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bacterial 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases.enterobacter aerogenes, aeromonas hydrophila, serratia marcescens and staphylococcus aureus possessing l(+)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced mainly meso-butanediol and small amounts of optically active butanediol; acetobacter suboxydans, bacillus polymyxa and erwinia carotovora containing d(-)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced more optically active butanediol than meso-butanediol. resting and growing cells of these organisms oxidezed only one enantiomer of racemic butanediol. the d(-)-butanedio ...197825056
electron-paramagnetic-resonance studies on the redox properties of the molybdenum-iron protein of nitrogenase between +50 and -450 mv.the midpoint potentials, em, for the oxidation of the characteristic e.p.r. signal with g values near 4.3, 3.7 and 2.01, of the nitrogenase mo-fe proteins from a number of bacteria were measured. they were 0mv for clostridium pasteurianum, -42mv for azotobacter chroococcum and azotobacter vinelandii, -95mv for bacillus polymyxa and -180mv for klebsiella pneumoniae mo-fe proteins at ph 7.9. the oxidations were thermodynamically reversible for the proteins from a. chroococcum, a. vinelandii and k. ...197830448
[effect of the method of cell disintegration on the aspartate kinase activity of preparations from bacillus polymyxa var. ross].the influence of methods of cell disintegration of bac. polymyxa on aspartate kinase activity (ec 2.7.2.4) was examined. the disruption by means of the hews press yielded a more active preparation as compared with ultrasonic disintegration. the supernatant treatment with streptomycin sulphate increased the preparation activity 2-fold. dialysis of the fraction with a high activity of aspartate kinase inactivated the enzyme by 80--85%. the relationship between the aspartate kinase activity and the ...1975171645
[production of polymyxin e by bacillus polymyxa. i. formation of polymyxin e under laboratory conditions]. 1975173140
[polymyxin m biosynthesis by bacillus polymyxa ross depending on the source of ammonium nitrogen and its concentration in the medium]. 1975176560
association between mitogenicity and immunogenicity of 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrophenacetyl-lipopolysaccharide, a t-independent antigen.polymyxin b, which is a basic polypeptide produced by various strains of bacillus polymyxa, has previously been shown to prevent the lethal effect of lps and to neutralize the schwartzmann reaction. in this study we have investigated the interactions between polymyxin b and lipopolysaccharide (lps) and hapten lps conjugates. polymyxin b was found to suppress mitogenicity of lps and also to inhibit immunogenicity of the hapten conjugate 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrophenacetyl (nnp)-lps. inhibition was no ...1976178823
isolation of two new polymyxin group antibiotics. (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. xx).two new members of polymyxin group antibiotics, polymyxins s1 and t1, were isolated from the culture broths of strains identified as bacillus polymyxa rs-6 and bacillus polymyxa e-12, respectively. these antibiotics are strongly basic substances, their hydrochloric acid salts are soluble in water and methanol. they are primarily active against gram-negative bacteria in vitro and in vivo though polymyxin t1 exhibits higher activities against gram-positive bacteria than other polymyxin group antib ...1977202582
the correlation between antibiotic synthesis, transcription and sporulation in bacillus polymyxa. 1978207275
nitrogenase from bacillus polymyxa. purification and properties of the component proteins.a purification procedure is described for the components of bacillus polymyxa nitrogenase. the procedure requires the removal of interfering mucopolysaccharides before the two nitrogenase proteins can be purified by the methods used with other nitrogenase components. the highest specific activities obtained were 2750 nmol c2h4 formed . min-1 . mg-1 mofe protein and 2521 nmol c2h4 formed . min-1 . mg-1 fe protein. the mofe protein has a molecular weight of 215 000 and contains 2 molybdenum atoms, ...1978213121
[induced mutagenesis in bacillus polymyxa--producer of polymyxin b]. 1978214909
characterization of the iron-sulfur centers in succinate dehydrogenase.two techniques have been applied to the determination of the number and type (2-fe, 4-fe) of iron-sulfur centers in the iron-sulfur flavoprotein succinate dehydrogenase [succinate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, ec 1.3.99.1]. one procedure uses p-cf3c6h4sh as an extrusion reagent and fourier transform 19f nuclear magentic resonance as the method of detection and quantitation of extruded cores of these centers in the form of [fe2s2(srf)4]2- and [fe4s4(srf)4]2- (rf = p-c6h4cf3). the second procedure, i ...1979226982
isolation of an iron-molybdenum cofactor from nitrogenase.a method for the isolation of an iron-molybdenum cofactor (femoco) from component i of nitrogenase is described. this method is used to isolate femoco from aerobic, anaerobic, facultative, and photosynthetic nitrogen-fixing organisms. the fe/mo ratio in the femoco from azotobacter vinelandii and clostridium pasteurianum is 8:1. the femoco contains six atoms of acid-labile sulfide per eight fe atoms. crystalline component i from a. vinelandii contains 2 mo, 33 fe, and 27 acid-labile sulfide atoms ...1977410019
appearance of polyadenylated rna species during sporulation in bacillus polymyxa. 1979426789
[elimination of nitrous oxide by a combined bacterial culture].the ability of bacteria to eliminate nitrous oxide (n2o) from a gaseous phase containing 20% o2 was studied. representatives of the following physiological groups were found to be incapable of removing n2o: denitrifying bacteria (paracoccus denitrificans), nitrifying bacteria (nitrosospira briensis), carboxydobacteria (pseudomonas carboxydoflava), methane oxidizing bacteria (methylosinus trichosporium), and nitrogen fixing bacteria (bacillus polymyxa). five corynebacteria-like strains were isola ...1979481272
