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features of apparent nonchemiosmotic energization of oxidative phosphorylation by alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.oxidative phosphorylation by extremely alkaliphilic bacillus species violates two major predictions of the chemiosmotic hypothesis: the magnitude of the chemiosmotic driving force, the delta p (electrochemical proton gradient), is too low to account for the phosphorylation potentials observed during growth at ph 10.5 without using a much higher h+/atp stoichiometry than used during growth at ph 7.5, and artificially imposed diffusion potentials fail to energize atp synthesis above about ph 9.5 ( ...19921577797
sequence of the gene encoding the atp synthase beta subunit from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus rab. 19902181405
purification and reconstitution of the f1f0-atp synthase from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4. evidence that the enzyme translocates h+ but not na+.the f1f0-atp synthase from the alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 was purified in a reconstitutively active form, in good yield and with a high specific atpase activity when appropriately activated. the purification procedure involved octyl glucoside extraction of washed membrane vesicles in the presence of 20% glycerol and asolectin followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. the purified preparation was resolved into seven bands by sodium dodecyl sulfa ...19902173711
nucleotide sequence of a gene from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus rab that is homologous to the fpg gene of escherichia coli. 19902216780
isolation and characterization of new facultatively alkalophilic strains of bacillus species.four facultatively alkalophilic isolates were purified from enrichment cultures initiated with lime-treated garden soil. four isolates, of1, of3, of4, and of6, were obligately aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive, motile rods which were capable of growth at both ph 7.5 and ph 10.5. strains of1 and of6 grew best at the lower ph value; and whereas growth of these strains at ph 10.5 was completely dependent on added na+, growth at ph 7.5 was only partially dependent on added na+. strains of3 and o ...19863745119
prolongation of bacillus firmus survival on human skin by a spore inoculum.a case report is presented of an individual who carried vegetative cells of baccillus firmus on multiple sites of his body for over a year. with the aim of investigating the survival mechanisms of bacillus species on human skin, vegetative cells or spores of this microorganism were applied to the forearms of volunteers. whereas vegetative cells were rapidly eliminated, the bacillus was recovered up to 2 weeks following an inoculum of spores. persistence was not passive since germination, growth, ...1977323084
characterization of kappa-carrageenan gels used for immobilization of bacillus firmus.in this study, aimed at a biochemical and physical characterization of kappa-carrageenan gels used for entrapment of bacillus firmus nrs 783 (a superior producer of an alkaline protease), effects of carrageenan concentration, gelation temperature, initial cell loading, and strength of the curing agent (kcl) on the properties of cell-free and cell-laden gels were examined. the physical properties of the differently prepared gels that were examined included density, free volume fraction, mechanica ...19911367752
atp synthesis is driven by an imposed delta ph or delta mu h+ but not by an imposed delta pna+ or delta mu na+ in alkalophilic bacillus firmus of4 at high ph.starved whole cells of alkalophilic bacillus firmus of4 that are equilibrated at either ph 10.2, 9.5, or 8.5 synthesize atp in response to a ph gradient that is imposed by rapid dilution of the cyanide-treated cells into buffer at ph 7.5. if a valinomycin-mediated potassium diffusion potential (positive out) is generated simultaneously with the ph gradient, then the rate of atp synthesis and the level of synthesis achieved is much higher than upon imposition of a ph gradient alone. by contrast, ...19882902088
buffering capacity of bacilli that grow at different ph ranges.cytoplasmic buffering capacities and buffering by whole cells were examined in six bacterial species: bacillus acidocaldarius, bacillus stearothermophilus, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, bacillus alcalophilus, and bacillus firmus rab. acid-base titrations were conducted on whole cells and cells permeabilized with triton x-100 or n-butanol. in all of the species examined, the buffering capacity of intact cells was generally a significant proportion of the total buffering capacity, but the m ...19853886633
the membrane atpase of alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab is an f1-type atpase.at the optimal ph for growth (ph 10.5), alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab, an obligate aerobe, exhibits normal rates of oxidative phosphorylation despite the low transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient, about -60 mv (delta psi = -180 mv and delta ph = +120 mv). this bioenergetic problem might be resolved by use of an na+ coupled atp synthase; otherwise an f1f0-atpase must be able to utilize low driving forces in this organism. the atpase activity was extracted from everted membrane vesicles ...19862875076
purification and characterization of two soluble cytochromes from the alkalophile bacillus firmus rab.a soluble cytochrome c and soluble cytochrome b were purified from the alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab. the cytochrome c, with an alpha band at 552 nm, had an apparent molecular weight of 16,500 and was acidic, with a pi of 3.4. at both ph 7.0 and 8.3, the midpoint potential of c-552 was +66 mv. above ph 8.3, the cytochrome exhibited a ph-dependent decrease in midpoint potential. this property, among others, distinguished the cytochrome c-552 from other membrane-associated c-type cytochromes. t ...19882833924
membrane ultrastructure of alkaliphilic bacillus species studied by rapid-freeze electron microscopy.cells of bacillus firmus of4 and bacillus alcalophilus were examined by rapid-freeze freeze-fracture and freeze-substitution electron microscopy. no special vesicular structures linked to growth at alkaline ph were found, either within or associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. the cytoplasmic membranes of the alkaliphilic bacilli and the neutrophilic bacillus subtilis bd99 were indistinguishable. distinctive intramembrane particle rings, presumed to be flagellar structures on the basis of dis ...19921629169
resonance raman investigation of a soluble cytochrome c552 from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus rab.the environment of the heme site of a low-potential soluble cytochrome (c552) from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus rab has been characterized with resonance raman scattering and compared to that of horse heart cytochrome c. the raman data indicate that vibrational bands sensitive to the axial ligation of the heme, as well as modes sensitive to the heme peripheral environment in cytochrome c552, are distinct from those of horse heart cytochrome c. the spectra of cytochrome c552 display resonance ram ...19902177323
cloning of the mgte mg2+ transporter from providencia stuartii and the distribution of mgte in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.the mm281 strain of salmonella typhimurium possesses mutations in each of its three mg2+ transport systems, requires 100 mm mg2+ for growth, and was used to screen a genomic library from the gram-negative bacterium providencia stuartii for clones that could restore the ability to grow without mg2+ supplementation. the clones obtained also conferred sensitivity to co2+, a phenotype similar to that seen with the s. typhimurium cora mg2+ transport gene. the sequence of the cloned p. stuartii dna re ...19957665526
