phospholipase d activity of gram-negative bacteria.a phospholipase hydrolyzing cardiolipin to phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerol was characterized in gram-negative bacteria but was absent in preparations of gram-positive bacteria, saccharomyces cerevisiae, and rat liver mitochondria. in cell-free extracts of escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, proteus vulgaris, and pseudomonase aeruginosa, this cardiolipin-hydrolyzing enzyme had similar ph and mg2+ requirements and displayed a specificity which excluded phosphatidyl glycerol and p ...1975360
regulation of dihydrodipicolinate synthase during growth and sporulation of bacillus cereus.a four- to sixfold increase in specific activity of dihydrodipicolinic acid synthase was observed during sporulation of bacillus cereus. the enzyme from cells harvested before and after the increase in specific activity appeared to be very similar as judged by ph optima, heat denaturation kinetics, apparent michaelis constants, chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and sephadex g-200, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. studies with various combinations of amino acids and one of the ...1975367
microbiological study of gentamiycin.gentamycin prepared at the all-union research institute of antibiotics did not differ by its antibacterial spectrum and the activity level from gentamycin samples from other countries. by its activity against clinical strains of ps. aeruginosa gentamycin was somewhat inferior than polymyxin but much more superior than carbenicillin. an agar-diffusion method using bac. pumilus ntcc 8241 as the test microbe was developed for determination of gentamycin activity. the gentamycin sulfate complex and ...19752095
surface balance study of the interaction between microorganisms and lipid monolayer at the air/water interface.using the surface balance technique, we have compared the interaction between acholeplasma laidlawii and some marine bacteria towards different types of monolayered lipid films. cells from a. laidlawii and serratia marinorubra penetrate the film, whereas cells from psuedomonas fluorescens form a layer underneath the film. the forces that bind microorganisms to the air/water interface are not strong enough to scatter a condensed monolayer but increase the strength of loosely packed monolayers.19765058
characterization of an alkaline subtilopeptidase type pfizer.the physiochemical properties, amino acid composition and profile of the the tryptic peptides for an alkaline subtilopeptidase type pfizer have been determined. the enzyme is stable in the ph range from 5 to 10, has a ph optimum of 9.5 to 10, and is relatively stable for a period of 2 h up to a temperature of 50c. homogeneity was demonstrated by electrophoretic techniques and the mobilities indicated on isoelectric point of 8.7. the molecular weight was found to be 25,000 by gel filtration. the ...19765381
biochemistry and physiology of bacterial ribonucleases. 19766997
studies on selenium-related compounds. v. cytogenetic effect and reactivity with dna.five selenium compounds, na2se04, h2se04, na2se03, h2se03 and se02, were tested for their capacity to induce chromosome aberrations in cultured human leukocytes and for their reactivity with dna by a rec-assay system and inactivation of transforming activity in bacillus subtilis. chromosome-breaking activity was significantly higher for the compounds with four-valent than with six-valent selenium, the efficiency being in the decreasing order h2s03 greater than na2se03 greater than se02 greater t ...19768704
suppression of the lytic and bactericidal effects of cell wallinhibitory antibiotics.the bacteriolytic effect of beta-lactam antibiotics on bacillus subtilis and on streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be a function of the ph; lysis was suppressed if the ph of the pneumococcal culture was below 6.0 during penicillin treatment. in the case of b. subtilis, growth at ph 6.6 prevented penicillin-induced lysis. in pneumococci, the addition of trypsin to the growth medium also protected against lysis. the ph-dependent protection phenomenon resembled in several respects the antibiotic ...197610831
purification and properties of two aromatic aminotransferases in bacillus subtilis.two enzymes which transaminate tyrosine and phenylalanine in bacillus subtilis were each purified over 200-fold and partially characterized. one of the enzymes, termed histidinol phosphate aminotransferase, is also active with imidazole acetyl phosphate as the amino group recipient. previous studies have shown that mutants lacking this enzyme require histidine for growth. mutants in the other enzyme termed aromatic aminotransferase are prototrophs. neither enzyme is active on any other substrate ...197611213
effect of nisin on reducing the thermal process in commercially sterilized milk. 197610699
purification and properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from bacillus subtilis spores.glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase d-glucose-6-phosphate: nadp oxidoreductase, ec. 1. 1. 1. 49 obtained from spores of bacillus subtilis pci 219 strain was partially purified by filtration on sephadex g-200, ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on deae-sephadex a-25 (about 54-fold). the optimum ph for stability of this enzyme was about 6.3 and the optimum ph for the reaction about 8.3. the apparent km values of the enzyme were 5.7 x 10(-4) m for glucose-6-phosphate and 2.4 x 10(-4) m ...197610455