electron microscopy of some rock phosphate dissolving bacteria and fungi.bacteria pseudomonas striata, bacillus polymyxa, b. megaterium and b. pulvifaciens, and fungi aspergillus awamori, a. niger and penicillium digitatum dissolve tricalcium phosphate and, much less, mussorie and udaipur rock phosphate. the solubilizing power of fungi was higher than that of bacteria, the highest being with a. awamori and a. niger, and with p. striata. electron microscopy of the various cultures showed an electron-dense layer on the bacterial surface after negative staining. the siz ...1979527907
[chemcial aspects of the energy process in nitrate reduction in different representatives of soil microflora].chemical aspects of dissimilatory nitrate reduction were studied by mass spectrometry in the following soil bacteria: bacillus filaris, bacillus polymyxa and pseudomonas denitrificans. chemical peculiarity of this process in spore-forming soil bacteria is the simultaneous operation of two energy processes: denitrification and nitrate respiration. the first process is terminated by the formation of molecular nitrogen, the second, by the production of ammonia. the quantitative ratio between these ...1977600102
isolation of tridecaptins a, b and c (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. xxiii).three new antibiotics, tridecaptins a, b and c, were isolated from culture broths of strains of bacillus polymyxa ar-110, b-2 and e-23, respectively. all are acyl tridecapeptides differing from each other in the fatty acid components and amino acid residues. they are weakly active against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in vitro and in vivo.1978690000
[biosynthesis of l-asparaginase-2 by cultures of bacillus polymyxa var. ross].cell extracts of bacillus polymyxa var. ross.--producer of the polypeptide antibiotic polymyxin m. showed activity of l-asparaginase-2 (l-asparagine aminohydrolase ec 3.5.1.1). the enzyme activity in the growing culture increased with the biomass. the highest specific activity was detected in the cells at the onset of the stationary stage. the synthesis of l-asparaginase-2 was subjected to glucose catabolite repression in response to its addition to the culture at the logarithmic stage. after pu ...1978724659
kinetic studies of bacillus polymyxa nitrogenase.nitrogenase from the facultative anaerobe bacillus polymxa was separated into its component proteins, which were recombined in the ratio that produced optimal specific activity (125 to 175 nmol of c2h2 reduced/min per mg of total protein). the apparent michaelis constants (km)for the magnesium adenosine triphosphate complex, reducible substrates azide, acetylene, and n2 and the nonphysiological electron donor hydrosulfite (s2o42-) were determined to be 0.7, 0.7, 0.2, 0.06, and 0.03 mm, respectiv ...1976770451
immunofluorescence detection of nitrogenase proteins in whole cells.fluorescent antibodies (fa) prepared against the mo-fe and fe proteins of nitrogenase from klebsiella pneumoniae m5ai were used to detect these protein components in toluene-treated whole cells that were actively reducing acetylene. the fa were highly specific, staining only nitrogenase component proteins originating from klebsiella. cross-reactions between the fa and purified nitrogenase proteins from other dinitrogen-fixing micro-organisms did not occur, except in the case of bacillus polymyxa ...1976796412
tissue dispersion, cell harvest and fluid suspension culture by the use of bacterial neutral protease.bacterial neutral protease of bacillus polymyxa was found to disperse mammalian tissues and cells. primary cell cultures were obtained from several tissues after treatments with 200 to 2,000 kunitz unit per ml of this protease in either a phosphate buffer solution, a balanced salt solution or a tissue culture medium supplemented with serum. monolayer cultures wither in their early passage levels or of established strains were harvested by a treatment with this protease, and proliferated again in ...1975817056
nmr characterization of three forms of ferredoxin from desulphovibrio gigas, a sulphate reducer.a nmr and magnetic susceptibility study of the oxidized and reduced states of three different oligomers (forms) of a [4fe-4s] ferrodoxin protein from desulphovibrio gigas, fdi, fdi', and fdii was carried out. fdi and fdi' are different trimers and fdii a tetramer of the same basic subunit. a probable assignment of the contact shifted resonances is indicated. since the temperature dependences of the contact shifted responances associated with each [4fe-4s] are not all similar a delocalized model ...1977836818
[on n2-fixing clostridia and bacilli from soils (author's transl)].in total 30 nitrogen-fixing, saccharolytic clostridia and 4 nitrogen-fixing bacilli, all freshly isolated from gleyed soils, were screened for sensitivity to 20 antibiotics. the isolates were compared in their sensitivity with 5 type cultures representing the species clostridium butyricum, c. saccharobutyricum (2 strains) c. multifermentans and c. sporogenes. generally speaking, both clostridia and bacilli are sensitive to the same antibiotics (table 2). in addition, the nitrogen-fixing bacilli ...1976970026
[chemistry of denitrification in sporogenous soil bacteria].soil sporeforming denitrifying bacteria, bacillus filaris and bacillus polymyxa, differ by their cultural-morphological and physiological characteristics, but are similar in the chemistry of dissimilating nitrate reduction. two processes occur simultaneously: denitrification yielding gaseous nitrogen forms, and nitrate respiration upon which nitrates are reduced to ammonia. the ratio between the two depends on physico-chemical conditions of the environment. the chemistry of dissimilating nitrate ...1976979677
regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacilli.the facultative anaerobes bacillus polymyxa hino g, b. polymyxa hino j, and b.macerans were observed to have imcomplete tricarboxylic acid cycles. they were devoid of malate dehydrogenase and all had very low levels of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. b. polymyxa hino j was devoid of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase when grown aerobically and anerobically. citrate synthase from b. polymyxa was inhibited by adenosine triphosphate but not reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and resembled ...19751123317
purification and properties of homoserine transacetylase from bacillus polymyxa.homoserine transacetylase (ec 2.3.1.31), the first enzyme of methionine biosynthesis, has been purified to near homogeneity from extracts of a methionine auxotroph of bacillus polymyxa. the enzyme is subject to rapid irreversible inactivation. its half-life at 0 degrees is 15 min and much less at higher temperatures, but ethylene glycol affords some protection. in addition, zn2+ reversibly inhibits the enzyme with a k-i of 3 mum. the enzyme has a molecular weight of about 40,000 and consists of ...19751126938
regulation of homoserine transacetylase in whole cells of bacillus polymyxa.the levels of homoserine transacetylase (ec 2.3.1.31) in bacillus polymyxa grown in minimal medium can vary over a 40-fold range, depending on whether methionine limits growth or is present in excess. this suggests that the synthesis of the enzyme is under control by methionine or one of its metabolites. the stability of homoserine transacetylase in growing cells was measured after repression of further synthesis by the addition of methionine. at 30 degrees, the enzyme was stable for 2 hours, wh ...19751126939
[proteolytic preparation from the culture of bacillus polymyxa str. 13-13].a proteolytic preparation has been isolated from the culture fluid filtrate bacillus polymyxa str. 13-13 by salting out with (nh4)2so4 (0.7 of complete saturation). the data characterizing the amino acid composition and the enzymic system of the resultant preparation are given. it has been shown that the proteolytic activity depends on the enzyme containing metal ion, i. e. metal enzyme.19751208424
nitrogen fixation associated with grasses in oregon.nitrogen fixation associated with both natural grasslands and grain crops of oregon was studied using the acetylene-reduction assay. a number of the grasses collected has some acetylene-reducing activity. agrostis tenuis sibth. had substantially greater activity than any of the other species, with a mean rate estimated at 37 g n2 fixed per hectare per day. assuming 100 days of activity, about 3 kg of n2 would be fixed per hectare per year. this quantity of nitrogen may be important in the mainte ...19761260544
[bacterial polysaccharides of polymyxan 88a. basic characteristics and extent of possible uses].a new high-viscous polysaccharide polymyxan from bacillus polymyxa 88a is described. polymyxan consists of an acid high-viscous polysaccharide (mw 1-10 md) and a neutral low-viscous polysaccharide (mw 100-300 kd), which is a glucomannan containing equal amounts of monosaccharides and traces of uronic acids. the acid high-viscous polysaccharide consists of 36% glucose, 36% mannose, 7% galactose and 21% glucuronic acid. data are presented on the application of polymyxan in baking industry and for ...19921335575
rapid in situ hybridization technique using 16s rrna segments for detecting and differentiating the closely related gram-positive organisms bacillus polymyxa and bacillus macerans.a rapid, sensitive, inexpensive in situ hybridization technique, using 30-mer 16s rrna probes, can specifically differentiate two closely related bacillus spp., b. polymyxa and b. macerans. the 16s rrna probes were labeled with a rhodamine derivative (texas red), and quantitative fluorescence measurements were made on individual bacterial cells. the microscopic fields analyzed were selected by phase-contrast microscopy, and the fluorescence imaging analyses were performed on 16 to 67 individual ...19921381173
[microbial ecology of laboratory animals as a model in evaluation of the immunomodulating and antimicrobial agents].rats with altered microbial ecology and decreased colonization resistance due to neutropenia induced by cyclophosphamide were used as a model for estimating the effect of bacterial polysaccharides (lactulose and exopolysaccharide from bacillus polymyxa) and fluoroquinolones (pefloxacin). monotherapy with pefloxacin had a favourable effect both on normalization on the intestinal microflora in the rats and their hemopoiesis (decreased neutropenia). the highest correcting effect with respect to the ...19921456826
pectin decomposition and associated nitrogen fixation by mixed cultures of azospirillum and bacillus species.cocultures of different azospirillum species with bacillus polymyxa or bacillus subtilis allow the efficient utilization of pectin as carbon and energy sources for nitrogen fixation. the nitrogenase activity obtained with cocultures was as high as 30-80 nmol c2h4 h-1 ml-1, a much higher value than that obtained with pure cultures of either azospirillum (up to 13 nmol c2h4 h-1 ml-1) or b. polymyxa (up to 2 nmol c2h4 h-1 ml-1) alone. to establish to what extent each partner contributed to nitrogen ...19921458371
functional roles of active site residues of bacillus polymyxa beta-amylase. 19921476373
purification and characterization of a bacillus polymyxa beta-glucosidase expressed in escherichia coli.the beta-glucosidase encoded by the bgla gene from bacillus polymyxa was overproduced in escherichia coli by using a plasmid in which bgla is under control of the laci promoter. induction with isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside allowed an increase in the specific activity of the enzyme of about 100 times the basal level of gene expression. the enzyme was purified by a two-step procedure involving salting out with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography with deae-cellulose. fractions ...19921569036
