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identity of proline dehydrogenase and delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid reductase in clostridium sporogenes.proline dehydrogenase and delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (pca) reductase activities were copurified 60- and 130-fold, respectively, from extracts of clostridium sporogenes. the primary change in the ratio of activites was the result of a loss of proline dehydrogenase activity during dialysis. both activities were eluted in single peaks from diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, hydroxylapatite, and sephadex g-200 columns. they had identical sedimentation coefficients (10.3s), as determined in linear ...197825881
effect of ph on sporicidal and microbicidal activity of buffered mixtures of alcohol and sodium hypochlorite.the effect of ph on the activity of buffered sodium hypochlorite solution, and a buffered methanol/sodium hypochlorite mixture, against bacillus subtilis spores was investigated. the best results, considering both sporicidal activity and stability, were achieved in the ph range 7.6--8.1. the sporicidal activity and stability of five alcohol/hypochlorite mixtures, each containing a different alcohol and buffered to ph 7.6 and of hypochlorite alone buffered to ph 7.6, were compared. the mixtures w ...197935554
effect of processing variables on the outgrowth of clostridium sporogenes pa 3679 spores in comminuted meat cured with sorbic acid and sodium nitrite.the effects of the initial ph and a "short pump" on the outgrowth of clostridium sporogenes pa 3679 spores in comminuted cured pork were studied. fresh ground pork was cured with salt, sugar, phosphate, ascorbate, and varying amounts of sodium nitrite and sorbic acid. the product was comminuted and inoculated with 1,000 spores of c. sporogenes per g. the meat was stuffed into 1-ounce (ca. 28.4-g) aluminum tubes, cooked to 58.5 degrees c, cooled, and incubated at 27 degrees c to observe for swell ...197944445
quantitative chemical analyses and antigenic properties of peptidoglycans from clostridium botulinum and other clostridia.the cell wall peptodoglycans were isolated from clostridium botulinum and some other species of the genus clostridium by hot formamide extraction and their quantitative chemical composition and antigenic properties were determined. the petidoglycan of c. botulinum type e was found to be a diaminopimelic acid (dap)-containing type composed of glucosamine, muramic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and dap in the molar ratio of 0.76:0.78:1.00:1.88:0.81. all other types of c. botulinum and clostridium sp ...197662070
spore antigens of clostridium sporogenes.by means of spore-agglutination of fluorescent-antibody techniques, three serological types were identified among 84 strains of clostridium sporogenes. four spore antigens were identified, designated a, b, c and d. a, b and c were specific for the respective types whilst d was a group antigen shared by strains of the three types. the spore antigens had corresponding somatic antigens; the type-specific somatic antigens were designated i, ii, iii, and the shared somatic antigen iv. the flagellar ...1979107315
the effect of transition metal ions on the resistance of bacterial spores to hydrogen peroxide and to heat.the presence of 10 microm-cu2+ increased the lethal effect of hydrogen peroxide on spores of clostridium bifermentans but not on those of clostridium sporogenes pa 3679, clostridium perfringens, bacillus cereus or bacillus subtilis var. niger. cu2+ at 100 mum also increased the lethal effect of heat on spores of c. bifermentans but not on those of b. sutilis var. niger. the rate and extent of cu2+ uptake by spores of c. bifermentans and b. subtilis var. niger were similar, but examination of uns ...1979113488
development of a selective medium for the isolation of clostridium sporogenes and related organisms. 1979120359
regulation of the arginine dihydrolase pathway in clostridium sporogenes.arginine deiminase activity was induced during the vegetative growth of clostridium sporogenes. the enzyme was sensitive to catabolite repression. the other enzymes of the arginine dihydrolase pathway, namely, ornithine carbamoyl-transferase and carbamate kinase, did not show such variation.1977195930
the metabolism of pyrimidines by proteolytic clostridia.uracil was used by growing cultures of clostridium sporogenes, and by proteolytic strains of c. botulinum types a and b. uracil was not used by c. bifermentans; c. botulinum, type b (non-proteolytic); c. botulinum, type f (non-proteolytic); c. botulinum, type e; c. butyricum; c. cochlearium; c. difficile; c. histolyticum; c. oedematiens, type a; c. paraputrificum; c. scatologenes; c. specticum; c. sordellii; c. sticklandii; c. tertium; c. tetani; c. tetanomorphum; c. welchii, types a, b, c, e an ...1975235246
regulatory responses of arginine deiminase in whole cells of clostridium sporogenes.arginine deiminase (ec 3.5.3.6) has been shown to have regulatory properties. the activity was observed to be sigmoidal with respect to substrate concentrations. addition of histidine to the system caused the abolition of sigmoidal responses. the regulatory properties of the enzyme as well as the desensitising action of histidine could also be demonstrated with whole cell suspensions. the ph of the system also seemed to influence modulations in the enzyme.1975241407
clostridium sporogenes isolates and their relationship to c. botulinum based on deoxyribonucleic acid reassociation.sixty-two isolates of clostridium sporogenes from canned foods were examined for cultural properties, heat resistance and dna-dna homology to clostridium botulinum type a190. sporulation was observed in most of 21 umbonate and rhizoidal colony-forming strains (colony-type i strains), but not in most of the 41 strains with convex and circular or crenate colonies with a mat to semi-glossy surface (colony-type ii strains). more than half of the latter strains showed much higher heat resistance than ...1977330814
