evaluation of the biological sampling kit (biskit) for large-area surface sampling.current surface sampling methods for microbial contaminants are designed to sample small areas and utilize culture analysis. the total number of microbes recovered is low because a small area is sampled, making detection of a potential pathogen more difficult. furthermore, sampling of small areas requires a greater number of samples to be collected, which delays the reporting of results, taxes laboratory resources and staffing, and increases analysis costs. a new biological surface sampling meth ...200415574898
evaluation of blow/fill/seal extrusion through processing polymer contaminated with bacterial spores and endotoxin.a study has been carried out to further the understanding of the extrusion process and its impact upon the quality of blow/fill/seal product. controlled challenges to the extrusion system, comprising low-density polyethylene granulate contaminated with characterized levels of bacillus atrophaeus (atcc 9372) endospores and escherichia coli 055:b5 bacterial endotoxin, have been conducted. batches of spore contaminated polymer, at challenge levels varying from 10(3) to 10(6) spores g(-1) polymer wi ...200415233254
the effect of perasafe and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (nadcc) against spores of clostridium difficile and bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride surfaces.clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea. the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for perasafe, a recently introduced biocide, to contribute to control of c. difficile spores in the patient environment, in comparison with the chlorine-releasing agent sodium dichloroisocyanurate (nadcc). these agents were evaluated against a water control, in a surface test on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride (pvc) floor covering, materials commonly found in the hospit ...200415183245
identification of bacterial spores using statistical analysis of fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy data.fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (ftir-pas) has been applied for the first time to the identification and speciation of bacterial spores. a total of forty specimens representing five strains of bacillus spores (bacillus subtilis atcc 49760, bacillus atrophaeus atcc 49337, bacillus subtilis 6051, bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and bacillus globigii dugway) were analyzed. spores were deposited, with minimal preparation, into the photoacoustic sample cup and their spec ...200314661830
reclassification of bioindicator strains bacillus subtilis dsm 675 and bacillus subtilis dsm 2277 as bacillus atrophaeus.on the basis of high dna-dna reassociation values and confirmatory automated riboprint analysis, two aerobic spore-forming strains hitherto allocated to bacillus subtilis and used as bioindicators (dsm 675, hot-air sterilization control; dsm 2277, ethylene oxide sterilization control) are reclassified as bacillus atrophaeus.200111211269
precise molecular weight determination of pcr products of the rrna intergenic spacer region using electrospray quadrupole mass spectrometry for differentiation of b. subtilis and b. atrophaeus, closely related species of bacilli.assessment of 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer region (isr) sequence variability is an important supplement to 16s rrna sequencing for differentiating closely related bacterial species. species differentiation can also be achieved by determination of approximate size of pcr (polymerase chain reaction) products of isrs, based on their relative electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels. closely-related species can have isr pcr products that are similar in size. more precise molecular weight (m.w.) de ...200010802141
an algorithm for automated bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass algorithm for bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (maldi) mass spectrometry is being developed. this mass spectral fingerprint comparison algorithm is fully automated and statistically based, providing objective analysis of samples to be identified. based on extraction of reference fingerprint ions from test spectra, this approach should lend itself well to real-world applications where samples are likely to be impure. this algorithm is illustrated using ...200010740862
reproducibility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for replicate bacterial culture analysis.matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tofms) was used to demonstrate the reproducibility of bacterial spectra collected on different days. the reproducibility of analysis by maldi-ms of intact escherichia coli and bacillus atrophaeus is presented as a replicate culture study in which spectra were collected on ten different occasions over a three-month period and by two different operators. the analysis resulted in the detection of specific biomarkers ...199910421900
bioaerosol mass spectrometry for rapid detection of individual airborne mycobacterium tuberculosis h37ra particles.single-particle laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in the form of bioaerosol mass spectrometry (bams), was evaluated as a rapid detector for individual airborne, micron-sized, mycobacterium tuberculosis h37ra particles, comprised of a single cell or a small number of clumped cells. the bams mass spectral signatures for aerosolized m. tuberculosis h37ra particles were found to be distinct from m. smegmatis, bacillus atrophaeus, and b. cereus particles, using a distinct ...200516204525
use of in situ-generated dimethyldioxirane for inactivation of biological agents.dimethyldioxirane (dmdo), generated in situ by adding acetone to an aqueous solution containing potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxone) at neutral ph, was investigated for inactivation of biological warfare agent simulants. the dmdo solution inactivated bacterial spores, fungal spores, vegetative bacterial cells, viruses, and protein by 7 orders of magnitude in less than 10 min. the kill rates of dmdo were more pronounced when compared to kill rates of buffered oxone alone. conditions for the use of ...200516173594
in situ measurement of the infrared absorption and extinction of chemical and biologically derived aerosols using flow-through an effort to establish a more reliable set of optical cross sections for a variety of chemical and biological aerosol simulants, we have developed a flow-through photoacoustic system that is capable of measuring absolute, mass-normalized extinction and absorption cross sections. by employing a flow-through design we avoid issues associated with closed aerosol photoacoustic systems and improve sensitivity. although the results shown here were obtained for the tunable co2 laser waveband region, ...200516004057
sporicidal activity in liquid chemical products to sterilize or high-level disinfect medical and dental instruments.various liquid chemical products are commercially available in mexico under sporicidal label claims. frequently, information provided on their labels conflicts with published data on active ingredients, use concentrations, or exposure times.200515947749