reversibility of oxygen switch-off effect on bacillus polymyxa nitrogenase.the objective of this study was to analyse in vivo the effect of oxygen on the nitrogenase of bacillus polymyxa. the culture technique employed in this study prevented spore formation by b. polymyxa during the entire period of exposure to acetylene. under these conditions the acetylene-reduction assay allowed quantification of nitrogenase activity over long incubation periods (44 h). nitrogenase activity was highest in cells harvested in the late logarithmic phase. at po2 of 0.19 and 0.37 kpa, a ...19911777855
structural and functional roles of cysteine residues of bacillus polymyxa beta-amylase.bacillus polymyxa beta-amylase contains three cysteine residues at positions 83, 91, and 323, which can react with sulfhydryl reagents. to determine the role of cysteine residues in the catalytic reaction, cysteine residues were mutated to construct four mutant enzymes, c83s, c91v, c323s, and c-free. wild-type and mutant forms of the enzyme were expressed in, and purified to homogeneity from, bacillus subtilis. a disulfide bond between cys83 and cys91 was identified by isolation of tryptic pepti ...19911827035
proteases involved in generation of beta- and alpha-amylases from a large amylase precursor in bacillus polymyxa.the genes for extracellular neutral protease (npr) and intracellular serine protease (isp) were cloned from bacillus polymyxa in order to elucidate the process involved in the generation of multiple beta-amylases and an alpha-amylase from a large amylase precursor. the npr gene was composed of 1,770 bp and 570 amino acids, while the isp gene was composed of 978 bp and 326 amino acids. both proteases produced by e. coli cleaved the amylase precursor to generate beta- and alpha-amylases. furthermo ...19911834632
construction of a saccharomyces cerevisiae strain able to ferment cellobiose.the bgla gene, encoding a beta-glucosidase from bacillus polymyxa, has been expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae under control of the cyc-gal promoter inducible by galactose. the expression of bgla-encoded activity in the strain used as a host was not sufficient to allow its growth with cellobiose as a carbon source. however, a recessive mutation in a gene designated cem1 has been obtained which, combined with the expression of beta-glucosidase activity, allows the growth of s. cerevisiae on ce ...19911934117
two beta-glycanase genes are clustered in bacillus polymyxa: molecular cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of genes encoding a xylanase and an endo-beta-(1,3)-(1,4)-glucanase.two genes, xynd and glub, encoding a xylanase and an endo-beta-(1,3)-(1,4)-glucanase (lichenase) from bacillus polymyxa have been cloned and expressed in escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis. a sequenced dna fragment of 4,466 bp contains both genes, which are separated by 155 bp. the xynd and glub genes encode proteins of 67.8 kda (xynd) and 27 kda (glub). two peptides with molecular masses of 62 and 53 kda appear in cell extracts of e. coli and culture supernatants of b. subtilis clones conta ...19911938968
sequences and homology analysis of two genes encoding beta-glucosidases from bacillus polymyxa.the nucleotide sequences of the bgla and bglb genes encoding beta-glucosidases from bacillus polymyxa have been determined. both genes contain coding regions of 1344 bp, corresponding to polypeptides with mrs of 51,643 and 51,547, respectively. patterns of codon usage indicate that both genes are expressed at a low frequency. previous data suggested that the proteins encoded by bgla and bglb were intra- and extracellular enzymes, respectively; however, neither of the two deduced amino acid seque ...19902123813
modification of the glycolipid-binding specificity of vero cytotoxin by polymyxin b and other cyclic amphipathic peptides.polymyxin b, an amphipathic cyclic decapeptide produced by bacillus polymyxa, is routinely used in the extraction of the components from the periplasmic space of gram-negative bacteria. vero cytotoxin 1 (vt1) is an escherichia coli-elaborated subunit toxin which binds to the glycolipid globotriosylceramide (gal-alpha 1-4-gal beta 1-4-glc-ceramide [gb3]) and has been strongly implicated in the etiology of the hemolytic uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis. we now show by in vitro glycolipid-bi ...19902160427
molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes from bacillus polymyxa and bacillus circulans.endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes from bacillus circulans and from b. polymyxa were cloned by direct expression by using bacteriophage m13mp9 as the vector. the enzymatic activity of the gene products was detected by using either the congo red assay or hydroxyethyl cellulose dyed with ostazin brilliant red h-3b. the b. circulans and b. subtilis pap115 endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes were shown to be homologous by the use of restriction endonuclease site mapping, dna-dna hybridization, s1 nuclease dige ...19902307659
efficiency factors and atp/adp ratios in nitrogen-fixing bacillus polymyxa and bacillus azotofixans.the efficiency factor, the number of moles of atp generated per mole of glucose fermented, was determined in anaerobic, non-carbon-limited n2-fixing cultures of bacillus polymyxa, bacillus macerans, bacillus azotofixans, and clostridium butyricum through identification and quantitation of the fermentation products by 13c nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and measurement of acetate kinase activities. all three bacillus species had acetate kinase activities and produced acetate and ethanol a ...19902318806
