is formed from tyrosine by an amino-transferase specifically requiring alpha-ketoglutarate for activity, and is then converted to p-hydroxyphenylacetate by an oxidative decarboxylation. p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde is not an intermediate in the formation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. extracts of the bacterium oxidize 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate to delta-carboxyme ...197720216
lysis of intact yeast cells and isolated cell walls by an inducible enzyme system of arthrobacter gjm-1.bacterium arthrobacter gjm-1 known in the literature as a good producer of alpha-mannanase was found to accumulate in the culture fluid lytic activities against viable yeast cells during growth on isolated cell walls or beta-glucan fractions of yeast. the accumulation of the lytic activities showed an inducible character. the lytic system produced in the medium containing baker's yeast cell walls was capable of complete solubiliaztion of cell wals in vitro. the system lysed viable cells of a num ...197722164
acetic acid, a catabolite repressor of cholinesterase synthesis by an arthrobacter simplex culture.acetic acid was found to repress cholinesterase synthesis in the cells of arthrobacter simplex var. cholinesterasus even at very low concentrations (0.1%). the repression is very stable. it is not eliminated by glucose or an organic acid of the krebs cycle being added to the medium with acetic acid. the combination of acetic and butyric acids decreases the repression but does not eliminate it. the kinetics of cholinesterase synthesis was different in the cells grown on the medium with acetic aci ...197827705
p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase and melilotate hydroxylase. 197830879
d-gluconate transport in arthrobacter pyridinolis. metabolic trapping of a protonated solute.d-gluconate uptake was studied in whole cells of arthrobacter pyridinolis; the uptake activity was inducible, mutable and showed saturation kinetics (km = 5 micrometer). uptake of d-gluconate was not mediated by a phosphoenol-pyruvate : hexose phosphotransferase system, nor was it directly energized by atp. a transmembrane ph gradient, delta ph, of --63 mv was generated by a. pyridinolis cells at ph 6.5, while at ph 7.5, delta ph = 0. addition of 8 micrometer d-gluconate significantly reduced th ...197936144
emulsifier of arthrobacter rag-1: isolation and emulsifying properties.the oil-degrading arthrobacter sp. rag-1 produced an extracellular nondialyzable emulsifying agent when grown on hexadecane, ethanol, or acetate medium. the emulsifier was prepared by two procedures: (i) heptane extraction of the cell-free culture medium and (ii) precipitation with ammonium sulfate. a convenient assay was developed for measurement of emulsifier concentrations between 3 and 75 micrograms/ml. the rate of emulsion fromation was proportional to both hydrocarbon and emulsifier concen ...197936840
enzymatic properties of neuraminidases from arthrobacter ureafaciens.neuraminidase i and neuraminidase ii from arthrobacter ureafaciens were characterized. as determined by gel filtration on ultrogel aca 44, the molecular weights of neuraminidases i and ii were 51,000 and 39,000, respectively. neuraminidases i and ii were similar to each other in their enzymatic properties except for the substrate specificities towards gangliosides and erythrocyte stroma. their optimal phs were between 5.0 and 5.5 with n-acetylneuraminosyl-lactose or bovine submaxillary mucin as ...197942648
effect of dicumarol on the growth of some soil microorganisms.the effect of dicumarol on growth of selected soil bacteria: azotobacter chroococcum, arthrobacter globiformis, a. citreus and bacillus megaterium was studied. the following minimum concentrations were inhibitory in vitro: arthrobacter citreus--20 mug/ml., bacillus megaterium--40 mug/ml., azotobacter chroococcum--40 mug/ml. arthrobacter globiformis--70 mug/ml. cells of all microorganisms studied grown in the presence of dicumarol developed aberrant morphological forms.197659533
studies on the biodegradation of nonionic surfactants applied in the polyester fiber industry. i. activated sludge bacteria degrading the surfactants.the paper presents characteristics of 76 strains of bacteria capable of utilizing nonionic surfactants cirrasol fp, cirrasol sf 200 and cirrasol tcs as the source of carbon. the strains were isolated from two activated sludges adapted to the purification of wastes containing the above compounds at concentration 150--200 mg/l. the isolated strains belonged to the genera: achromobacter, alcaligenes, arthrobacter, flavobacterium, mycobacterium, nocardia, pseudomonas and xanthomonas. with load 0.11 ...197662497
an activity stain for l-serine dehydratase in polyacrylamide gels. 197768687
ovalbumin gene. action of restriction endonucleases upon dna coding sequence. 197768956
the metabolism of 1-phenylethanol and acetophenone by nocardia t5 and an arthrobacter species. 197877775
[peptidoglycan type and cell wall polysaccharide composition of cellulomonas cartalyticum and some coryneform organisms (author's transl)].cellulomonas cartalyticum was found to contain a peptidoglycan type different from that of the other species of cellulomonas. the diamino acid is lysin instead of ornithine and the interpeptide bridge consists of d-asp-d-ser. the same peptidoglycan type occurs in corynebacterium manihot, brevibacterium liticum and arthrobacter luteus. these non cellulolytic organisms are most likely not closely related with cellulomonas cartalyticum, as indicated by the very different g +c content of their dna, ...197898123
