blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to oral bacterial antigens: comparison of individuals with periodontal disease to normal and edentulous subjects.cell-mediated immunity in humans to antigens derived from oral plaque bacteria was investigated by using the lymphocyte blastogenesis assay. subjects with varying severities of periodontal disease including normal, gingivitis, periodontitis, and edentulous were compared. mononuclear leukocytes were separated from peripheral blood and cultured with antigens prepared by sonication of actinomyces viscosus (av), actinomyces naeslundii (an), veillonella alcalescens (va), leptotrichia buccalis (lb), b ...197610259
levan and levansucrase of actinomyces viscosus.a levansucrase was demonstrated in the growth medium and in association with the cell surface of actinomyces viscosus. the amount of enzyme produced relative to cell density is not significantly affected by the growth conditions. sugar alcohols inhibit growth of the cells. the levansucrase hydrolyzes sucrose to produce free glucose and levan; some free fructose is also formed. there is no requirement for cofactors. the km for sucrose is 12 mm. a variety of heavy metal ions and two disaccharides, ...197714893
identification, separation, and preliminary characterization of invertase and beta-galactosidase in actinomyces viscosus.the initial step of disaccharide dissimilation by actinomyces viscosus serotype 2 strain m-100 was studied. sucrase activity was found in the 3,000 x g particulate fraction and the 37,000 x g soluble fraction of the cells, whereas lactase activity was found almost exclusively in the 37,000 x g soluble fraction. neither sucrase nor lactase activity was appreciable in the culture liquor. sucrose phosphorylase, alpha-glucosidase, and polysaccharide synthesis activities were not observed in the solu ...197717574
binding of lectins to streptococcus mutans cells and type-specific polysaccharides, and effect on adherence.the lectin concanavalin a (con a) agglutinated the cells of 13 of 15 strains of the seven serotypes of streptococcus mutans in an 18-h incubation period. strains of types a, d, f, and g agglutinated within 2 h. strains of a, d, and f were also agglutinated in 2 h by the castor bean lectin rca. s. sanguis, s. salivarius, s. bovis, actinomyces viscosus, a. naeslundii, and lactobacillus plantarum were agglutinated within 2 h. the s. mutans type f polysaccharide was precipitated by con a. the a, b, ...197722491
attachment of bacteroides melaninogenicus subsp. asaccharolyticus to oral surfaces and its possible role in colonization of the mouth and of periodontal pockets.this investigation examined the ability of cells of bacteroides melaninogenicus subsp. asaccharolyticus 381 to adhere to surfaces that might be important for its initial colonization of the mouth and its subsequent colonization in periodontal pockets. of 48 asaccharolytic strains of b. melaninogenicus, 47 agglutinated human erythrocytes, whereas none of 20 fermentative strains, which included reference cultures of the subspecies intermedius and melaninogenicus, were active. electron microscopy i ...197824002
ph measurements of actinomyces viscosus colonies grown on media containing dietary carbohydrates. 197826324
factors affecting the aggregation of actinomyces naeslundii during growth and in washed cell suspensions.various factors affecting the aggregation of actinomyces naeslundii strain 12104 were studied. when the ph of glucose-supplemented growth medium fell below 5.5, the cells aggregated and formed microbial masses which tenaciously adhered to the culture vessels. when the organism was cultured in the same medium in the absence of glucose, maximum growth was reduced and the final culture ph values remained above 6.5, but the cells were more dispersed and nonadherent. adjusting the final ph of these c ...197830700
mechanism of coaggregation between actinomyces viscosus t14v and streptococcus sanguis 34.actinomyces viscosus t14v and streptococcus sanguis 34 coaggregate by a mechanism which is not inhibited by 1 m nacl, is dextran independent, requires calcium, is ph dependent with an optimum at ph 8.0 to 8.5, and appears to require the interaction of a protein or glycoprotein on a. viscosus with a carbohydrate on s. sanguis. the coaggregation is inhibited more than 80% by 0.01 m lactose, 0.02 m beta-methyl-d-galactoside, or 0.05 m d-galactose; inhibition of coaggregation was less than 10% in 0. ...197830701
degradation of levan by actinomyces viscosus.actinomyces viscosus atcc 15987 was examined for its ability to hydrolyze its own levan. washed whole cells and an ammonium sulfate fraction from cell-free culture fluids were shown to possess levan hydrolase activity. analyses of reaction mixtures by gel filtration and thin-layer chromatography demonstrated that the product of levan hydrolysis was free fructose. the cell-associated and extracellular enzyme preparations also hydrolyzed inulin and the levans synthesized by aerobacter levanicum an ...197832137
plaque formation in vitro by actinomyces viscosus in the presence of streptococcus sanguis or streptococcus mutans.actinomyces viscosus, growing on a tooth in the presence of sucrose, slowly produced a loosely-attached plaque, the ph being 6.1 after 120 h. when the tooth was inoculated simultaneously with a. viscosus and either streptococcus sanguis or streptococcus mutans, firmly-adherent plaque was quickly formed and the ph fell below 5 after 33 h with the former streptococcus and 24 h with the latter. a. viscosus disappeared from each mixed plaque by 120 h.197842006
two-way cross-reactions between serotypes of actinomyces viscosus. 197547742
activation of complement by the alternative pathway as a factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal plaque and a bacterium, actinomyces viscosus, isolated from plaque that can reproduce periodontal disease in germ-free rats, are activators of complement by the alternative pathway. it is suggested that this process is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease.197662218