the glu residue in the conserved asn-glu-pro sequence of two highly divergent endo-beta-1,4-glucanases is essential for enzymatic activity.we initially aligned 28 different cellulase sequences in pairwise fashion and found half of them have the sequence -asn-glu-pro- located in a region flanked by hydrophobic-rich amino acids. based on lysozyme as a model, the glutamate residue could be essential for enzyme function. we tested this possibility by site-directed mutagenesis of the genes coding bacillus polymyxa and bacillus subtilis endo-beta-1,4-glucanases. the genes and amino acid sequences of these two enzymes show very little sim ...19902363713
bacteriophages of bacillus polymyxa.virulent bacteriophages of colistin--producing bacillus polymyxa strains were studied. the phages were found to differ in lytic spectrum and were active only against strains of b. polymyxa. they did not attack other strains of the genus bacillus. the virulent bacteriophages belong to two morphological groups differing in size. the size of the dna of the bacteriophages of both groups is similar and ranges from 74.9 x 10(6) to 87.8 x 10(6) daltons. the cells of different b. polymyxa strains were a ...19852412400
cloning and characterization of the beta-amylase gene from bacillus polymyxa.the gene for beta-amylase was isolated from bacillus polymyxa by molecular cloning in b. subtilis. b. subtilis cells containing this gene express and secrete an amylase which resembles the b. polymyxa beta-amylase and barley beta-amylase in terms of the products it generates during carbohydrate hydrolysis. starch hydrolysis with this beta-amylase produces maltose, not glucose, whereas maltotriose and cycloheptaose are resistant to the action of this beta-amylase. the enzyme has a molecular weigh ...19862419310
cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for enzymatically active fragments of the bacillus polymyxa beta-amylase.the gene encoding beta-amylase was cloned from bacillus polymyxa 72 into escherichia coli hb101 by inserting hindiii-generated dna fragments into the hindiii site of pbr322. the 4.8-kilobase insert was shown to direct the synthesis of beta-amylase. a 1.8-kilobase acci-acci fragment of the donor strain dna was sufficient for the beta-amylase synthesis. homologous dna was found by southern blot analysis to be present only in b. polymyxa 72 and not in other bacteria such as e. coli or b. subtilis. ...19872435707
cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding thermophilic beta-amylase of clostridium thermosulfurogenes.a gene coding for thermophilic beta-amylase of clostridium thermosulfurogenes was cloned into bacillus subtilis, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the nucleotide sequence suggested that the thermophilic beta-amylase is translated from monocistronic mrna as a secretory precursor with a signal peptide of 32 amino acid residues. the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature beta-amylase contained 519 residues with a molecular weight of 57,167. the amino acid sequence of the c. thermosulfu ...19882461360
purification and characterization of a novel thermostable beta-amylase from clostridium thermosulphurogenes.an extracellular beta-amylase from clostridium thermosulphurogenes was purified 811-fold to homogeneity, and its general molecular, physico-chemical and catalytic properties were determined. the native enzyme was a tetramer of 210 kda composed of a single type subunit; its 20 amino acid n-terminus displayed 45% homology with bacillus polymyxa beta-amylase. the beta-amylase was enriched in both acidic and hydrophobic amino acids. the pure enzyme displayed an isoelectric point of 5.1 and a ph acti ...19882461701
a single gene directs synthesis of a precursor protein with beta- and alpha-amylase activities in bacillus polymyxa.the bacillus polymyxa amylase gene comprises 3,588 nucleotides. the mature amylase comprises 1,161 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127,314. the gene appeared to be divided into two portions by the direct-repeat sequence located at almost the middle of the gene. the 5' region upstream of the direct-repeat sequence was shown to be responsible for the synthesis of beta-amylase. the 3' region downstream of the direct-repeat sequence contained four sequences homologous with those in other alph ...19892464578
cloning and characterization of two genes from bacillus polymyxa expressing beta-glucosidase activity in escherichia coli.dna fragments from bacillus polymyxa which encode beta-glucosidase activity were cloned in escherichia coli by selection of yellow transformants able to hydrolyze the artificial chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside. restriction endonuclease maps and southern analysis of the cloned fragments showed the existence of two different genes. expression of either one of these genes allowed growth of e. coli in minimal medium with cellobiose as the only carbon source. one of the two ...19892515802
dispase, a neutral protease from bacillus polymyxa, is a powerful fibronectinase and type iv collagenase.dispase, a neutral protease isolated from culture filtrates of bacillus polymyxa, has proven to be a rapid, effective, but gentle agent for separating intact epidermis from the dermis and intact epithelial sheets in culture from the substratum. in both cases it effects separation by cleaving the basement membrane zone region while preserving the viability of the epithelial cells. because it is not known what or where in the basement membrane zone dispase cleaves, we set up studies to define its ...19892546994
ammonia assimilation pathways in nitrogen-fixing clostridium kluyverii and clostridium butyricum.pathways of ammonia assimilation into glutamic acid were investigated in ammonia-grown and n2-fixing clostridium kluyverii and clostridium butyricum by measuring the specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. c. kluyverii had nadph-glutamate dehydrogenase with a km of 12.0 mm for nh4+. the glutamate dehydrogenase pathway played an important role in ammonia assimilation in ammonia-grown cells but was found to play a minor role relative to that of ...19892564848