immunofluorescent study of the spore antigens of proteolytic strains of clostridium botulinum.by means of the spore fluorescent antibody technique 31 strains of clostridium botulinum types a (18 strains), b (10 strains) and f (3 strains) were found to belong to the same homogeneous group irrespective of their toxigenic types. some strains of this species also cross-reacted with certain strains of clostridium sporogenes types i, ii and iii and clostridium histolyticum type ii. by spore antigenic analysis it was found that clostridium parabotulinum contained two components designated l and ...1979379206
spore antigens in the classification of some clostridia.the spore antigens of clostridium sporogenes, c. histolyticum, c. bifermentans and the butyric group were compared. by spore agglutination and fluorescent-antibody technique (fat) the 69 strains of c. histolyticum were divided into two types: serum raised against type i (66 strains) reacted with all strains of this species but showed no cross reaction with any of the three types of c. sporogenes; serum raised against type ii (three strains) did not react with strains of c. histolyticum type i bu ...1979390152
clostridial myonecrosis in a patient undergoing oxacillin therapy for exacerbation of chronic foot ulcers and osteomyelitis. a case report.gas gangrene developed from a chronic foot ulcer in the absence of periferal vascular disease or diabetes mellitus in a hospitalized patient undergoing parenteral antibiotic therapy. within a 6 hour period the patient developed profound toxemia necessitating emergency and life saving leg amputation. classically clostridial myonecrosis is diagnosed by the clinical course and the gram stain. in this case, 2 preoperative gram stains failed to show gram-positive rods. at the time of surgery, frank f ...1979445907
cerebrocortical necrosis in ruminants: effect of thiaminase type 1-producing clostridium sporogenes in lambs.large numbers of orally inoculated thiaminase type 1-producing clostridium sporogenes failed to establish in the alimentary tract of two conventionally born lambs. conversely, when similar inoculations were given to two gnotobiotic lambs, large populations of cl sporogenes established in their rumens and correspondingly high levels of thiaminase were produced. no clinical symptoms of thiamine deficiency or cerebrocortical necrosis were seen despite the presence of high levels of thiaminase in th ...1979538876
pseudomembranous colitis: isolation of two species of cytotoxic clostridia and successful treatment with vancomycin.lincomycin-resistant clostridium sporogenes obtained from the stools of a patient with lincomycin-associated pseudomembranous colitis produced a heat-stable cytotoxin in low titre when grown in chopped meat medium. vancomycin eradicated this strain and all other clostridia, and controlled the symptoms. when diarrhea recurred 7 days after treatment with vancomycin was stopped, clostridia including c. sporogenes and c. difficile were again isolated. the c. difficile produced a heat-labile cytotoxi ...1978743667
[a comparison of the assay regulations for sterility testing between the usp xix and the european pharmacopoeia (author's transl)].the usp xix is to be published in the summer 1975. in this paper the most important passages of its sterility test are compared with the regulations of the ep 1. so a test should be rendered possible to come up to both pharmacopoeia. a) both the membrane filtration method and the direct inoculation of media may be used as the test methods. the membrane filtration method is the method of choice. but the mentioned pore diameter of 0.45 +/- 0.02 mum is too large. those filters with a pore diameter ...1975811006
selenium requirement for the growth of clostridium sporogenes with glycine as the oxidant in stickland reaction systems.clostridium sporogenes was found to have an absolute requirement for selenium to utilize glycine but not proline as oxidant in stickland-type fermentations. no glycine reductase activity was detectable in cells from media without added selenium. the data indicate that this organism could be used for microbiological assays for very low levels of selenium in certain forms.1977873891
stability of mrna from the clostridium sporogenes phage f1.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to study the decay of individual species of mrna in f1, a bacteriophage specific for the obligate anaerobie clostridium sporogenes. immediate early mrna species had a half-life of 3.5 min, while delayed early and late mrna had a half-life of between 6 and 8 min.1976974907
responses of clostridium botulinum type b and e progenitor toxins to some clostridial sulfhydryl-dependent proteases.sulfhydryl-dependent proteases produced by clostridium botulinum types a, b, and f, clostridium histolyticum, clostridium sporogenes and clostridium perfringens activate preferentially type e over type b progenitor toxin but less efficiently than trypsin. the results explain why activable toxin is demonstrable in culture of a strongly proteolytic type b strain.19751104932
histidine-dependent activation of arginine deiminase in clostridium sporogenes: kinetic evidence on in vivo allosteric interactions. 19751123060
development of bacteriophage f1 in clostridium sporogenes: characterization of rna transcripts.rna transcription was investigated during the development of f1 phage, which is specific for the strict anaerobe clostridium sporogenes. rna species transcribed during f1 phage infection were characterized with respect to time of appearance and molecular weight by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ten mrna species were characterized, of which five were produced early in infection and five were synthesized late in infection. all the above 10 species were transcribed from one strand of f1dna, th ...19751133876