nitric oxide complex of cytochrome c' in cells of denitrifying bacteria.electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) spectra at 77k have been measured for the dried cells of three groups of chemoheterotrophic bacteria cultured in the presence of nitrate: i, denitrifying bacteria containing cytochrome c' (alcaligenes sp. ncib 11015, achromobacter xylosoxidans gifu 543); ii, denitrifying bacteria in which cytochrome c' has not been found (alcaligenes faecalis iam 1015, bacillus firmus nias 237, pseudomonas stutzeri atcc 17641); iii, non-denitrifying bacterium containing cyto ...19882844743
the cadc gene product of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 partially restores na+ resistance to an escherichia coli strain lacking an na+/h+ antiporter (nhaa).a 5.6-kb fragment of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 dna was isolated by screening a library of total genomic dna constructed in pgem3zf(+) for clones that reversed the na+ sensitivity of escherichia coli nm81, in which the gene encoding an na+/h+ antiporter (nhaa) is deleted (e. padan, n. maisler, d. taglicht, r. karpel, and s. schuldiner, j. biol. chem. 264:20297-20302, 1989). the plasmid, designated pjb22, contained two genes that apparently encode transposition functions and two genes that ...19921321115
immunoelectron microscopic localization of the f1f0 atpase (atp synthase) on the cytoplasmic membrane of alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab.evidence that the f1f0 atpase (atp synthase) of alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab is localized exclusively on the cytoplasmic membrane was obtained by immunogold electron microscopy using a highly specific polyclonal antibody against the beta subunit of escherichia coli f1f0 atpase. the energetic problem faced by cells of b. firmus rab growing oxidatively at ph 10.5 despite a low protonmotive force across the cytoplasmic membrane cannot, therefore, be circumvented by localization of energy transd ...19892529907
transfer of tn925 and plasmids between bacillus subtilis and alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 during tn925-mediated conjugation.conjugative transposon tn925 was transferred to alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 during mating experiments, as monitored by the acquisition of tetracycline resistance at ph 7.5 and confirmed by southern analysis of chromosomal dna from transconjugants. tetracycline resistance could not be demonstrated at ph 10.5, but transconjugants retained resistance upon growth at ph 7.5 after having grown for several generations at ph 10. when the bacillus subtilis donor strain contained plasmids, either pub ...19911847906
effect of crude bacterial lipids on the course of listeria infection in mice.crude lipids from 37 strains belonging to 32 bacterial species were isolated. by injecting mice with lipids 5 d prior to challenge with a virulent strain of listeria monocytogenes, immunostimulatory activity in 19 preparations was found. in general, lipids of gram-negative bacteria appeared to be more effective. as to bacilli, an extraordinary activity was found in the lipids of bacillus firmus. lipids of various species of the genus listeria were found to be active in approximately one-half of ...19921296929
organization and nucleotide sequence of the atp genes encoding the atp synthase from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.the atp operon from the extreme alkaliphile bacillus firmus of4 was cloned and sequenced, and shown to contain genes for the eight structural subunits of the atp synthase, preceded by a ninth gene predicted to encode a 14 kda hydrophobic protein. the arrangement of genes is identical to that of the atp operons from escherichia coli, bacillus megaterium, and thermophilic bacillus ps3. the deduced amino acid sequences of the subunits of the enzyme are also similar to their homologs in other atp sy ...19911833620
respiratory chain of the alkalophilic bacterium bacillus firmus rab and its non-alkalophilic mutant derivative.the membrane-bound respiratory chain components of alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab were studied by difference spectroscopy and oxidation-reduction potentiometric titrations. cytochromes with the following midpoint potentials were identified at ph 9.0: a-type cytochromes, +110 and +210 mv; b-type cytochromes, +20, -120, -280, and -400 mv; and cytochrome c, +60 mv. only the higher-potential cytochrome a showed an upward shift in midpoint potential when titrated at ph 7.0. parallel studies of a no ...19836833181
presence of a nonmetabolizable solute that is translocated with na+ enhances na+-dependent ph homeostasis in an alkalophilic bacillus.the presence of a nonmetabolizable solute whose uptake is coupled to the inward translocation of na+ has been found to enhance na+-dependent ph homeostasis and survival of an obligately alkalophilic bacterium. upon shift of cells of bacillus firmus rab from growth medium to buffers at ph 10.5, viability and maintenance of a relatively acidified cytoplasm depended upon the presence of na+ and was augmented by the inclusion of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid in the buffer. similarly, when cells were fi ...19853980467
mutation of bacillus firmus of4 to duramycin resistance results in substantial replacement of membrane lipid phosphatidylethanolamine by its plasmalogen form.mutant strains of alkalophilic bacillus firmus of4 that were selected for resistance to duramycin had greatly reduced levels of membrane diacylphosphatidylethanolamine, as had been found in studies of such mutants of bacillus subtilis. in the b. firmus strains, however, substantial levels of plasmenylethanolamine were found. this is an unusual membrane component for an aerobic eubacterium, but the presence of trace amounts even in the wild type was confirmed in experiments with 32pi-labeled grow ...19892921248
characterization of the na+/h+ antiporter of alkalophilic bacilli in vivo: delta psi-dependent 22na+ efflux from whole cells.the na+/h+ antiporter of bacillus alcalophilus was studied by measuring 22na+ efflux from starved, cyanide-inhibited cells which were energized by means of a valinomycin-induced potassium diffusion potential, positive out (delta psi). in the absence of a delta psi, 22na+ efflux at ph 9.0 was slow and appreciably inhibited by n-ethylmaleimide. upon imposition of a delta psi, a very rapid rate of 22na+ efflux occurred. this rapid rate of 22na+ efflux was competitively inhibited by li+ and varied d ...19836315677
reconstitution of a bacterial na+/h+ antiporter.membrane proteins from alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab were extracted with octylglucoside, reconstituted into liposomes made from alkalophile lipids. the proteoliposomes were loaded with 22na+. imposition of a valinomycin-mediated potassium diffusion potential, positive out, resulted in very rapid efflux of radioactive na+ against its electrochemical gradient. that the na+ efflux was mediated by the electrogenic na+/h+ antiporter is indicated by the following characteristics that had been estab ...19852995331
[base composition of dna and phenotypic characterization of bacillus firmus and bacillus lentus]. 19827187508