isoprenoid quinones in the classification of coryneform and related bacteria.menaquinones were the only isoprenoid quinones found in 85 of the 95 coryneform bacteria examined. dihydromenaquinones having nine isoprene units were the main components isolated from corynebacterium bovis, from other glutamic acid-producing strains, and from arthrobacter globiformis and related species. dihydromenaquinones with eight isoprene units were found in brevibacterium linens, the remaining corynebacterium species and strains probably belonging to the genus rhodococcus. tetrahydromenaq ...1979107269
[enzymes of intermediary metabolism in coryneform bacteria].enzymes of the intermediate metabolism were studied in ten strains of corynebacterium-like organisms belonging to the genera arthrobacter, brevibacterium, corynebacterium and nocardia. all of these were found to contain enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and nine strains among ten had dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate shunt. the activity of enzymes of the citric acid cycle was low: alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase was not found in arthrobacter, corynebacterium, brevibacterium linens and n ...1979108525
[pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in methylotrophs].the activity of pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases was determined in cell extracts of obligate and facultative methylotrophs which metabolized monocarbon reduced compounds via different pathways. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was found to be the only enzyme responsible for the high level of co2 fixation by methylotrophs with the serine pathway (methylosinus trichosporium, hyphomicrobium vulgare, pseudomonas methylica). methylotrophs with the hexulose phosphate pathway mehylobacter c ...1979108526
gentic engineering for practical application.genetic engineering has ushered in a new era in biology. although many problems are still to be solved, there are examples that point to a possible later application for the benefit of mankind: bacteria can be manipulated to degrade crude-oil spillages, to produce human insulin and to bind nitrogen from the air. if all the bacteria that are indigenous to agricultural soils could be made to bind nitrogen, an increase in soil fertility might well result.1979108601
immunodiffusion studies of ribosomes in classification of mycobacteria and related taxa.ribosomal preparations consisting of crude ribosomes (cr), 30s subunits (30s) and 16s core particles (16s) from four strains of the species mycobacterium bovis (bcg), mycobacterium fortuitum, mycobacterium phlei and mycobacterium smegmatis were analyzed by immunodiffusion technique for taxonomical purposes. the ribosomal preparations tested contained several interspecies cross-reacting precipitinogens. the number of precipitinogens demonstrated at the homologous reactions was generally larger th ...1979109401
comparison of three procedures for isolating dna from bacteria.three methods employing chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (ci), phenol, or enzymes, were evaluated for isolating dna from escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, and arthrobacter globiformis. for the amounts of reagents employed at optimum conditions in the ci and phenol procedures, 0.4-0.9 mg of dna/g wet weight of cells was isolated. using the enzymatic procedure, approximately twice as much dna was isolated. dna isolated by the ci procedure contained 0.03-0.09% protein and 0.08-0.12% rna. dna isolated ...1979119130
differentiation of genera of the coryneform bacteria.a scheme of the generic structure of the group of coryneform bacteria, including the genera arthrobacter, brevibacterium, cellulomonas, corynebacterium, and rhodococcus, is suggested. morphological, chemotaxonomic (presence and stereochemical form of diaminopimelic acid, lipid a, and l-arabinose), and physiological features were used as diagnostic criteria. the position of microbacterum and mycococcus and of coryneforms with a nocardial wall but giving a positive hugh-leifson anaerobic test, and ...1979121544
purification and characterization of a polyphosphate kinase from arthrobacter atrocyaneus.polyphosphate kinase, an enzyme which incorporated the gamma-phosphate of atp into long-chain polyphosphate molecules, was purified more than 700-fold from arthrobacter atrocyaneus by ammonium sulphate fractionation, deae-cellulose column chromatography and ssphadex g-200 gel filtration. the enzyme had a broad ph optimum at 6-0 to 7-0 and required mn2+ or mg2+, histone, and inorganic phosphate for activity. the km for mn-atp was 0-53 mm, and for inorganic phosphate was 1-67 mm. free atp concentr ...1975168307
survival of human enteric and other sewage microorganisms under simulated deep-sea conditions.the survival of pure cultures of escherichia coli, streptococcus faecalis, clostridium perfringens, and vibrio parahaemolyticus under simulated deep-sea conditions of low temperature (4 c), seawater, and hydrostatic pressures ranging from 1 to 1,000 atm was determined over a period exceeding 300 h. the viability of e. coli and total aerobic bacteria in seawater-diluted raw sewage subjected to these deep-sea conditions was also measured. there was a greater survival of both e. coli and s. faecali ...1975169733
specific cleavage and physical mapping of simian-virus-40 dna by the restriction endonuclease of arthrobacter luteus.simian virus 40 (sv40) dna (strain 776) is cleaved by the restriction endonuclease from arthrobacter luteus into 32 specific fragments including 20 large pieces designated alu-a through t as well as 12 minor products named alu m1 through m8. these were mapped on the sv40 genome by double digestion experiments. alu fragments were treated with hind enzymes and vice versa. similar reciprocal digestions were also carried out with hae iii enzyme. in this way a detailed cleavage map of the sv40 genome ...1976173549