induction of chain formation in clostridium sporogenes by suramin.cl. sporogenes nctc 532 was grown in serial doubling dilutions of suramin from 1% to 0.125% w/v in bhi broth containing 1% glucose. after overnight incubation the culture grew into extremely long chains on transfer into suramin free medium reverted to normal morphology.19751146437
feathery outbrusts of the colonies of clostridium sporogenes containing chain forming mutants after ultraviolet irradiation.cl. sporogenes nctc 532 was irradiated with uv light, 20 mins. irradiated colonies after initial 48 hours incubation at 37 degrees c and 10-20 days ageing at room temperature (22 to 25 degrees c), gave rise to feathery outbrusts. the material from these outbursts grew in long chains in fluid media. a pure chain - forming culture could not be obtained as the single cells or pairs always "contaminated" the chain - forming culture.19751179871
[clostridium sporogenes-like strains derived from canned food]. 19751240302
leucine 2,3-aminomutase, an enzyme of leucine catabolism.the initial step in the fermentation of leucine to acetate, isobutyrate, and ammonia by clostridium sporogenes is the b12 coenzyme-dependent conversion of alpha-leucine to beta-leucine (3-amino-4-methylpentanoate). the amino group migration reaction, catalyzed by leucine 2,3-aminomutase, is reversible and is inhibited by intrinsic factor. the enzyme activity has been found in several clostridia, in rat, sheep, rhesus, and african green monkey livers, and in human leukocytes.19761270414
nisin dissipates the proton motive force of the obligate anaerobe clostridium sporogenes pa 3679.the influence of nisin on the proton motive force (delta p) generated by glucose-energized cells of the obligate putrefactive anaerobe clostridium sporogenes pa 3679 was determined. the components of delta p, the transmembrane potential (delta psi) and the ph gradient (delta ph), were determined from the distributions of the lipophilic cation [3h]tpp+ ([3h]tetraphenylphosphonium bromide) and [14c]salicylic acid, respectively. the cells maintained a constant delta p of -111 mv, consisting of a de ...19921325140
new rapid identification test for clostridium difficile.a set of five tests were developed and tested for their ability to confirm the identity of c difficile colonies within 30 minutes.19921452788
the effect of ph on the thermal resistance of clostridium sporogenes (pa 3679) in asparagus purée acidified with citric acid and glucono-delta-lactone.the influence of type of acid, ph and temperature on heat resistance of clostridium sporogenes (pa 3679) spores were investigated in white asparagus pureé acidified with citric acid and glucono-delta-lactone (gdl). the ph values studied were: 4.5, 4.8, 5.1 and 5.4 at temperatures of 110, 115, 118 and 121 degrees c. the addition of citric acid and gdl to reduce ph significantly diminished heat resistance of the spores. the two acids investigated differed in their effect on heat resistance at the ...19921457287
the bacteriocidal effects of transition metal complexes containing the no+ group on the food-spoilage bacterium clostridium sporogenes.the chemical and molecular mechanism of toxicity of nitrite towards food-spoilage bacteria such as clostridium botulinum or clostridium sporogenes is not well understood. in order to discover the active species and explore its chemistry, a number of compounds related to nitrite were synthesized. their bacteriocidal effects on c. sporogenes were investigated in oxoid nutrient broth no. 2 growth medium at ph 7.0. inhibition of cell growth, expressed as the concentration which causes 50% cell inhib ...19921459420
antibacterial activity of n-[2-(dodecanoylmethylamine)ethyl]-alkyl dimethylammonium bromides.the study contains the results of determination of antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized series of n-[2-(dodecanoylmethylamine)ethyl]-alkyldimethylammonium bromides. the efficiency of the compounds has been characterized towards three species of the genus clostridium such as clostridium perfringens, type a, clostridium bifermentans, clostridium sporogenes and one strain of the genus lactobacillus such as lactobacillus yamanashiensis. the antibacterial activity of the studied compounds ...19921509829
purification and characterization of rnase p from clostridium sporogenes.rnase p is a multi-subunit enzyme responsible for the accurate processing of the 5' terminus of all trnas. the rna subunit from clostridium sporogenes has been partially purified and characterized. the rna is approximately 400 nucleotides long and makes a precise endonucleolytic cleavage at the mature 5' terminus of trna. the rna requires moderate concentrations of mg2+ (20 mm) and relatively high concentrations of nh4cl (800 mm) for optimal activity. mn2+ effectively substitutes for mg2+ at 2 m ...19901704096
isolation of enterotoxin-producing clostridium sporogenes from cefmetazole-associated diarrheic rabbit. 19911832045
identification of clostridium botulinum, clostridium argentinense, and related organisms by cellular fatty acid analysis.on the basis of 686 analyses of 285 strains of clostridium botulinum, clostridium argentinense (formerly c. botulinum type g), and phenotypically related organisms, 14 cellular fatty acid (cfa) groups of toxic organisms and 6 cfa groups of nontoxic organisms were delineated. the cfa groups of toxic strains included two of type a, three of proteolytic strains of type b, two of proteolytic strains of type f, one each of nonproteolytic strains of types b, e, and f, and one each of types c alpha, c ...19911864927