mitogenic activity of actinomyces viscosus. i. effects on murine b and t lymphocytes, and partial characterization.actinomyces viscosus homogenate (avis) contins substance(s) which cause spleen cells from conventional and germfree mice to undergo increased dna synthesis. this mitogenic effect is primarily on b cells since spleen cells from nude mice or t-depleted spleen cells from conventional mice respond as strongly as conventional (t + b) spleen cells. mouse thymocytes do not respond mitogenically to avis. it is unlikely that the mitogenic acitivity is due to the presence of lps, since a. viscosus is gram ...197766295
fimbriae of actinomyces viscosus t14v: their relationship to the virulence-associated antigen and to coaggregation with streptococcus sanguis 34.1) fimbriae from a. viscosus t14v may be similar to those found on other bacteria. 2) the antigenic difference between virulent and avirulent a. viscosus t14 appears to be of a quantitative rather than a qualitative nature and is related to fimbriae and not to the cell wall polysaccharide. 3) coaggregation between a. viscosus t14v and s. sanguis 34 is mediated by fimbriae on the former which have specificity for beta-linked galactosyl residues.197884522
surface fibrils (fimbriae) of actinomyces viscosus t14v.surface antigens of actinomyces viscosus t14v were released from cell walls by digestion with lysozyme. these were separated by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography into fractions rich in carbohydrate or protein. the former contained a polysaccharide high in 6-deoxytalose, along with a peptide fragment from the cell wall. in the protein-rich fractions, material of high molecular weight was present, which contained some carbohydrate and up to 14.3% nitrogen. aspartic acid, threonine, gl ...197988416
the cell wall-associated levansucrase of actinomyces viscosus.actinomyces viscosus produces both a soluble extracellular levansucrase and a cell wall-associated levansucrase. the enzyme from cell walls was solubilized by lysozyme digestion. the soluble extracellular and cell wall-associated forms of the enzyme were compared and appeared to be identical, based on molecular weight estimations, kinetic parameters, and reactions with antisera. the product of both forms of the enzyme was a high molecular weight, branched levan, as shown by its reactivity with m ...1979105761
bacterial and strain specificities in opsonization, phagocytosis and killing of streptococcus mutans.opsonization of streptococcus mutans, followed by phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear leucocytes has been postulated as an effector mechanism in protection against dental caries. opsonization was studied by using sera from monkeys immunized with killed strep. mutans (sero-type c) and compared with sera from sham-immunized monkeys. antibodies to strep. mutans (sero-type c) induced maximal phagocytosis and killing of serotypes c and e, and this was significantly greater than with serotyp ...1979106996
carbohydrate metabolism in actinomyces viscosus. 1979121304
effect of actinomyces viscosus on the establishment and symbiosis of streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sanguis in spf rats on different sucrose diets. 1975123171
the in vitro inhibition of microbial growth and plaque formation by surfactant drugs.several cationic, mixed and amphoteric surfactants were tested for their antimicrobial activity and ability to inhibit the formation of in vitro plaque by oral microorganisms. all had antimicrobial activity against actinomyces viscosus. actinomyces naeslundii and streptococcus mutans. cationic surfactants were comparable to chlorhexidine in antimicrobial activity but were less effective in inhibiting plaque formation. amphoteric surfactants were less effective than other detergents in antibacter ...1978151134
stability of the resident microflora and the bacteriocinogeny of streptococcus mutans as factors affecting its establishment in specific pathogen-free rats.the outcome of the experimental implantation of streptococcus mutans strains in humans and animals is unpredictable, and neither success nor failure can be explained. it seems logical to assume that, apart from dietary and host factors, the characteristics of the s. mutans strain involved and those of the resident plaque microflora are important in colonization. for example, previous work in this laboratory suggested that bacteriocin production accounts at least in part for the establishment of ...1979154472
neuraminidase-dependent hamagglutination of human erythrocytes by human strains of actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii.human a, b, and o erythrocytes (rbc) were agglutinated by many human strains of actinomyces viscosus and a. naeslundii. at 37 degrees c, these bacterium-mediated hemagglutination reactions required the action of bacterial neuraminidase upon the rbc; however, at 4 degrees c, the requirement for neuraminidase was not as striking. bacterial cell suspensions which caused hemagglutination at 37 degrees c contained both soluble extracellular and cell-associated neuraminidase activities as shown by enz ...1979232691
comparison of antiplaque agents using an in vitro assay reflecting oral in vitro assay is described using saliva-treated bovine enamel slabs for determining the potential of chemotherapeutic agents to adsorb to tooth surfaces and act against plaque-forming bacteria. chlorhexidine was found to inhibit the formation of in vitro plaque by actinomyces viscosus, a naeslundii, streptococcus mutans and s sanguis. actinobolin was found to have marked antibacterial properties but limited adsorptive qualities.1977268336
a microbiological study of normal flora of macropod dental plaque.the percentage bacterial composition of dental plaques from 12 macropods was determined. the major group of organisms was gram-positive filamentous and pleomorphic rods whose median representation was 92.2%. these were mainly actinomyces viscosus (median value 62.5%) and bacterionema matruchotii (median value 23.2%). streptococci were poorly represented (median value 4.2%) as were anaerobic gram-negative organisms. aerobic gram-negative bacteria were identified as neisseriae and moraxella sp. th ...1977270499