suppression of lytic effect of beta lactams on escherichia coli and other bacteria.growth of e. coli at ph 5 protected the bacteria against the lytic effect of beta lactam antibiotics typically observed when the cells are grown at ph 7 or 7.5, i.e., the ph values routinely used in laboratory experiments. in contrast, the typical effects of beta lactam antibiotics on cellular shape and elongation and cell division appeared to be similar in cultures grown under neutral and acid ph conditions. the ph-dependent antibiotic tolerance can also be demonstrated with pneumococci, staphy ...19769642
synthesis of omega-alicyclic fatty acids from cyclic precursors in bacillus subtilis.a mutant of bacillus subtilis synthesizes a variety of omega-alicyclic fatty acids when fed with the respective alicyclic carboxylic acids. these fatty acids are: omega-cyclopropane, omega-cyclobutane, omega-cyclopentane, omega-cyclohexane, and omega-cyclohexene fatty acids. these unusual fatty acids did not lead to an inhibition of growth at 37 degrees c and ph 7. the selective advantage of these fatty acids under extrene conditions was studied in comparison with the acidophilic, thermophilic b ...19768428
purification and some properties of an extracellular maltase from bacillus subtilis.bacillus subtilis p-11, capable of producing extracellular maltase, was isolated from soil. maximum enzyme production was obtained on a medium containing 2.0% methyl-alpha-d-glucose, 0.5% phytone, and 0.2% yeast extract. after the removal of cells, extracellular maltase was precipitated by ammonium sulfate (85% saturation). the enzyme was purified by using the following procedures: sephadex g-200 column chromatography, diethylaminoethyl-sephadex a-50 ion-exchange column chromatography, and a sec ...19768002
maintainance of specificity, information, and thermostability in thermophilic bacillus sp. glutamine synthetase.glutamine synthetase has been purified to homogeneity from b. subtilis (37 degrees) b. stearothermophilus (55 degrees), and b. caldolyticus (75 degrees). those characteristics compared include size (6.0 +/- 0.3 x 10(5) daltons), quaternary structure (12 su) amino acid content, substrate km's and specificity for structural analogs, metal ion activation, number and kind of separate feedback modifier sites, and the complexity of modifier-substrate and modifier-modifier site interactions. although t ...19767467
antimicrobial activity of tibezonium (tbz).the activity in vitro of tibezonium (rec 15-0691), a new 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative, has been investigated. the drug was found active especially against streptococcus, diplococcus and corynebacterium strains which are agents of oropharyngeal diseases. the activity of tibezonium was ph dependent against staphylococcus aureus sg 511 and streptococcus pyogenes 821 (at ph 8.0-8.5 it was more active) and the presence of horse serum provoked a small decrease of the antimicrobial properties. no inte ...197712928
proceedings: the effect of buffer diffusion on the activity of an immobilized esterase. 19756931
pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid) formation in bacillus subtilis. ii non-enzymatic and enzymatic formations of dipicolinic acid from alpha, epsilon-diketopimelic acid and ammonia.non-enzymatic formation of dipicolinic acid (dpa) from diketopimelic acid and ammonia was clearly demonstrated using a new method for dpa analysis. the reaction rates of dpa formation were almost the same under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. nearly equimolecular quantities of dpa and tetrahydrodipicolinic acid were detected in spontaneous reaction mixture. the spontaneous reaction seemed to be due to dismutation of dihydrodipicolinic acid, resulting in dpa and tetrahydrodipicolinic acid. the ...19756441
exo-beta-n-acetylmuramidase--a novel hexosaminidase. production by bacillus subtilis b, purification and characterization.exo-beta-n-acetylmuramidase, or beta-2-acetamido-3-o-(d-1-carboxyethyl)-2-deoxy-d-glucoside acetamidodeoxyglucohydrolase, is produced by bacillus subtilis b, growing in a succinate/peptone/salts medium, at the end of exponential growth and occurs partly in the medium and partly bound to the cells. a lysozyme digest of micrococcus lysodeikticus cell walls, o-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 4)-2-acetamido-3-o-(d-1-carboxyethyl)-2-deoxy-d-glucose and o-2-acetamide-3-o-(d-1-car ...19766281
structural studies of bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase. further purification, sulfhydryl groups, and the nh2-terminal amino acid sequence. 197713737
proton-motive force and the motile behavior of bacillus subtilis.changes in the proton-motive force cause a transient change in the motile behavior of bacillus subtilis cells. both an increase and a decrease in the proton-motive force caused transient tumbling. simultaneous decrease of proton-motive force and increase of attractant concentration lessens the response toward the attractant. a simultaneous increase of proton-motive force and increase of attractant concentration prolonges the response toward attractant. a hypothesis explaining the various effects ...197613758
antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetics of bacampicillin and ampicillin.single equimolar oral doses of bacampicillin and ampicillin were given to 9 healthy subjects on a crossover randomized basis. data were interpreted in terms of a 3-compartment pharmacokinetic open model. intestinal absorption of bacampicillin was found to be faster and more complete than that of ampicillin, yielding an increase in bioavailability of 30% to 40% as measured by the area under serum levels curve, the urinary excretion and absorption rate constants. after the administration of bacamp ...19766181