further observations on enhancement of the infectivity of fusobacterium necrophorum by other bacteria.it had already been shown with a single virulent strain (a42) of fusobacterium necrophorum that suspension of the fusobacteria in sub-lethal doses of broth cultures of other bacteria reduced the minimum infective dose (greater than 10(6) organisms) for mice by subcutaneous inoculation, sometimes to less than 10 organisms. the present study extended the known range of bacteria with strong infectivity-enhancing properties to include bacillus cereus, klebsiella oxytoca and staphylococcus aureus; an ...19911902184
identification of toxigenic clostridium botulinum type e by enzyme immunoassay.a sensitive double-sandwich enzyme immunoassay for identification of toxigenic clostridium botulinum type e was developed with a type-e-specific antitoxin. the antitoxin was produced in a rabbit, following inoculation of minute quantities of type-e toxoid. the toxoid was prepared from a commercially available toxin by using a detoxification method. cross-reactivity of the antitoxin with c. botulinum types a and b was avoided by absorption of the serum with alum-precipitated toxoids a and b. the ...19912013205
electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of the inhibition of the phosphoroclastic system of clostridium sporogenes by nitrite.the proposal that nitrite exerts its inhibitory effect on anaerobic bacteria by direct interaction with the iron-sulphur proteins of the phosphoroclastic system was investigated. the effects of nitrate, nitrite with or without ascorbate, and nitric oxide on the growth of clostridium sporogenes in liquid cultures at ph 7.4, on the rates of hydrogen production, and on the activities of the enzymes pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and hydrogenase, and of ferredoxin were investigated. in agreement ...19902176668
interactions of iron-thiol-nitrosyl compounds with the phosphoroclastic system of clostridium sporogenes.certain reagents, such as ascorbate or iron salts and thiols, enhance the bacteriostatic action of nitrite on food-spoilage bacteria. this may be due to the formation of nitric oxide and iron-thiol-nitrosyl [( fe-s-no]) complexes. the minimum concentrations of these reagents required to inhibit growth of clostridium sporogenes were investigated. a mixture of nitrite (0.72 mm) with iron (1.44 mm) and cysteine (2.16 mm) was found to be extremely inhibitory when autoclaved and diluted into the cult ...19902176669
regulation of protease production in clostridium sporogenes.the physiological and nutritional factors that regulate protease synthesis in clostridium sporogenes c25 were studied in batch and continuous cultures. formation of extracellular proteases occurred at the end of active growth and during the stationary phase in batch cultures. protease production was inversely related to growth rate in glucose-excess and glucose-limited chemostats over the range d = 0.05 to 0.70 h-1. in pulse experiments, glucose, ammonia, phosphate, and some amino acids (tryptop ...19902268158
purification and comparative studies of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases from the anaerobic, glycine-utilizing bacteria peptostreptococcus glycinophilus, clostridium cylindrosporum, and clostridium sporogenes.three different dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases were purified to homogenity from the anaerobic glycine-utilizing bacteria clostridium cylindrosporum, clostridium sporogenes, and peptostreptococcus glycinophilus, and their basic properties were determined. the enzyme isolated from p. glycinophilus showed the properties typical of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases: it was a dimer with a subunit molecular mass of 53,000 and contained 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide and 2 redox-active sulfhydryl ...19902294086
microbiologic characteristics of lactobacillus products used for colonization of the vagina.lactobacilli have long been considered to be the protective flora in the vagina. women with vaginal infections have used various non-prescription products in an attempt to restore their normal vaginal flora. products that contain lactobacilli include dairy products (yogurt, acidophilus milk) and commercially available lactobacillus powders and tablets. recently, lactobacillus species that produce hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) have been associated with normal vaginal flora. in this study, we compared ...19902300352
purification of nadph-dependent electron-transferring flavoproteins and n-terminal protein sequence data of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases from anaerobic, glycine-utilizing bacteria.three electron-transferring flavoproteins were purified to homogeneity from anaerobic, amino acid-utilizing bacteria (bacterium w6, clostridium sporogenes, and clostridium sticklandii), characterized, and compared with the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of eubacterium acidaminophilum. all the proteins were found to be dimers consisting of two identical subunits with a subunit mr of about 35,000 and to contain about 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide per subunit. spectra of the oxidized protein ...19902318809
in vitro antibacterial activities of three plants used in traditional medicine in sierra leone.the antibacterial activities of the methanol and hot and cold aqueous extracts of the leaves of aspilia africana, ficus exasperata and mareya micrantha were bioassayed against three gram-negative and three gram-positive bacterial species: aerobacter aerogenes, agrobacterium tumefaciens, bacillus subtilis, clostridium sporogenes, escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus. the methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of aspilia africana and mareya micrantha and the undiluted oil of m. micranth ...19902335960