the abundance of atp gene transcript and of the membrane f1f0-atpase as a function of the growth ph of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.molecular biological and biochemical studies of the f(1)f(0)-atp synthase of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 show that the enzyme used at ph 7.5 and ph 10.5 is a unique product of the atp operon, expressed at the same levels and yielding an enzyme with the same subunit properties and c-subunit/holoenzyme stoichiometry.19947519597
molecular cloning and sequencing of a gene from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 that functionally complements an escherichia coli strain carrying a deletion in the nhaa na+/h+ antiporter gene.a gene has been cloned from a dna library from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 that functionally complements a mutant strain of escherichia coli, nm81, that carries a deletion for one of that strain's na+/h+ antiporter genes (delta nhaa). the cloned alkaliphile gene restored to nm81 the ability to grow at ph 7.5 in the presence of 0.6 m nacl and on 100 mm li+ in the presence of melibiose, and concomitantly led to an increase in the membrane associated na+/h+ antiport activity. the biologically ...19911660475
evidence for multiple terminal oxidases, including cytochrome d, in facultatively alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.the terminal oxidase content of bacillus firmus of4, a facultative alkaliphile that grows well over the ph range of 7.5 to 10.5, was studied by difference spectroscopy. evidence was found for three terminal oxidases under different growth conditions. the growth ph and the stage of growth profoundly affected the expression of one of the oxidases, cytochrome d. the other two oxidases, cytochrome caa3 and cytochrome o, were expressed under all growth conditions tested, although the levels of both, ...19911650340
a sodium requirement for growth, solute transport, and ph homeostasis in bacillus firmus rab.activity of a na+/h+ antiporter has been suggested to be critically involved in ph homeostasis in obligately alkalophilic bacteria (krulwich, k. a., mandel, k. g., bornstein, r. f., and guffanti, a. a. (1979) biochem. biophys. res. commun. 91, 58-62) and in escherichia coli (zilberstein, d., padan, e., and schuldiner, s. (1980) febs lett. 116, 177-180). a concern with respect to these proposals has been the failure of either bacillus alcalophilus or e. coli to exhibit a requirement for added na+ ...19827056750
permeability studies of lipid vesicles from alkalophilic bacillus firmus showing opposing effects of membrane isoprenoid and diacylglycerol fractions and suggesting a possible basis for obligate alkalophily.previous studies of the membrane lipids of extremely alkalophilic bacilli had indicated that both facultative and obligate alkalophiles contained a substantial fraction of isoprenoid lipid as well as high concentrations of cardiolipin. facultative alkalophiles differed from obligate strains in having a phospholipid fatty acid composition that would be expected to result in a more ordered membrane structure. current studies of ion permeability in vesicles prepared from lipids from obligately alka ...19883145017
effect of experimental dermatophyte infection on cutaneous flora.the cutaneous aerobic bacterial flora was monitored during the course of experimental dermatiphyte (ringworm) infections on the forearms of 9 volunteers. micrococcaceae were identified by the new baird-parker classification with the aid of a replica-plating technique. there were significant differences in total populations but not in kinds of flora compared with control (opposite) forearms. the proportion of penicillin-resistant microorganisms, however increased the infection, to a degree which ...19751039027
permeability of ammonia and amines in rhodobacter sphaeroides and bacillus firmus.permeabilities of uncharged ammonia (nh3), methylamine (ch3nh2), and ethylamine (ch3ch2nh2) in the gram-negative phototrophic bacterium rhodobacter sphaeroides were measured directly in cells grown heterotrophically under aerobic conditions. the permeability of nh3 was 2.55 +/- 0.73 microns s-1 (n = 20), but the permeabilities of ch3nh2 (ma) and ch3ch2nh2 (ea) were higher, pma = 17.8 +/- 2.8 microns s-1 (n = 50), pea = 24.7 +/- 3.9 microns s-1 (n = 44). the relative permeabilities of amines were ...19873674878
a 1.6 kb region of bacillus firmus of4 dna encodes a homolog of escherichia coli and yeast dna topoisomerases and may contain a translational readthrough of uga. 19921329032
cloning and characterization of mgte, a putative new class of mg2+ transporter from bacillus firmus of4.the mm281 strain of salmonella typhimurium which possesses mutations in each its three known mg2+ transport systems and requires 100 mm mg2+ for growth was used to screen a genomic library from the gram-positive alkaliphilic bacterium bacillus firmus of4 for clones that could restore the ability to grow without mg2+ supplementation. of the clones obtained, five also conferred sensitivity to co2+, similar to the phenotype of mutants with mutations in the s. typhimurium cora mg2+ transport locus. ...19957868596
alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab generates variants which can grow at lower na+ concentrations than the parental strain.obligately alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab cannot grow well on media containing less than 5 mm na+. however, variant strains can be isolated on plates containing 2 to 3 mm na+. these variants are observed only rarely in cultures that are plated before being subjected to repeated transfers in liquid medium. cultures which have been transferred several times produce variants at an apparent frequency of 2 x 10(-4). most of these variants are unstable, generating parental types at the high frequenc ...19863005241
resonance raman resolution of a-, b- and c-type cytochromes in membrane vesicles of alkalophilic bacteria.resonance raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain complete spectra of each individual cytochrome type - a, b and c - in the reduced state within membrane vesicle preparations from two species of obligately alkalophilic bacteria: bacillus alcalophilus and bacillus firmus rab. the vibrational spectra, in the range 250-1700 cm-1, were obtained with tunable dye laser excitation in the wavelength range 550-600 nm tuned to resonance with the appropriate reduced alpha band maximum for the cytochrome ...19846326818
purification and characterization of the cytochrome oxidase from alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab.a cytochrome oxidase was purified 52-fold from membranes of alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab by extraction with triton x-100, ion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography, and gel filtration. on denaturing gels, the purified enzyme dissociated into two subunits of 56,000 and 40,000 mr as well as a cytochrome c with an mr of approximately 14,000. heme contents calculated for an enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 were found to be 2 mol of heme a and 1 mol of heme c per mol of cytochrome o ...19846327654
conserved machinery of the bacterial flagellar motor.novel periplasmic and cytoplasmic structural modules of the bases of bacterial flagella have been observed in situ and isolated using new biochemical protocols. flagellar rotation may depend upon interactions of these modules with the intramembrane particle rings, a ubiquitous feature of flagellar bases necessary for torque generation. the outer membrane-associated basal disk of the wolinella succinogenes polar flagellum has architecture well suited for interaction with the ring particles. howev ...19957787061
aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic sporeforming bacteria in buffalo milk.seasonal variation of the population of aerobic sporeformers in raw milk was higher in summer than in other seasons. least variation was in fall, but variation in winter and spring was similar. aerobic mesophilic sporeformers in raw milk consisted mainly of bacillus subtilis (42.5%) and bacillus megaterium (34.8%), followed by bacillus circulans (4.9%), bacillus cereus (4.6%), bacillus pumilus (2.9%), bacillus polymyxa (2.8%), bacillus licheniformis (1.9%), bacillus badius (1.5%), bacillus brevi ...19836886164
bioenergetic properties and viability of alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab as a function of ph and na+ contents of the incubation medium.the bioenergetic properties and viability of obligately alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab have been examined upon incubation in alkaline and neutral buffers in the presence or absence of added na+. at ph 10.5, cells incubated in the absence of na+ exhibited an immediate rise in cytoplasmic ph from less than 9.5 to 10.5, and they lost viability very rapidly. viability experiments in the presence or absence of an energy source further suggested that the na+-dependent mechanism for ph homeostasis is ...19826292161
characterization of a medium wavelength type dna photolyase: purification and properties of photolyase from bacillus firmus.the gene for the apoenzyme of bacillus firmus photolyase was cloned and sequenced. the enzyme was overproduced in escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. it has the unique property of having the maximum activity over a wavelength range where all other known photolyases exhibit modest activity. the enzyme contains reduced fad and methenyltetrahydrofolate and has an absorption and action spectrum peak at 410 nm, and it repairs dna with a quantum yield of phi approximately 0.75.19948038161
failure of an alkalophilic bacterium to synthesize atp in response to a valinomycin-induced potassium diffusion potential at high ph.starved whole cells of the obligately alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab synthesize atp upon addition of l-malate at ph 9.0 as expected of an aerobic organism that grows oxidatively on nonfermentable carbon sources at ph values as high as 11.0. the current study was a detailed examination of the perplexing inability of such cells to exhibit atp synthesis in response to a valinomycin-mediated potassium diffusion potential at ph 9.0. while there were minor differences in the patterns of generation o ...19854004268
a gene encoding a small, acid-soluble spore protein from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.an 1100-bp dna fragment cloned from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 contained an open reading frame deduced to encode a 54-amino-acid, glutamine-rich protein with 35.6% identity to bacillus subtilis small, acid-soluble spore protein-gamma (sasp-gamma) in a 45-aa overlap. this orf, designated sspa, lacks the lengthy sequence repeat characteristic of previously cloned sasp-gamma-encoding genes. southern analysis under conditions of moderate stringency revealed six bands, suggesting the presence o ...19938449416
growth and bioenergetics of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 in continuous culture at high ph.the effect of external ph on growth of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 was studied in steady-state, ph-controlled cultures at various ph values. generation times of 54 and 38 min were observed at external ph values of 7.5 and 10.6, respectively. at more alkaline ph values, generation times increased, reaching 690 min at ph 11.4; this was approximately the upper limit of ph for growth with doubling times below 12 h. decreasing growth rates above ph 11 correlated with an apparent decrease in the ...19948195065
protonophore-resistance and cytochrome expression in mutant strains of the facultative alkaliphile bacillus firmus of4.two protonophore-resistant mutants, designated strains cc1 and cc2, of the facultative alkaliphile bacillus firmus of4 811m were isolated. the ability of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (cccp) to collapse the protonmotive force (delta mu h+) was unimpaired in both mutants. both resistant strains possessed elevated respiratory rates when grown at ph 7.5, in either the presence or absence of cccp. membrane cytochromes were also elevated: cytochrome o in particular in strain cc1, and cytoc ...19911646630
respiration-dependent proton translocation in alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab and its non-alkalophilic mutant derivative.obligately alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab had a higher molar growth yield on l-malate (ymal = 38 mg, dry weight/mmol of l-malate) than its non-alkalophilic mutant derivative, strain rabn (ymal = 12 mg, dry weight/mmol of l-malate). measurements of respiration dependent proton translocation by the two strains in the presence of k+ and valinomycin showed that the alkalophile also has much higher h+/o stoichiometries (at ph 9.0) than does the mutant (at ph 7.0). h+/o ratios for b. firmus rab at p ...19836296129
the role of monovalent cation/proton antiporters in na(+)-resistance and ph homeostasis in bacillus: an alkaliphile versus a neutralophile.both neutralophilic bacillus subtilis and alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 depend upon electrogenic na+/h+ antiporters, which are energized by the gradients established by respiration-coupled proton extrusion, to achieve na(+)-resistance and ph homeostasis when the external ph is very alkaline. the interplay of proton and sodium cycles is discussed. in b. subtilis, ph homeostasis, up to ph9, can be achieved using k+ when na+ is unavailable or when the gene encoding the na+/h+ antiporter that is ...19947823040
cloning of the bacillus firmus of4 cls gene and characterization of its gene product.the gene that codes for cardiolipin (cl) synthase and an adjacent gene that codes for a meca homolog in the alkaliphilic bacteria bacillus firmus of4 have been cloned and sequenced (genbank accession number u88888). the cls gene contains 1509 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 57.9 kda. the predicted amino acid sequence has 129 identities and 100 similarities with the escherichia coli cl synthase. homologies were also noted with polypeptide sequences from putative cls genes from baci ...19989443601
effect of bacillus firmus and other sporulating aerobic microorganisms on in vitro stimulation of human lymphocytes. a comparative study.b. firmus activates human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. bacteria inactivated by heat or by formaldehyde were about equally effective, stimulating the blastic transformation of lymphocytes at doses of 10-200 mg/l and ig formation in the culture at 10-500 mg/l. the action of formaldehyde treated b. firmus was compared with that of analogously inactivated b. subtilis, b. polymyxa, b. coagulans, b. megaterium, b. pumilus, b. cereus and b. lentus at a concentration of 100 mg/l. all these bac ...19948549999
cloning of the cta operon from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 and characterization of the ph-regulated cytochrome caa3 oxidase it encodes.we have cloned and sequenced the dna of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 encompassing the cta operon that encodes a ph-regulated cytochrome caa3 oxidase. the gene organization is identical with that of the homologous bacillus subtilis caa3 oxidase locus (van der oost, j., von wachenfeld, c., hederstedt, l. & saraste, m. (1991) mol. microbiol. 5, 2063-2072). the deduced amino acid sequences of the four putative structural subunits (ctac-f) indicate substantial similarity to caa3-type oxidases fro ...19937678007