levels of oxidized and reduced pyridine nucleotides in dormant spores and during growth, sporulation, and spore germination of bacillus megaterium.dormant spores of bacillus megaterium contained no detectable reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nadh) or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) despite significant levels of the oxidized forms of these nucleotides (nad and nadp). during the first minutes of spore germination there was rapid accumulation of nadh and nadph. however, this accumulation followed the fall in optical density that is characteristic of the initiation of spore germination. accumulation of nad ...197714113
quantitative determination of anomeric forms of sugar produced by amylases. v. anomeric forms of maltose produced in the hydrolytic reaction of substituted phenyl alpha-maltosides catalyzed by saccharifying alpha-amylase from b. subtilis.1. hydrolyses of phenyl alpha-maltoside and its derivatives with various substituents (p-no2, p-c1, p-ch3, p-c2h5, and p-c(ch3)3) catalyzed by saccharifying alpha-amylase from b. subtilis3 ec were studied under conditions such that the products were only maltose and the corresponding phenols (1), in order to determine quantitatively the anomeric form of the sugar produced from each substrate. 2. at the optimum ph of this enzyme (ph-5.4), maltose released from all the substituted substrat ...19755401
aflatoxin b1 metabolism to aflatoxicol and derivatives lethal to bacillus subtilis gsy 1057 by rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) liver.aflatoxicol, r0, was isolated from mt. shasta strain rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), and liver homogenates were incubated with aflatoxin b1. its identity was confirmed by mass, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrometry. the structure was identical to one of the diastereomers prepared by chemical reduction of aflatoxin b1. aflatoxicol was apparently formed by a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent soluble enzyme of the 105,000 x g supernatant from rainbow trout. aflatoxicol ...19765190
which gentamicin assay method is the most practicable? 197714915
determination of the biological activity of heliomycin by a method of diffusion in agar.a biological method for determination of geliomycin activity using agar diffusion is described. a nutrient medium containing hottinger broth up to 35 mg per cent of amine nitrogen, 1.5 percent of agar-agar, tap water, ph 7.8 to 8.0 was used. bacillus subtilis atcc 6633 served as the test-culture. geliomycin was dissolved in 0.1 n sodium hydroxide solution.19755048
an enzyme common to histidine and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in bacillus subtilis.two transaminases exist for tyrosine and phenylalanine synthesis in bacillus subtilis. one enzyme is also responsible for the transamination of imidazole acetol phosphate to histidinol phosphate, an obligatory reaction in the synthesis of histidine. the gene involved in the synthesis of this enzyme lies in the middle of a cluster of genes, all of which are concerned with the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids. the other gene has not yet been mapped. mutants have been isolated that lack one or ...19764431
temperature-ph effect upon germination of bacterial spores.using several kinds of criteria for the germination of bacterial spores, germination-ph curves were drawn for bacillus subtilis spores observed at different temperatures. the experiments revealed that optimum ph for spore germination was markedly changed by changing the incubation temperature; the optimum ph for germination was 7.4 at 37 degrees c and 5.4 at 10 degrees c. a possible mechanism involved in this phenomenon is discussed.19764214
characterization of intracellular esterase a from bacillus subtilis.esterase a (ec obtained by sonic disruption of bacillus subtilis sr22 (spoa12, trpc2) was purified approximately 400-fold by differential chemical and heating precipitation, deae-cellulose chromatography, and bio-rad p-150 gel filtration chromatography, with an overall yield of 59%. the purified enzyme hydrolyzed both aliphatic and aromatic acetate esters at substrate concentrations of 0.25 m but did not hydrolyze amino acid esters. aliphatic alcohols did not inhibit the hydrolysis of p ...19764118
induction of prophage spo2 in bacillus subtilis: isolation of excised prophage dna as a covently closed circle.bacillus subtilis tryc2, thya, thyb, lysogenic for the phage dna polymerase negative mutant spo2 susl244, was induced under conditions preventing phage and bacterial dna synthesis. the biological activity of dna from induced cells and from uninduced controls was assayed by transformation and transfection, respectively. about 50% of the phage dna biological activity in dna extracted from induced cells was resistant to exposure to ph 11.8 to 11.9. this dna was operationally defined as alkali-resis ...19763667
restriction and modification in b. subtilis. purification and general properties of a restriction endonuclease from strain r.all bacillus subtilis r-type strains showing the phenomena of restriction and modification contain an endonuclease that inactivates in vitro the biological activity of a variety of dnas lacking r-specific modification, such as transfecting sppi, spo2 and phi105 dna, and transforming b. subtilis 168-type dna. the corresponding dnas carrying r-specific modification are resistant to the enzyme. the enzyme has been purified approximately 400-fold and is essentially free from contaminating double str ...19752856