stability of enzymes in starving arthrobacter crystallopoietes.cell-free extracts prepared from spherical and rod-shaped cells of arthrobacter crystallopoietes were assayed for enzymes during various periods of starvation. the level of nadh oxidase dropped to 20 and 30%, respectively, in spherical and rod-shaped cells during the first 1 to 2 days of starvation and then remained constant for 9 days. catalase activity decreased continuously and reached a low level in 9 days. enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were stable f ...1976180237
a comparative analysis of the ultrastructure of hydrocarbon-oxidizing micro-organisms.the ultrastructure of a variety of micro-organisms was compared after growth on hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon substrates. hydrocarbon-grown organisms were characterized by the presence of intracellular electron-transparent inclusions which in many cases appeared membrane-bound. with one exception, non-hydrocarbon-grown organisms did not contain electron-transparent inclusions. insignificant amounts of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid were produced by the hydrocarbon-grown micro-organisms. after g ...1976181527
arthrobacter luteus restriction endonuclease recognition sequence and its cleavage map of sv40 dna.the nucleotide sequence at the cleavage site of the restriction endonuclease isolated from arthrobacter luteus (alu) has been determined. the endonuclease cleaves at the center of a palindromic tetranucleotide sequence to give even-ended duplex dna fragments phosphorylated at the 5'-end. the endonuclease cleaves sv40 form i dna into 32 fragments. the order and sizes of these fragments have been determined to provide an alu cleavage map of the sv40 genome.1976182213
metabolism of l-rhamnose in arthrobacter pyridinolis.in arthrobacter pyridinolis, a respiration-coupled transport system for l-rhamnose caused accumulation of free l-rhamnose, while a phosphoenolpyruvate: l-rhamnose phosphotransferase system caused accumulation of l-rhamnose i-phosphate (levinson & krulwich, 1974). the pathways for subsequent metabolism of l-rhamnose and l-rhamose i-phosphate have now been investigated. arthrobacter pyridinolis contains an inducible l-rhamnose isomerase and l-rhamnulokinase, as well as a constitutive l-rhamnulose ...1976182906
control of morphogenesis in arthrobacter crystallopoiets: effect of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate.the intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic amp) were measured at various intervals during growth and morphogenesis in arthrobacter crystallopoietes. cyclic amp levels remained relatively constant throughout growth in spherical cells grown in glucose-based media. immediately after inoculation of spheres from glucose- to succinate-containing media, a 30-fold increase in intracellular cyclic amp was detected. this dramatic rise in cyclic amp preceded the observed chang ...1977190210
oxidative pathway of choline to betaine in the soluble fraction prepared from arthrobacter globiformis.one strain of bacteria which showed high h2o2-generating activity was isolated from soil and characterized as arthrobacter globiformis based on its morphological, nutritional, and physiological characteristics. the activities of h2o2 generation, nad reduction and oxygen consumption in the bacterial cells were examined using choline, betaine aldehyde or betaine as substrate. choline was oxidized to betaine aldehyde under aerobic conditions in a reaction coupled with h2o2 generation and oxygen con ...1977197073
2-hydroxypyridine metabolism and pigment formation in three arthrobacter species.three species of the genus arthrobacter, a. crystallopoietes, a. pyridinolis, and a. viridescens, have the capabilities to utilize 2-hydroxypyridine (2-hp) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth and to produce an extracellular crystalline pigment from this substrate. degradation of 2-hp by cell-free extracts requires the presence of both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and molecular oxygen and is stimulated by flavin mononucleotide, suggesting the presence of a monooxygen ...1977199576
regulation of cyclic amp levels in arthrobacter crystallopoietes and a morphogenetic mutant.the extracellular levels of cyclic amp (camp), camp phosphodiesterase activity, and adenylate cyclase activity were measured at various intervals during growth and morphogenesis of arthrobacter crystallopoietes. there was a significant rise in the extracellular camp level at the onset of stationary phase, and this rise coincided with a decrease in intracellular camp. the phosphodiesterase activity measured in vitro increased in the early exponential phase of growth as intracellular camp decrease ...1978207674
periodic cyclic amp uptake by synchronously grown cells of nocardia restricta and arthrobacter globiformis. 1978212312
catabolic pathways of coryneforms, nocardias, and mycobacteria. 1979227323
bacteriostasis in soils sterilized by gamma irradiation and in reinoculated sterilized soils.an agar-disc method was used to compare the bacteriostatic properties of five soils with those of samples of the same soils sterilized by gamma irradiation. for three of the soils, bacteriostasis was removed either partially or entirely by sterilization. bacteriostasis was completely restored to sterile soil by reinoculating it with natural soil. all the reinoculation treatments restored the level of bacteriostasis equally effectively, whatever the origin of the soil used as inoculum.1975235358
transformation of morphine by resting cells and cell-free systems of arthrobacter sp.morphine can be transformed into 14-hydroxymorphine and a related unidentified material by resting cells of an arthrobacter species. cell-free extracts containing the transforming enzyme(s) have been obtained. o2, fe2+, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide stimulate the transformation.1975240309