comprehensive assignment of mass spectral signatures from individual bacillus atrophaeus spores in matrix-free laser desorption/ionization bioaerosol mass spectrometry.we have fully characterized the mass spectral signatures of individual bacillus atrophaeus spores obtained using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization bioaerosol mass spectrometry (bams). mass spectra of spores grown in unlabeled, 13c-labeled, and 15n-labeled growth media were used to determine the number of carbon and nitrogen atoms associated with each mass peak observed in mass spectra from positive and negative ions. to determine the parent ion structure associated with fragment ion peaks, ...200515889924
stable isotope labeling of entire bacillus atrophaeus spores and vegetative cells using bioaerosol mass spectrometry.single vegetative cells and spores of bacillus atrophaeus, formerly bacillus subtilis var. niger, were analyzed using bioaerosol mass spectrometry. key biomarkers were identified from organisms grown in 13c and 15n isotopically enriched media. spore spectra contain peaks from dicipolinate and amino acids. the results indicate that compounds observed in the spectra correspond to material from the spore's core and not the exosporium. standard compounds and mixtures were analyzed for comparison. th ...200515858989
evaluating the formulae for integrated lethality in ethylene oxide sterilization using six different endospore forming strains of bacteria, and comparisons of integrated lethality for ethylene oxide and steam systems.bacterial endospores from six different species of bacteria were exposed to a spectrum of ethylene oxide (eto) sterilizing conditions. temperature was varied from 40 to 60 degrees c and the ethylene oxide concentration was varied from 300 to 750 mg/l. relative humidity was maintained at 60+/-10% rh. the fraction negative procedure was used to determine the d value for each of the test conditions. bacterial species tested included bacillus atrophaeus atcc # 9372, bacillus smithii atcc # 51232, ba ...200515796136
reaerosolization of fluidized spores in ventilation systems.this project examined dry, fluidized spore reaerosolization in a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning duct system. experiments using spores of bacillus atrophaeus, a nonpathogenic surrogate for bacillus anthracis, were conducted to delineate the extent of spore reaerosolization behavior under normal indoor airflow conditions. short-term (five air-volume exchanges), long-term (up to 21,000 air-volume exchanges), and cycled (on-off) reaerosolization tests were conducted using two common duct ...200717293522
bacterial inactivation in open air by the afterglow plume emitted from a grounded hollow slot electrode.escherichia coli, bacillus atrophaeus, and bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to a downstream plasma afterglow plume emitted from a slotted plasma device operating in open air at atmospheric pressure. the reactor electrodes were rf powered at 13.56 mhz to excite a mixture of argon and oxygen gases by a capacitive discharge as it flowed past the electrodes into open air. bacterial inactivation experiments on surfaces exposed to the plasma afterglow were conducted with varying plasma exposure ...200515667115
bacillus velezensis sp. nov., a surfactant-producing bacterium isolated from the river vélez in málaga, southern spain.two gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterial strains, cr-502t and cr-14b, which produce surfactant molecules are described. phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analyses showed these strains to be members of the genus bacillus and related to the species bacillus atrophaeus, bacillus mojavensis, bacillus subtilis, bacillus vallismortis and bacillus amyloliquefaciens, although they differ from these species in a number of phenotypic characteristics. dna-dna hybridization confirmed that they show le ...200515653875
the high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of bacillus spores.the capability to image single microbial cell surfaces at nanometer scale under native conditions would profoundly impact mechanistic and structural studies of pathogenesis, immunobiology, environmental resistance, and biotransformation. here, using in vitro atomic force microscopy, we have directly visualized high-resolution native structures of bacterial endospores, including the exosporium and spore coats of four bacillus species in air and water environments. our results demonstrate that the ...200515501940
determination of the efficacy of two building decontamination strategies by surface sampling with culture and quantitative pcr analysis.the efficacy of currently available decontamination strategies for the treatment of indoor furnishings contaminated with bioterrorism agents is poorly understood. efficacy testing of decontamination products in a controlled environment is needed to ensure that effective methods are used to decontaminate domestic and workplace settings. an experimental room supplied with materials used in office furnishings (i.e., wood laminate, painted metal, and vinyl tile) was used with controlled dry aerosol ...200415294810
bacillus atrophaeus outer spore coat assembly and ultrastructure.our previous atomic force microscopy (afm) studies successfully visualized native bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. we have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of approximately 11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of approximately 8 nm. we present here further afm ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. in the rodlet layer planar and point defects as well as domain bou ...200516262341
top-down proteomics for rapid identification of intact microorganisms.we apply maldi-tof/tof mass spectrometry for the rapid and high-confidence identification of intact bacillus spore species. in this method, fragment ion spectra of whole (undigested) protein biomarkers are obtained without the need for biomarker prefractionation, digestion, separation, and cleanup. laser-induced dissociation (unimolecular decay) of higher mass (>5 kda) precursor ions in the first tof analyzer is followed by reacceleration and subsequent high-resolution mass analysis of the resul ...200516285700
detection of molecular diversity in bacillus atrophaeus by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.phenotypically, bacillus atrophaeus is indistinguishable from the type strain of bacillus subtilis except by virtue of pigment production on certain media. several pigmented variants of b. subtilis have been reclassified as b. atrophaeus, but several remain ambiguous in regard to their taxonomic placement. in this study, we examined strains within the american type culture collection originally deposited as bacillus globigii, b. subtilis var. niger, or bacillus niger using 16s rrna gene sequenci ...200415128533