an intracellular endonuclease of bacillus subtilis specific for single-stranded dna.we have fractionated from extracts of bacillus subtilis the dnase activity specific for single-stranded dna; the activity separates in two main fractions on sephadex g-200, a larger one (mr greater than 400 000) and a smaller one (mr approximately 30 000). we have purified the smaller, more abundant fraction nearly 3000-fold. the purified enzyme has a ph optimum close to 8, is activated by ca2+, and is inhibited by edta; the enzyme hydrolyses single-stranded dna at a rate approximately 40 times ...19762468
esterase activity of zinc neutral proteases.the hydrolysis of a series of depsipeptides demonstrates that the zinc neutral endopeptidases of bacteria are active esterases. esters such as bzgly-ophe-ala, bzgly-oleu-ala, and fa-gly-oleu-nh2 are hydrolyzed at rates three- to eightfold slower than are their exact peptide analogues, when hydrolyzed by thermolysin, bacillus subtilis neutral protease and the neutral protease from aeromonas proteolytica. ester hydrolysis by zinc neutral proteases follows the characteristic preference for hydropho ...19762276
properties of a preparation of lytic enzymes from a culture of bacillus subtilis.the effect of ph, temperature, various salts and other compounds on the activity of the preparation of lytic enzymes from the culture of bacillus subtilis (lyzosubtilin) was investigated. the preparation was shown to be active in neutral solutions of low ionic strength at 30-50 degrees c. the salts of magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, mercury, aluminium and iron as well as tris-buffer and triton x-100 inhibited lyzosubtilin whereas lactic acid activated it. at 30 degrees c the preparatio ...197717114
further studies of detergent-induced conformational transitions in proteins. circular dichroism of ovalbumin, bacterial alpha-amylase, papain, and beta-lactoglobulin at various ph values. 197718101
in vitro release of thymine from dna by neocarzinostatin. 19762169
spontaneous transformation in microorganisms. 197718851
thermo- and ph-stability of soluble and silichrome-80 immobilized proteinase from bacillus subtilis.the stability to heating and ph changing of two proteinases of bacillus subtilis was studied. the preparations were: protosubtilin g10x with an activity of 21500 units/g and proteinase immobilized on silochrome c-80 with an activity of 3880 units/g. for protosubtilin g10x the ph optimum was 7.0-7.2. for the immobilized preparation 96-100% activity was found at ph 5.5-10.0. the difference between the two proteinase preparations was more distinct with respect to the temperature minimum. the initia ...19751741
high ph ammonia toxicity, and the search for life on the jovian planets.jovian plants have enviroments apparently suitable for the evolution of life, but nevertheless, present severe challenges to organisms. one such challenge arises from the presence of ammonia. ammonia is an efficient biocide, its effect being dependent on ph as well as on concentration. the effects of ph and ammonia concentration were studied separately, where possible, on a variety of organisms, including some isolated from natural enviornments of high ph and/or ammonia concentration. escherichi ...19751698
endo-arabinanase from bacillus subtilis arabinanase was purified from the culture fluid of bacillus subtilis f-11. the process was as follows: salting out by (nh4)2so4, repeated chromatography on hydroxy apatite and gel filtration on sepharose-6b. the purified enzyme was demonstrated to be homogeneous by disc electrophoresis. the enzyme was found to be active on arabinan and 1,5-arabinan, but inactive on phenyl alpha-l-arabinofuranoside, p-nitrophenyl beta-d-galactopyranoside, arabinoxylan, gum arabic. the enzyme released arabinose ...19751096
stability of bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase reversibly immobilized by ionite kmt gel. 197611461
the stability of ten antibiotics in artificial tear solutions.we determined the relative potencies of penicillin g, carbenicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, cephaloridine, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, vancomycin, and bacitracin after their addition to three commercially available 0.5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose artificial tear solutions in plastic squeeze bottles. we found no significant loss of antibiotic activity at room temperature over a period of seven days for all antibiotics except penicillin g, cephalothin, and cephaloridine. three of the anti ...197611693
the effect of protein-functional-group reagents on d-gluconate transport in bacillus subtilis. 197612060
chemotaxis toward amino acids by bacillus subtilis.conditions for assaying chemotaxis in bacillus subtilis are described. the chemotaxis medium we used afforded excellent motility for hours. in it, chemotaxis measured by capillary assays was insensitive to ph between 5.5 and 9, and to temperature between 28 degrees c and 42 degrees c. chemotaxis was observed toward all 20 common amino acids, with thresholds varying from 3nm for alanine to 0.1 mm for glutamate, in the capillary assay, and from 0.1 mum for alanine to 0.32 mm for glutamate in the m ...197712134
inactivation of bacillus subtilis spores by heating at 100 degrees with phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate. 197612280
genetic aspects of bacterial endospore formation. 197612736
early interactions of competent bacteria with nucleic acids (author's transl). 197721387
alpha-amylase sorption by a carboxyl cationite of the kmt type. 197721391
