effects of strong electrolyte upon the activity of clostridium perfringens sialidase toward sialyllactose and sialoglycolipids.clostridium perfringens sialidase was purified by affinity chromatography. kinetic properties of the enzyme were examined with sialyllactose and with mixed sialoglycolipids (gangliosides) as substrates. with the latter substrate in 0.01 m tris-acete in the absence of strong electrolyte, the ph optimum for enzymatic activity was 6.8. addition of strong electrolyte (0.01 to 0.10 m nac1) to the reaction medium caused an acidic shift and a broadening of the ph optimum, enzymatic activity at ph 5.8 r ...1975384
experimental diarrhea in cynomolgus monkeys by oral administration with clostridium perfringens type a viable cells or enterotoxin.purified c. perfringens type a enterotoxin fed orally in an amount of 5 mg caused both vomiting and diarrhea in the monkey only when the gastric juice had been neutralized. exposure of enterotoxin to ph 4.0 or below rapidly destroyed the activity. all three monkeys receiving sodium bicarbonate and 2.4 x 10(10) viable cells grown in ds medium developed diarrhea, and only one of them vomited once. the diarrhea lasted for 13, 18 and 19 hr. the symptoms were similar to those reported in human cases ...1975525
action of neuraminidases isolated from diplococcus pneumoniae and clostridium perfringens on the viscosity and elastic properties of bronchial secretions. 19751124
alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids. 19761165
comparative study of neuraminidases from "diplococcus pneumoniae" and "clostridium perfringens".neuraminidases have been purified from the culture medium of two microorganisms, one aerobic, diplococcus neumoniae, the other anaerobic, clostridium perfringens. the enzymatic properties of the 2 neuraminidases have been studied (ph optimum; effect of cations; activity toward different substrates: neuraminyllactose, dilactaminyllacto-n-tetraose, gangliosides, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, collocalia glycoprotein, ovine submaxillary mucin, porcin intestinal and human bronchial mucins).19753129
the effect of silver ion binding and ph on the buoyant density of dna and its use in fractionating heterogeneous dna.1. the effect of ph on the buoyant density of the complexes of ag+ with dna has been studied using 3h-labeled human dna and several bacterial dnas to determine the conditions necessary for the maximum resolution of compositional heterogeneity. in neutral cs2so4 density gradients, ag+ complexes with (g - c)-rich components are always denser than those with (a - t)-rich components, since (g - c)rich dnas have a larger affinity for ag+ than (a - t)-rich dnas and their complexes are denser than (a - ...19764104
relationship between hemagglutinin and sialidase from clostridium perfringens cn3870: chromatographic characterization of the biologically active proteins.biochemical characterization of hemagglutinin and sialidase activities from clostridium perfringens strain cn3870 revealed that this strain produced three sialidase enzymes that were separable to gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the molecular weights of sialidase i, ii, and iii activities were 310,000 +/- 10,000, 105,000 +/- 4,000 and 64,000 +/- 2,000, respectively, the first figure being an approximate value only.19764434
relationship between hemagglutinin and sialidase from clostridium perfringens cn3870: gel filtration of mutant and reverant activities.gel filtration of supernatant fluids, from the wild-type clostridium perfringens, strain cn3870, and several of the mutants and reverants derived from this strain, showed that these mutants failed to product detectable amounts of still produced sialidase iii activity. the reverants tested had regained the ability to produce approximately wild-type levels of the i and ii forms of both activities. these results showthat there is a direct relationship between the production of the i form and hemagg ...19764435
inhibition of clostridium perfringens by heated combinations of nitrite, sulfur, and ferrous or ferric ions.heating mixtures of sodium nitrite, cysteine, and either ferrous sulfate or ferric chloride at 121 c for 20 min at ph 6.5 or 6.3 produced a potent inhibitor of clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores when added to previously heat-sterilized fluid thioglycolate medium. when the mixtures containing feso4 at ph 5.2 or fecl3 at ph 2.7 were heated, the inhibitory effect was not produced. these responses seem to eliminate the possibility that cysteine nitrosothiol is the agent responsible ...19768004
bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract of infants: an in-vivo study.weekly faecal specimens from 18 babies were examined during the first 8 weeks of life. eight infants were breast fed, ten were bottle-fed. all suckling infants received supplementary feeds for the first 8 days. a buffer consisting of acetic acid and acetate was demonstrated in the faeces of all the breast-fed infants at some time during the period of examination. this buffer was rarely detected during the 1st week of life when supplementary feeds were given, and buffer already present gradually ...19768646
serologic properties of strains of cl. perfringens isolated from the intestinal contents of healthy subjects.a study was made of the quantitative content in the intestine of c1. perfringens strains in 6 healthy persons who stayed in a hermetically sealed space for 1 month and for 1 year. c1. perfingens strains were isolated from the fecal samples of each of the volunteers at various periods of the trial. a total of 570 strains of c1. perfringens of type a with anticellular sera obtained to the strains of various serological groups were studied. serological properties of c1. perfringens strains of type ...19768938