effect of microorganism characteristics on leak size critical to predicting package sterility.the effects of microorganism size and motility on the leak size critical to the sterility of a package, along with the imposed pressure required to initiate liquid flow for the critical leak size, were measured. pseudomonas fragi lacy-1052, bacillus atrophaeus atcc 49337, and enterobacter aerogenes atcc 29007 were employed to assess package sterility. one hundred twenty-six 7-mm-long microtubes with interior diameters of 5, 10, and 20 microm were used to simulate package defects. forty-two solid ...200314503733
phylogenetic relationships between bacillus species and related genera inferred from comparison of 3' end 16s rdna and 5' end 16s-23s its nucleotide sequences.the nucleotide sequences of the 3' end of the 16s rdna and the 16s-23s internal transcribed spacer (its) of 40 bacillaceae species were determined. these included 21 bacillus, 9 paenibacillus, 6 brevibacillus, 2 geobacillus, 1 marinibacillus and 1 virgibacillus species. comparative sequence analysis of a 220 bp region covering a highly conserved 150 bp sequence located at the 3' end of the 16s rrna coding region and a conserved 70 bp sequence located at the 5' end of the 16s-23s its of the 40 sp ...200312807189
efficacy of selected hand hygiene agents used to remove bacillus atrophaeus (a surrogate of bacillus anthracis) from contaminated hands.the intentional use of bacillus anthracis transmitted via the us mail in october-november 2001 resulted in 22 people developing inhalation or cutaneous anthrax. glove use with handwashing prior to and after contact with potential contaminated environmental surfaces and cutaneous lesions has been recommended. however, only limited data are available on the susceptibility of b anthracis to antiseptics.200312633189
bacillus mojavensis sp. nov., distinguishable from bacillus subtilis by sexual isolation, divergence in dna sequence, and differences in fatty acid composition.a number of bacillus strains isolated from desert soil samples were shown to belong to a previously unidentified species, for which we propose the name bacillus mojavensis. the type strain is ro-h-1 (= nrrl b-14698). on the basis of restriction digest data, b. mojavensis is most closely related to bacillus amyloliquefaciens, bacillus atrophaeus, and bacillus subtilis. so far, b. mojavensis can be distinguished from b. subtilis only by differences in whole-cell fatty acid composition, divergence ...19948186089
microcyn: a novel super-oxidized water with neutral ph and disinfectant activity.a new super-oxidized water (sow) product, microcyn, was tested for in vitro antimicrobial and antiviral activities. the effectiveness of this neutral-ph sow at killing staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhi and candida albicans in pure culture was evaluated. one millilitre (approximately 10(8)colony-forming units/ml) of each micro-organism was subjected to 9 ml microcyn or sterile water at room temperature for 30s. under these conditions, a log(10) redu ...200516242210
sterilization of bacterial spores by using supercritical carbon dioxide and hydrogen was hypothesized that supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-co(2)) treatment could serve as an alternative sterilization method at various temperatures (40-105 degrees c), co(2) pressures (200-680 atm), and treatment times (25 min to 6 h), and with or without the use of a passive additive (distilled water, dh(2)o) or an active additive (hydrogen peroxide, h(2)o(2)). while previous researchers have shown that sc-co(2) possesses antimicrobial properties, sterilization effectiveness has not been show ...200716838346
synthesis and antimicrobial activity of pyranobenzoquinones related to the pyranonaphthoquinone antibiotics.the synthesis and antimicrobial activity of isochromane-type analogs of the pyranonaphthoquinone antibiotics are reported. isochromane derivatives with (17a, b) and without (22a, b) a c-4 hydroxyl moiety and their corresponding quinones (19a and 23), were prepared. both quinones exhibited antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus aureus, bacillus atrophaeus and streptococcus agalactiae, while the related isochromanes were inactive. the results suggest that the quinone moiety is important for ...200616889875
physical collection efficiency of filter materials for bacteria and viruses.the purpose of this study was to determine the physical collection efficiency of commercially available filters for collecting airborne bacteria, viruses, and other particles in the 10-900 nm (nanometer) size range. laboratory experiments with various polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe), polycarbonate (pc) and gelatin filters in conjunction with button inhalable samplers and three-piece cassettes were undertaken. both biological and non-biological test aerosols were used: bacillus atrophaeus, ms2, po ...200717041245
virulent spores of bacillus anthracis and other bacillus species deposited on solid surfaces have similar sensitivity to chemical compare the relative sensitivity of bacillus anthracis and spores of other bacillus spp. deposited on different solid surfaces to inactivation by liquid chemical disinfecting agents.200717184315
wet and dry density of bacillus anthracis and other bacillus determine the wet and dry density of spores of bacillus anthracis and compare these values with the densities of other bacillus species grown and sporulated under similar conditions.200818298528
automated concentration and recovery of micro-organisms from drinking water using dead-end ultrafiltration.concentration of pathogens diluted in large volumes of water is necessary for their detection. an automated concentration system placed online in drinking water distribution systems would facilitate detection and mitigate the risk to public health.200818298529
difference between the spore sizes of bacillus anthracis and other bacillus determine the size distribution of the spores of bacillus anthracis, and compare its size with other bacillus species grown and sporulated under similar conditions.200717241334
ultrafiltration-based techniques for rapid and simultaneous concentration of multiple microbe classes from 100-l tap water samples.this study focused on ultrafiltration as a technique for simultaneously concentrating and recovering viruses, bacteria and parasites in 100-l drinking water samples. a chemical dispersant, sodium polyphosphate, and tween 80 were used to increase microbial recovery efficiencies. secondary concentration was performed to reduce sample volumes to 3-5 ml for analysis using tissue culture, microscopy, and real-time pcr and rt-pcr. at seeding levels of 100-1000 (cfu, pfu, oocysts, or particles), a "hig ...200818395278