tetrahydrofolate-dependent biosynthesis of ribothymidine in transfer ribonucleic acids of gram-positive bacteria.trimethoprim, an inhibitor that prevents tetrahydrofolate-dependent transmethylation reactions inbacteria, was used in a comparative study to discriminate between two possible biosynthetic pathways, either the s-adenosylmethionine or the tetrahydrofolate-dependent formation of ribothymidine (rt) in transfer ribonucleic acids (trna's) of several strains of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. rt-deficient trna's accumulate in trimethoprim-treated gram-positive streptococcus faecium, st ...1977318638
mapping and length measurements of restriction enzyme fragments by electron microscopy.1. we have mapped by electron microscopy the dna-fragments formed by the action of the restriction endonuclease from arthrobacter luteus of phi x 174 replicative form dna. these fragments were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and hybridized to phix 174 single stranded dna. the partial duplex molecules were inspected in the electron microscope. in this way the relative order of eleven fragments ranging in size from approximately 100 to 1000 nucleotide pairs has been established and ...1977321023
characterization of distinct segments in mouse satellite dna by restriction nucleases.the long-range periodicity of mouse satellite dna has been analyzed by digestion with five restriction nucleases. with all nucleases tested, a major repeat unit approximately 245 nucleotide pairs became apparent. minor registers of shorter length were also detected. the total number of cleavage sites per haploid genome for each restriction enzyme as well as their positions relative to each other were determined. while endo r-ecorii was known to cleave all of the satellite dna, the other four res ...1977321221
l-serine dehydratase from arthrobacter globiformis.1. l-serine dehydratase (ec 4.2.1.13) was purified 970-fold from glycine-grown arthrobacter globiformis to a final specific activity of 660micronmol of pyruvate formed/min per mg of protein. 2. the enzyme is specific for l-serine; d-serine, l-threonine and l-cysteine are not attacked. 3. the time-course of pyruvate formation by the purified enzyme, in common with enzyme in crude extracts and throughout the purification, is non-linear. the reaction rate increases progressively for several minutes ...1977322657
release of microorganisms from soil with respect to transmission electron microscopy viewing and plate counts. 1977326180
new microbial growth factor.a screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a streptomyces sp. that produced a new microbial growth factor. this factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. the penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. it did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. it was not present ...1977327929
ribosomal protein s1/s1a in bacteria. 1977330231
enzymes of the yeast lytic system produced by arthrobacter gjm-1 bacterium and their role in the lysis of yeast cell walls.yeast lytic system produced by arthrobacter gjm-1 bacterium during growth on baker's yeast cell walls contains a complete set of enzymes which can hydrolyze all structural components of cell walls of saccharomyces cerevisiae. chromatographic fractionation of the lytic system showed the presence of two types of endo-beta-1,3-glucanase. rapid lysis of isolated cell walls of yeast was induced only by endo-beta-1,3-glucanase exhibiting high affinity to insoluble beta-1,3-glucans and releasing lamina ...1977337691
a microperfusion chamber for studying the growth of bacterial cells. 1977338570
cell-free synthesis of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase containing covalently bound fad. 1978342273
[cadaverine is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of arthrobactin and ferrioxamine e (author's transl)].cadaverin was more readily incorporated than lysine into arthrobactin from arthrobacter pascens and into ferrioxamin e from streptomyces glaucescens. from a racemic mixture only the l-isomer of lysine is incorporated. the l-lysine decarboxylase activity was measured in vivo and in vitro. the enzyme from arthrobacter pascens is not inducable by lysine and completely repressed by 5.10(-6) m fe3+. in klebsiella pneumoniae, the producer of aerobactin, only a very low activity of l-lysine decarboxyla ...1978354550
production of microbial polysaccharides. 1978356538
exocellular, microbial polysaccharides. 1979380276
rate of drying and the survival of microorganisms.the survival rate of cells of the genera arthrobacter, pseudomonas, mycobacterium, escherichia, micrococcus and saccharomyces when counted immediately after fast or slow drying (20 minutes and 24 hours, respectively) was rather similar. however, after prolonged periods of dry storage, the number of viable cells after slow drying was much higher as compared with the rapidly dried cells. investigations with escherichia coli demonstrated this phenomenon only when more than about 8 mg of water per 1 ...1979386942
degradation of even-numbered reduced and non-reduced hyaluronate oligosaccharides with d-glucuronic acid or n-acetyl-d-glucosamine as non-reducing terminal by chondroitin abc and ac lyases.chondroitin abc and ac lyases split hexosaminidic linkages in galactosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. even-numbered oligosaccharides from hyaluronic acid with either d-glucuronic acid or n-acetylglucosamine in non-reducing position were used, prior to and after reduction with sodium borohydride, as substrates for chondroitin abc and ac lyases. these substrates allowed elucidation of the effects of the nearest neighborhood of the bond to be split on the action of the enzymes. the results indica ...1979387569