enumeration and confirmation of clostridium tyrobutyricum in silages using neutral red, d-cycloserine, and lactate dehydrogenase activity.spores of clostridia in big bale silages, manure, and dairy products were enumerated and distinguished from other spore formers by using reinforced clostridium agar containing .005% neutral red. spores of clostridium tyrobutyricum predominated, but spores of clostridium butyricum, clostridium sporogenes, clostridium bifermentans, clostridium putrificum, and clostridium sphenoides occurred to a lesser extent. in samples with high bacterial spore counts, growth of bacillus spp., but not c. tyrobut ...19902341647
isolation of an atypically small lipoamide dehydrogenase involved in the glycine decarboxylase complex from eubacterium acidaminophilum.the lipoamide dehydrogenase of the glycine decarboxylase complex was purified to homogeneity (8 u/mg) from cells of the anaerobe eubacterium acidaminophilum that were grown on glycine. in cell extracts four radioactive protein fractions labeled with d-[2-14c]riboflavin could be detected after gel filtration, one of which coeluted with lipoamide dehydrogenase activity. the molecular mass of the native enzyme could be determined by several methods to be 68 kilodaltons, and an enzyme with a molecul ...19892537814
morphological changes in putrefactive anaerobe 3679 (clostridium sporogenes) induced by sorbate, hydrochloric acid, and nitrite.putrefactive anaerobe 3679 (clostridium sporogenes), a gram-positive bacterium, was examined by light and electron microscopy during normal growth and in a medium containing sorbate (50 mm, ph 6.5), hydrochloric acid (ph of medium adjusted from 7 to 5 with hcl), or nitrite (1 mm, ph 7). during the early exponential growth phase, untreated cells were filamentous and nonseptate, but became septate later and divided when the culture entered the stationary phase. untreated short and filamentous cell ...19892731079
purification and characterization of an isoschizomer of asu ii from clostridium sporogenes. 19892787022
selective and differential medium for detecting clostridium botulinum.a selective and differential growth medium was developed for detection of clostridium botulinum types a, b, and f. the medium consisted of peptone-glucose-yeast extract agar supplemented with cycloserine, 250 micrograms/ml; sulfamethoxazole, 76 micrograms/ml; and trimethoprim, 4 micrograms/ml as selective inhibitors and various types and levels of botulinal antibodies for type differentiation in the immunodiffusion reaction. growth of proteolytic types of c. botulinum were not affected by the in ...19852867740
hybridization analysis of the class p tetracycline resistance determinant from the clostridium perfringens r-plasmid, pcw3.the tetracycline resistance determinant from pcw3, a conjugative plasmid from clostridium perfringens, has been identified and the structural gene localized to within a 1.4-kb region. hybridization analysis, which utilized an internal 0.8-kb specific gene probe, showed that eight nonconjugative tetracycline resistant c. perfringens strains all carried homologous resistance determinants. no homology was detected in dna prepared from tetracycline resistant isolates of clostridium difficile or clos ...19882901767
degradation of nad(h) by endogenous enzymes of yeasts and clostridia.the time courses of degradation of exogenous nad and nadh (2.5 mm) catalyzed by endogenous enzymes present in saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida utilis, clostridium spec. la 1, clostridium kluyveri, and clostridium sporogenes have been determined. the half lives of the pyridine nucleotides depend extremely on the organism and, for the same organism, on the growth conditions. c. spec. la 1 as well as c. kluyveri possess only negligible enzyme activities for nad degradation. however, c. sporogenes ...19862939641
production of toxin by clostridium botulinum type a strains cured by plasmids.twelve strains of clostridium botulinum type a and seven strains of clostridium sporogenes were screened for plasmids by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleared lysates of cells from 5 ml of mid-log-phase culture. nine type a strains had one or more plasmids of 4.3, 6.8, or 36 megadaltons (mda); several strains showed a large plasmid of 61 mda, but it was not consistently recovered. four c. sporogenes strains had one or more plasmids of 4.3, 5.6 or 36 mda. isolates obtained from cultures of plasm ...19863082278
effect of an elevated level of carbon dioxide containing atmosphere on the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria at 2, 7, and 13 c.the effect of 80% co2 (balance air) on the survival and growth of microorganisms most often associated with spoilage and foodborne disease in poultry carcasses was compared to air at 2, 7, and 13 c. the co2 atmosphere substantially retarded the growth of the total bacterial load in uninoculated ground chicken meat and parts at all temperatures when compared to air; however, temperature had a larger overall effect than atmosphere. ground chicken meat and synthetic broth were inoculated (greater t ...19863090536
experimentally induced bacteroides infections in the rabbit.rabbits were infected with bacteroides fragilis, b. macacae and b. gingivalis in monoinfection, mixed bacteroides infection, and mixed infection of b. gingivalis with streptococcus faecalis, escherichia coli and clostridium sporogenes. monoinfection gave rise to localised, nodular abscesses at cell levels greater than 0.5 x 10(5) cfu ml-1, the severity of which was dose related. mixed infections including b. gingivalis caused severe spreading lesions and affected organs distant from the injectio ...19873112527