evaluation of antifouling activity of eight commercially available organic chemicals against the early foulers marine bacteria and ulva spores.environmental impacts caused by tin and copper based commercial antifouling (af) paints were proved to be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. therefore, a search of environmental friendly af compounds to be used in marine paint to protect the surface of maritime developmental structures from the unwanted biofouling is a burning issue of the present time. commercially available eight organic chemicals--allyl isothiocyanate, beta-myrecene, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, citral, ethyl heptanoate, eugenol, m ...200718405125
persistence and decontamination of bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores on corroded iron in a model drinking water system.persistence of bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores on corroded iron coupons in drinking water was studied using a biofilm annular reactor. spores were inoculated at 10(6) cfu/ml in the dechlorinated reactor bulk water. the dechlorination allowed for observation of the effects of hydraulic shear and biofilm sloughing on persistence. approximately 50% of the spores initially adhered to the corroded iron surface were not detected after 1 month. addition of a stable 10 mg/liter free chlorine ...200717308186
quantification of magnetic susceptibility in several strains of bacillus spores: implications for separation and detection.three strains of bacillus: bacillus atrophaeus (formally bacillus globigii), bacillus thuringiensis, and bacillus cereus were tested for their intrinsic magnetic susceptibility. all three strains when sporulated demonstrated significant magnetic susceptibility using an instrument referred to as cell tracking velocimetry. energy dispersive spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of paramagnetic elements, fe and mn, in the spore form of the bacteria. it was demonstrated that this magnetic suscept ...200717335063
an automated front-end monitor for anthrax surveillance systems based on the rapid detection of airborne endospores.a fully automated anthrax smoke detector (asd) has been developed and tested. the asd is intended to serve as a cost effective front-end monitor for anthrax surveillance systems. the principle of operation is based on measuring airborne endospore concentrations, where a sharp concentration increase signals an anthrax attack. the asd features an air sampler, a thermal lysis unit, a syringe pump, a time-gated spectrometer, and endospore detection chemistry comprised of dipicolinic acid (dpa)-trigg ...200717514759
in vitro high-resolution structural dynamics of single germinating bacterial spores.although significant progress has been achieved in understanding the genetic and biochemical bases of the spore germination process, the structural basis for breaking the dormant spore state remains poorly understood. we have used atomic force microscopy (afm) to probe the high-resolution structural dynamics of single bacillus atrophaeus spores germinating under native conditions. here, we show that afm can reveal previously unrecognized germination-induced alterations in spore coat architecture ...200717535925
evaluation of vacuum filter sock surface sample collection method for bacillus spores from porous and non-porous surfaces.vacuum filter socks were evaluated for recovery efficiency of powdered bacillus atrophaeus spores from two non-porous surfaces, stainless steel and painted wallboard and two porous surfaces, carpet and bare concrete. two surface coupons were positioned side-by-side and seeded with aerosolized bacillus atrophaeus spores. one of the surfaces, a stainless steel reference coupon, was sized to fit into a sample vial for direct spore removal, while the other surface, a sample surface coupon, was sized ...200717607386
comparative sporicidal effects of disinfectants after release of a biological agent.because of spore formation, bacillus anthracis is considered the most resistant biological warfare agent known. the present study aimed to assess and compare well-known decontamination routes to inactivate the spores on daily-use environmental tools contaminated previously. to simulate the agent, bacillus atrophaeus was used. various environmental samples (such as tile, fabric clothing, wood, protective suit, glass, paper, soil, water, plastic, and metal) that may be contaminated after a biologi ...200717615843
using ultrafiltration to concentrate and detect bacillus anthracis, bacillus atrophaeus subspecies globigii, and cryptosporidium parvum in 100-liter water samples.a strategy that uses ultrafiltration (uf) to concentrate microorganisms from water samples has been developed and tested. this strategy was tested using 100-liter water samples with volume reduction achieved through ultrafiltration and recycling the microorganisms of interest through a retentate vessel, rather than returning them to the sample container, where they might pose an incremental hazard to sample takers or the environment. three protocols based on this strategy were tested. the first ...200717669525
instrument processing with lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium bromide: a challenge for patient safety.the quaternary ammonium compound (quat) lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium bromide (ldbab) is commercialized in the caribbean, central, and south america under label claims to sterilize medical and dental instruments in 30 minutes or less. but quat formulations are classified as low-level disinfectants with no sporicidal activity or tuberculocidal efficacy. this study evaluated the presumptive sporicidal and tuberculocidal activities of 2 ldbab formulations with label claims of high-level disinfect ...200818926316
development of quantitative real-time pcr assays for detection and quantification of surrogate biological warfare agents in building debris and leachate.evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (bw) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. the objective of the current study was to develop and validate sybr green quantitative real-time pcr (q-pcr) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate bw agents in synthetic building debris (sbd) and leachate. bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for bacillus an ...200717720820
subtilosin production by two bacillus subtilis subspecies and variance of the sbo-alb cluster.eight different bacillus subtilis strains and bacillus atrophaeus were found to produce the bacteriocin subtilosin a. on the basis of the subtilosin gene (sbo) sequences two distinct classes of b. subtilis strains were distinguished, and they fell into the two b. subtilis subspecies (b. subtilis subsp. subtilis and b. subtilis subsp. spizizenii). the entire sequence of the subtilosin gene cluster of a b. subtilis subsp. spizizenii strain, b. subtilis atcc 6633, was determined. this sequence exhi ...200415066831
role of pigmentation in protecting bacillus sp. endospores against environmental uv radiation.bacillus endospores show different kinds of pigmentation. red-pigmented spores of bacillus atrophaeus dsm 675, dark-gray spores of b. atrophaeus(t) dsm 7264 and light-gray spores of b. subtilis dsm 5611 were used to study the protective role of the pigments in their resistance to defined ranges of environmental uv radiation. spores of b. atrophaeus dsm 675 possessing a dark-red pigment were 10 times more resistant to uv-a radiation than those of the other two investigated strains, whereas the re ...200516329871