transformation of bacillus polymyxa with plasmid dna.a plasmid transformation system was developed for bacillus polymyxa atcc 12321 and derivatives of this strain. the method utilizes a penicillin-treated-cell technique to facilitate uptake of the plasmid dna. low-frequency transformation (10(-6) per recipient cell) of plasmids pc194, pbd64, and pbc16 was accomplished with this method. selection for the transformants was accomplished on both hypertonic and nonhypertonic selective media, with the highest rates of recovery occurring on a peptone-glu ...19892604393
hyperexpression of a bacillus circulans xylanase gene in escherichia coli and characterization of the gene product.a 4.0-kilobase (kb) fragment of bacillus circulans genomic dna inserted into puc19 and encoding endoxylanase activity was subjected to a series of subclonings. a 1.0-kb hindiii-hincii subfragment was found to code for xylanase activity. maximum expression levels were observed with a subclone that contained an additional 0.3-kb sequence upstream from the coding region. enhancer sequences in the upstream region are thought to be responsible for these high expression levels. southern hybridization ...19892667461
[polymyxin biosynthesis by bacillus polymyxa during growth limitation by the nutritional sources].the synthesis of the antibiotic polymyxin m was studied under the conditions of batch and continuous cultivation of bacillus polymyxa var. ross whose growth was limited with glucose, phosphate and ammonium nitrogen. polymyxin m was synthesized when the culture growth decelerated as a result of its limitation with the above compounds. different amounts of the antibiotic were synthesized depending on the type of a limiting factor. the highest productiveness was found in the case of glucose limitat ...19882846989
[enzyme activity of bacillus polymyxa 153, the producer of polymyxin b, during sporulation and biosynthesis].metabolic properties of bacillus polymyxa 153 were studied during vegetative growth, polymyxin b biosynthesis and active sporulation. in the cell extracts there was detected activity of exoproteases, endoproteases, tricarboxylic acid cycle dehydrogenases and pyruvate dehydrogenase. the enzymes activity in the cells growing into spores was higher than that in the cells of the vegetative developmental type. the activity of the enzymes depended on the culture age.19882848465
ammonia assimilation in bacillus polymyxa. 15n nmr and enzymatic studies.pathways of ammonia assimilation into glutamic acid and alanine in bacillus polymyxa were investigated by 15n nmr spectroscopy in combination with measurements of the specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthetase, alanine dehydrogenase, and glutamic-alanine transaminase. ammonia was found to be assimilated into glutamic acid predominantly by nadph-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase with a km of 2.9 mm for nh4+ not only in ammonia-grown cells but also i ...19872886502
glutamate biosynthesis in bacillus azotofixans. 15n nmr and enzymatic studies.pathways of ammonia assimilation into glutamic acid in bacillus azotofixans, a recently characterized nitrogen-fixing species of bacillus, were investigated through observation by nmr spectroscopy of in vivo incorporation of 15n into glutamine and glutamic acid in the absence and presence of inhibitors of ammonia-assimilating enzymes, in combination with measurements of the specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and alanine dehydrogenase. in amm ...19882893794
structure and glycosylation of lipoteichoic acids in bacillus strains.the occurrence, structure, and glycosylation of lipoteichoic acids were studied in 15 bacillus strains, including bacillus cereus (4 strains), bacillus subtilis (5 strains), bacillus licheniformis (1 strain), bacillus polymyxa (2 strains), and bacillus circulans (3 strains). whereas in the cells of b. polymyxa and b. circulans neither lipoteichoic acid nor related amphipathic polymer could be detected, the cells of other bacillus strains were shown to contain lipoteichoic acids built up of poly( ...19892914853
inhibition of clostridium botulinum 52a toxicity and protease activity by sodium acid pyrophosphate in media systems.the effects of two ph levels (5.55 or 5.85) in combination with 0.4% sodium acid pyrophosphate (sapp), nah2po4 x h2o, na2hpo4 x 7h2o, or nacl on the growth and toxicity of clostridium botulinum 52a were studied. absorbancy measurements at 630 nm, microscopic observations, and the mouse bioassay procedure were used to observe the effects. at ph 5.55 and 5.85 most control cultures exhibited toxicity when cell lysis began. vegetative cell development was normal (4 micron long; 1 micron wide). sapp- ...19852992374
an enzyme catalyzing the liberation of n-acetylglucosamine from n-acetylglucosaminyl pyrophosphorylpolyprenol in bacillus polymyxa membranes.a novel enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes n-acetylglucosaminyl pyrophosphorylpolyprenol to liberate n-acetylglucosamine was found in membranes of bacillus polymyxa ahu 1385. the enzyme seems to be inactive toward alpha-n-acetylglucosaminyl phosphorylundecaprenol, beta-n-acetylglucosaminyl phosphorylundecaprenol, n-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate, n-acetylglucosamine 1-pyrophosphate, or udp-n-acetylglucosamine. much lower activities of the same enzyme were also found in membranes of several othe ...19873036586