a transmembrane electrical potential generated by respiration is not equivalent to a diffusion potential of the same magnitude for atp synthesis by bacillus firmus rab.atp synthesis by starved whole cells of alkalophilic bacillus firmus rab was energized by addition of dl-malate or by imposition of a valinomycin-mediated k+ diffusion potential. at ph 9.0, the transmembrane electrical potentials produced by these two means were similar in magnitude, at close to -170 mv. while n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive atp synthesis occurred upon the addition of dl-malate, no atp was synthesized in response to a diffusion potential. in contrast, na+-dependent accum ...19846699003
the carotenoid pigments of a marine bacillus firmus strain.as carotenoids have important biological functions, it is important to discover new natural sources of these pigments. the bacterial strains isolated from a sea water rock pool were cultivated on marine agar containing yeast extract and identified by conventional methods. the bacterial pigments were extracted with methanol and analyzed by reversed-phase hplc with diode array detection. the major pigment of a bacillus firmus strain was identified as astaxanthin; the results obtained suggest poten ...19969178581
purification of a cytochrome bd terminal oxidase encoded by the escherichia coli app locus from a delta cyo delta cyd strain complemented by genes from bacillus firmus of4.escherichia coli gk100, with deletions in the operons encoding its two terminal oxidases, cytochrome bo and ctyochrome bd, was complemented for growth on succinate by a recombinant plasmid (pms100) containing a 3.4-kb region of dna from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4. the complementing dna was predicted to encode five proteins, but neither sequence analysis nor complementation experiments with subclones provided insight into the basis for the complementation. cytochrome difference spectra of e ...19968626304
resistance to infection and activation of the monocyto-macrophage system caused by bacillus firmus and its fractions.crude lipids isolated from bacillus firmus, but not from other bacilli, were previously found to induce significant resistance against listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. in this study, formaldehyde- and heat-killed bacterins of eight bacillus species and some cellular fractions of b. firmus were prepared and tested for further immunomodulatory activities. crude lipids, their aqueous extract, lta, protodyne and pex-residue preparations exhibited a strong anti-infection activity, whereas pe ...19947959430
purification and characterization of the succinate dehydrogenase complex and co-reactive b-type cytochromes from the facultative alkaliphile bacillus firmus of4.the presence of a cytochrome bo-type terminal oxidase in bacillus firmus of4 had been suggested from the effects of co on the spectra of reduced membrane cytochromes (hicks, d.b., plass, r.j. and quirk, p.g. (1991) j. bacteriol. 173, 5010-5016). in that study the co-binding b-type cytochrome was partially purified by anion exchange chromatography. no further purification was attempted but later hplc analysis indicated the absence of significant heme o in the b. firmus of4 membranes. the current ...19968764891
diverse genes of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 that complement k+-uptake-deficient escherichia coli include an ftsh homologue.seven clones isolated from libraries of dna from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 restored the growth of a k+-uptake-deficient escherichia coli mutant on only 10 mm k+. none of the clones contained genes with apparent homology to known k+ transport systems in other organisms. based on sequence homologies, the newly isolated alkaliphile loci included: ftsh; a dipeptide transport system; a gerc locus with hydrophobic open reading frames not found in the comparable locus of bacillus subtilis; a sug ...19979680333
bacillus oleronius sp.nov., a member of the hindgut flora of the termite reticulitermes santonensis (feytaud).a new rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium is described, which was isolated from the hindgut of the termite reticulitermes santonensis (feytaud). the isolate stains gram negative and its dna has a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 35 mol%. despite the gram-staining reaction, both biochemical and physiological features place the isolate in the genus bacillus and indicate a phenotypic resemblance to the bacillus firmus-lentus group of species. on the basis of comparative 16s rrna analysis and som ...19957553453
bfii, a restriction endonuclease from bacillus firmus s8120, which recognizes the novel non-palindromic sequence 5'-actggg(n)5/4-3'.a new type iis restriction endonuclease bfi i hasbeen partially purified from bacillus firmus s8120. bfi i recognizes the non-palindromic hexanucleotide sequence 5'-actggg(n)5/4-3' and makes a staggered cut at the fifth base pair downstream of the recognition sequence on the upper strand, producing a single base 3' protruding end.19989649617
sequence analysis and functional studies of a chromosomal region of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 encoding an abc-type transporter with similarity of sequence and na+ exclusion capacity to the bacillus subtilis natab transporter.a 14.1-kb dna fragment was cloned from a lambda library containing inserts of dna from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 on the basis of its hybridization to a probe from a previously sequenced alkaliphile homolog of the nata gene from bacillus subtilis. sequence analysis of the entire fragment revealed that, as in b. subtilis, the nata gene was part of a putative gene locus encoding an abc-type transporter. in the alkaliphile, the transporter involved three genes, designated natcab, that are par ...199910356997
oxidative phosphorylation by adp + p(i)-loaded membrane vesicles of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.atp synthesis in adp + p(i)-loaded membrane vesicles of the facultative alkaliphile bacillus firmus of4 at an external ph of 10.5 did not depend upon the presence of cell wall polymers, e.g. as a proton barrier or sequestration device. upon energization with ascorbate plus phenazine methosulfate, vesicles at ph(out) = 7.5 generated an electrochemical proton gradient (delta p) of -160 mv, acid and positive out, whereas at ph(out) = 10.5, the delta p was -40 mv, alkaline and positive out. nonethel ...19948063796
purification of three catalase isozymes from facultatively alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.cell extracts of facultatively alkaliphilic b. firmus of4 were assayed for catalase activity and their catalase isozyme content was analyzed on native polyacrylamide gels stained for catalase activity. ph-10.5-grown cells had about twice the specific catalase activity of ph-7.5-grown cells. the higher activity, however, did not confer resistance to exogenous hydrogen peroxide challenge relative to ph-7.5-grown cells, and in fact, the ph-10.5-grown cells were much more sensitive to the challenge. ...19957748885
prolonged survival of avn wistar rats with transplanted yoshida sarcoma and increase of granular lymphocytes after administration of bacillus firmus and their crude lipids.bacillus firmus is a gram-positive, aerobic, sporulating, nonpathogenic air contaminant which, according to earlier findings, is a strong polyclonal activator of b lymphocytes. the crude lipids of this microbe induced significant resistance of mice against listerial infection. the administration of bacterin, like that of crude lipids obtained by the extraction of cell suspension with chloroform-methanol to rats, strain avn wistar, transplanted later with yoshida sarcoma, significantly prolonged ...19958763155