decontamination of rooms, medical equipment and ambulances using an aerosol of hydrogen peroxide disinfectant.a programmable device (sterinis, gloster sante europe) providing a dry fume of 5% hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) disinfectant was tested for decontamination of rooms, ambulances and different types of medical equipment. pre-set concentrations were used according to the volumes of the rooms and garages. three cycles were performed with increasing contact times. repetitive experiments were performed using bacillus atrophaeus (formerly bacillus subtilis) raven 1162282 spores to control the effect of ...200616337307
atmospheric entry simulations of mars lander bioload--experiments in support of beagle 2.simulations of the temperature and vacuum effects of martian atmospheric entry upon bacillus atrophaeus (formerly bacillus subtilis var niger; 8058; ncimb) endospores were carried out inside a purpose-built vacuum chamber. the work formed part of the study in support of planetary protection for the beagle 2 mars lander and investigated to what extent the outer surface of the lander's back heat shield would be sterilised during mars atmospheric entry. the spores were heated to peak temperatures u ...200616431086
analysis of broth-cultured bacillus atrophaeus and bacillus cereus compare physical properties of spores that were produced in broth sporulation media at greater than 10(8) spores ml(-1).200819146496
following the biochemical and morphological changes of bacillus atrophaeus cells during the sporulation process using bioaerosol mass spectrometry.bioaerosol mass spectrometry (bams), a real-time single cell analytical technique, was used to follow the biochemical and morphological changes within a group of bacillus atrophaeus cells by measuring individual cells during the process of sporulation. a mutant of b. atrophaeus that lacks the ability to produce dipicolinic acid (dpa) was also analyzed. single cell aerodynamic sizing was used to follow gross morphological changes, and chemical analysis of single cells by mass spectrometry was use ...200616616384
inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (ocl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. a neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of oxone (2k2hso5.khso4.k2so4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (hocl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. the so ...200616683620
lidar detection algorithm for time and range anomalies.a new detection algorithm for lidar applications has been developed. the detection is based on hyperspectral anomaly detection that is implemented for time anomaly where the question "is a target (aerosol cloud) present at range r within time t(1) to t(2)" is addressed, and for range anomaly where the question "is a target present at time t within ranges r(1) and r(2)" is addressed. a detection score significantly different in magnitude from the detection scores for background measurements sugge ...200717932542
sterilization efficiency of a cascaded dielectric barrier investigate the microbial inactivation efficiency of a newly developed cascaded dielectric barrier discharge (cdbd) set-up against various micro-organisms on polyethylene terephthalate (pet) foils.200717953564
impact of an oil-based lubricant on the effectiveness of the sterilization processes .surgical instruments, including hinged instruments, were inoculated with test microorganisms (ie, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, approximately 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units [cfu]; pseudomonas aeruginosa, approximately 3 x 10(6) cfu; escherichia coli, approximately 2 x 10(5) cfu; vancomycin-resistant enterococci, 1 x 10(5) cfu; geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, 2 x 10(5) cfu or more; or bacillus atrophaeus spores, 9 x 10(4) cfu or more), coated with an oil-based lubricant (hyd ...200818171191
sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study.plasma is an innovative sterilization method characterized by a low toxicity to operators and patients, and also by its operation at temperatures close to room temperatures. the use of different parameters for this method of sterilization and the corresponding results were analyzed in this study. a low-pressure inductive discharge was used to study the plasma sterilization processes. oxygen and a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were used as plasma source gases. the efficacy of the proces ...200818207677
waterborne pathogen detection using raman spectroscopy.raman spectroscopy is being evaluated as a candidate technology for waterborne pathogen detection. we have investigated the impact of key experimental and background interference parameters on the bacterial species level identification performance of raman detection. these parameters include laser-induced photodamage threshold, composition of water matrix, and organism aging in water. the laser-induced photodamage may be minimized by operating a 532 nm continuous wave laser excitation at laser p ...200818230198
bacillus spore classification via surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis.surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy (sers) can provide rapid fingerprinting of biomaterial in a nondestructive manner. the adsorption of colloidal silver to biological material suppresses native biofluorescence while providing electromagnetic surface enhancement of the normal raman signal. this work validates the applicability of qualitative ser spectroscopy for analysis of bacterial species by utilizing principal component analysis (pca) to show discrimination of biological threat simulants, ba ...200818339232
lethal activity of nonthermal plasma sterilization against determine the range and the mode of germicidal activity of sterilants generated by a nonthermal plasma sterilization system for microorganisms.200818419365
selection and optimization of bacillus atrophaeus inoculum medium and its effect on spore yield and thermal resistance.bacillus atrophaeus's spores are used as biological indicators to monitor sterilization processes and as a bacillus anthracis surrogate in the development and validation of biosafety methods. the regular use of biological indicators to evaluate the efficiency of sterilization processes is a legal requirement for health services. however, its high cost hinders its widespread use. aiming at developing a cost-effective inoculum medium, soybean molasses and nutrient-supplemented vinasse were evaluat ...200818427737
biosurfactant production by cultivation of bacillus atrophaeus atcc 9372 in semidefined glucose/casein-based media.biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. the aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by b. atrophaeus atcc 9372. batch cultivations were carried out in a ...200718478415