isolation, subunit structure and properties of the atp-dependent deoxyribonuclease of bacillus subtilis. state of the protein in a mutant devoid of activity.a prodcedure was developed for the purification of the atp-dependent deoxyribonuclease of bacillus subtilis 168. it comprises ammonium sulphate fractionation, sephadex gel filtration, deae-cellulose chromatography and gel electrophoresis on a discontinuous polyacrylamide gradient. the enzyme has been obtained in a homogeneous state. its molecular weight was estimated to be 270000 by disc electrophoresis. dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the presence of five nonidentical s ...197612960
levansucrase of bacillus subtilis. characterization of a stabilized fructosyl-enzyme complex and identification of an aspartly residue as the binding site of the fructosyl group.a covalently linked fructosyl-enzyme complex was isolated from a reaction mixture of enzyme and sucrose submitted to the quenching effect of a large decrease of the ph. the fructosyl-enzyme bond was shown to be stable under acidic and neutral conditions in the presence of high concentration of urea and of sodium dodecyl sulfate. this intermediate did not transfer at a measurable rate its fructosyl group to the usual fructosyl acceptors of the enzyme reaction under the usual conditions of enzyme ...197612968
glutamine-requiring mutants of bacillus subtilis. 197723122
characterization of glutamine requiring mutants of bacillus subtilis. 197723123
structure and assembly of phage phi29.bacteriophage phi29 is a small, morphologically complex, virus with a dna of molecular mass 12 x 10(6). the most likely structure of the head of phi29 consists of two fivefold symmetric end-caps based on t = 1 icosahedral symmetry, separated by an equatorial row of 5 hexamers. the eighteen genes identified in phi29 genome have been mapped and, in some cases, the gene products have been identified. five linked genes, four coding for structural proteins (g, a, e, h) and one coding for a non-struct ...197613432
isolation, characterization, and activation of the magnesium dependent endodeoxyribonuclease from bacillus subtilis.a major endodeoxyribonulcease was isolated from a mutant of the transformable bacillus subtilis 168. the magnesium-dependent endonuclease was purified approximately 750-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. the enzyme had a molecular weight of about 31 000, as determined by gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the protein appears to be composed of two subunits. the nuclease was dependent on magnesium or maganese ions for hydrolytic activity. the purified nuclease degraded dna fr ...197713815
endonuclease v of escherichia coli.a small endodeoxyribonuclease )2.3 s) that is active on single-stranded dna has been extensively purified from escherichia coli so as to be free of other known dnases. it has an alkaline ph optimum (9.5), requires mg2+, and makes 3'-hydroxy and 5'-phosphate termini. the nuclease nicks duplex dna, particularly if treated with oso4, irradiated with ultraviolet light, or exposed to ph 5. the uracil-containing duplex dna from the bacillus subtilis phage pbs-2 is an especially good substrate; it is m ...197714159
cellular distribution and some properties of 5'-nucleotidases in bacillus subtilis k. 197824621
serine proteases from bac. subtilis.using biospecific adsorbent and subsequent gel-filtration of sephadex g-75 three fractions of serine proteases (i--iii) having different physicochemical properties were isolated from bac. subtilis. the first protease had molecular weight of 23000--24000 (ph optimum 6,5, activation energy 16,6 ccal/mol. the second one had molecular weight of 29000, ph optimum 11,0, activation energy 14,4 ccal/mol. the third protease was a mixture of proteases with average molecular weights 26000 and ph optima at ...197614727
ornithine transcarbamylase from salmonella typhimurium: purification, subunit composition, kinetic analysis, and immunological cross-reactivity.ornithine transcarbamylase (otcase) was purified to hemogeneity from a derepressed strain of salmonella typhimurium. the optimal ph for enzyme activity is 8.0. the molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated to be 116,000, based on measurements of the sedimentation coefficient by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and the stokes radius by gel filtration. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cross-linked otcase in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate showed that the enzyme is composed of t ...197714923
glutamate dehydrogenase from bacillus subtilis pci 219. i. purification and properties.bacillus subtilis pci 219 has a single glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) ec with dual coenzyme specificity for nad(h) and nadp(h). the enzyme was purified 800-fold from crude extracts of b. subtilis from the post-exponential phase of growth and showed one significant protein band on gel electrophoresis. this band was determined, by activity staining, to have all the gdh nucleotide specificities. its molecular weight was estimated to be 250,000+/-20,000 by gel filtration, and 270,000+/-30,000 ...197714949
chromosome--membrane association in bacillus subtilis. iii. isolation and characterization of a dna-protein complex carrying replication origin markers. 197715128
binding of magnesium ions to cell walls of bacillus subtilis w23 containing teichoic acid or teichuronic acid.when grown in a chemostat under various nutritional conditions, cells of bacillus subtilis w23 produce walls containing teichoic acid or teichuronic acid. the binding of mg2+ to these walls and to the isolated anionic polymers in solution was measured by equilibrium dialysis. in solution the ribitol teichoic acid bound mg2+ in the molar ratio mg2+/p=1:1 with an apparent association constant (kassoc.) of 0.61 x 10(3)m-1, and the teichuronic acid bound mg2+ in the ratio mg2+/co2-=1.1, kassoc.=0.3 ...197715560