role of the nhac-encoded na+/h+ antiporter of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4.application of protoplast transformation and single- and double-crossover mutagenesis protocols to alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4811m (an auxotrophic strain of b. firmus of4) facilitated the extension of the sequence of the previously cloned nhac gene, which encodes an na+/h+ antiporter, and the surrounding region. the nhac gene is part of a likely 2-gene operon encompassing nhac and a small gene that was designated nhas; the operon is preceded by novel direct repeats. the predicted alkaliphil ...19979190799
bacillus sporothermodurans, a new species producing highly heat-resistant endospores.bacteria that differentiate into highly heat-resistant endospores (hhrs strains) may survive ultrahigh-temperature treatment of milk and germinate in the final product. they do not noticeably spoil the milk and are nonpathogenic. the complete (>96%) 16s rrna genes from three hhrs strains were identical, and phylogenetic analysis placed them alongside bacillus firmus in the b. megaterium group of the genus bacillus. moreover, the approximately 550 nucleotides between regions u2 and u5 were invari ...19968782686
construction and characterization of a mutant of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 with a disrupted cta operon and purification of a novel cytochrome bd.the caa3-type terminal oxidase of bacillus firmus of4 has been proposed to play an important role in the growth and bioenergetics of this alkaliphile (a. a. guffanti and t. a. krulwich, j. biol. chem. 267:9580-9588, 1992). a mutant strain was generated in which the cta operon encoding the oxidase was disrupted by insertion of a spectinomycin resistance cassette. the mutant was unable to oxidize ascorbate in the presence of n,n,n',n'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (tmpd). absorption spectra of me ...19979006044
paenibacillus granivorans sp. nov., a new paenibacillus species which degrades native potato starch granules.from a native potato starch-degrading enrichment culture, strain a30 had been isolated and had tentatively been identified as a member of the bacillus firmus/lentus group (wijbenga et al. appl. microbiol. biotechnol. 35, 180-184, 1991). in this paper the isolate a30 is further characterized using phylogentic analysis of the 16s rdna and determination of a number of additional phenotypic characteristics. these data are compared to those of paenibacillus amylolyticus, p. chibensis, and p. thiamino ...200011108012
identification of bacillus sp. ftu strain and the study of the caa3-type oxidase homology.the culture, morphology, and genome of alkalo- and halotolerant bacterial strain bacillus sp. ftu were characterized; the strain is compared to other representatives of genus bacillus. the dna-dna hybridization data indicate that the strains of bacillus halodurans dsm 497 and dsm 2513 and bacillus sp. ftu belong to the same species. bacillus sp. ftu can be renamed to bacillus halodurans ftu. the n-terminal amino acid fragments of the subunits i and ii of the terminal caa3-type cytochrome c oxida ...19979331963
purification and properties of a novel raw starch degrading cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from bacillus firmus.a novel raw starch degrading cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (cgtase; e.c. 2.4.1.19), produced by bacillus firmus, was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration, affinity and gel filtration chromatography. the molecular weight of the pure protein was estimated to be 78,000 and 82,000 da, by sds-page and gel filtration, respectively. the pure enzyme had a ph optimum in the range 5.5-8.5. it was stable over the ph range 7-11 at 10 degrees c, and at ph 7.0 at 60 degrees c. the optimum tempera ...199910341434
genetic analysis of regions involved in replication and cadmium resistance of the plasmid pnd302 from lactococcus lactis.the 8.8-kb lactococcus lactis plasmid pnd302 encodes resistance to cadmium (cdr). regions of pnd302 involved in replication and cdr were subcloned and sequenced. the replication region is localized on a 1.5-kb region and consists of an open reading frame (repb) preceded by a noncoding at-rich sequence (ori) which is highly homologous to lactococcal theta-type replicons. the cdr determinant is localized on a 2.9-kb region and encodes putative proteins similar to the cd(2+)-specific p-type efflux ...19979339465
enhancement of selectivity for producing gamma-cyclodextrin.the production of cyclodextrins (cds) by cyclodextrin-glycosyl-transferase (cgtase) from bacillus firmus was studied, with respect to the effect of the source of starch upon cd yield and on the selectivity for producing gamma-cd. cyclodextrin production tests were run for 24 h at 50 degrees c, ph 8.0, and 1 mg/l of cgtase, and substrates were maltodextrin or the starches of rice, potato, cassava, and corn hydrolyzed up to d.e. 10. cornstarch was the best substrate for producing gamma-cd. later, ...200010849849
[specific control over the synthesis of plasmin-like and plasminogen-activating proteinases in marine bacteria].the biosynthesis of proteinases with various substrate specificities was studied in bacillus firmus 44b and bacillus oligonitrophilus 21p as influenced by the growth conditions and growth phases of the bacteria. the period of the maximum synthesis of plasmin-like enzymes was observed 6 h later than the period of the maximum growth rate period of b. firmus 44b, and 3 h as compared to the growth rate of b. oligonitrophilus 21p. the periods of the maximum accumulation of activating enzymes were del ...200010776616
cloning and characterization of a putative ca2+/h+ antiporter gene from escherichia coli upon functional complementation of na+/h+ antiporter-deficient strains by the overexpressed gene.dna libraries from alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 had been screened earlier (ivey, d.m., guffanti, a.a., bossewitch, j. s., padan, e., and krulwich, t. a. (1991) j. biol. chem. 266, 23483-23489) for clones that would functionally complement a strain of escherichia coli (nm81) with a deletion in one of its na+/h+ antiporter genes. during those studies, an alkaliphile antiporter gene was hypothesized to have been incorporated into the chromosome of strain nm81, producing na(+)-resistant nm8191. ...19938496184
immunomodulatory effects of bacillus firmus.3-day-old miniature piglets were stimulated in vivo with bacillus firmus by the intraperitoneal or intragastric route for 1 d. cells containing iga and igg2 were detected in the ileum in all stimulated but not in control animals. the frequency of blood cd3+ cells increased after intraperitoneal administration of b. firmus, the ratio of polymorphonuclears to lymphocytes increased in all stimulated piglets. b. firmus induced antitumor immunity in rats with transplanted yoshida sarcoma cells. granu ...19979449788
ph homeostasis and atp synthesis: studies of two processes that necessitate inward proton translocation in extremely alkaliphilic bacillus species.alkaliphilic bacillus species that are isolated from nonmarine, moderate salt, and moderate temperature environments offer the opportunity to explore strategies that have developed for solving the energetic challenges of aerobic growth at ph values between 10 and 11. such bacteria share many structural, metabolic, genomic, and regulatory features with nonextremophilic species such as bacillus subtilis. comparative studies can therefore illuminate the specific features of gene organization and sp ...19989783168