the development of point-of-use water filters as sampling devices in bioforensics: extent of microbial sorption and elution.the foundational idea for this project is that household faucet-mounted water filters may be used as bioforensic sampling devices to detect the extent of a potential bioagent release in domestic water supplies. an optimized eluent solution was determined experimentally by quantifying recoveries of microorganisms from point-of-use (pou) drinking water filters. the optimized extraction protocol was then used in mock bioagent release experiments to determine the feasibility of pou filters as biofor ...200818528538
evaluation of a wipe surface sample method for collection of bacillus spores from nonporous surfaces.polyester-rayon blend wipes were evaluated for efficiency of extraction and recovery of powdered bacillus atrophaeus spores from stainless steel and painted wallboard surfaces. method limits of detection were also estimated for both surfaces. the observed mean efficiency of polyester-rayon blend wipe recovery from stainless steel was 0.35 with a standard deviation of +/-0.12, and for painted wallboard it was 0.29 with a standard deviation of +/-0.15. evaluation of a sonication extraction method ...200717122390
[a double inductively coupled low-pressure plasma for sterilization of medical implant materials].the potential of plasma treatment in medicine is only slowly gaining acceptance. inactivation of germs through exposure to uv radiation produced by plasma discharges and sterilization of medical implant devices and instruments is one possible application of this technique. in addition, due to the manifold possibilities of coating through plasma processes, quick sterilization-coating combinations of medical implant devices are possible. to analyze the effectiveness of this sterilization process o ...200818643713
characterization and deposition of respirable large- and small-particle bioaerosols.the deposition patterns of large-particle microbiological aerosols within the respiratory tract are not well characterized. a novel system (the flow-focusing aerosol generator [ffag]) which enables the generation of large (>10-microm) aerosol particles containing microorganisms under laboratory conditions was characterized to permit determination of deposition profiles within the murine respiratory tract. unlike other systems for generating large aerosol particles, the ffag is compatible with mi ...200818723664
pulmonary deposition of aerosolized bacillus atrophaeus in a swine model due to exposure from a simulated anthrax letter incident.dry anthrax spore powder is readily disseminated as an aerosol and it is possible that passive dispersion when opening a letter containing anthrax spores may result in lethal doses to humans. the specific aim of this study was to quantify the respirable aerosol hazard associated with opening an envelope/letter contaminated with a dry spore powder of the biological pathogen anthrax in a typical office environment. an envelope containing a letter contaminated with 1.0 g of dry bacillus atrophaeus ...200918923948
low-pressure microwave plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles.a low-pressure microwave plasma reactor was developed for sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate (pet) bottles. in contrast to the established method using aseptic filling machines based on toxic sterilants, here a microwave plasma is ignited inside a bottle by using a gas mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. to that effect, a reactor setup was developed based on a plasmaline antenna allowing for plasma ignition inside three-dimensional packages. a treatment time below 5 s is provided ...200818939764
mapping of proteomic composition on the surfaces of bacillus spores by atomic force microscopy-based immunolabeling.atomic force microscopy (afm) provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g., viruses, bacteria, and bacterial spores) at near-molecular resolution in native conditions. further development of atomic force microscopy to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. we applied an afm-based immunolabeling technique for the ...200919063625
laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the classification of unknown powders.laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (libs) was used to discern between two biological agent surrogates (bacillus atrophaeus and ovalbumin) and potential interferent compounds (mold spores, humic acid, house dust, and arizona road dust). multiple linear regression and neural network analysis models were constructed by using b. atrophaeus and ovalbumin spectra, and limits of detection were calculated. classification of the agent surrogates' libs spectra was attempted by using a neural network mod ...200819122707
evaluation of the efficacy of electrochemically activated solutions against nosocomial pathogens and bacterial endospores.electrochemically activated solutions (ecas) are generated from halide salt solutions via specially designed electrolytic cells. the active solutions are known to possess high biocidal activity against a wide range of target microbial species, however, literature revealing the kill-kinetics of these solutions is limited. the aim of the study was to identify the kill-rate and extent of population kill for a range of target species (including endospores) using ecas generated at the anode (anolyte) ...201020070511
rapid, high-throughput, culture-based pcr methods to analyze samples for viable spores of bacillus anthracis and its rapidly remediate facilities after a biothreat agent release, improved turnaround times are needed for sample analysis. current methods to confirm the presence of a viable biothreat agent are limited by low sample throughput. we have developed a rapid-viability-polymerase chain reaction (rv-pcr) method to determine the presence of viable spores. the method combines high-throughput sample processing with 96-well pcr analysis, which measures a change in real-time, quantitative pcr response aris ...200919141303
comparative sterilization effectiveness of plasma in o2-h2o2 mixtures and ethylene oxide treatment.we investigated the influence of variable parameters of plasma sterilization and compared its effectiveness with that of ethylene oxide using a reactive ion etching plasma reactor at 13.56 mhz. gases tested were pure oxygen and oxygen-hydrogen peroxide mixtures in 190/10, 180/20, and 160/40 sccm ratios with constant gas flow at 200 sccm, pressure at 0.100 torr, radio-frequency power at 25 w, 50 w, 100 w, and 150 w, and temperature below 60 degrees c. ethylene oxide sterilization was performed us ...200717722487
inhibiting the transport of hazardous spores using polymer-based solutions.a series of polymer solutions were developed for the purpose of immobilizing aerosolized 1-10 mu m sized hazardous biological particles. the polymer solutions were designed as tools for emergency response and remediation personnel. the inhibition of secondary aerosolization and migration of biothreat particles has important implications for public health protection and contamination cleanup. limiting further dispersion of particles such as bacillus anthracis spores may reduce inhalation hazards ...200717763073