an improved ph-stat method for determining michaelis-menten constants. 197715620
induction of autolysis in bacillus subtilis by ochratoxin a.ochratoxin a (ota) added during the exponential growth phase at a concentration higher than 12 microgram/ml caused autolysis of bacillus subtilis. optical density of cultures decreased, and at higher concentrations the cultures became sterile. optimum ota-induced lysis was about ph 5. at concentrations below 10 microgram/ml, protein synthesis was inhibited more strongly than rna synthesis. cell wall synthesis was also strongly inhibited. a fraction extracted from the lysates had the property of ...197826457
characterization and separation of exocellular gamma-d-glutamyl-(l)meso-diaminopimelate endopeptidase and ld-carboxypeptidase from bacillus sphaericus 9602.two exocellular enzymes have been characterized in the culture media of sporulating bacillus sphaericus 9602 : a gamma-d-glutamyl-(l) meso-diaminopimelate endopeptidase and a l-lysyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase. these two enzymes and the corresponding membrane-bound peptidases found in bacillus sphaericus and bacillus subtilis strains have similar activities. their separation is described. both enzymes were precipitated between 25 and 65 per cent (nh4)2so4 saturation and a first chromatography wa ...197715631
riboflavin biosynthesis operon of bacillus subtilis. xiii. genetic and biochemical study of mutants with regard to intermediate stages of riboflavin dependent mutants of bacillus subtilis accumulating different pteridines were studied. the data obtained show that the formation of ribityl side chain proceeds in a few steps at least on a part of riboflavin precursors. the oxidation of connected ribosyl into ribulose with subsequent restoration of it into ribityl proceeds at first. the corresponding genes are located on terminal part of riboflavin operon, as show the results of two-factor transformational crosses with different d ...197727418
antimicrobial agents as preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. antimicrobial agents in single- and multi-dose injections. 197827496
metal proteases from bac. subtilis.metal and serine proteases were separated on the biospecific sorbent. two different, homogeneous metal proteases were obtained by rechromatography of the metal protease. activation energies, heat stability, molecular weights, influence of inhibitors, the dependence of activity on ph and temperature were determined. properties of two metal proteases were compared with those of literary analogs.197615638
physiology of competence in bacteria. 197716417
autolysins and shape change in roda mutants of bacillus subtilis.the biochemical phenotype of roda mutants was not affected by the simultaneous presence in double mutants of the lyt gene which makes them 90 to 95% deficient in autolysin action. the only morphological effect of this deficiency on the expression of the rod gene was that both the rod and the coccal forms of the mutant failed to separate and grew as long chains of cells. inhibition of protein synthesis stopped the increase in peptidoglycan that occurred when the growth temperature for the mutants ...197829031
electron microscope visualization of the products of bacillus subtilis transformation. 197718612
nuclease detection in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 197718945
[exoprotease properties of bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens capable of coagulating blood plasma].the properties of the homogeneous exoprotease preparation from bacillus subtilis varamyloliquefaciens 759 possessing the coagulase activity were studied. the enzyme is an alkaline protease, has the isopoint at ph 7.8, and not only clots blood plasmo but also hydrolyses such protein substrates as casein, hemoglobin, fibrinogen and fibrin. the enzyme is relatively stable at ph 6.0--9.0. bivalent metal ions have virtually no effect on the enzyme activity though some of them stabilize it. the inhibi ...197830884
alteration of the bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase results in overproduction of the enzyme.a mutational leading to glutamine auxotrophy was located near a 5-fluorouracil resistance marker in the citb-thya region of the bacillus subtilis chromosome. this mutation resulted in a glutamine synthetase with altered kinetic and feedback properties. the specific activity of manganese-stimulated glutamine synthetase activity in crude extracts was 18-fold higher, and the magnesium-stimulated activity was about 30% that of the wild type. quantitation of the enzyme by precipitation with antibody ...197719424
properties of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from glucose- and lactate-grown cells of bacillus subtilis sb 15. 197719481
denaturation of the alpha-amylase of bacillus subtilis in an acid fractionation of purine compounds (sorbtion on the cation exchange resin ku-2 (h+), extraction, precipitation of purine compounds as ag-complexes) a "purine fraction" of the culture liquid epiphytic bacteria no. 703 isolated from barley overground organs was obtained. the presence of isopentenyl cytokinins was demonstrated by quality reactions of the purine fraction with aromatic amines and phenols as well as by the values of rf and uv spectrum of individual compounds examined by paper chroma ...197720618