stable l-forms of clostridium perfringens and their growth on glass surfaces.l-forms of clostridium perfringens were induced in brain heart infusion broth containing 10% sucrose and 2 units of penicillin. after a few hours of growth, spheroplasts, granules, and elongated bacilli were apparent. at 24-h intervals, serial subcultures were made in the above medium which resulted in a culture composed entirely of spheroplasts (or protoplasts) and granules. upon the withdrawal of penicillin these l-form cultures grew well and, after 100 passages, there was no reversion to the ...19769192
biological properties of cl. perfringens type a, isolated from human subjects inhabiting a hermetic chamber.this paper gives the results of quantifying and studying the biological properties of cl. perfringens strains isolated from feces of test subjects kept in an enclosure for 34 days. during the experiment the total number of cl. perfringens increased. it was especially true of the strains with an elevated toxigenic activity. this activity correlated with an increase of the titer of alpha-hemolysines and proteolytic enzymes.19769533
production of phospholipase c (alpha-toxin), haemolysins and lethal toxins by clostridium perfringens types a to obtain high yields of extracellular enzymes and toxins for immunological analysis, type culture collection strains of clostridium perfringens types a to d and 28 fresh isolates of c. perfringens type a from humans were grown in fermenters under controlled conditions in a pre-reduced proteose peptone medium. the type culture collection strains all showed different characteristics with respect to growth rates and ph optima for growth. production of phospholipase c (alpha-toxin), haemolysin and ...197610344
3alpha-, 7alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities from clostridium perfringens.25 strains of clostridium perfringens were screened for hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity; 19 contained nadp-dependent 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and eight contained nad-dependent 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase active against conjugated and unconjugated bile salts. all strains containing 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase also contained 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase although 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was invariably in lesser quantity than the 3alpha-hydroxys ...197610985
validation of a simple radiochemical assay measuring hydrolysis of choline-labelled microsomal phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase c. ph-dependence.selective hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine species, which are selectively radioactively labelled in vivo, does not appear to interfere with a radiochemical assay for hydrolysis of microsomal phosphatidylcholine by c-type phospholipases from bacillus cereus or clostridium perfringens. both phospholipases substantially hydrolysed phosphatidylcholine over the ph range 4.0-10.0.197613785
intestinal autoflora of the test subjects in a 6-month biological engineering experiment.during a 6-month bioengineering experiment the intestinal microflora of four test subjects was examined. changes in the composition of different groups of intestinal microflora (bifidobacteria, lactic-acid bacteria, sporogenous anaerobes, proteus, etc) were found. in spite of the unstable pattern of the intestinal microflora and its tendency for simplification, the total number of microorganisms in 1 g of feces remained relatively unchanged in all the test subjects.197715161
synthesis and biological activity of some vinyl-substituted previous studies 1-methyl-2-nitro-1h-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde and 1-methyl-2-nitro-5-vinyl-1h-imidazole were found to posses interesting antimicrobial activities. we have now prepared some 2-nitro-1h-imidazoles in which the 5-vinyl chain bears selected functional groups (cho, coch3, no2) as well as nitrogen-condensation derivatives of the carbonyl functions. furthermore, 5-methyl-2-nitro-1-vinyl-1h-imidazole has been synthesized. all the compounds, and some intermediates, have been assayed ...197716132
clostridium perfringens--specific lysin.a mitomycin c induced lysate of clostridium perfringens strain kz219 was lytic to 50 strains of c. perfringens of types a-e, and three strains of c. plagarum. the lysin was active against only 2 out of 87 strains of 51 other clostridial species. the optimum ph of the lytic agent was 5.5. the activity was largely inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, and nearly completely inactivated by heating at 60 degrees c for 5 min.197717459
activity of spectinomycin against anaerobes.the in vitro inhibitory activity of spectinomycin was tested against various anaerobic bacteria. different results were obtained with different media and with different initial ph's of the media. the highest minimum inhibitory concentrations for bacteroides fragilis (formula: see text 128 mug/ml) were obtained with the use of wilkins-chalgren agar (ph 7.2) and brucella blood agar (ph 7.0). brucella blood agar at higher ph's (7.4 and 8.0) and mueller-hinton and diagnostic sensitivity test agars p ...197718985
purification of alpha-l-fucosidase from various sources by affinity affinity column for alpha-l-fucosidases was constructed by linking p-amino-phenyl 1-thio-alpha-l-fucopyranoside to sepharose 4b through linkers of succinyl 3,3'-diamino-dipropylamine. excellent purification of alpha-l-fucosidase from rat epididymis, clostridium perfringens and limulus polyphemus (horse shoecrab) could be effected inone step with good yield. an affinity column purification step can be introduced at any point in published purification procedures. the purified enzyme is essentia ...197719490