effect of thermal treatments in oils on bacterial spore survival.the heat resistance of bacillus cereus f4165/75, clostridium sporogenes pa 3679 and cl. botulinum 62a spores suspended in buffer (ph 7.2), olive oil and a commercial oil (a mixture of rapeseed oil and soy oil) was investigated. linear survivor curves were obtained with b. cereus spores in the three menstrua and with 62a and pa 3679 spores suspended in buffer. however, the inactivation kinetics of the clostridial spores suspended in oils were concave upward with a characteristic tailing-off for 6 ...19873114210
tailing of survivor curves of clostridial spores heated in edible oils.tailing of survivor curves was observed for clostridium sporogenes pa 3679 and cl. botulinum 62a spores heated whilst suspended in edible oils, but not for the same spores suspended in buffer (ph 7.2) or mineral oil or for bacillus cereus f4165/75 spores suspended in buffer or oils. the tailing cannot be ascribed to a genetic or developmental heterogeneity in the resistance of the spore population or to a heterogeneity of the treatment severity during heating. heat adaptation due to the release ...19873114211
characterization of cross-reactive proteins detected by culturette brand rapid latex test for clostridium difficile.clostridium sporogenes, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and bacteroides asaccharolyticus have been reported to react in the culturette brand rapid latex test (marion scientific, div. marion laboratories, inc., kansas city, mo.) for clostridium difficile. from the results of this study we showed that c. sporogenes and p. anaerobius produce a protein which is very similar biochemically and immunologically to the protein of c. difficile that is detected by the test. thus, the positive latex reaction ...19883128574
effect of reduced water activity on vegetative growth of cells and on germination of endospores of sporolactobacillus.growth of vegetative cells and germination of endospores of sporolactobacillus at reduced water activity (aw) values were studied with nacl and glycerol as humectants, and compared with bacillus cereus and clostridium sporogenes. with nacl the highest aw for complete inhibition of both growth of vegetative cells and germinated spores of sporolactobacillus was 0.955. with glycerol, growth of vegetative cells was completely inhibited at 0.905 as compared to 0.880 for vegetative growth resulting fr ...19883152794
studies on the endogenous flora of the human breast.identification of the endogenous microbiological flora of the human breast and its role in breast infections following subglandular augmentation or reduction mammaplasty was undertaken. a total of 231 cultures were performed on 59 breasts in 30 patients. patients were followed for 12 months. no fungus was cultured from any specimen. of the breasts cultured 53% were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus. other aerobes found included diphtheroids, lactobacillus, d-enterococcus, micrococcu ...19883341714
the 21-acetylation of corticosteroids by clostridium sporogenes.a strain of clostridium sporogenes, an anaerobic bacterium, isolated from sewage in new york city synthesizes two constitutive enzymes with action on steroid molecules: (i) an enzyme capable of selectively acetylating the 21-hydroxyl function of certain steroids and (ii) the corresponding esterase. under our experimental conditions the enzymes have a strict structural requirement for 3-keto-4-ene and c-20-keto or 20 alpha-hydroxyl group and convert their respective substrates to a mixture of fre ...19863445288
[effect of components of curing mixtures on the antagonistic properties of enterococci and other bacteria isolated from cured meat].effect of sodium chloride, glucose, sodium glutamate, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitraite, ascorbic acid, sodium citrate, polyphosphates (hamine) on antagonistic activity of enterococci and various bacteria isolated from cured meat against bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, salmonella typhi-murium, salmonella cholerae-suis, staphylococcus aureus, clostridium botulinum type a, clostridium botulinum type b, clostridium botulinum type e, clostridium bifermentans, clostridium perfrin ...19873506173
comparison of minitek anaerobe ii, api an-ident, and rapid ana systems for identification of clostridium difficile.three commercial anaerobic systems, minitek (bbl microbiology systems, cockeysville, md), api an-ident (analytab products, plainview, ny), and rapid ana (innovative diagnostic systems, decatur, ga) were evaluated for ability to identify 45 clostridium difficile isolates accurately. minitek correctly identified 66% of c. difficile isolates to species, 27% were incompletely identified, and 7% were misidentified. most of the discrepancies with minitek were due to false negative biochemical results. ...19863518405
splenic hematoma and abscess as a cause of chronic weight loss in a horse.an 8-year-old gelding with a 3-month history of anorexia and weight loss was found to have a massive subcapsular splenic hematoma. at flank laparotomy, 36 l of fluid was removed from the hematoma. the horse's condition improved after drainage. fifteen months later, the horse became depressed and febrile. a splenic abscess containing bacteroides ruminicola and clostridium sporogenes was found at necropsy.19863531125
the growth and nutrition of clostridium sporogenes ncib 8053 in defined media.various defined and minimal media are described for the growth of clostridium sporogenes ncib 8053. the organism requires 10 amino acids and one vitamin for growth, whilst three other vitamins are growth stimulatory. l-alpha-hydroxy acid analogues can replace eight, and fatty acid analogues four, of these amino acids. the organism may generate free energy by a variety of stickland reactions. most stickland acceptors, but not glycine, stimulate the growth of this organism on glucose. nonetheless, ...19873571034