phosphorylation of synthetic random polypeptides by protein kinase p and other protein-serine (threonine) kinases and stimulation or inhibition of kinase activities by microbial toxins.a synthetic random polymer of threonine and glutamate (1:4.4) is readily phosphorylated by protein kinase p but not by five other protein-serine (threonine) kinases. a synthetic random polymer of serine and arginine (1:3) is readily phosphorylated by protein kinase a and protein kinase c but not by protein kinase p. although the amino acid sequences surrounding the phosphorylated serine (threonine) residue have been demonstrated in studies with small synthetic polypeptides to be decisive factors ...19883125547
action of the bacterial neutral protease, dispase, on cultured cells and its application to fluid suspension culture with a review on biomedical application of this protease.the bacterial neutral protease from bacillus polymyxa, dispase, has been characterized using 21 mammalian cell lines in its cell-dispersing capability, cytotoxicity, and effects on cell growth. the previous observation that fibroblast-like cells are detached by this protease from culture substrate, as well as dissociated into a monodisperse cell suspension, while that epithelial-like cells are detached but not completely dissociated, was generally confirmed, although exceptions to these general ...19863298747
pyruvic-acid-containing polysaccharide in the cell wall of bacillus polymyxa ahu 1385.three acidic polymer fractions with molecular masses of about 16 kda, 35 kda and 70 kda were isolated from lysozyme digests of n-acetylated cell walls of bacillus polymyxa ahu 1385 by ion-exchange chromatography and gel chromatography. these fractions, containing mannosamine, glucosamine and pyruvic acid in a molar ratio of about 1:1:1 together with glycopeptide components, were characterized as polysaccharide-linked glycopeptides with one, two and more polysaccharide chains. on the other hand, ...19883383845
[comparative analysis of 2 bacillus polymyxa strains differing in the spectrum of exogenous polysaccharides produced].the characteristic features of the development of 2 bacillus polymyxa strains differing in the spectrum of the produced extracellular heteropolysaccharides were compared. the strains were grown on solid media and under submerged conditions. electron microscopy revealed marked differences in the ultrastructure of the developing cultures. it was noted that the mutant variant b formed a vigorous fibrillar and capsular layer of the polysaccharide nature strictly oriented in the space perpendicularly ...19863539005
new peptide antibiotics li-f03, f04, f05, f07, and f08, produced by bacillus polymyxa. i. isolation and characterization.a strain of bacillus polymyxa produced a new peptide antibiotic complex, named li-f, composed of more than ten components. the components, antibiotics li-f03, f04, f05, f07, and f08 were isolated from the complex by reversed phase hplc. they are active against fungi, yeasts, and gram-positive bacteria. the fast atom bombardment mass spectra revealed that the individual isolated antibiotics are still mixture of two homologous components, being very difficult to separate from each other.19873693120
a new biosensor for rapid bod estimation by using immobilized growing cell beads.a closed, reactor-type sensor system for rapid estimation of bod by the use of immobilized growing whole cells of a facultative bacterium, bacillus polymyxa d-21, in kappa-carrageenan and an oxygen electrode is described. this system consists of a transformer, a recorder, a thermostated water bath (30 +/- 1 degree c), a magnetic stirrer (200 rpm), an oxygen electrode, and a flask containing 10 g (wet weight) immobilized cell beads of 2-3 mm in diameter. the total time required for an assay is le ...19863749363
removal of viable sheets of conjunctival epithelium with dispase ii.a technique (based on gipson and grill, invest ophthalmol vis sci 23:269, 1982) has been developed to obtain pure, viable, intact sheets of rabbit conjunctival epithelium free of the underlying basement membrane. after preparing a full thickness eye wall resection, dispase, grade ii (neutral protease-bacillus polymyxa), 1.2 units/ml mem is injected intrasclerally. the conjunctiva and sclera are pinned in agar and incubated in the dispase with mem for 1 hour. a 2 x 3 mm sheet of conjunctival epit ...19853881364
[exopolysaccharide formation during the cultivation of bacillus polymyxa on different carbohydrate substrates].the effect of the carbohydrate source in the cultivation medium on the intensity of the synthesis of exopolysaccharides of two variants of bacillus polymyxa was studied. no significant effect of the nature of the carbohydrate source on accumulation of the culture biomass was observed, while the fermentation broth viscosity, the yield of the extracellular polysaccharides and their monosaccharide composition, as well as the ratio of the neutral and acid components significantly changed. difference ...19854051469
purification and characterization of ferredoxin-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reductase from a nitrogen-fixing bacterium.evidence suggesting that bacillus polymyxa has an active ferredoxin-nadp(+) reductase (ec 1.6.99.4) was obtained when nadph was found to provide reducing power for the nitrogenase of this organism; direct evidence was provided when it was shown that b. polymyxa extracts could substitute for the native ferredoxin-nadp(+) reductase in the photochemical reduction of nadp(+) by blue-green algal particles. the ferredoxin-nadp(+) reductase was purified about 80-fold by a combination of high-speed cent ...19734147648
purification and properties of two ferredoxins from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium bacillus polymyxa. 19734150123
[growth conditions and the formation of antibiotics by a mutant of bacillus polymyxa var. ross 26]. 19734208937
l-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyrate-activating enzyme from bacillus polymyxa. properties and distribution. 19694309180
ferredoxin from bacillus polymyxa. 19714323847
[effect of amino acids on growth of a synchronized culture of bacillus polymyxa and biosynthesis of polymyxin m]. 19714325513