properties of four temperate bacteriophages active on clostridium perfringens type a.four temperature bacteriophages (designated as pf1, pf2, pf3 and pf4) were isolated from lysogenic strains of clostridium perfringens type a. on the basis of plaque morphology, ph stability, dnase and rnase resistance, buoyant density, one-step growth parameters and electron microscope phage dimensions, it seems that these phages are different and unrelated. calcium was required for better phage replication. bacterial strain s107 appears to be the only uv-inducible strain as compared with the ot ...197722105
current aspects of gas gangrene, apropos of 47 cases collected over a 3-year period (1974-1976).on the basis of 47 cases of gas gangrene collected over the three year period between 1974 and 1976, the authors review the circumstances surrounding its development, the clinical features and the prognosis of the disorder which remains grave despite a well-defined therapeutic protocol combining surgery, antibiotics and hyperbaric oxygen. there would appear to be a real resurgence of the disease at the present time. post-traumatic and surgical aetiologies predominate, giving rise to two types of ...197723023
purification of human diploid fibroblast interferon by immobilized efficient method for the purification of human fibroblast interferon (if) based on binding via the n-acetyl neuraminic acid (n-ana) residue of the if molecules to the immobilized neuraminidase has been developed. binding of if occurred at ph 4.5 and elution of the bound activity was effected at ph 9.5. specific activity of if in the alkaline eluate was increased by a factor in excess of 200 and the if thus recovered had probably retained most of the n-ana moieties.197824432
clear, defined medium for the sporulation of clostridium perfringens.a new, defined medium for the sporulation of clostridium perfringens is presented. sporulation levels exceeding 10(6) to 10(7) heat-resistant spores per ml were obtained for seven strains: ps49, ps52, fd-1, t-65, nctc strains 8798, 8238, and 10240. in the presence of theophylline, a methylxanthine, higher levels of heat-resistant spores were attained for strains ps49, ps52, fd-1, ant t-65; photomicrographs demonstrated a higher fraction of sporulating cells when these strains were grown in the p ...197825045
clostridial sepsis after abortion with pgf2alpha and intracervical laminaria tents--a case report.a case of clostridial endomyometritis and sepsis necessitating total abdominal hysterectomy which occurred 12 hours following abortion induced with intraamniotic administration of prostaglandin f2 alpha and laminaria tent insertion is discussed. cultures from cervical, blood, and surgical specimens all yielded clostridium perfringens. intrauterine contamination with this microorganism most likely followed the insertion of laminaria tents through the cervical os, which was colonized with c. perfr ...197825807
the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin and metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria. 197825874
isoelectric focusing of carboxypeptidase n.carboxypeptidase n was partially purified on a teae-cellulose column and subjected to isoelectric focusing in sucrose gradient columns containing ampholine gradients of ph range 3-10 and 4-8. activity separated into two major peaks with pi values of ph 3.8 and 4.3. both peaks were totally converted to an active desialated enzyme with isoelectric point of ph 5.2 to 5.4. these results indicate that carboxypeptidase n is a sialoprotein with at least two forms, differing in sialic acid content, in s ...197826410
endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidases ci and cii from clostridium perfringens. 197826848
sialyl- and fucosyltransferases in the biosynthesis of asparaginyl-linked oligosaccharides in glycoproteins. mutually exclusive glycosylation by beta-galactoside alpha2 goes to 6 sialyltransferase and n-acetylglucosaminide alpha1 goes to 3 fucosyltransferase. 197827517
tissue sterility in uneviscerated carcasses.sheep muscle tissue removed aseptically from control carcasses, from uneviscerated carcasses held at 20 degrees c for 24 h, and from carcasses of sheep subjected to stress before slaughter was examined for the presence of bacteria. all samples from a total of 68 carcasses were sterile. whole-body autoradiography of mouse carcasses showed that 14c-labeled fixed bacteria injected after death remained in the lumen of the intestine. live bacteria did not penetrate the mucosal surface until the tissu ...197829564
the influence of high concentrations of carbon dioxide on the germination of bacterial spores. 197831348
effect of purified phospholipases on the binding of tetrodotoxin to axon plasma membrane.the role of phospholipids in the binding of [3h]tetrodotoxin to garfish olfactory nerve axon plasma membrane was studied by the use of purified phospholipases. treatment of the membranes with low concentrations of either phospholipase a2 (crotalus adamanteus and naja naja) or phospholipase c (bacillus cereus and clostridium perfringens) resulted in a marked reduction in tetrodotoxin binding activity. a 90% reduction in the activity occurred with about 45% hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by ...197939172