evaluation of rayon swab surface sample collection method for bacillus spores from nonporous evaluate us centers for disease control and prevention recommended swab surface sample collection method for recovery efficiency and limit of detection for powdered bacillus spores from nonporous surfaces.200717897212
the resistance of bacillus atrophaeus spores to the bactericidal activity of peracetic acid is influenced by both the nature of the solid substrates and the mode of evaluate the impact of the mode of contamination in relation with the nature of solid substrates on the resistance of spores of bacillus atrophaeus -selected as surrogates of bacillus anthracis- to a disinfectant, peracetic acid.201020618887
bacillus endospore resistance to gas dynamic develop a novel laboratory procedure for the study of shock wave-induced damage to bacillus endospores.201020618888
internal control for nucleic acid testing based on the use of purified bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores.commonly used internal controls (ics) to monitor the efficiency of nucleic acid testing (nat) assays do not allow verification of nucleic acid extraction efficiency. since microbial cells are often difficult to lyse, it is important to ensure that nucleic acids are efficiently extracted from any target organism. for this purpose, we developed a cellular ic based on the use of nonpathogenic bacillus spores. purified bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (referred to hereafter as simply b. atrophaeu ...200919144808
the inactivation and removal of airborne bacillus atrophaeus endospores from air circulation systems using uvc and hepa (i) evaluate the uv radiation in the 'c' band/high efficient particulate air (uvc/hepa) instrument's potential to inactivate spores of bacillus atrophaeus and selected bacillus species and (ii) test whether a titanium dioxide coating inside the cylindrical hepa filter improves the system's efficacy.200817927759
rapid concentration of bacillus and clostridium spores from large volumes of milk, using continuous flow centrifugation.deliberate or accidental contamination of foods such as milk, soft drinks, and drinking water with infectious agents or toxins is a major concern to health authorities. there is a critical need to develop technologies that can rapidly and efficiently separate and concentrate biothreat agents from food matrices. a key limitation of current centrifugation and filtration technologies is that they are batch processes with extensive hands-on involvement and processing times. the objective of our stud ...200919343961
simultaneous treatment of washing, disinfection and sterilization using ultrasonic levitation, silver electrolysis and ozone oxidation.a new type of ultrasonic washer-disinfector-sterilizer, able to clean, disinfect and sterilize most kinds of reusable medical devices, has been developed by using the ultrasonic levitation function with umbrella-shape oscillators and ozone bubbling together with sterilization carried out by silver electrolysis. we have examined the biomedical and physicochemical performance of this instrument. prokariotic and gram-negative escherichia coli and eukariotic saccharomyces cerevisiae were killed by s ...200919344093
increase in the ozone decay time in acidic ozone water and its effects on sterilization of biological warfare agents.the sterilization properties of ozone in acidic water are investigated in this study. acidification of water increases the ozone decay time by several times compared to the decay time in neutral water, thereby enhancing the sterilization strength of ozone in acidic water. a simple analytical model involving the viable microbial counts after contact with acidic ozone water was derived, and a sterilization experiment was conducted on bacterial cells using the acidic ozone water. the acidic ozone w ...200919361918
the dry aerosol deposition device (dadd): an instrument for depositing microbial aerosols onto surfaces.concerns surrounding the contamination of infrastructure and equipment with biowarfare agents have led to the development of antimicrobial surfaces/coatings that are designed to "self-sterilize." surfaces will likely be contaminated via an aerosol exposure and thus antimicrobial efficacy measurements should also be performed using biological aerosols. standard methods that use microbial agents suspended in aqueous buffers may provide misleading results that overestimate the performance of the su ...200919520123
sterilization of medical devices by ethylene oxide, determination of the dissipation of residues, and use of green fluorescent protein as an indicator of process control.ethylene oxide (eo) is used to sterilize oxygenator and tubing applied to heart surgery. residual levels of eo and its derivatives, ethylene chlorohydrin (ech) and ethylene glycol (eg), may be hazardous to the patients. therefore, it must be removed by the aeration process. this study aimed to estimate the minimum aeration time for these devices to attain safe limits for use (avoiding excessive aeration time) and to evaluate the green fluorescent protein (gfp) as a biosensor capable of best indi ...200919530160
detection of bacterial spores with lanthanide-macrocycle binary complexes.the detection of bacterial spores via dipicolinate-triggered lanthanide luminescence has been improved in terms of detection limit, stability, and susceptibility to interferents by use of lanthanide-macrocycle binary complexes. specifically, we compared the effectiveness of sm, eu, tb, and dy complexes with the macrocycle 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetate (do2a) to the corresponding lanthanide aquo ions. the ln(do2a)(+) binary complexes bind dipicolinic acid (dpa), a major constituent ...200919537757
inactivation of bacterial spores and viruses in biological material using supercritical carbon dioxide with sterilant.the purpose of this study was to validate supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-co(2)) as a terminal sterilization method for biological materials, specifically acellular dermal matrix. in this study, bacterial spores, bacillus atrophaeus, were inoculated onto porcine acellular dermal matrix to serve as a "worst case" challenge device. the inactivation of the spores by sc-co(2) with peracetic acid (paa) sterilant was analyzed as a function of exposure times ranging from 1 to 30 min. a linear inactiva ...200919582844
reprocessing and sterilization of single-use electrophysiological catheters: removal of organic carbon and protein surface residues.although evidence to date indicates that reprocessing electrophysiological (ep) catheters results in clean, sterile devices, some concerns persist with regard to the risk of residual contamination. we examined the ability of a defined reprocessing procedure coupled with a validated sterilization protocol to remove organic carbon and protein residues from worst-case soiled ep catheters resulting in clean, sterile devices. total organic carbon (toc) determinations indicated that detergent residues ...200919714986