chitin structures of the cell walls of synchronously grown virgin cells of saccharomyces cerevisiae.the ability of a lytic beta-glucanase of arthrobacter gjm-1 to dissolve cell walls of saccharomyces cerevisiae with exception of the chitin-containing fraction was employed for the isolation of chitin-rich residues of the cell walls of synchronously growing populations of virgin cells. electron microscopical examination of such wall residues isolated from cells at various stages of the budding cycle showed that the first phase of chitin deposition in the wall corresponds to the formation of an a ...1979396723
comparative analysis of three guinea pig satellite dna's by restriction nucleases.the structures of guinea pig satellite dnas i, ii, and iii have been analyzed by digestion with seven restriction nucleases. from the cleavage patterns it is obvious that the long-range periodicities in these three satellites differ rather characteristically satellite i is fairly resistant to six nucleases and gives only a number of weak discrete bands which do not show a simple regularity. by the restriction nuclease from arthrobacter luteus, however, it is cleaved extensively and yields very h ...1977403072
structural and immunochemical studies on d-arabino-d-mannans and d-mannans of mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacterium species.serologically active d-arabino-d-mannas ([alpha]d, +82 degrees approximately 89 degrees; ratio of d-arabinose to d-mannose, 1-2:1) were isolated from the soluble fraction of disintegrated cells of m. tuberculosis, m. smegmatis, and several other mycobacterium species. these arabinomannans had similar structures, consisting of alpha-(1 leads to 5)-linked d-arabinose residues and alpha-(1 leads to 6)-, and (1 leads to 2)-linked d-mannose residues. methylation and enzymic degradation studies using ...1977413830
physiological responses of bacteria to cytochalasin a: effects on growth, transport, and enzyme induction.cytochalasin a at 5 to 25 microgram/ml (1.0 x 10(-5) to 5.2 x 10(-5) m) inhibited the growth of three gram-positive bacteria, arthrobacter sialophilus, staphyloccus aureus, and bacillus amyloliquifaciens, but had little or no effect on the growth of three gram-negative bacteria, excherichia coli, pseudomonas maltophilia, and aeromonas proteolytica. a. sialophilus and s. aureus recovered spontaneously from cytochalasin a-mediated growth inhibition after a considerable lag period, which was depend ...1979422516
evidence for selective sulfhydryl reactivity in cytochalasin a--mediated bacterial inhibitions. 1979435298
covalently bound flavin as prosthetic group of choline oxidase. 1979435313
emulsifier of arthrobacter rag-1: determination of emulsifier-bound fatty acids. 1979446732
action of arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase on sialoglycolipid substrates. mode of action and highly specific recognition of the oligosaccharide moiety of ganglioside gm1.a new bacterial sialidase (n-acetylneuraminate glycohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.18) isolated from the culture filtrate of arthrobacter ureafaciens was characterized in detail with respect to its action on sialoglycolipids. strong electrolytes had a reversible inhibitory effect on the action of the enzyme on brain gangliosides in accordance with debye-hückel effect of ionic environment on ionic activity, and resulted in an acidic shift and a broadening of the ph optimum. both ionic and non-ionic detergen ...1979468792
structural homologies in alanine-rich acidic ribosomal proteins from procaryotes and eucaryotes.the amino acid composition and amino-terminal sequence have been determined for the alanine-rich, acidic ribosomal 'a' protein (equivalent to escherichia coli l7/l12) from three procaryotic cell types that live under extreme environmental conditions (arthrobacter glacialis, clostridium pasteurianum, and bacillus stearothermophilus) as well as from wheat germ, a eucaryote source. these data are compared with previously published 'a' protein sequences from other procaryotes and eucaryotes. all the ...1979476516
effect of oxygen on batch and continuous cultures of a nitrogen-fixing arthrobacter sp.growth, acetylene reduction, and respiration rate were studied in batch and continuous cultures of arthrobacter fluorescents at different oxygen partial pressures. the optimum po2 values for growth and acetylene reduction were 0.05 and 0.025 atm, respectively, but microorganisms can tolerate higher po2 values. the growth of cultures provided with combined nitrogen was dependent on oxygen availability, and strict anaerobic conditions did not support growth. acetylene reduction of a population gro ...1979476551
physical mapping of bk virus dna with saci, mboii, and alui restriction endonucleases.a new restriction endonuclease, saci from streptomyces achromogenes cleaves bk virus (strain mm) dna into 3 fragments, whereas mboii from moraxella bovis and alui from arthrobacter luteus give 22 and 30 fragments, respectively. all these specific dna fragments were ordered and mapped on the viral genome by two methods first, by the reciprocal digestion method using uniformly 32p-labeled dna; and second, by the partial digestion technique using the single-end 32p-labeled dna. this study, together ...1978215783
[features of secondary metabolism in microorganisms]. 1977194631
distribution of neuraminidase in arthrobacter and its purification by affinity chromatography.neuraminidase [sialidase, ec 3.2.1.18] was found to be widely distributed in bacteria belonging to arthrobacter. among these bacteria, arthrobacter ureafaciens, a. oxydans, and a. aurescens produced relatively potent neuraminidase activities. for the production of this enzyme, not only colominic acid, a homopolymer of n-acetylneuraminic acid, but also n-acetylneuraminic acid, the reaction product of this enzyme, are effective as sources of carbon. an affinity adsorbent specific for neuraminidase ...1977591509