properties and function of the proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase of clostridium perfringens.growth of clostridium perfringens was inhibited by compounds which dissipate or prevent the formation of electrochemical proton gradients. membrane vesicles prepared from this organism exhibited mg2+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) activity sensitive to n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. mg2+-atpase activity was optimal of 50 degrees c, but no discrete ph optimum was observed. adenosine triphosphate-dependent quenching of the fluorescence of the weak base quinacrine by everted membrane v ...197940963
effect of carbohydrates and control of culture ph on beta toxin production by clostridium perfringens type c.clostridium perfringens type c strain cn 5384 produced a higher level of beta toxin in a controlled ph medium containing 1% glucose, starch, or sucrose than in media with dextrin, fructose, or raffinose. toxin synthesis was not related to the growth yield. the effect of glucose on beta toxin production by 11 strains was investigated with and without control of the culture ph at 7.5. strain cn 5386 produced distinctly higher toxin when the ph of the culture was maintained at 7.5, compared with un ...197941161
clostridium perfringens type a: certain characters of epidemiologic significance.survival of spores of cl. perfringens type a was significantly greater than that of vegetative cells in acid ph (ph 1.2). survival of spores in soil varied from strain to strain. time required for 5 million spores to be reduced to 500 per gram of soil varied from 2 to 8 months with an average of 4.5+/-2.3 months. quantitative and qualitative heat resistance studies revealed that a majority of the indian and all the american strains tested were heat-sensitive. these characters of cl. perfringens ...197943344
characterization of the autolytic enzymes of clostridium perfringens.clostridium perfringens and isolated walls of this organism autolysed rapidly when incubated in buffer at ph 7.0 with the release of free-reducing groups but no n-terminal amino acids. the predominant autolytic enzyme was an endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase, and an endo-beta-n-acetylmuramidase was also present. the autolytic enzymes could be solubilized by extraction of the organisms with 5 m-licl and would then subsequently bind to and rapidly lyse walls of micrococcus luteus and, more slowly, ...197944314
effect of clostridium perfringens neuraminidase on viability and antigenicity of human leukemic myeloblasts.the effect of increasing concentrations of cl. perfringens neuraminidase and of ph on the dye exclusion ability and lymphocyte stimulating capacity of leukemic myeloblasts was studied. the higher the neuraminidase concentration, or the lower the ph was, the more myeloblasts died and the less the myeloblasts stimulated lymphocytes. myeloblasts treated at a neutral ph and at low enzyme concentrations retained, but did not increase their antigenicity.197944477
a proposed sero-grouping scheme for epidemiological investigation of food poisoning due to clostridium perfringens type a.serological studies with soluble and particulate antigens of cl. perfringens type a revealed that enterotoxin and spore antigens could be used as a suitable marker for epidemiological studies. 94% of the food poisoning strains of cl. perfringens type a could be grouped into 3 groups with the help of 2 enterotoxin-specific sera and 90% in 4 groups with antispore sera. heat-sensitive strains were found to be antigenically more homogenous than the heat-resistant ones. sera raised against spores of ...197944603
the histomophologic and histochemical evaluation of the salivary and exorbital lacrimal glands in the hairless mouse. 197545939
comparsion of the properties of two antigen-induced guinea pig lymphokines.the properties of macrophage migration inhibition factor (mif) and mitogenic factor (mf) were compared using culture supernatants of antigen-stimulated lymph node cells from inbred guinea pigs. gel filtration on sephadex g-100 indicated molecular weights of about 60,000 and 25,000 for mif and mf, respectively. the lymphokines also differed with respect to heat sensitivity, mif being largely inactivated by 60 degrees c for 20 min, whereas mf was unaffected by this treatment. the time course of pr ...197546849
regional and cellular localization of glycosyltransferases in rat small intestine. changes in enzymes with differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells.optimal assay conditions were determined for four glycosyltransferases in rat small intestinal mucosal homogenates and the regional distribution and cellular localization of these enzymes was studied. for each glycosyltransferase, similar levels of activity were found in duodenal, proximal jejunal and distal ileal segments; activities of the galactosyltransferases were lower in the distal jejunal-proximal ileal segment. planar section studies indicated that the undifferentiated crypt cells had s ...197549196
homing of liposomes to target cells. 197550067
some characteristics of the dna-tyrocidine complex and a possible mechanism of the gramicidin action.1. the cyclic peptide antibiotic tyrocidine which inhibits rna synthesis in vitro by forming a complex with the dna (schazschneider, b., ristow, h. and kleinkauf, h. (1974) nature 249, 757-759) induces hypochromicity of the dna. the complex dissociates at elevated temperatures but which are below the melting temperature of the dna. 2. the linear peptide antibiotic gramicidin which reverses the inhibitory effect of tyrocidine (ristow, h., schazschneider, b., bauer, k. and kleinkauf, h. (1975) bio ...197553075