antimicrobial efficiency of titanium dioxide-coated surfaces.development and evaluation of an antimicrobially active titanium dioxide coating.201019886892
inactivation of bacillus atrophaeus spores with surface-active peracids and characterization of formed free radicals using electron spin resonance spectroscopy.this study investigated microbial inactivation via surface-active peracids and used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to characterize the active components and free radical formation. bacillus atrophaeus spores were injected directly into 3 different concentrations of the peracid disinfectant (1.1%, 1.3%, or 1.5%) for various times (5, 10, 15, or 20 s) at 3 different temperatures (50, 60, or 70 degrees c) to evaluate the sporicidal activity of the disinfectant mixture. spectroscopy revealed t ...200919895489
anthrax letters: personal exposure, building contamination, and effectiveness of immediate mitigation measures.this report is the first detailed and quantitative study of potential mitigation procedures intended to deal with anthrax letters using a simulated anthrax letter release within an actual office building. spore aerosols were created by opening letters containing 0.1 g of dry powdered bacillus atrophaeus spores. culturable aerosol samples were collected using slit-to-agar and filter-based samplers. five test scenarios were designed to determine whether simple mitigation procedures or activities c ...201019916102
synthesis and antibacterial activity of aminosugar-functionalized intercalating agents.a series of previously reported amino sugar-functionalized intercalating agents, 3-14, were evaluated in two antibacterial assays (paper disk diffusion and 96-well microdilution) against bacillus atrophaeus, atcc 9372 and escherichia coli, atcc 47076. although none of the compounds were active against this e. coli strain, several showed activity against b. atrophaeus. in anticipation of the need for larger amounts of these compounds for future structure-activity relationship studies, improved ro ...201019926076
bacillus methylotrophicus sp. nov., a methanol-utilizing, plant-growth-promoting bacterium isolated from rice rhizosphere soil.a gram-positive bacterium, designated strain cbmb205(t), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of traditionally cultivated, field-grown rice. cells were strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped and formed endospores. the best growth was achieved at 30°c and ph 7.0 in ammonium mineral salts (ams) medium containing 600 mm methanol. a comparative 16s rrna gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed strain cbmb205(t) in a clade with the species bacillus amyloliquefaciens, bacillus vallismortis, ba ...201019966000
dry thermal resistance of bacillus anthracis (sterne) spores and spores of other bacillus species: implications for biological agent destruction via waste obtain needed data on the dry thermal resistance of bacillus anthracis spores and other bacillus species for waste incinerator applications.201020015207
use of a foam spatula for sampling surfaces after bioaerosol deposition.the present study had three goals: (i) to evaluate the relative quantities of aerosolized bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on the vertical, horizontal top, and horizontal bottom surfaces in a chamber; (ii) to assess the relative recoveries of the aerosolized spores from glass and stainless steel surfaces with a polyester swab and a macrofoam sponge wipe; and (iii) to estimate the relative recovery efficiencies of aerosolized b. atrophaeus spores and pantoea agglomerans using a foam spatula a ...201020023101
evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. this study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. polyvinyl chloride (pvc), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupo ...201020082033
systematic evaluation of the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in decontamination of building interior surfaces contaminated with anthrax spores.efficacy of chlorine dioxide (cd) gas generated by two distinct generation systems, sabre (wet system with gas generated in water) and clordisys (dry system with gas generated in air), was evaluated for inactivation of bacillus anthracis spores on six building interior surfaces. the six building materials included carpet, acoustic ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted i-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. there was no statistically significant difference in the data du ...201020305025
validation of a nylon-flocked-swab protocol for efficient recovery of bacterial spores from smooth and rough order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. however, the national aeronautics and space administration's (nasa's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. to determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and ...201020543054
microwave inactivation of bacillus atrophaeus spores in healthcare waste.public healthcare wastes from the region of ribeirão preto, brazil, pre-sterilized in an autoclave, were inoculated with spores of bacillus atrophaeus for microwave processing on a laboratory scale. the influence of waste moisture (40%, 50% and 60% wet basis), presence of surfactant, power per unit mass of waste (100, 150 and 200 w/kg) and radiation exposure time (from 5 to 40 min) on the heating curves was investigated. the most favorable conditions for waste heating with respect to moisture an ...201020570126
isolation, purification and characterization of a surfactants-, laundry detergents- and organic solvents-resistant alkaline protease from bacillus sp. hr-08.bacillus sp. hr-08 screened from soil samples of iran, is capable of producing proteolytic enzymes. 16s rdna analysis showed that this strain is closely related to bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, bacillus pumilus, bacillus mojavensis, and bacillus atrophaeus. the zymogram analysis of the crude extract revealed the presence of five extracellular proteases. one of the proteases was purified in three steps procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, deae-sepharose ionic exchange ...200919148779
determination of lethality rate constants and d-values for bacillus atrophaeus (atcc 9372) spores exposed to dry heat from 115 degrees c to 170 degrees c.dry heat microbial reduction is the nasa-approved sterilization method to reduce the microbial bioburden on spaceflight hardware for missions with planetary protection requirements. the method involves heating the spaceflight hardware to temperatures between 104 degrees c and 125 degrees c for up to 50 hours, while controlling the humidity to very low values. collection of lethality data at temperatures above 125 degrees c and with ambient (uncontrolled) humidity conditions would establish wheth ...200819191542
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