action of chondroitinases. i. the mode of action of two chondroitinase-ac preparations of different origin.the modes of action of two chondroitinases-ac [ec 4.2.2.5] from arthrobacter aurescens and flavobacterium heparinum were examined. by comparison of the increase of viscosity and by analyses of digests using paper chromatography and gel filtration, it was shown that the arthrobacter enzyme (a-chase) degrades the substrate by a stepwise attack, while the flavobacterium enzyme (f-chase) exhibits a more random attack, though the first attack of both enzymes is of endo-type. further study was carried ...1976138676
[identification of some of fermentation of phenanthrene by microorganisms belonging to the genus arthrobacter]. 1977597413
purification and characterization of choline oxidase from arthrobacter globiformis.choline oxidase was purified from the cells of arthrobacter globiformis by fractionations with acetone and ammonium sulfate, and column chromatographies on deae-cellulose and on sephadex g-200. the purified enzyme preparation appeared homogeneous on disc gel electrophoresis. the enzyme was a flavoprotein having a molecular weight of approx. 83,000 (gel filtration) or approx. 71,000 (sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis) and an isoelectric point (pi) around ph 4.5. iden ...1977599154
purification and properties of arthrobacter neuraminidase.neuraminidase (ec 3.2.1.18) from an arthrobacter species was purified homogeneity by conventional procedures (yield approx. 1 mg/1) and was judged to be homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. gel electrofocusing of neuraminidase revealed 1 major band (85-90%), pi 5.35 +/- 0.05, and 6 minor bands, whose pi ranged from 5.25 to 5.70, and each of which had catalytic activity. arthrobacter neuraminidase is a monomeric glycoprotein of molecular weight 88 000, has an apparent km of ...1978629985
enzymatic determination of phospholipase d activity with choline oxidase.a new enzymatic method was developed for the assay of phospholipase d [phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase ec 3.1.4.4] from cabbage leaves using choline oxidase from arthrobacter globiformis cells. the method was based on the estimation of choline by the following series of enzymatic reactions after ending the phospholipase d reaction: choline + 202 + h2o choline oxidase betaine + 2h2o2 2h2o2 + phenol + 4-aminoantipyrine peroxidase quinoneimine dye + 4h2o the amount of choline was proportio ...1978641031
catabolism of 2,4,5-trimethyoxybenzoic acid and 3-methoxycrotonic acid.4-methoxygentisic acid was an intermediate formed when arthrobacter degraded, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. isolates of pseudomonas and arthrobacter from soil grew at the expense of 3-methoxycrotonic acid. evidence is presented that enzymatic hydration, with elimination of methanol, accounted for replacement of the methoxyl group of 3-methoxycrotonic acid and also of one methoxyl group of 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid.1978646361
susceptibility of ganglioside gm1 to a new bacterial neuraminidase. 1978658424
isolation and characterization of arthrobacter bacteriophages and their application to phage typing of soil arthrobacters.seventeen bacteriophages, active against 19 arthrobacter soil isolates, were isolated from concentrated samples of river water and sewage. attempts to isolate arthrobacter bacteriophages from filtrates of broth cultures of the soil isolates or from ultraviolet light-irradiated cultures were unsuccessful. bacteriophages were not detected in either concentrated or unconcentrated soil extracts. electron microscopic studies of 11 phages showed morphologies characteristic of bradley's groups b (exhib ...197874980
use of electron microscopy for soil microbiology capabilities and limitations.soil dilutions were studied by different techniques: they were retained on cellulose filters and observed either directly by scanning electron microscopy or after inclusion and ultra-thin sectioning by transmission electron microscopy. morphology and locomotor organs of bacteria were observed after negative staining. they were plated on various culture media in order to isolate and identify most of the nonexacting microorganisms. results are compared and the use of electron microscopy in soil st ...197774922
mechanism of the oxidation of divalent iron and manganese by iron bacteria developing in a neutral acidic medium.the paper confirms the existence of a peroxide mechanism involved in oxidation of iron and manganeses by the most typical iron bacteria growing at neutral acidity of the medium. oxidation of bivalent iron and manganese is accomplished by the simultaneous action of catalase and hydrogen peroxide produced in the respiratory chain in the course of oxidation of organic substances. catalase performs the peroxidase function in these processes. the possibility of these biological reactions to occur and ...197830022
[evaluation of the cholinesterase activity of bacteria on a solid nutrient medium]. 1975241005
growth characteristics of three bacterial isolates from an arctic soil.three bacterial isolates, a pseudomonas sp., a bacillus sp., and an arthrobacter sp., commonly isolated from a hummocky sedge-moss meadow at devon island, n.w.t., canada, were selected for further taxonomic characterization and for a study of the effects of temperature and limiting carbon source on growth. pseudomonas m216 resembled p. putida and bacillus m153, b. carotarum. arthrobacter m51 had growth-factor requirements which were more complex than those of any named species of that genus. the ...1978688099
[distribution of pyrimidine blocks in the dna of brevibacterium linens, arthrobacter globiformis, nocardia corallina and nocardia rubra].the nucleotide composition and the frequency of pyrimidine blocks were studied in dna of the following bacteria: brevibacterium linens (weignamm, 1910) breed, 1953; arthrobacter globiformis (conn, 1928) conn et dimmick, 1947; nocardia corallina (bergey et al., 1923) waksman et henrici, 1948; nocardia rubra (krassilnikov, 1949) waksman et henrici, 1948. these organisms are classed by some microbiologists as mycobacteria (the mycobacteriaceae family) while other authors regard them as representati ...1975241002