alteration of the hl-a antigenic site in situ.the chemical nature of the hl-a antigenic sites on peripheral blood lymphocytes was studied by treatment of these cells with glycolytic enzymes and with sodium metaperiodate, and monitoring the residual antigen expression either by the lymphocyte cytotoxicity test or by quantitative microabsorption of monospecific anti-hl-a sera. neither the gentle enzymatic nor the chemical treatment of lymphocytes altered expression of the hl-a antigens indicating that carbohydrates are not involved, in a majo ...197554332
pathogenesis of enteritis necroticans in papula new is suggested that enteritis necroticans occurs in the people of the highlands of papua new guinea because they have low levels of digestive proteases in the intestinal lumen. these low protease levels are the result of a low-protein diet and the presence of heat-stable trypsin inhibitors in sweet potatato, the dietary staple. low proteolytic activity allows the b toxin of clostridium welchii type c, which is extremely susceptible to proteolysis, to initiate the disease.197654640
[changes in the serum protein fractions of pigeons in experimentally reproduced food toxinfection].paper electrophoresis was employed to analyze changes taking place in the composition of the blood serum protein fractions of pigeons following an experimental reproduction in them of toxinfection caused by cl. perfringens, type a, and also upon exposure of the pigeons to a high and low temperature, as factors conducive to the development of toxinfection. the blood serum protein fractions of the diseased birds showed a distinct increase of the gamma-globulin fractions by as much as 4 times) that ...197554992
single-dose peroperative antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery.a single intravenous dose of tobramycin and lincomycin, given at the start of gastrointestinal operations, significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative wound infection from 34% to 5%. the occurrence of both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria was reduced. therapeutic concentrations of the antibiotics were maintained throughout the operative period in most cases. no toxic effects of the antibiotics were detected, no anaesthetic complication occurred, and resistant strains of bacteria normally ...197660565
necrotising enterocolitis of the newborn--is it gas-gangrene of the bowel?necrotising enterocolitis (n.e.c.) of the newborn is thought to be caused by ischaemia of the bowel. this would favour the conversion of clostridial spores, which can occur very early in the intestinal tract of newborns, to toxin-producing, invading bacilli. the histology of resected gut specimens from 6 of 7 n.e.c. patients who had undergone operation was similar to that in cases of gas-gangrene of the bowel and that in experimentally provoked pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. in one case clo ...197661397
quantitative chemical analyses and antigenic properties of peptidoglycans from clostridium botulinum and other clostridia.the cell wall peptodoglycans were isolated from clostridium botulinum and some other species of the genus clostridium by hot formamide extraction and their quantitative chemical composition and antigenic properties were determined. the petidoglycan of c. botulinum type e was found to be a diaminopimelic acid (dap)-containing type composed of glucosamine, muramic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and dap in the molar ratio of 0.76:0.78:1.00:1.88:0.81. all other types of c. botulinum and clostridium sp ...197662070
a serotyping system for clostridium welchii (c. perfringens) type a, and studies on the type-specific antigens.a serotyping scheme for clostridium welchii (c. perfringens) type a employing 57 antisera has been used to investigate the epidemiology of 153 food-poisoning outbreaks and 32 cases of gas gangrene and other clinical infections. respectively 65% and 59% of the isolates were typable, and in 55% of the food-poisoning outbreaks the causative serotypes were established. isolation and reporting methods that would render the typing scheme of even greater epidemiological value are described. the type-sp ...197663553
the use of a double gel (g-25/deae sephadex) for one step separation of fluorescein tagged gamma-globulins. 197664998
neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. 197766448
identification of the presence and type of biliary microflora by immediate gram stains.immediate gram stains were performed on gallbladder bile aspirated at the start of an operation for biliary disease in 191 consecutive patients undergoing elective biliary surgery. the results of the gram stains were telephoned to the operating theater within 20 minutes of collection. the over-all accuracy rate of the telephone gram stain reports compared with the subsequent bile cultures was 77 percent. the incidence of false-positive results was 12 percent, and false-negative results were reco ...197766763
hospital outbreak of clostridium perfringens outbreak of clostridium perfringens (c.welchii) food-poisoning affected a third of the patients in a large hospital, and one frail patient died. c.perfringens type a, serotype 1, was isolated from 46 (61 per cent) of 76 patients examined and from food, and a new serotype (61) was isolated from 16. the attack-rate among patients who ate a minced-ham dish was 78 per cent. the cooking and storage of this mince was faulty: cuts of meat were much too large, they were kept at room temperature too l ...197767498
specific inhibition of viral neuraminidases by an inhibitor, neuraminin, produced by streptomyces sp. 197767704
antigenic relationships among thiol-activated cytolysins.cereolysin, streptolysin o, and perfringolysin o formed precipitin lines that completely fused when reacted with horse antitetanolysin by ouchterlony immunodiffusion and formed precipitin lines that showed either partial or complete fusion when diffused against horse antistreptolysin o or antiperfringolysin o.197768932