the physiology of clostridium sporogenes ncib 8053 growing in defined media.the physiology of clostridium sporogenes was investigated in defined, minimal media. in batch culture, the major end products of glucose dissimilation were acetate, ethanol and formate. when l-proline was present as an electron acceptor, acetate production was strongly enhanced at the expense of ethanol. as judged by assay of the relevant enzymes, glucose was metabolized via the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway. the growth energetics of cl. sporogenes were investigated in glucose- or l-valine-limi ...19873571035
an evaluation of the sporicidal activity of ozone.this study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of sterilizing surfaces with ozone-saturated water by the methods of the association of official analytical chemists (aoac). initially, it was determined that there was no apparent difference in ozone resistance between spores of bacillus subtilis and clostridium sporogenes when they are suspended in water. both species were inactivated by a 10-min exposure at ambient temperature. resistance was increased when the spores were dried on aoac c ...19873579276
a sensitive and useful radioimmunoassay for neurotoxin and its haemagglutinin complex from clostridium botulinum.a sensitive radioimmunoassay for the detection of botulinum toxin, produced by clostridium botulinum, was developed. this employs homogeneous botulinum neurotoxin type a and its 125i-labelled derivative of high specific radioactivity, rather than its complex with haemagglutinin as used hitherto. the sensitivity of the assay is 1 ng of neurotoxin per ml, which is equivalent to 80 ld50 units (half-lethal doses) in mice. neurotoxin and its complex with haemagglutinin were measurable with equal sens ...19853895579
ability of oral bacteria to degrade fibronectin.the fibronectin-degrading ability of 116, mainly oral, strains was assayed by using plasma-derived fibronectin adsorbed to a polystyrene surface. ability to degrade fibronectin was revealed in strains of bacteroides gingivalis, bacteroides intermedius, bacteroides loeschii, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, peptococcus prevotii, clostridium sporogenes, and propionibacterium acnes. the fibronectinolytic activity of subgingival bacteriological samples was found to be related to th ...19863943910
influence of ph on organic acid production by clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.the influence of ph on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees c was examined. specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant ph ranged from 0.20 h-1 at ph 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at ph 6.50. acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. supernatants from ph 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid leve ...19854004207
observations on the elimination of water from 2-hydroxy acids in the metabolism of amino acids by clostridium sporogenes.cell-free extracts of clostridium sporogenes catalyse the water elimination from (2r)-phenyllactate in the presence of one of the energy-rich compounds acetyl-coa, acetylphosphate or atp and coenzyme a. water is eliminated from (2r)-phenyllactoyl-coa without any of the aforementioned additions. cinnamoyl-coa also acts catalytically. one molecule of cinnamoyl-coa causes the elimination of water from more than 8 molecules phenyllactate. this is important from an energetic point of view since less ...19854074497
sheathed cells in cultures of clostridium sporogenes.many strains of clostridium sporogenes were shown to contain two types of cells which exhibited strikingly different growth habits. over 99% of the population of most strains were motile bacilli which occurred singly or in short chains. infection by any of several c. sporogenes bacteriophages lysed most of these cells and revealed a minority population component consisting of cells which grew in extremely long chains. each chain was surrounded by and contained in a long tubular polysaccharide sh ...19704097534
structural changes in cells of clostridium sporogenes infected with a long-tailed bacteriophage. 19714110440
cation reversal of inhibition of growth by valinomycin in streptococcus pyogenes and clostridium sporogenes.study of the antimicrobial spectrum of valinomycin revealed that, in addition to the gram-positive bacteria reported in literature, streptococcus pyogenes and clostridium sporogenes are also susceptible to this antibiotic. the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) of the antibiotic for s. pyogenes grown aerobically and anaerobically did not differ markedly, negating the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is involved in the mechanism of action of this antibiotic. this conclusion is furth ...19734208280
[composition of the gases emitted by clostridium sporogenes, clostridium bifermentans, clostridium sordelii, clostridium oedematiens and plectridium putrificum cultivated in medium with sodium thioglycolate, under vacuum, after alkalinization of the culture medium]. 19744211363
the autolysis of clostridium sporogenes. 19654222156
[composition of gases emitted by welchia perfringens and clostridium sporogenes cultivated in different synthetic media]. 19744376902
indolelactate dehydrogenase from clostridium sporogenes. 19684384683
thermal stability of the deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids between the proteolytic strains of clostridium botulinum and clostridium sporogenes. 19724551616
radiometric detection of some food-borne bacteria.studies on detection of bacteria by radiometric techniques have been concerned primarily with aerobic species in clinical specimens. the data presented here are related to detection of aerobic and anaerobic species that are of significance in foods, by measurement of (14)co(2) evolved from the metabolism of (14)c-glucose. salmonella typhimurium and staphylococcus aureus were inoculated into tryptic soy broth containing 0.0139 muci of (14)c glucose/ml of medium. detection times ranged from 10 to ...19724564040