kinetics of accumulation of a photodynamically induced cell-surface polypeptide in a species of arthrobacter.cells of a species of arthrobacter were incubated in the light with methylene blue, a dye that sensitizes photooxidative reactions by the production of singlet oxygen. an early and major response by the cells to these conditions was stimulation of synthesis of a single cell-surface polypeptide, 21,000 daltons in mass. the rate of synthesis of this polypeptide reached a maximal level about 30 min after the start of illumination. as a consequence, the amount of this polypeptide increased at least ...1978711669
thiocyanate utilization by an arthrobacter.an arthrobacter species, which utilized thiocyanate (scn-) as a nitrogen source, was isolated from soil by the enrichment culture method. the organism tolerated scn- concentrations up to 0.1 m. on addition of nitrate or ammonium ion to cultures of the isolate growing in the presence of scn-, the organism continued to degrade scn-. degradation could be followed by release of 14co2 from scn-(14c). the scn- -degrading activity diminished to low levels as the stationary phase of growth was appraoche ...1979120217
[carboxylation enzymes of coryneform bacteria].the enzymes of carbon dioxide heterotrophic fixation were studied in six strains of coryneform bacteria belonging to the genera arthrobacter, brevibacterium, corynebacterium and nocardia. all of the strains were found to contain pep (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase (ec 4.1.1.31), nadp or nad dependent malic enzymes (ec 1.1.1.38--40). pyruvate carboxylase (ec 6.4.1.1) was found only in three strains of coryneforms: brevibacterium ammoniagenes, corynebacterium aquaticum and nocardia erythropolis. ...1979119147
fad is covalently attached to peptidyl-trna during cell-free synthesis of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase.the process, by which fad is attached covalently to the 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase apoprotein in d-nicotine-induced cells of arthrobacter oxidans was studied in vitro. [3h]adenine-labelled fad prepared biosynthetically in clostridium kluyveri was incorporated into the 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase molecule during cell-free translation. fad rather than fmn or riboflavin was thus shown to be the flavin derivative transferred to the polypeptide chain. after short-term protein synthesis on ribosome ...1978738274
[chemotaxonomic markers of several coryneform bacteria and the "rhodochrous" group].chemotaxonomic characters (the monosaccharide composition and diaminopimelic acid (dap) of cell hydrolysates, the type of lipid lcn-a) were studied with bacteria of the "rhodochrous" complex and the arthrobacter genus isolated from natural substrates as well as with collection strains of the genera arthrobacter, brevibacterium and corynebacterium. if arabinose, galactose and meso-dap were present in cell hydrolysates of these bacteria, they always contained lipid lcn-a. bacteria of the "rhodochr ...1978106219
effect of starvation on survival of three bacterial isolates from an arctic soil.three isolates, a pseudomonas sp., a bacillus sp. and an arthrobacter sp., which had been isolated from a meadow soil at devon island, canada, were subjected to starvation under varying conditions. the viabilities of the three isolates during starvation for 30 days in a carbon-free medium was assessed after the organisms had been grown continuously at varying rates in carbon- and nitrogen-limited media at 5 and 15 degrees c. pseudomonas m216 was the most resistant to starvation stress, bacillus ...1978747809
effect of freezing and thawing on survival of three bacterial isolates from an arctic soil.three isolates, a pseudomonas sp., bacillus sp., and arthrobacter sp., which had been isolated from a meadow soil at devon island, canada, were subjected to freezing and thawing at low rates under various conditions. when cells were frozen in sand or soil, survival was dependent on moisture level, storage time, and thaw rate. pseudomonas m216 was most susceptible to freeze-thaw damage under these conditions. arthrobacter m51 was the most resistant of the three isolates when frozen in sand or soi ...1978747810
nature of transformation of hydrocortisone by cells incorporated into polyacrylamide gel.the ability of mycobacterium globiforme 193 cells immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (paag) to transform soluble and microcrystalline hydrocortisone was investigated under conditions to periodic aeration. it was found that the specific 3-oxosteroid-delta'-dehydrogenase activity of immobilized cells hardly differs from that of free cells and averages 0.06 mumole/mg cells . min; the quantitative and qualitative composition of the transformation products formed by free and immobilized cells was iden ...1979297469
enzymic assay for lecithin in amniotic fluid.we describe an enzymic method for determining lecithin in amniotic fluid. phospholipase d from savoy cabbage is used to liberate choline from lecithin, and the liberated choline is oxidized to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by choline oxidase from arthrobacter globiformis. the hydrogen peroxide forms a colored complex with phenol and 4-aminoantipyrene in the presence of horseradish peroxidase, and this color is measured spectrophotometrically. the method is relatively easy, precise, and accurate, ...1979761344
[isolation of bacteria assimilating ethanol from natural and industrial substrates]. 1975765694