the effects of fluoride on the percentage bacterial composition of dental plaque, on caries incidence, and on the in vitro growth of streptococcus mutans, actinomyces viscosus, and actinobacillus sp.administration of 250 mug/ml naf in drinking water to rats reduced both caries incidence (p less than 0.001) and the percentage of s mutans (0.01 greater than p greater than 0.001) although the percentage of actinobacillus sp. was increased (p less than 0.001). an actinobacillus sp. and s mutans fa1 both proliferated in naf broth only if the naf greater than 10 mug/ml, which was associated with the inhibition of acid production.1977272378
the polar lipids of actinomyces viscosus. 1978273391
microbiota of gingivitis in man.a study on the predominant cultivable microorganisms inhabiting gingival crevices affected with a chronic gingivitis was carried out using the roll tube culture technique. samples were obtained from nine individuals 25--42 years of age. gram-positive rods make up 29.1% of the isolates and included mainly actinomyces naeslundii, actinomyces israelii, and actinomyces viscosus. streptococcus mitis and streptococcus sanguis together made up 26.8% of the cultivable organisms. peptostreptococcus avera ...1978276916
inhibition of actinomyces viscosus by bacteriocin-producing strains of streptococcus mutans in the dental plaque of gnotobiotic rats. 1978280286
relative proportions of actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii in dental plaques collected from single sites. 1978280567
a comparison of strains of bacteria designated actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii. 1978282008
the antimicrobial effect of fluorides (acidulated phosphate, sodium and stannous) on actinomyces viscosus.the effect of three commercially prepared fluoride compounds (acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23% f-, stannous fluoride 0.4%, and sodium fluoride 0.05%) diluted to various concentrations with brain heart infusion broth, on the growth of five strains of actinomyces viscosus following 1 and 24 hours' exposure to the fluorides was studied. results demonstrated that snf2 was the most effective growth inhibitor of the organisms at 500 ppm f- after 1 hour and at 100 ppm f- after 24 hours' exposure. ap ...1979288763
[the mechanism of glucan-induced agglutination of actinomyces viscosus (author's transl)]. 1977288805
structure of extracellular water-soluble polysaccharides synthesized from sucrose by oral strains of streptococcus mutans, streptococcus salivarius, streptococcus sanguis and actinomyces viscosus. 1979292363
a study of the bacteria associated with advancing periodontitis in man.samples of apical plaque were taken by means of an anaerobic gas-flushed syringe from 21 sites in eight patients. the samples were anaerobically dispersed, diluted and plated and incubated in an atmosphere of 80% n2, 10% h2 and 10% co2 for 7-21 days. all colonies on plates containing 20-50 isolates were picked, repeatedly restreaked, characterized and identified where possible by a probabilistic computer identification program. the sites were divided into four groups on the basis of clinical fea ...1979294457
the evaluation of tiodonium chloride as an antiplaque and anticaries agent. iii. evaluation of the antiplaque potential of tiodonium chloride utilizing a rat model.tiodonium chloride (4-chlorophenyl-2-thienyliodonium chloride), when used in a twice daily mouthrinse at a concentration of 0.3% for either one or four weeks, inhibited dental plaque formation in rats that had been inoculated with streptococcus mutans 6715-15 and actinomyces viscosus t-6. mouthrinses containing 0.1 and 0.2% tiodonium chloride were also effective in inhibiting plaque, but not as consistently as the 0.3% level.1979296396
the effect of cyclosporin a on dental caries in rats monoassociated with actinomyces viscosus ny 1. 1978311139
complement activation by the alternative pathway and macrophage enzyme secretion in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation.a number of stimuli known to induce acid hydrolase secretion from cultured macrophages were examined for their ability to activate c3 via the alternative pathway of the complement system. loss of haemolytically active c3 was checked in normal and c4-deficient guinea-pig serum. for comparison the interactions of cultured macrophages with other agents well known as potent activators of the alternative pathway of the complement system have been investigated. as judged by their activity in these ass ...1977328387
binding of glucosyltransferase and glucan synthesis by streptococcus mutans and other bacteria.lyophilized and heat-treated cells from the seven serotypes of streptococcus mutans were examined for their ability to bind added insoluble-product glucosyl-transferase (gtase) and to synthesize cell-associated glucan from [(14)c]sucrose. lyophilized cells of serotypes a and g did not synthesize any more additional glucan than did the controls after exposure to gtase. these cells, however, synthesized four- to eightfold-greater quantities of glucan than did the cells of the remaining serotypes. ...1978361564
immune labeling of certain strains of actinomyces naeslundii and actinomyces viscosus by fluorescence and electron microscopy.a total of 12 well-characterized strains of actinomyces viscosus and a. naeslundii grown on trypticase soy agar plates supplemented with sheep erythrocytes were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy after treatment with appropriately labeled antisera to homologous and heterologous strains. cells incubated with homologous rabbit antisera followed by fluorescein-isothiocyanate (fitc)-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin g (igg) exhibited a completely smooth fluore ...1979387589
[biological activities of a human dental plaque specimen, and cell walls from actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii]. 1978397329
sucrose metabolism by prominent members of the flora isolated from cariogenic and non-cariogenic dental plaques.sucrose metabolism by resting-cell suspensions of pure cultures of representative members of the predominant cultivable flora isolated from cariogenic and non-cariogenic dental plaque was investigated by means of radiochemical techniques. streptocococcus mutans utilized sucrose at a considerably faster rate than s. sanguis, s. mitis, actinomyces viscosus, a. naeslundii, or lactobacillus casei, forming lactic acid, intracellular polysaccharide, insoluble extracellular glucan, and lactic acid from ...1977407163