location and properties of glucose dehydrogenase in sporulating cells and spores of bacillus subtilis.late during sporulation, bacillus subtilis produces glucose dehydrogenase (glcdh; ec, which can react with d-glucose or 2-deoxy-d-glucose and can use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadp) as a cofactor. this enzyme is found mainly in the forespore compartment and is present in spores; it is probably made exclusively in the forespore. the properties of glcdh were determined both in crude cell extracts and after purification. the en ...197721162
secretion of lipids induced by inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis in streptococci.inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis causes an immediate and massive secretion of both newly synthesized and "old" lipids from several species of bacteria, including streptococci, staphylococcus epidermidis, and bacillus subtilis. lipid secretion occurs in the absence of detectable bacterial lysis. this novel phenomenon was examined in more detail in three strains of streptococci: s. sanguis (group h), s. pyogenes (group a), and s. pneumoniae. the secretion of lipids is specifically induced by ...197721168
mutation of an inosine-producing strain of bacillus subtilis to dl-methionine sulfoxide resistance for guanosine inosine-producing strain of bacillus subtilis was mutated to resistance against the antagonist of glutamine, dl-methionine sulfoxide. among the mutants derived, guanosine producers were observed frequently. the best strain, 14119, produced 9.6 g of guanosine per liter at a weight yield of 12% from consumed sugar. inosine production decreased concomitantly. when resistance was increased further by exposure to higher doses of dl-methionine sulfoxide, another strain, ag169, was obtained that did ...197721611
specificity of cleavage by restriction nuclease from bacillus subtilis.the restriction nuclease from b. subtilis (bsu) which cleaves in the middle of the tetra-nucleotide sequence 5'-ggcc-3' 3'-ccgg-5' has been found to decrease its substrate specificity at high nuclease concentrations. there are special conditions, high ph, low ionic strength, and high glycerol content, which strongly enhance splitting with decreased specificity and also lead to splitting of single-stranded dna. by sequence analyses it is shown that the reduction in specificity of bsu corresponds ...197722478
relationship between spore formation and synthesis of extracellular protheases in bacillus mesentericus.two phases were established in the synthesis of extracellular proteases by bacillus mesentericus 73. when the growth rate was high, the synthesis of proteases was small. the maximum rate of the enzyme synthesis was observed when the growth decelerated and the production of spores started. the synthesis of alkaline protease and the formation of spores are susceptible to nitrogen-metabolite and catabolite repression. the ability to produce spores was not found in the s variant of bacillus mesenter ...197723485
control of the chemotactic behavior of bacillus subtilis cells.the effects of nigericin, valinomycin and some lipophilic cations on the motile behavior of non-starved and methionine-straved bacillus subtilis cells were studied. for valinomycin and nigericin a quantitative relationship between the flux in the proton-motive force and the duration of the twiddle response was found. lipophilic cations bind to the ion gate controlling the twiddle frequency and thereby cause the cells to swim smoothly. to explain the transmission of the chemotactic signal a model ...197823735
a dna-dependent atpase from bacillus subtilis. 197824447
fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases from spores and vegetative cells of bacillus subtilis pci 219. 197824624
ontogenetic switching-over in bacillus subtilis. i. the characteristics of the mutants conditionally resistant to catabolic repression. 197725224
protonmotive force and motility of bacillus subtilis.motility of bacillus subtilis was inhibited within a few minutes by a combination of valinomycin and a high concentration of potassium ions in the medium at neutral ph. motility was restored by lowering the concentration of valinomycin or potassium ions. the valinomycin concentration necessary for motility inhibition was determined at various concentrations of potassium ions and various ph's. at ph 7.5, valinomycin of any concentration did not inhibit the motility, when the potassium ion concent ...197825261
intracellular serine protease of bacillus subtilis: sequence homology with extracellular subtilisins.intracellular serine protease was isolated from stationary-grown bacillus subtilis a-50 cells and purified to homogeneity. the molecular weight of the enzyme is 31,000 +/- 1,000, with an isoelectric point of 4.3. its amino acid composition is characteristically enriched in glutamic acid content, differing from that of extra-cellular subtilisins. the enzyme is completely inhibited with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. intracellular protease possesses negligible a ...197825266
purification and characterization of extracellular soluble and membrane-bound insoluble alkaline phosphatases possessing phosphodiesterase activities in bacillus subtilis.a membrane-bound insoluble alkaline phosphatase (apase) and an extracellular soluble apase were purified, respectively, from a membrane preparation of bacillus subtilis 6160-bc6, which carries a mutation to produce apase constitutively, and from a culture fluid of a mutant strain. ran 1, isolated from strain 6160-bc6, which produces an extracellular soluble apase. the two preparations were homogeneous, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate discontinuous gel electrophoresis and by gel electrophores ...197825878