stimulation of macrophages by bacillus firmus: production of nitric oxide and cytokines.immunostimulatory properties of gram-positive bacillus firmus were investigated under in vitro conditions using murine peritoneal macrophages. b. firmus stimulated in a concentration and time dependent manner the secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and interleukin-10 (il-10), but it had no influence upon interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) and interleukin-2 (il-2) production. it also substantially augmented production of nitric oxide (no) induced by exogenous ifn-gamma. inhibitory exp ...19989756131
physical map of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 and detection of a large endogenous plasmid.extremely alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 is among the best characterized of this group of alkaliphiles. together with alkaliphilic bacillus c-125 and numerous non-alkaliphilic bacillus species whose chromosomes and gene organizations are currently being studied in detail, work on b. firmus of4 offers the opportunity to discern whether there are features of chromosome and gene organization that are associated with alkaliphily. a physical map of the b. firmus of4 is consistent with a circular ch ...19989827335
rope-producing strains of bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. sixty-one bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. all of the isolates were identified as bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly ampli ...200312676716
effect of bacillus firmus on antibody formation after mucosal and parenteral immunization in mice.immunostimulatory properties of b. firmus, a nontoxic, nonpathogenic g + bacterium of external environment, were described previously. antiinfectious and antitumor activity, macrophage activation and strong polyclonal stimulation of b lymphocytes were proved in human, mice and rats. the adjuvant effect of b. firmus on specific antibody response to ovalbumin in balb/c mice is the topic of the present study. against our expectation, b. firmus exerts more suppressive than stimulatory effect on spec ...19989870668
polyclonal activation of human lymphocytes by bacillus firmus and its constituents.bacillus firmus strongly stimulates ig synthesis in the cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. as apparent from the character of ig formation and blastic transformation, the stimulation has features of a polyclonal activation of b lymphocytes without substantial participation of t lymphocytes. b firmus is a strong b cell polyclonal activator even for human cord blood lymphocytes. the most striking feature is the strong stimulation of iga synthesis in both adult and cord blood ...19958768255
[sequencing of a beta-amylase gene from bacillus firmus].the gene encoding a beta-amylase from bacillus firmus 725 was sequenced. the sequenced dna of 2012 bp contains one open reading frame of 1406 nucleotides without a translation stop codon. the deduced amino acid sequence homology with those known bacterial and some plant beta-amylase was 98% for bacillus polymyxa 72, 98% for bacillus polymyxa atcc8523, 82% for bacillus circulans, 54% for clostridium thermosulfurogenes, 49% for bacillus cereus bq10-s1, 50% for bacillus cereus var. mycoides, 36% fo ...199812549376
characterization of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from bacillus firmus strain no. 37.the enzyme cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (cgtase), ec 2.4.1.19, which produces cyclodextrins (cds) from starch, was obtained from bacillusfirmus strain no. 37 isolated from brazilian soil and characterized in the soluble form using as substrate 100 g/l of maltodextrin in 0.05 m tris-hcl buffer, 5 mm cacl2, and appropriate buffers. enzymatic activity and its activation energy were determined as a function of temperature and ph. the activation energy for the production of beta- and gamma-cd was ...200111963893
evaluation of supports and methods for immobilization of enzyme cyclodextringlycosyltransferase.an experimental design with factorial planning was used for the immobilization of the enzyme cyclodextringlycosyltransferase (cgtase) from bacillus firmus (strain no. 37) to select the best combination of support, method of immobilization, and conditions that gives primarily higher average values for the specific immobilized enzyme activity, and secondarily, higher average values for the percentage of protein fixation. the experimental design factors were as follows: supports-controlled-pore sil ...200312721418
immunostimulatory effect of bacillus firmus on mouse lymphocytes.bacillus firmus (a gram-positive nonpathogenic and harmless bacterium), was shown to be a strong polyclonal activator of mouse b lymphocytes as estimated by elisa testing of ig concentrations in culture supernatants after incubation of balb/c mouse splenocytes with inactivated bacillus. synthesis of all main ig classes and all igg subclasses was stimulated in vitro, the considerable effect on iga formation being the most interesting feature. b cell stimulation was t cell dependent, as was demons ...200212058402
the effect of growth medium salinity of photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida on the immune response of hybrid bass (morone saxatilis x m. chrysops).photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (p. damselae) was grown on various media and the effect of media salinity on certain immune responses of hybrid bass was studied. in israel, pasteurellosis outbreaks have not been reported at water salinities below 1.38 per thousand. during vaccination experiments the salinity of the medium on which p. damselae is grown, was shown to affect stimulation of the immune system. no correlation was found between antibody response and protection. bacterial envel ...200415123315
cloning and characterization of two thermostable xylanases from an alkaliphilic bacillus firmus.two genes encoding thermostable xylanases, named xyn10a and xyn11a, from an alkaliphilic bacillus firmus were cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. the e. coli harboring either gene showed clear zone with congo red clearance assay on xylan plate. the xyn10a and xyn11a have molecular weights of 45 and 23kda, respectively, and both show activities on xylan-zymogram. the xyn10a encodes 396 amino acid residues and is very similar to an alkaliphilic xylanase a from alkaliphilic bacillus haloduran ...200415184083
ph tolerance in bacillus: alkaliphiles versus non-alkaliphiles.monovalent cation/proton antiporters that catalyse electrogenic uptake of h+ in exchange for cytoplasmic k+ and/or na+ are centrally involved in bacterial ph homeostasis under alkaline challenge. systematic attempts have identified some, but not yet all, of the genes encoding such antiporters that participate in ph homeostasis in the neutrophilic bacillus subtilis and the extremely alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4. in each organism there are at least three distinct antiporters involved in ph hom ...199910207919
influence of substrate and product concentrations on the production of cyclodextrins by cgtase of bacillus firmus, strain no. 37.the influence of substrate or product level on the initial velocity of cyclodextrin (cd) production by cyclodextringlycosyltransferase from a brazilian isolate of bacillus firmus was studied. our results indicate that the product gamma-cd is a stronger inhibitor to the reaction than beta-cd. small saccharides could also inhibit cd production, although to a lesser extent than the products, and maltose was the strongest inhibitor among small saccharides. increasing substrate concentration resulted ...200212018316