[polymyxin m synthesized by bacillus polymyxa var. ross under different conditions of cultivation]. 19714326875
[free amino acids in the cells of bacillus polymyxa var. ross]. 19714327897
[production of bacillus polymyxa mutants producing the antibiotic polymyxin m using n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine]. 19714331832
[aspartokinase of bacillus polymyxa var. ross and its role in the synthesis of polymyxin m]. 19724336307
[effect of amino acids on the growth of bacillus polymyxa var. ross and on the formation of polymyxin m]. 19714341059
studies on biosynthesis of polymyxin e (colistin). i. isolation and characteristics of mucoidless r-mutants of bacillus polymyxa k-1. 19724345458
studies on biosynthesis of polymyxin e (colistin). ii. biosynthesis of polymyxin e by mutants m-5 and d-13 of bacillus polymyxa k-1. 19734349626
[effect of biotin and desthiobiotin on the growth and formation of polymyxin m by bacillus polymyxa ross]. 19724351647
proteolytic degradation of polymyxins by the enzymes of bacillus polymyxa. 19734356177
ferredoxins from bacillus polymyxa. low potential iron-sulfur proteins which appear to contain single four iron, four sulfur centers accepting a single electron on reduction. 19734356263
characterization of bacillus polymyxa amylase as an exo-acting(1 leads to 4)-alpha-d-glucan maltohydrolase. 19744370627
nucleotide-dependent inactivation of rna polymerase from bacillus brevis.rna polymerase has been purified from vegetative cells of bacillus brevis and resolved into "core" enzyme and sigma factor. the purified enzyme is rapidly inactivated by incubation at low temperatures in the presence of 1-2 mm atp, datp, or nad(+), while other nucleotides at this concentration have little or no effect. inactivation is not accompanied by the incorporation of an adenylyl or phosphoryl moiety into rna polymerase; nevertheless, it is essentially irreversible. dna, high concentration ...19724405027
enzyme production by bacillus polymyxa in an extract of peat. i. preliminary studies and the effect of added carbon on amylase and protease production. 19744453575
enzyme production by bacillus polymyxa in an extract of peat. ii. the effects of nitrogen and other factors on amylase and protease production. 19744453576
proton magnetic resonance and magnetic susceptibility characterization of ferredoxin i from bacillus polymyxa.magnetic susceptibility and proton magnetic resonance spectra are reported for the oxidized and reduced forms of the iron-sulfur protein bacillus polymyxa ferredoxin i. the magnetic susceptibility of the oxidized form indicates antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between component iron atoms that is quantitatively similar to that observed for the clostridial ferredoxins and for the [(c(2)h(5))(4)n](2) [fe(4)s(4)(sch(2)c(6)h(5))(4)] analog. contact-shifted resonances observed in the proton-magnet ...19744521046
[antibiotics synthesis and several other properties of bacillus polymyxa var. ross mutants]. 19744597590
[growth of a bacillus polymyxa var. ross 26 mutant and the formation of an antibiotic under periodic and continuous cultivation]. 19744603564
preliminary investigations on the production, purification and properties of an extracellular xylanase from bacillus polymyxa. 19724638768
multivalent feedback inhibition of aspartokinase in bacillus polymyxa. iv. arrangement and function of the subunits. 19734697398
production and purification of the metalloprotease of bacillus polymyxa.the nutritional and environmental factors relating to the production of an extracellular protease by bacillus polymyxa were investigated. the enzyme was produced in all media that supported growth of the microorganism, irrespective of the carbon source used. arabinose and hydrolyzed starch, however, gave highest yields. the nature of the peptone had a significant effect on the level of protease produced. calcium and manganous ions exerted a beneficial effect on protease production. highest enzym ...19734743872
physiochemical properties of the native, zinc- and manganese-prepared metalloprotease of bacillus polymyxa.the neutral protease of bacillus polymyxa had a broad ph optimum (6.0 to 7.2) for activity at 37 c. the enzyme was most stable at ph 5.6 to 5.8. the protease had an optimum temperature of 37 c and was quite thermostable up to 35 c, but at higher temperatures the stability decreased rapidly. the substrate specificity of the protease was similar to that of the neutral proteases of other members of the genus bacillus. the enzyme was shown to be a zinc metalloprotease. however, manganous ions had a ...19734743873
distribution of the isopropylmalate pathway to leucine among diverse bacteria.alpha-isopropylmalate synthase and beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase activities were detected in extracts of the following organisms: chromatium d, rhodopseudomonas spheroides, hydrogenomonas h16, pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas fluorescens, vibrio extorquens, rhizobium japonicum, alcaligenes viscolactis, escherichia coli b, proteus vulgaris, aerobacter aerogenes, salmonella typhimurium, micrococcus sp., micrococcus lysodeikticus, bacillus polymyxa, bacillus subtilis, and nocardia opaca. th ...19744829932
surface features of bacillus polymyxa spores as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.the surface features of bacillus polymyxa spores were compared by use of thin sections, carbon replicas, and the scanning electron microscope. some features of the characteristic ridges, previously reported in ultrathin sections and carbon replicas of spores of this species, were more clearly revealed with the scanning electron microscope. a three-dimensional image is provided because of the greater depth of focus possible with this instrument. end-on views of b. polymyxa spores readily illustra ...19694891267
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