restriction-enzyme-cleavage maps of bacteriophage m13. existence of an intergenic region on the m13 genome.replicative form dna of bacteriophage m13 was cleaved into specific fragments by an endonuclease isolated from hemophilus aegyptius (endor.haeii) and an endonuclease from arthrobacter luteus (endor.alui). the fragments were ordered as to construct a circular map of the phage m13 genome by: (a) using each fragment as a primer for the synthesis in vitro of its respective neighbour and (b) digesting the isolated fragments with the hemophilus aegyptius enzyme endor.haeii or the hemophilus aphirophil ...1976786638
chondroitinase-producing bacteria in natural habitats.a search was undertaken for bacteria which degrade chondroitin sulfate in nature and to find bacteria with a usefully high rate of chondroitinase (chsase) productivity. first, 253 chsase-producing bacteria were obtained from aquatic and land environments in japan by aerobic and anaerobic screening methods. identification according to bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology or bain and shewan (1968) permitted assignment of the majority of the isolates to seven genera, aeromonas, vibrio, fla ...1975803822
mass-transfer effects on the rate of isomerization of d-glucose into d-fructose, catalyzed by whole-cell immobilized glucose isomerase.the investigated catalyst system consists of immobilized arthrobacter cells containing the enzyme glucose isomerase, which catalyzes the isomerization of glucose into fructose. the internal structure of the catalyst was determined from electrom microscope photographs of replicas of freeze-etched catalyst. on the basis of the photographs a model for the internal structure of the catalyst was proposed. this structure was subsequently used to describe the reaction including mass-transfer effects. i ...1979486717
the fine structure of the branched alpha-d-glucan from the blue-green alga anacystis nidulans: comparison with other bacterial glycogens and phytoglycogen.the fine structure of the glycogen from the blue-green alga anacystis nidulans has been examined. after selective hydrolysis of all (1 yields 6)-alpha-d linkages by a bacterial isoamylase, the resulting mixture of linear chains was subjected to gel permeation chromatography. for purposes of comparison, the glycogens from escherichia coli and arthrobacter sp., amylopectin, phytoglycogen from sweet corn, and shell-fish glycogen were treated similarly. the profiles of the unit chains of a nidulans ...1975806344
microflora and invert sugars in juice from healthy tissue of stored sugarbeets.bacterial populations increased in juice of healthy tissue of sugarbeet roots stored at 5 c. average counts showed a sixfold increase after 150 days of storage. invert sugar levels increased over threefold in "american 4 hybrid a" and remained fairly constant in "mono-hy d-2." the former cultivar also had significantly higher bacterial colony counts than the latter before 90 days of storage. of 36 isolates identified, 16 were pseudomonas spp. including p. chlororaphis; 6 bacillus spp. including ...1975808167
isolation, synthesis, and biological activity of five metabolites of danazol.metabolites of danazol (17 alpha-pregna-2,4-dien-20-yno[2,3-d]isoxazol-17-ol), an orally effective pituitary gonadotropin inhibitory agent devoid of estrogenic and progestational activites, were isolated from urine of a female subject who had taken danzol orally at a dose of 800 mg/day for 7 days, the metabolites isolated were 17-hydroxy-17alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one (11), 17-hydroxy-2alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-17alpha-pregn-4-3n-20-yn-3-one (5), 17-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-17alpha-pregna-1,4-dien- ...1977403283
identification and flagellation of coryneform bacteria from poultry litter.thirth coryneform isolates from poultry litter were identified and checked for motility and flagellation. twenty-seven formed a yellow pigment and 3 were orange. twenty-three yellow strains were found to be arthrobacter citreus, although starch was hydrolyzed by these strains. four strains, including the three mainly pale yellow isolates, grew on citrate plus an ammonium salt and were classified as a. aurescens. three orange strains were found to be brevibacterium linens. only six strains of a. ...1975811345
facultative wood-digesting bacteria from the hind-gut of the termite reticulitermes hesperus.among the facultative bacteria capable of growth on mesquite wood which were isolated from the asceptically dissected hind-gut of the termite reticulitermes hesperus were two strains of bacillus cereus, one strain each of arthrobacter, alcaligenes and serratia, and a very small gram-negative fermentative rod. the b. cereus strains, the serratia marcescens strain and the arthrobacter sp. grew well on a mineral salts alpha-cellusose agar. one of the bacillus cereus strains and serratia marcescens ...1976822127
observations on lysogeny in glutamic acid bacteria.induced lysis occurred in a number of different strains of glutamic acid bacteria. mixed culture experiments indicated that induced cultures produce phages or bacteriocins. temperate phages were isolated from two related strains of brevibacterium divaricatum.1976823863
crystallization and some properties of chondroitinase from arthrobacter aurescens.a strain of arthrobacter aurescens which secretes a large amount of chondroitinase into a culture broth, was isolated from soil. the chondroitinase was purified 380-fold over culture broth in 24% yield and crystallized. some properties of the purified enzyme were studied and described: thermal stability (below 45 degrees), ph stability (ph 4.9 to 7.4), optimum temperature (50 degrees), and optimum ph (ph 6.0). chrondroitin sulfate a and c, chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid were split by the enzym ...1975234466
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