an unusual outbreak of food-poisoning associated with outbreak of food-poisoning after a meals-on-wheels lunch affected 49 persons, 1 of whom died. bacillus cereus serotype 10 and bacillus licheniformis were isolated in large numbers from many of the patients including the deceased and from the remains of the meal. clostridium perfringens (c. welchii) serotype 68, which was isolated from many of the patients and the deceased but not from the food, may also have been responsible. food kept warm during distribution can produce an ideal environment ...197769207
purification of clostridium toxoids.a two-step fractionation procedure was applied for purification and concentration of the individual clostridium toxoids. the toxoids were precipitated with hydrochloric acid in the presence of sodium sextametaphosphate, then antigenic fractions were separated from inactive contaminants by sephadex g-75 filtration. specific activity of the preparations thus obtained, as determined by mancini radial immunodiffusion, was 150--565 binding units per mg of protein nitrogen for clostridium perfringens ...197770974
bacteria in necrotising enterocolitis. 197771441
clostridia as intestinal pathogens. 197773015
fluorescent probes of chromosome structure and replication.procedures employing fluorescent dyes or giemsa stain have been utilized to differentiate methaphase chromosomes into longitudinal segments termed bands. in spite of the immense practical utility of chromosome banding, the chemical basis of banding patterns remains incompletely understood. physical chemical studies have elucidated the modes and specificities of the interaction of fluorescent dyes such as quinacrine, 33258 hoechst, daunomycin, chromomycin a3 and 7-aminoactinomycin d with dna and ...197776502
further studies on the mode of action of clostridium welchii type-d epsilon toxin.intradermal injection of clostridium welchii type-d epsilon toxin increased the permeability of blood vessels in guinea-pig skin to evans blue dye by a mechanism not dependent on the release of histamine. the toxin was also found to raise the plasma concentration of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate in mice. it is concluded that epsilon toxin is an enterotoxin capable of causing widespread damage, after binding to receptor sites on the surface of certain cells, through a mechanism mediated b ...197879653
fulminant necrotising enterocolitis associated with clostridia.5 infants with no growth of bacteria on cultures of blood and peritoneal fluid recovered from necrotising enterocolitis after medical treatment alone. 12 infants with positive cultures required surgery. 5 of these 12, who did not harbour clostridia, had a mild clinical course and all 5 survived segmental bowel resection. the 7 infants who harboured clostridia had a more severe clinical course and 4 died. in 3 of 4 infants with clostridium perfringens, the necrotising enterocolitis was fulminant, ...197882032
potential hazards of blood-transfusion in clostridia-associated necrotising enterocolitis. 197983497
prevention of necrotising enteritis in papua new guinea by active immunisation.necrotising enteritis (pig-bel) caused by clostridium welchii type c is a major cause of illness and death in the highlands of papua new guinea. in a controlled trial of active immunisation with a clostridial toxoid prepared from type-c cultures the incidence of pig-bel in over 2500 immunised children within 24 months of immunisation was less than an eighth of that in a control group. necrotising enteritis in papua new guinea is now a preventable disease.197984895
exchange transfusion with heparinised fresh blood in necrotising enterocolitis. 197986066
enteritis necroticans in china. 197986802
clostridia in neonatal faeces. 197987948
use of intraoperative gram stain during cholecystectomy. 197988186
[evaluation of the suitability of nutrient media made from dry components for the rapid detection of cl. perfringens]. 197990199
unaltered catabolism of desialylated low-density lipoprotein in the pig and in cultured rat hepatocytes.removal of the terminal sialic acid residues from many serum glycoproteins results in exposure of their penultimate galactose residues and rapid clearance from circulation by the liver. low-density lipoprotein is a glycoprotein containing 21 galactose and 9 sialic acid residues per particle. studies in this laboratory and others have shown that both the liver and extrahepatic tissues contribute to the degradation of low-density lipoprotein. this study was undertaken to determine whether desialyl ...197990503
rheumatoid arthritis: review of searches for an infectious cause. part ii. 197992461
the effect of transition metal ions on the resistance of bacterial spores to hydrogen peroxide and to heat.the presence of 10 microm-cu2+ increased the lethal effect of hydrogen peroxide on spores of clostridium bifermentans but not on those of clostridium sporogenes pa 3679, clostridium perfringens, bacillus cereus or bacillus subtilis var. niger. cu2+ at 100 mum also increased the lethal effect of heat on spores of c. bifermentans but not on those of b. sutilis var. niger. the rate and extent of cu2+ uptake by spores of c. bifermentans and b. subtilis var. niger were similar, but examination of uns ...1979113488