numerical taxonomy of clostridium botulinum and clostridium sporogenes strains, and their susceptibilities to induced lysins and to mitomycin c. 19734587762
antibacterial effect of cysteine-nitrosothiol and possible percursors thereof.the postulated intermediate of nitrite-myoglobin reaction, cysteine-nitrosothiol, was prepared and its antibacterial effect was tested on salmonella strains, streptococcus faecium, and spores and vegetative cells of clostridium sporogenes. cysteine-nitrosothiol showed a higher inhibitory effect than nitrite. preliminary results on the effect of simultaneous use of nitrite and cysteine on clostridium sporogenes spores were also presented.19744589130
controlling the sporulation of clostridium sporogenes and the heat resistance of the spores. 19734595504
isolation and purification of l-methionine-alpha-deamino-gamma-mercaptomethane-lyase (l-methioninase) from clostridium sporogenes. 19734720797
volatile acid production by clostridium sporogenes under controlled culture conditions. 19734787614
asymmetric transcription during development of f1, a bacteriophage specific for clostridium sporogenes. 19744826203
[differentiation of clostridium botulinum type a and b and of clostridium sporogenes by application of agar gel precipitation]. 19684874195
[the antigenic difference between clostridium sporogenes and cl. tetani]. 19694931209
[composition of gases freed by clostridium sporogenes and by clostridium septicum cultivated in thioglycolate media]. 19664958636
effect of various gas atmospheres on destruction of microorganisms in dry heat.the heat resistance of dry bacterial spores was tested in various gases at temperatures ranging from 121.1 to 160 c (250 to 320 f). spores of clostridium sporogenes (pa 3679) were heated in air, carbon dioxide, and helium; spores of bacillus subtilis 5230 were heated in these gases and also in oxygen and in nitrogen. the surrounding gas influenced the heat resistance, but the differences among gases were small. d values were about 7 min at 148.9 c (300 f); z values were about 18.3 c (33 f) for b ...19674961931
effect of ph on the heat resistance of clostridium sporogenes spores in minced meat. 19725025431
ultrastructural aspects of spore germination and outgrowth in clostridium sporogenes. 19695371931
microbiological aspects of ethylene oxide sterilization. ii. microbial resistance to ethylene oxide.the death rate kinetics of several sporeforming and nonsporeforming microorganisms, including radiation-resistant cocci, were determined by exposing them to a mixture of ethylene oxide and dichlorodifluoromethane (500 mg of ethylene oxide per liter, 30 to 50% relative humidity, and 54.4 c). spore survivor curves obtained from tests of inoculated and exposed hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic carriers showed that the spores of bacillus subtilis var. niger are more resistant to ethylene oxide than are ...19705415211
production of hydrocinnamic acid by clostridia.hydrocinnamic acid was found in acid extracts of spent growth medium from cultures of clostridium sporogenes. the acid was identified by mass spectrometry and its identity was confirmed by gas chromatography. the acid was produced in relatively large amounts (2 to 3 mumoles/ml of medium) by c. sporogenes, toxigenic types a, b, d, and f of c. botulinum, and some strains of c. bifermentans. other strains of c. bifermentans and strains of c. sordellii and c. caproicum produced only small amounts (0 ...19705437307
primary thoracic empyema caused by clostridium sporogenes. 19705520551
some properties of bacteriophages active on the obligate anaerobe clostridium sporogenes. 19685669990
survival of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in chicken meat during freeze-dehydration, rehydration, and storage.total and anaerobic counts were ascertained on boneless, cooked, cubed, frozen chicken meat. we determined survival of aerobes and anaerobes in the natural flora after the meat was freeze-dehydrated and rehydrated at room temperature for 30 min and at 50, 85, and 100 c for 10 min. total and anaerobic counts of bacteria in the rehydrated meat were established during storage of samples at 4, 22, and 37 c-until a spoilage odor was detected. samples were also inoculated with clostridium sporogenes a ...19685689798
tryptophan transaminase from clostridium sporogenes. 19685697992
structure of the proximal ends of flagella of clostridium sporogenes. 19695796120
[differentiation of clostridium sporogenes and clostridium bifermentans-clostridium sordelli using agar gel pricipitation]. 19676079138
egg-yolk trypticase soy agar for the enumeration of heat-damaged spores of clostridium sporogenes.in heat-resistance studies with spores of clostridium sporogenes bc-2, an improved recovery medium was needed for severely heat-damaged spores as the used previously--wynne medium in miller-prickett tubes--did not allow accurate counts of spores because of gas formation and disruption of agar. initial test with pour plates of viande-leyure medium containing egg-yolk gave much increased counts for spores previously heated for 50 min at 112 degrees c; this increase was attributed to the presence o ...19836228543
[glucose metabolism in clostridium sporogenes and clostridium sticklandii bacteria].clostridium sporogenes 272 has a high rate of glucose fermentation. its cell-free extract contains all glycolytic enzymes catalysing glucose degradation to pyruvate and shows the phosphoroclastic activity. c. sticklandii csg has a low rate of glucose fermentation. hence, the activity of the following enzymes is lower in this organism comparing to c. sporogenes: phosphohexoisomerase (ec 5.3.1.9), phosphofructokinase (ec 2.7.1.11), aldolase (ec 4.1.2.13), triosephosphate isomerase (ec 5.3.1.1) and ...19836230511
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