in vitro evaluation of seven cationic detergents as antiplaque agents.the bactericidal efficacy of seven cationic detergents was studied in vitro against intact performed plaques of representative strains of four oral dental plaque-forming microorganisms: streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis, actinomyces viscosus, and actinomyces naeslundii. both absolute (plaque bactericidal index) and relative (chlorhexidine coefficient) indexes of antiplaque activity were established. only cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was more efficacious than the reference agent, the ...1979464568
specificity of coaggregation reactions between human oral streptococci and strains of actinomyces viscosus or actinomyces naeslundii.coaggregation reactions between actinomycete and streptococcal cells occurred frequently when human strains of actinomyces viscosus or a. naeslundii were mixed with human isolates of streptococcus sanguis or s. mitis, but were infrequent with other oral actinomycetes and streptococci. two groups of actinomycetes and four groups of streptococci were defined by the patterns of their coaggregation reactions and by the ability of beta-linked galactosides (i.e., lactose) to reverse these reactions. c ...1979468376
adherence of actinomyces viscosus t14v and t14av to hydroxyapatite surfaces in vitro and human teeth in vivo.adsorption of actinomyces viscosus strains t14v and t14av to hydroxyapatite (ha) surfaces was studied, using an adsorption model based on the langmuir adsorption isotherm. data generally followed the adsorption model as judged by high correlation coefficients obtained for both strains to most of the treated surfaces studied. the number of binding sites for strains t14v and t14av cells to human saliva-treated ha was similar to that for untreated ha. the affinity of strain t14v for saliva-treated ...1979500185
relationship between host age and susceptibility to oral colonization by actinomyces viscosus in sprague-dawley rats.the colonization of actinomyces viscosus strain ny-1r on the molar teeth of conventional and ex-germfree rats of various ages fed either a high-sucrose diet, a high-glucose diet, or laboratory chow was studied. conventional rats directly after weaning and up to 30 days of age are less susceptible to experimental infection by strain ny-1r than are older rats regardless of the test diet. the relationship between host age and susceptibility to infection is also demonstrable in ex-germfree rats fed ...1979528051
mannose-contaminating agglutinin for actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii.rapid agglutination of actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii cells by d-mannose solutions was observed during studies of their attachment to mammalian cells in vitro. the specificity of the agglutination reaction was studied by slide agglutination tests and by measuring the rate of decrease in optical density of bacterial phosphate buffer suspensions caused by the setting of bacterial aggregates. actinomyces cells were agglutinated by protein-containing mannose solutions of several che ...1979546781
identification of the virulence-associated antigen on the surface fibrils of actinomyces viscosus t14.actinomyces viscosus t14v is virulent (v) for monoinfected rats, causing periodontal disease and bone loss, whereas, a. viscosus t14av, a mutant strain, is avirulent (av). surface antigens from the t14v and t14av strains were prepared by lysozyme digestion of cell walls and were compared by immunodiffusion against antisera to t14v and t14av whole cells. the v-associated antigen (v-antigen) was detected readily in the t14v, but not readily in the t14av cell wall extract. antiserum specific for th ...1978624593
comparative estimates of bacterial affinities and adsorption sites on hydroxyapatite surfaces.the adsorption of strains of prominent oral bacteria to hydroxyapatite (ha) surfaces was studied by use of an adsorption model based on the langmuir adsorption isotherm; this permitted comparative estimates of the number of adsorption sites and the strength of the adsorption bonds on untreated and salivatreated ha surfaces for strain of streptococcus mutans, s. salivarius, s. sanguis, s. mitis, actinomyces viscosus, and a. naeslundii. the experimental data closely followed the adsorption model a ...1978640732
isolation of a bacteriophage for actinomyces viscosus.a lytic phage which produces clear plaques on a human isolate of actinomyces viscosus was isolated from a sample of raw domestic sewage.1978669798
new medium for isolation of actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii from dental plaque.metronidazole (10 microgram/ml) and cadmium sulfate (20 microgram/ml) were added to a gelatin-based medium to select for microaerophilic actinomyces species from dental plaque samples. the new medium (gmc), when incubated anaerobically, allowed 98% recovery of seven pure cultures of actinomyces viscosus and 73% recovery of eight pure cultures of actinomyces naeslundii, while suppressing 76% of the total count of other organisms in dental plaque samples. in 203 plaque samples, recoveries of a. vi ...1978670376
inhibitory effects of extracellular products from oral bacteria on human fibroblasts and stimulated lymphocytes.extracellular products of 12 strains of streptococcus mutans and 5 additional species of oral bacteria were analyzed for their ability to inhibit proliferation of fibroblastoid cells (hela and av3) and blast transformation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from normal individuals. products from s. mutans strains aht and bht, streptococcus intermedius, and actinomyces viscosus inhibited [3h]thymidine uptake by fibroblastoid cells and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. product ...1978689736
interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. vii. in vitro polymorphonuclear responses to viable bacteria and to subcellular components of avirulent and virulent strains of actinomyces viscosus.both virulent (v) and avirulent (av) strains of actinomyces viscosus t14 are capable of colonizing the oral cavity of gnotobiotic rats, but only t14-v causes destructive periodontal disease. the basis for this difference in in vivo pathogenicity has not been adequately defined. in the present study we compared the capacities of t14-av and t14-v to provoke in vitro extracellular release of lysosomal constituents from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns). in serum-free cultures, viable t14-v ...1978689737
in vitro antiplaque properties of a series of alkyl bis(biguanides).a series of eight alkyl bis(biguanide) analogues of alexidine, n,n''''-1,6-hexanediyl bis[n'-(2-ethylhexyl)imidodicarbonimidic diamide] (1), was prepared. five of these analogues constituted a series isolipophilic with 1 but with varying bridge length between biguanide moieties. the compounds were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial and antiplaque properties against streptococcus mutans, actinomyces viscosus, and actinomyces naesludii. one analogue, n n,''''-1,6-hexanediyl bis[n'(n-octyl)imidod ...1978691009
role of colonization in the virulence of actinomyces viscosus strains t14-vi and t14-av.germfree rats fed a high-sucrose diet were inoculated with actinomyces viscosus strain t14-vi (virulent) or t14-av (avirulent). the mean recovery of strain t14-vi from six extracted finely ground molars of rats sacrificed after 90 days was 1.1 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu). the mean recovery of strain t14-av was 5.7 x 10(7) cfu, which was significantly less. strain t14-vi caused severe alveolar bone loss, but only minimal bone loss occurred in rats infected with strain t14-av. scanning elec ...1978730375
new cellular and extracellular amphipathic antigen from actinomyces viscosus ny1.a new type of amphipathic antigen was isolated from culture supernatants and cells of actinomyces viscosus ny1 and partially characterized as a fatty acid-substituted heteropolysaccharide. similar components have been detected serologically in other strains of actinomyces.1978730376
initial colonization of teeth in monkeys as related to diet.the initial phases of plaque development on nonretentive tooth surfaces were studied bacteriologically in macaca irus monkeys fed by stomach tube and provided with various oral supplements. except for the oral implantation of streptococcus mutans in some of the animals, the oral flora was not changed prior to the studies. dental plaque was allowed to develop on initially cleaned tooth surfaces for 3 to 5 h. plaque samples were collected and cultured on a number of selective and nonselective agar ...1976825462
origin of esterases in human whole saliva.whole saliva of 59 healthy persons was used for determination of esterase activity. the pattern of esterase was studied by means of isoelectrofocusing on thin-layer acrylamide gels. the esterases found in whole saliva are suggested to be derived from the cells of the tissue in the oral cavity. this origin is indicated (e.g.) by comparison between isolectrophoretic esterase patterns of whole saliva, submandibular saliva, gingival biopsy and fibroblast culture. antisera against partially purified ...1977862601
in vitro evaluation of three iodine-containing compounds as antiplaque agents.the antibacterial activity of three iodine-containing compounds was determined for strains of four dental plaque-forming microorganisms, using an in vitro preclinical plaque model system. solutions of inorganic iodine, povidone-iodine, and wescodyne were tested for antiplaque activity against preformed plaques of a number of strains of streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis, actinomyces viscosus, and actinomyces naeslundii. solutions of inorganic iodine were more effective as antiplaque age ...1977883812
structural requirements of guanide, biguanide, and bisbiguanide agents for antiplaque activity.the bactericidal efficacy of 16 guanide, biguanide, and bisbiguanide agents was studied in vitro against intact preformed plaques of four oral (plaque-forming) microorganisms: streptococcus mutans, s. sanguis, actinomyces viscosus, and a. naeslundii. the activities of these agents were examined in relation to their molecular configurations. these studies indicated that the bis- and biguanide configurations are important for efficacy, as is the length of the alkyl side chain. no structural moiety ...1977931371
cell-mediated immune response to products of actinomyces viscosus cultures.hartley strain guinea pigs were sensitized with 0.5 ml of concentrated cell-free actinomyces viscosus culture supernatant fluids mixed with freund complete adjuvant. fourteen to 16 days later the animals were challenged by intradermal injection with 0.1 ml of the culture supernatant, and the reactions were observed at 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. peritoneal exudate cells from sensitized animals were used for determination of migration inhibition factor, and guinea pig peripheral blood served as a sou ...1976971952
in vivo and in vitro studies on possible pathogenic mechanisms of actinomyces viscosus.actinomycotic infections are characterized by long-term inflammatory lesions containing large numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) and mononuclear cells. the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these lesions are not understood. homogenates of actinomyces viscosus (avis) induce an acute inflammatory response with a predominance of pmns within 6 h after injection into the footpads of nonimmunized mice. these homogenates, when tested in vitro, contain potent chemotactic activity for human p ...1976971963
establishment and distribution of actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii in the human oral cavity.the intraoral establishment and proportional distribution of suspected periodontal pathogens actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii were studied using a recently developed differential plating medium, cnac-20. saliva and dental plaque samples were collected from 108 subjects ranging in age from infants to young adults; tongue and buccal mucosa samples were collected from only the adult subjects. catalase-negative a. naeslundii was isolated from 40% of the predentate infants' and almost ...1976977124
blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to oral bacterial antigens: characterization of bacterial sonicates.soluble sonicate supernatant preparations were made from actinomyces viscosus (atcc 19246), a. naeslundii (atcc 12104), two strains of veillonella alcalescens (strain hv-1 and a human oral isolate), streptococcus sanguis (atcc 10556), s. mutans (strain 6715-t2), bacteroides melaninogenicus (strain k110), and leptotrichia buccalis (isolated from human dental plaque). these supernatants were characterized with reference to their chemical and antigenic components and their biological activity deter ...1976977126
interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. iii. modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to actinomyces viscosus and streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) released lysosomal enzymes in response to actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to streptococcus mutans (6715). antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. pmn hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin g (igg) were included in the incubations. immune complex f(ab')2 fragments of igg directed against s. mutans agglutinated bac ...19761002300
extracellular invertase activity from actinomyces viscosus. 19751053762
levan formation by whole cells of actinomyces viscosus atcc 15987. 19751057581
a levansucrase from actinomyces viscosus. 19761058740
[influence of various anions and biological macromolecules on bacterial aggregation in vitro].the effects of various anions on experimental bacterial aggregation has been studied with streptococcus mutans omz 175 and actinomyces viscosus x1, using an experimental system, based on the measurement of optical density in an aqueous polyethyleneglycol medium. monovolent anions (acétate, chloride and fluoride) and sulphate had no effects on bacterial aggregation in salivary concentrations. however carbonate, mono and dihydrogenophosphates gave an important aggregation in relatively small salin ...19751060618
antigens and surface components associated with virulence of actinomyces viscosus.we have isolated a specific cell wall antigen of high molecular weight which appears to be unique to virulent strains of a viscosus and a naeslundii. the antigen is composed of two parts: a polysaccharide moiety containing 6-dot as the major sugar and determinant of serologic specificity, and a small peptide bearing some resemblance to the peptidoglycan. other data indicate a positive correlation between the presence of this antigen and an extrachromosomal piece of dna having most of the propert ...19761060640
establishment and symbiosis of actinomyces viscosus, streptococcus sanguis and streptococcus mutans in germ-free osborne-mendel rats. 19761061641
dextran-induced aggregation of actinomyces viscosus. 19751066098
predominant cultivable flora isolated from human root surface caries plaque.plaque samples were obtained from tooth surfaces exhibiting typical lesions of root surface caries and were immediately cultured by a continuous anaerobic procedure. the bacterial composition of root caries flora was determined on individual samples. representative isolates from each specimen were characterized by morphological and physiological criteria. in addition, fluorescent antibody reagents were used to confirm the identification of streptococcus mutans and actinomyces viscosus. the plaqu ...19751091550
differential medium for detecting dental plaque bacteria resembling actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii.a medium for detecting colonies of actinomyces viscosus and actinomyces naeslundii in dental plaque samples was developed. the medium (cnac-20) contains 20.0 mug of 3cdso4-8h2o per ml of columbia cna agar base. laboratory strains of a. viscosus grew on cnac-20 in characteristic round, white, smooth, opaque colonies. increasing the cadmium concentration impaired the growth of some a. viscosus strains. stock strains of a. naeslundii and a. israelii grew in colonies of similar white, opaque morphol ...19751184734
identification of actinomyces viscosus from canine infections.actinomyces viscosus is a gram-positive, non-acid-fact, facultative, catalase-positive, filamentous, or diphtheroidal microorganism. it was isolated from six canine infections during a period of 1.5 years. the organism was cultured from exudate and flaky granules aspirated from infectious granulomas and empyemas. all cultures grew well aerobically and anaerobically with the addition of 10% carbon dioxide. they fermented lactose, produced catalase and acetylmethylcarbinol, reduced nitrates, hydro ...19751236870
importance of actinomyces and certain gram-negative anaerobic organisms in the transformation of lymphocytes from patients with periodontal plaque deposits are known to be potent stimulants of lymphocyte transformation in patients with periodontal disease but not in normal subjects. since plaque deposits consist mainly of whole bacteria, the cell walls of the most commonly found organisms in plaque were tested for their capacity to induce lymphocyte transformation. there was a direct correlation between the severity of peridontal disease and the amount of transformation induced by the cell walls of oral bacteria and by solubi ...19761270144
dextran-mediated interbacterial aggregation between dextran-synthesizing streptococci and actinomyces viscosus.streptococcus sanguis and streptococcus mutans bind to the surface of actinomyces viscosus, producing large microbial aggregates. aggregates form rapidly and are not easily dissociated by vigorous mixing. the binding is mediated by dextran. glucose-grown streptococci will not aggregate unless they are first mixed with high-molecular-weight dextran. aggregation is induced with dextrans isolated from leuconostoc, s. sanguis, or s. mutans. sucrose-grown streptococci will adhere to a. viscosus witho ...19761279004