[discrete nature of the frequency of recombinations in bacterial transformation systems]. 197942234
purification and properties of a manganese-stimulated deoxyribonuclease produced during sporulation of bacillus subtilis.a dnaase (deoxyribonuclease) was isolated from culture supernatants of sporulating bacillus subtilis 168. the purified enzyme migrated as a single band during polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. the enzyme differs from other dnaases of b. subtilis in molecular weight, metal-ion requirement and mode of action. the enzyme was inactive in the absence of metal ions, and exhibited optimum activity with 10 mm-mn2+, although mg2+, cd2+ and co2+ could also permit some activity. the ph optimum for the en ...197826339
irreversible effects of serum proteins on beta-lactam antibiotics.the chromogenic cephalosporin nitrocefin (87/312) demonstrates rapid and visible instability to serum from many species. this phenomenon was distinct from serum binding, being significantly slower. destruction of another cephalosporin, 10485, by serum appeared to account for some anomalous results during investigation into its human pharmacokinetics. many cephalosporins of very different structures also showed serum instability, unrelated to their degrees of serum binding as measured by plate as ...197827139
glycolipids stimulate dna polymerase activity in a dna-membrane fraction and in a partially purified polymerase system extracted from pneumococci.we have assayed the ability of various lipids to affect dna polymerases activity in a dna-membrane complex extracted from streptococcus pneumoniae by the sarkosyl-m-band technique. in addition, to determine which dna polymerases were affected by the lipids, we partially purified three dna polymerase activities from cell lysates, the first such demonstration outside of escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis. glycolipids are unique among polar lipids in stimulating the rate and extent of dna polym ...197827501
production of valine by a bacillus sp.a bacterium isolated from burdwan (india) soil was found to accumulate l-valine in the growth medium and identified to be a strain of bacillus subtilis. the strain is able to grow and accumulate valine in a purely synthetic medium, but supplementation of the synthetic medium with either casamino acids or yeast extract or with both, significantly improves the yield. the entire fermentation period can be divided into a growth phase and a production phase, which can be prolonged by adjustment of ph ...197827903
on the role of dihydrostreptomycin in streptomycin biosynthesis. 197545912
purification of the exoprotease from bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens capable of coagulating blood plasma. 197830024
presence of a third sucrose hydrolyzing enzyme in bacillus subtilis: constitutive levanase synthesis by mutants of bacillus subtilis marburg 168.a beta-d-fructofuranosidase -- called levanase -- capable of the hydrolysis of sucrose, inulin and levans has been identified in bacillus subtilis marburg. this enzyme can not be detected in strain 168. however, sacl mutations -- mapped on the chromosome of strain 168 between the phea and arod reference markers -- lead to constitutive levanase synthesis. this synthesis is repressed by carbon sources such as glucose, glycerol or sucrose.197719092
bacterial recombination.the most perspective trends in studying the mechanisms of genetic exchanges in bacteria are discussed. they are the following. 1. comparison of the recombination stages in various biological phenomena such as transformation, transduction (generalized), conjugation (common and single-stranded) and transfection. 2. characterization of genetic determinants and basic enzymes of the recombination process in rec-systems of different bacteria. 3. determination of some peculiar features of the intrageni ...197719345
inhibitory action of fatty acids on the growth of neisseria gonorrhoeae.fatty acids of various chain lengths (c(1) to c(24)) were examined for their effects on growth, oxygen consumption, and in vitro reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase activity of neisseria gonorrhoeae cs-7. the growth inhibition caused by saturated fatty acids increased with increasing chain length to a maximum with palmitic acid (c(16)). stearic acid (c(18)) and longer saturated fatty acids showed little inhibition of growth. however, unsaturated fatty acids of chain length c(16) to ...197719358
degradation of levan by actinomyces viscosus.actinomyces viscosus atcc 15987 was examined for its ability to hydrolyze its own levan. washed whole cells and an ammonium sulfate fraction from cell-free culture fluids were shown to possess levan hydrolase activity. analyses of reaction mixtures by gel filtration and thin-layer chromatography demonstrated that the product of levan hydrolysis was free fructose. the cell-associated and extracellular enzyme preparations also hydrolyzed inulin and the levans synthesized by aerobacter levanicum an ...197832137
immunological study of anthranilate immunological study of anthranilate synthetase (asase) has been initiated using quantitative precipitation, enzyme neutralization, and immunodiffusion methods. cross-reactivity of anthranilate synthetase-anthranilate-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (asase-prtase) from escherichia coli, klebsiella aerogenes, and salmonella typhimurium and asase from serratia marcescens and pseudomonas putida was detected with antibodies to ?e. coli trypsin-treated asase. cross-reactivit ...197550316
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