two types of bacillus subtilis teta(l) deletion strains reveal the physiological importance of teta(l) in k(+) acquisition as well as in na(+), alkali, and tetracycline resistance.the chromosomally encoded teta(l) protein of bacillus subtilis is a multifunctional tetracycline-metal/h(+) antiporter that also exhibits monovalent cation/h(+) antiport activity and a net k(+) uptake mode. in this study, b. subtilis mutant strains jc112 and jc112c were found to be representative of two phenotypic types of teta(l) deletion strains that are generated in the same selection. both strains exhibited increased sensitivity to low tetracycline concentrations as expected. the mutants als ...200010735849
intratracheal and intranasal immunization with ovalbumin conjugated with bacillus firmus as a carrier in mice.inactivated bacillus firmus (bf), g+ nonpathogenic bacterium of the external environment, was coupled to ovalbumin (ova) and used in immunization experiments as antigen carrier. balb/c mice were immunized thrice intra-tracheally and intra-nasally with conjugates of ova and bf. surprisingly, administration of ova-bf conjugates inhibited anti-ova igg response in both sera and mucosal secretions if compared to an exposure to ova alone. the suppression of antigen-specific antibody production was acc ...200516295664
liposome adjuvants prepared from the total polar lipids of haloferax volcanii, planococcus spp. and bacillus firmus differ in ability to elicit and sustain immune responses.immune stimulating activity was compared for lipid vesicles consisting of the total polar lipids of an archaeon haloferax volcanii, and the eubacteria planococcus spp. and bacillus firmus. each total polar lipid extract readily formed liposomes of similar size, within which the protein antigen ovalbumin was entrapped, with comparable loading and internalization. subcutaneous immunization of mice resulted in anti-ovalbumin antibody titers for all adjuvants, with memory recall responses that were ...200415149772
enhanced systemic and mucosal antibody responses to a model protein antigen after intranasal and intratracheal immunisation using bacillus firmus as an adjuvant.bacillus firmus, a non-pathogenic gram positive (g+) bacterium of the external environment was investigated for immunomodulatory properties. it stimulated an increase in anti-ovalbumin igg in sera, bronchoalveolar lavages and intestinal washings after both intranasal (i.n.) and intratracheal (i.t.) immunisation, and enhanced anti-ovalbumin iga in intestinal secretions and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after i.n. or i.t. immunisation, respectively. the immunomodulatory effect of b. firmus on an ...200111348668
reidentification of facultatively alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4 as bacillus pseudofirmus of4.with a view toward verifying the original classification of alkaliphilic bacillus firmus of4, physiological and biochemical characteristics were more extensively catalogued than in original studies, and this catalog was supplemented with 16s rdna sequence homology and more extensive dna-dna hybridization analyses. phylogenetic analysis of this alkaliphile based on the comparison of multiple 16s rdna sequences from bacillus species indicated that this strain is most closely related to bacillus ps ...200010741833
role of t cells in the adjuvant effect of bacillus firmus on the immune system of mice: intranasal and intratracheal immunization study with ovalbumin.functions of t cells were determined after intranasal and intratracheal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (ova) and bacillus firmus (bf), a gram-positive nonpathogenic bacterium of the external environment, or delipidated bf (dbf) as adjuvants, with the aim to elucidate the mechanism of support of ova-specific antibody production caused by bf that had been observed in an identical experiment. neither bf nor dbf in a mixture with ova stimulated ova-specific t-cell response tested as antigen-spe ...200312879759
differential effect of bacillus firmus on immune response and enterocyte brush-border enzyme levels in balb/c and b10.br mice.a nonpathogenic bacterium of external environment possessing remarkable immunomodulatory activity, bacillus firmus (bf) inactivated with formaldehyde, was given intragastrically to two genetically different mouse strains balb/c (h-2d) and b10.br/snph (b10.br, h-2k) reared in conventional (cv) and b10.br strain also in germ-free (gf) conditions. repeated intragastric administration of bf (500 micrograms every other day over two weeks, starting at the age of 3 months) significantly enhanced intest ...200212630333
bsu2413i and bfi2411i, two new thermophilic type ii restriction endonucleases from bacillus subtilis and bacillus firmus: isolation and partial purification. thermophilic endonucleases from two bacillus species.two new thermophilic type ii restriction endonucleases, which we designated as bsu2413i and bfi2411i, have been isolated from gram-positive thermophilic bacteria bacillus subtilis strain 2413 and bacillus firmus strain 2411 respectively and partially purified. the restriction endonucleases were extracted from cell extracts and purified using single step purification through phosphocellulose column chromatography. sds-page profile showed denatured molecular weights of 33 and 67 kda for the bsu241 ...200415293790
bacillus subterraneus sp. nov., an iron- and manganese-reducing bacterium from a deep subsurface australian thermal aquifer.a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain cooi3b(t) (= atcc baa 136t = dsm 13966t), was isolated from the waters emitted by a bore well tapping the deep subterranean thermal waters of the great artesian basin of australia. the cells were straight to slightly curved rods (0.5-0.8 x 2-25 microm) that occurred singly and rarely in pairs or in chains. strain cooi3b(t) was motile by peritrichous flagella. it stained gram-negative, but electron micrographs showed a gram-positive-type cell ...200212054251
production of fibrinolytic enzyme from soybean grits fermented by bacillus firmus na-1.bacillus firmus na-1 producing fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from japanese traditional fermented soybean (natto). seed starter was cultured in 5% soy milk prepared with micronized soybean powder. to optimize the production of fibrinolytic enzyme, the soybean grits were mixed with 1 volume of water and sterilized at 121 degrees c for 5 minutes, and then used as the medium for solid-state fermentation at 42 degrees c. the fibrinolytic enzyme activity of the fermented grits was 1,120 plasmin uni ...200415671687
production of antimicrobial substances by bacillus subtilis lfe-1, b. firmus ho-1 and b. licheniformis t6-5 isolated from an oil reservoir in brazil.forty bacillus strains isolated from a brazilian oil reservoir were tested against each other to select strains producing antimicrobial substances (ams). three strains, bacillus subtilis (lfe-1), bacillus firmus (h2o-1) and bacillus licheniformis (t6-5), were selected due to their ability to inhibit more than 65% of the bacillus strains tested. these three strains were also investigated for their capability to inhibit sulphate-reducing bacteria (srb). furthermore, physiological and biochemical c ...200515715870
removal of metal ions from aqueous solution by polysaccharide produced from bacillus firmus.this paper deals with adsorption of pb, cu and zn on the polysaccharide produced by bacillus firmus. the adsorption of metal ions was significantly affected by the initial ph of solution, initial metal ion and polysaccharide concentrations, and presence of other ions in solution. at optimum ph, the uptakes of pb, cu and zn were 98.3%, 74.9% and 61.8%, respectively. the metal ions removal was lower at neutral and generally the initial adsorption rate was rapid and reached equilibrium after 10 min ...200312946905
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