antibacterial activity of dental implant metals.this study was conducted to investigate the specific in vitro antibacterial effect of seven dental implant metals on oral bacteria which have often been identified in failing implants. the metals chosen for evaluation were titanium, chromium, cobalt, aluminum, iron, gold, and vanadium. these metals were selected because they are contained in many commonly used dental implants. the bacteria selected for this study included isolates of porphyromonas endodontalis, porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotel ...19921288798
initial products in utilization of sucrose by actinomyces viscosus. 19751218076
humoral igg antibodies to oral microbiota in a population at risk for root-surface caries.mutans streptococci have been strongly implicated in the initiation of dental caries on coronal surfaces. their role in development of root-surface caries is less clear. the etiologic agents of both types of dental caries are likely to elicit systemic immune responses. the objective of the present study, therefore, was to study the association of clinical variables of disease with humoral igg antibodies to nine oral micro-organisms in 314 adult subjects, aged 45-65 years, who were at risk for ro ...19921321176
endocarditis caused by actinomyces viscosus.a case of severe endocarditis caused by actinomyces viscosus is described in a previously healthy 70-year-old man. the isolated strain has been characterized by biochemical tests, gas-liquid chromatography and serology. the pathogenic significance of the organism is discussed and the difficulty in reaching a correct diagnosis due to the similarity to species of corynebacterium is pointed out.19761006175
role of porphyromonas gingivalis 40-kda outer membrane protein in the aggregation of p. gingivalis vesicles and actinomyces viscosus.porphyromonas gingivalis, an important pathogen in periodontitis, produces extracellular vesicles that aggregate with actinomyces viscosus cells. a 40-kda outer membrane protein (omp)-coding gene from p. gingivalis was cloned and the protein was found to be localized in these vesicles. the recombinant 40-kda omp did not show aggregation activity. however, affinity-purified antibody against the recombinant protein significantly inhibited aggregation of p. gingivalis vesicles with a. viscosus cell ...19921329700
conservation of an actinomyces viscosus t14v type 1 fimbrial subunit homolog among divergent groups of actinomyces spp.the type 1 fimbrial subunit gene of the human actinomyces viscosus t14v was used as a dna probe in southern analyses to detect related dna sequences in 16 of 30 strains of actinomyces spp. under conditions of high stringency. the organisms with homology to the dna probe included two human and six nonhuman a. viscosus, three human and three nonhuman a. naeslundii, and two a. bovis isolates. homologous dna sequences were not detected in strains of a. odontolyticus and a. israelii examined in this ...19921347285
isolation and characterization of actinomyces viscosus mutants defective in binding salivary proline-rich proteins.recent studies have provided evidence for human salivary proline-rich proteins (prps) serving as potential receptors in the acquired pellicle for actinomyces viscosus type 1 fimbriae. we report here the isolation of mutants derived from a. viscosus t14v-j1 which are defective in binding to prps partially purified from parotid gland saliva. mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate preceded enrichment for cells nonreactive with prps by successive adsorptions with prp-treated latex beads. screening ...19921347286
paraplegia due to actinomyces viscosus infection in the a 3 year old female domestic cat a suppurative, granulomatous lesion of the tail and sacral area penetrated into the epidural space, causing paraplegia. a viscosus was isolated from the inflammatory tissues. a comparative light and electronmicroscopic study of the bacterial elements and the architecture of the granules (drusen) show that the latter are in-vivo microcolonies of the agent.1977906806
regulation of invertase of actinomyces viscosus.the regulation of diethylaminoethyl-partially purified invertase (ec; beta-d-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase) from the 37,000 x g-soluble intracellular fluid of actinomyces viscosus serotype 2 strain m-100 was studied. glycolytic intermediates, mono-, di-, and triphosphate nucleotides, inorganic phosphate, and various divalent cations were tested for regulatory effects. fructose-6-phosphate (f6p) and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (fdp) were found to act as noncompetitive inhibitors of inver ...1977903175
distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and corynebacteria.menaquinones were the only isoprenoid quinones found in 48 corynebacteria and actinomycete strains examined. dihydromenaquinones having nine isoprene units were the main components isolated from gordona, mycobacterium, corynebacterium bovis, corynebacterium glutamicum and a strain labelled nocardia farcinica, but dihydromenaquinones having eight isoprene units were characteristic of other corynebacterium species and representatives of the 'rhodochrous' complex. tetrahydromenaquinones having six ...1977894261
isolation of actinomyces viscosus from two patients with clinical infections.the isolation of actinomyces viscosus from two patients is described. one was a case of multiple myeloma, the organism being found on blood culture; the other was a patient with a submandibular abscess. these are believed to be the first such isolations of a. viscosus in this country.1977874107
modification of surface composition of actinomyces viscosus t14v and t14av.the morphology and serology of actinomyces viscosus t14v and t14av were compared. when grown in supplemented tryptic soy broth, the virulent strain (t14v) possessed an extensive network of cell surface fibrils. in this medium, the avirulent strain (t14av) possessed a microcapsule, absent on strain t14v, and a comparatively small number of surface fibrils. mild acid extraction (lancefield procedure) solubilized common antigenic components on both strains as well as components detectable only in t ...1978730385