experimental and clinical experience with hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of clostridial duke university medical center, 49 patients with proved clostridial myonecrosis were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (hbo) during the past 10 years. survival in patients with involvement confined to the extremities was 92.3 percent. survival in patients with combined involvement of extremity and trunk was 53-3 percent, and with primary trunk involvement half of the patients survived. survival for the entire series was 73.5 percent. among the 28 patients receiving at least five hbo treatments, ...1975162815
colon carcinogenesis with azoxymethane and dimethylhydrazine in germ-free rats.the effect of intestinal microflora on the sensitivity of the colon to the carcinogenic effect of azoxymethane and a large dose of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was studied using germ-free and conventional female fischer rats. injection s. c. of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of the ear duct, kidney, and small intestine of conventional rats but none in germ-free animals. only 20% germ-free rats showed 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumors, whereas 93% of conventional rats developed multiple ...1975162868
classification of enterotoxins on the basis of activity in cell culture.two cell culture systems were used in a study of the biological properties of several bacterial enterotoxins in vitro. by means of one model, in which hela cell monolayers were used, cytotoxic effects, interms of detachment of cells from a glass surface due to cell death, were assayed. by means of the second model, activation of the adenyl cyclase-cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (amp) system, in terms of increased steroidogenesis by y-1 adrenal cells (an effect which we have termed cytoton ...1975162926
minimal growth requirements for clostridium perfringens and isolation of auxotrophic mutants.the minimal growth requirements for two strains of clostridium perfringens were defined, and both synthetic and semisynthetic plating media were developed. plate counts of the wild-type strains on both of these minimal media were equivalent to those on complex media. a number of auxotrophic mutants of each strain were isolated, and their phenotypes were defined.1975162964
[gas gangrene as a complication of traumatic wounds]. 1975163054
composition of the capsular polysaccharides of clostridium perfringens as a basis for their classification by analytical procedure, using gas-liquid chromatography, was developed for the identification of the per(trimethylsilyl) ethers of the constituent monosaccharides obtained from the capsular polysaccharides of clostridium perfringens hobbs 5, hobbs 9, hobbs 10, and nctc 10578. qualitative and quantitative differences between the major polysaccharide components enabled the differentiation of the four strains of c. perfringens investigated.1975163129
gangliosides of the bovine neurohypophysis. 1975163296
[ethiology of infectious enterotexemia of sheep]. 1975163520
influence of carbohydrates on growth and sporulation of clostridium perfringens type a.growth and sporulation of clostridium perfringens type a in duncan and strong (ds) sporulation medium was investigated. a biphasic growth response was found to be dependent on starch concentration. maximal levels of heat-resistant spores were formed at a starch concentration of 0.40%. addition of glucose, maltose, or maltotriose to a sporulating culture resulted in an immediate turbidity increase, indicating that biphasic growth in ds medium may be due to such starch degradation products. amylos ...1975163617
antigenic relationship between medullary thymocytes and a subpopulation of peripheral t cells in the rat: description of a masked antigen. 1975163704
superoxide dismutase in some obligately anaerobic bacteria. 1975163764
analysis of unidirectional fluxes of sodium during diarrhea induced by clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in the rat terminal intestinal transport of sodium in vivo, in control and enterotoxin (clostridium perfringens)-treated rats, was resolved into two unidirectional fluxes, influx from and efflux into the lumen of the terminal ileum. in rats treated with the toxin, sodium influx remained similar to control values even during fluid and electrolyte loss to the lumen. net loss of sodium was shown to be due to nearly a twofold increase in sodium efflux to the lumen in toxin-treated animals. there was only slight his ...1975163797
enterotoxin formation by different toxigenic types of clostridium perfringens.sixty-nine strains of clostridium perfringens of different toxigenic types were investigated for enterotoxin production. enterotoxin was definitively detected only in strains of types a and c. this is the first report where enterotoxin production has been demonstrated in a toxigenic type other than type a. the exterotoxin-positive type c strains were isolated from cases of enteritis necroticans ("pig bel+) in new guinea. the major enterotoxin from type c showed a reaction of complete identity wi ...1975163799
immunological comparison of various human pregnancy-associated plasma immunodiffusion comparison with specific antisera demonstrated that all of the four pregnancy-associated plasma proteins (papps) described in our laboratory are distinct from the pregnancy zone protein (von schoultz); alpha2-pregnoglobulin (berne); pregnancy-associated alpha2-glycoprotein (sp3) (bohn); new serum alpha2-macroglobulin (stimson); pag (horne); pregnancy-associated alpha2-globulin (kasukawa); pal (mclaren), and xh protein (dunston). all the latter proved to be immunologically ...1975163802
susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to metronidazole: relative resistance of non-spore-forming gram-positive baccilli.susceptibility of 358 clinical isolates of obligate anaerobes to metronidazole was determined by an agar-dilution technique. only 66% of all isolates were inhibited by 6.25 mug/ml, whereas 30% required larger than or equal to 50 mug/ml. considerable variation in susceptibility was observed among different genera and species of bacteria. fusobacterium was most senstitive, followed by clostridium, bacteroides and peptococcus, peptostreptococcus, veillonella and acidaminococcus, and non-spore-formi ...1975163867
asymmetry of influenza virus membrane bilayer demonstrated with phospholipase c. 1975163976
the relation between the rabbit potency test and the response of sheep to sheep clostridial vaccines.six commercially available clostridial vaccines comprising one oil-emulsion, two alum-precipitated and three aluminum hydroxide adjuvanted preparations, each containing between two and seven antigenic components, were administered to groups of 10 rabbits and eight sheep in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations. serum antitoxic values to cl welchii beta, cl welchii epsilon, cl septicum, cl oedematins and cl tetani toxins were determined 14 days after completion of each vaccination course ...1975164058
antitoxin titer in colostrum and milk after vaccination of sows with clostridium perfringens type c toxoid vaccine. 1975164076
an outbreak of c welchii type c enterotoxaemia in young lambs in south west scotland. 1975164082
effects of proteases and neuraminidase on rbc surface charge and agglutination. a kinetic study.electrophoretic mobility, membrane sialic acid content and agglutinability by "incomplete" antisera against rh-o, hr' and k antigens were determined for red blood cells in the course of treatment with trypsin, ficin and neuraminidase. neuraminidase gradually produces a slight to moderate agglutinability as it reduced surface charge density in proportion to the amount of sialic acid removed. proteases acted in two distinct steps. the first stage is characterized by the cells rapidly becoming high ...1975164087
interaction of 4,5-dibromo-2,7-di-(acetatomercuri)-fluorescein with dnas of different base composition.the changes in absorption spectra in the visible region observed on adding different naturally occurring and synthetic dna duplexes to solutions of 4,5-dibromo-2,7-di-(acetatomercuri)-fluorescein indicate that the mercurial reacts with polynucleotides of this type. the reaction is reversible as proved by adding excess of kcn which restores the original spectra of the free dye. the interaction is characterised also by quenching of the fluorescence of the dye and the induction of optical activity ...1975164231
changes in phosoholipid susceptibility toward phospholipases induced by atp depletion in avian and amphibian erythrocyte membranes.about half of the sphingomyelin content of fresh and atp-depleted chicken erythrocytes is hydrolysed by sphingomyelinase. removal of spingomyelin exposes the rest of the membrane phospholipids to hydrolysis by phospholipase c only in atp-depleted but not in fresh cells. addition of both sphinogomyelinase and phospholipase c to atp-depleted cells causes about 60-70 percent hydrolysis of the total phospholipids accompanied by extensive (90 percent) hemolysis. the phospholipids of toad erythrocytes ...1975164239
determination of toxin-induced leakage of different-size nucleotides through the plasma membrane of human diploid fibroblasts.human diploid lung fibroblasts were treated with cytolytic bacterial toxins and the nature of the membrane damage was investigated. [3h] uridine was used for differential labeling of cytoplasmic components of small or large molecular size. two principal size categories were achieved by labeling the fibroblasts in either early growth phase or stationary phase, a high-molecular weight ribonucleic acid label and a low-molecular-weight nucleotide label. the size of the labeled molecules was determin ...1975164404
characterization of enterotoxin purified from clostridium perfringens type c.enterotoxin produced by a sporulating culture of clostridium perfringens type c, which had been isolated from a case of severe necrotic enteritis, was purified. the molecular weight was estimated to be 36,000 by gel chromatography on sephadex g-100 and 33,400 by ultracentrifugation. the sedimentation coefficient s20,w was 2.92. the toxin protein exhibited unusual behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, and toxin aggregates having molecular weights of 68,000, 85,000, 105,000, and 140,000 were ob ...1975164411
the compatibility of netropsin and actinomycin binding to natural deoxyribonucleic acid.the simultaneous binding of netropsin and actinomycin to four natural dnas was studied to determine the influence of one ligand on the binding of the other. actinomycin binds specifically to gc sites, whereas netropsin binds specifically to at sites. spectral titrations, thermal denaturation, and analytical buoyant density centrifugation were employed to measure the binding interference of these drugs. the binding of actinomycin to dna was decreased by the presence of netropsin. increasing the g ...1975164447
catabolism of photo-oxidized and desialylated hemopexin in the rabbit.following injection of rabbit 125i-asialohemopexin, more than 90% of the protein-bound 125i was removed from the circulation of rabbits within 12 min. the amount of asialoprotein in the catabolic compartment reached a peak concentration (75 to 85%) 12 min after injection and was completely eliminated from this compartment within 2 hours. the degradation products were excreted into the urine, with 50 to 70% of the 125i eliminated during the first 24 hours and 90 to 95% excreted by 48 hours. analy ...1975164457
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