effect of slow-release chlorhexidine mouthguards on the levels of selected salivary bacteria.this study evaluated the effect of an alternate delivery system for chlorhexidine on salivary levels of mutans streptococci (ms) and other selected oral bacteria. on the basis of salivary ms levels > or = 10(4) cfu/ml, 22 subjects were enrolled. all caries lesions were restored prior to treatment. two pretreatment paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained for culturing at least 1 week apart. complete-arch vacuum-adapted mouthguards were individually fabricated and coated internally with a ...19921423441
microbiota associated with residual clefts and neighboring teeth in patients with cleft lip, alveolus, and palate.twenty patients with residual clefts or pronounced soft tissue grooves, treated for uni- or bilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate were included in this study. ten patients were recalled for dental prophylaxis at regular intervals, 10 patients were not. one microbiologic sample was obtained from the cleft area and two samples from a tooth adjacent to the cleft (sites adjacent and distant to the cleft). between the recall and the nonrecall group there were notable differences in the presence o ...19921472527
effects of chlorhexidine-containing gel and varnish on abutment teeth in patients with overdentures.previous experiments have shown that daily use of 1% chlorhexidine gel strongly reduced caries development in the abutment teeth under overdentures. the present experiment was designed to determine whether intermittent application of chlorhexidine, either in a varnish or in a gel, might be used as an alternative preventive method, less demanding for the patient. to this end, 31 patients were distributed among four treatment groups, with the number of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva used ...19921522289
multibacterial artificial plaque. a model for studying carious process.a multibacterial artificial plaque was established in vitro on enamel slabs incubated in mixed culture of streptococcus sanguis, streptococcus mutans (serotype c), streptococcus salivarius, lactobacillus casei and actinomyces viscosus. typical structure same as natural plaque was seen under microscope. the caries-like lesion produced under the plaque was observed in enamel sections. the lesion was similar in appearance to natural ones under optic and scanning electron microscopes. the acids prod ...19921576866
cervicofacial actinomyces viscosus infection. 1978712485
rapid method for identification and enumeration of oral actinomyces.serotype-specific antisera prepared against whole cells of actinomyces viscosus, a. naeslundii, and a. israeli were labeled with fluorescein dye and used to detect and quantitate antigenically related microorganisms in human dental plaque. by relating the dna content of the dental plaque microflora to the number of actinomyces present in the plaque samples, a reproducible method was developed for specifically enumerating five serotypic representatives of this genus found in human plaque.1978711333
morphological features and functional properties of human fibroblasts exposed to actinomyces viscosus substances.connective tissue fibroblasts undergo cytopathic degenerative changes during certain long-term inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. the failure of inflamed tissues to repair properly may result from functional alterations of fibroblasts within the affected tissues. numerous previous studies indicate that direct cytotoxicity by bacterial or other substances may be responsible for the cellular alterations observed in vivo. we have tested this hypothesis by exposing ...1978624591
interdependence of in vitro responsiveness of cord and maternal blood lymphocytes to antigens from oral bacteria.a group of thirty-five mothers and their babies at parturition were examined by the in vitro lymphocyte transformation test to determine sensitization by oral bacterial antigens, b-cell mitogens and dental plaque. lymphocytes from babies of sensitized mothers with gingival or periodontal disease gave the highest frequency (70 and 63%) and magnitude (mean stimulation index of 3.4 and 3.3) of response in cultures stimulated by actinomyces viscosus and veillonella alcalescens. however, igm antibodi ...1977606445
model studies on dental plaque formation: deoxyhexoses in actinomyces viscosus.a careful examination of two strains of actinomyces viscosus, t14v (virulent) and t14av (avirulent), revealed no qualitative or quantitative difference in 6-deoxyhexose content of their cell surface. for a further study of the role of these sugars in cell surface-related phenomena, the stereochemical configuration of deoxyhexoses of a. viscosus t14 was established by two complementary approaches. (i) examination of the biosynthetic pathway was found to lead to the formation of both 6-deoxy-l-tal ...1979570555
binding of actinomyces viscosus to collagen: association with the type 1 fimbrial adhesin.treatment of hydroxyapatite (ha) with human type i or type iii collagen strongly promoted adhesion of actinomyces viscosus ly7 cells. treatment with human type v collagen was somewhat less effective while treatment with human type iv or rat type i collagen was significantly less effective. electron microscopic observations revealed that a. viscosus cells also attached to fibrils prepared from human type i collagen. the alpha 1 (1) polypeptide chain derived from type i collagen was ineffective in ...19911682868
immunochemical and functional studies of actinomyces viscosus t14v type 1 fimbriae with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against the fimbrial subunit.each of five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) prepared against the type 1 fimbriae of actinomyces viscosus t14v reacted with a 54 kda cloned protein previously identified as a fimbrial subunit. this purified protein completely inhibited the reaction of a specific anti-type-1-fimbria rabbit antibody with a. viscosus whole cells. maximum values for the number of antibody molecules bound per bacterial cell ranged from 7 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(4) for the different 125i-labelled mabs and was approximately 7 ...19911683401
actinomyces viscosus infections of the chest in humans. 1979464379
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